nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2022‒01‒31
sixty-nine papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. Brownfield Regeneration: A possible Panacea to Zambia’s Housing Deficit and Urban Decay? By Lilias Makashini; Ephraim Munshifwa; Yewande Adewunmi
  2. From Immediate Acceptance to Deferred Acceptance: Effects on School Admissions and Achievement in England By Camille Terrier; Parag A. Pathak; Kevin Ren
  3. Impact of Rail Transit Stations and Value Capture Planning for Transit in Johannesburg, South Africa By Lesley Mashiri; Aly Karam
  4. E-Learning Engagement Gap during School Closures: Differences by Academic Performance By Amer-Mestre, Josep; Ayarza-Astigarraga, Alaitz; Lopes, Marta C
  5. A Framework for Financing Housing Development and Ownership in Africa By Jonathan Oladeji; Joseph Yacim; Benita Zulch
  6. Who stays and who leaves? Immigration and the selection of natives across locations By Javier Ortega; Gregory Verdugo
  7. The Marginal Cost of Mortality Risk Reduction: Evidence from Housing Markets By Kelly Bishop; Nicolai V. Kuminoff; Sophie Mathes; Alvin Murphy
  8. Individual and Local Effects of Unemployment on Mortgage Defaults By Kevin Bazer; Sílvio Rendon
  9. Bringing Underprivileged Middle-School Students to the Opera: Cultural Mobility or Cultural Compliance? By Coulangeon, Philippe; Fougère, Denis
  10. Ethnic Regional Networks and Immigrants' Earnings: A Spatial Autoregressive Network Approach By Wang, Xingang; Maani, Sholeh A.
  11. European cities localising the SDGs: experiences and lessons learned By BERTOZZI Cecilia; SIRAGUSA Alice; STAMOS Iraklis; PROIETTI Paola
  12. Measuring Performance of Risk-Return in Residential and Commercial Real Estate Investments in South-South, Nigeria By James Bassey Effiong
  13. Do Economic Incentives Promote Physical Activity? Evidence from the London Congestion Charge By Nakamura, Ryota; Albanese, Andrea; Coombes, Emma; Suhrcke, Marc
  14. The COVID-19 Pandemic Disrupted Both School Bullying and Cyberbullying By Andrew Bacher-Hicks; Joshua Goodman; Jennifer G. Green; Melissa Holt
  15. Examining the Effects of Changes in Classroom Quality on Within-Child Changes in Achievement and Behavioral Outcomes By Tyler W. Watts; Tutrang Nguyen; Robert C. Carr; Lynne Vernon-Feagans; Clancy Blair
  16. Customary Land Conversion and the Formation of the African City By Picard, Pierre M.; Selod, Harris
  17. The ties that bind and transform: knowledge remittances, relatedness and the direction of technical change By Ernest Miguelez; Valentina Di Iasio
  18. A place-based approach to migrant integration. Sustainable urban development strategies and the integration of migrants in functional urban areas By Carlotta Fioretti; Paola Proietti; Guido Tintori; Pieter Bevelander; Paola Briata; Marco Cremaschi; Nikos Karadimitriou; Thomas Maloutas; Jérémy Mandin; Erica Righard
  19. School Choice and Loss Aversion By Vincent Meisner; Jonas von Wangenheim
  20. Complementarities and Intergenerational Educational Mobility: Theory and Evidence from Indonesia By Ahsan, Nazmul; Emran, M. Shahe; Shilpi, Forhad
  21. Developing an Integration Framework for Property Technology (PropTech) and Innovation in Real Estate Education By Olayiwola Oladiran; Anupam Nanda
  22. Autonomous cars and activity-based bottleneck model: How do in-vehicle activities determine aggregate travel patterns? By Xiaojuan Yu; Vincent A.C. van den Berg; Erik T. Verhoef
  23. A Composite Indicator of Realty Sector Activity in India By Upreti, Priyanka; Handa, Akanksha; Chaudhari, Dipak; Ghosh, Saurabh
  24. Green Infrastructure and Air Pollution: Evidence from Highways Connecting Two Megacities in China By Yu, Bo; Tran, Trang; Lee, Wang-Sheng
  25. Integrate an accessibility measure in the modal choice of strategic freight transport models By Jourquin, Bart
  26. Influence of trip distance and population density on intra-city mobility patterns in Tokyo during COVID-19 pandemic By Kazufumi Tsuboi; Naoya Fujiwara; Ryo Itoh
  27. Latin American Integration Route and the State of Mato Grosso do Sul: productive characterization, threats, and possibilities of promotion By Boldrine Abrita, Mateus; Centuriao, Daniel; Rondina Neto, Angelo; Stradiotto, Rafaella
  28. Assessment Frequency and Equity of the Real Property Tax: Latest Evidence from Philadelphia By Alaina Barca; Lei Ding; Yulin Hou; David Schwegman
  30. Destabilization of homogeneous stationary solution of a mathematical model in new economic geography with a quadratic subutility: The effect of the number of regions By Kensuke Ohtake
  31. Macroeconomic Dynamics in Real Estate Market amid Covid-19 Pandemic in Abuja, Nigeria By Muktar Babatunde Wahab; Wasiu Ayobami Durosinmi; Matthew Mamman; Dodo Usman Zakari; Adetoye Sulaiman Adepoju
  32. Fiscal Decentralization and the Allocation of Public Spending of Subnational Governments. The Case of Ecuador By Henry Aray; Janeth Pacheco-Delgado
  33. Do Police Make Too Many Arrests? The Effect of Enforcement Pullbacks on Crime By Cho, Sungwoo; Gonçalves, Felipe; Weisburst, Emily
  34. Preparing urban mobility for the future of work By Nicholas S. Caros; Jinhua Zhao
  35. Tenant Industry Sector and European Listed Real Estate Performance By Jan Muckenhaupt; Martin Hoesli; Bing Zhu
  36. The Fiscal Effect of Immigration: Reducing Bias in Influential Estimates By Michael Clemens
  37. The impact of rent control: Investigations on historical data in the city of Lyon By Loïc Bonneval; Florence Goffette-Nagot; Zhejin Zhao
  38. Air Pollution and Migration: Exploiting a Natural Experiment from the Czech Republic By Stepan Mikula; Mariola Pytlikova
  39. Testing for Ethnic Discrimination in Outpatient Health Care: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Germany By Martin Halla; Christopher Kah; Rupert Sausgruber
  40. Fiscal Policy in a Networked Economy By Joel P. Flynn; Christina Patterson; John Sturm
  41. On the Equivalence of Two Competing Affirmative Actions in School Choice By Yun Liu
  42. The Fertility Effects of School Entry Decisions By Kamb, Rebecca; Tamm, Marcus
  43. Checkmate! Losing with Borders, Winning with Centers. The Case of European Integration By Ketevani Kapanadze
  44. “Sort Selling”: Political Polarization and Residential Choice By W. Ben McCartney; John Orellana; Calvin Zhang
  45. The network effect of deglobalisation on European regions By Giammetti, Raffaele; Papi, Luca; Teobaldelli, Desiree; Ticchi, Davide
  46. Does Multitasking Affect Students' Academic Performance? Evidence from a Longitudinal Study By Amez, Simon; Baert, Stijn; Heydencamp, Emily; Wuyts, Joey
  47. Peer Learning in Teams and Work Performance: Evidence from a Randomized Field Experiment By Kamei, Kenju; Ashworth, John
  48. Information, Intermediaries, and International Migration By Bazzi, Samuel; Cameron, Lisa A.; Schaner, Simone G.; Witoelar, Firman
  49. Spatial Equilibria: The Case of Two Regions By Konstantin Kucheryavyy; Gary Lyn; Andrés Rodríguez-Clare
  51. What prevents spillovers from the pool of knowledge? By Lööf, Hans
  52. Shopping mall retailing: A bibliometric analysis and systematic assessment of Chebat's contributions By N. Krey; Karine Picot-Coupey; Gérard Cliquet
  53. Bayesian Spatial Econometrics and the Need for Software By Nikolas Kuschnig
  54. Unbundling the Relationship between Economic Shocks and Crime By Ferraz, Eduardo; Soares, Rodrigo R.; Vargas, Juan
  55. When does the winner take more? The role of political alignment in transfers to Romanian municipalities By Puscas, Georgiana
  56. A Chronicle on the Mainstreaming of Land Management and Sustainability into Estate Surveying and Valuation Education: A Case Study of Rivers State University By Ogechi Wechie
  57. Fuel prices and road deaths: motorcyclists are different By Tong Zhang; Paul J. Burke
  58. The impact of police violence: Evidence from student protests By Gonzalez, Felipe; Prem, Mounu
  59. The State of the Retail Industry in Kenya – A Property Manager’s Role By Catherine Kariuki; Nicky Nzioki
  60. An Assessment of Factors that lead to the Non-Application of GIS Infused Automatic Valuation Models in Property Valuation in Gaborone By Johnson Kampamba; Masego Meriam Ratlou
  61. The South African Municipal Valuation Standards for Property Rating By Roshinee Naidoo
  62. Exploring the correlation between cost perception and uptake of solar energy solutions in the Zambia Housing Sector By Sambo Zulu; Ephraim Zulu
  63. Reaching a Vulnerable Population: Why Adolescents Participate in the National School Lunch Program By Alice Ann H. Gola; Holly Figueroa; Sarah Bardin; Liz Gearan
  64. Changes of Social Networks during the Covid-19 Pandemic: Who is affected and what are its Consequences for Psychological Strain? By Bertogg, Ariane; Koos, Sebastian
  65. Cultural Diversity and Its Impact on Governance By Tom\'a\v{s} Evan; Vladim\'ir Hol\'y
  66. Domestic migration and family formation and dissolution trajectories in Latin America and the Caribbean, 1950-2000 By Andrés F. Castro Torres
  67. Henderson--Chu model extended to two heterogeneous groups By Oliver Chiriac; Jonathan Hall
  68. Exit, Voice and Political Change: Evidence from Swedish Mass Migration to the United States; A Comment By Per Pettersson-Lidbom
  69. Campaign Spending in Local Elections: the Effects of Public Funding By Bruno Carvalho

  1. By: Lilias Makashini; Ephraim Munshifwa; Yewande Adewunmi
    Abstract: Purpose: Zambia is grappling with a housing deficit officially estimated at 1.5 million units and projected to reach 3.3 million by 2030. To address the current deficit, the government anticipates constructing about 149,000 units per annum or 222, 000 to avoid the 2030 projection. Simultaneously, many African cities are struggling to deal with urban decay, a condition that can be attributed to urban sprawl, poor planning, urbanization, increased population growth and many more. It has been observed that combating the housing deficit does not consider the current stock of properties which are now degenerated. New construction focuses on the use of greenfields and neglects the positives offered by the reuse of brownfields. It has further been observed from developed countries that after huge parcels of greenfields have been developed into ‘concrete jungles’, development is being re-directed to incorporate nature-based practices to combat societal challenges.Design/Methodology: This paper therefore questions whether Africa, after taking stock of existing properties that have become derelict, could contemplate ways to regenerate them to combat the housing deficit.Findings: This paper finds that challenges such as re-zoning, contamination and ownership issues will need to be addressed to ensure a sustainable process of regeneration. Additionally, greenfields require provision of services which tends to be a costly exercise while brownfields are often properties with services already in place.Practical implications: This paper argues for the inclusion of already existing stock in spatial planning and housing plans and further suggests the increased maintenance and refurbishment of existing real estate is a possible solution to the urban decay challenge.
    Keywords: brownfield regeneration; Housing deficit; Urban decay; Zambia
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2021–09–01
  2. By: Camille Terrier; Parag A. Pathak; Kevin Ren
    Abstract: Countries and cities around the world increasingly rely on centralized systems to assign students to schools. Two algorithms, deferred acceptance (DA) and immediate acceptance (IA), are widespread. The latter is often criticized for harming disadvantaged families who fail to get access to popular schools. This paper investigates the effect of the national ban of the IA mechanism in England in 2008. Before the ban, 49 English local authorities used DA and 16 used IA. All IA local authorities switched to DA afterwards, giving rise to a cross-market difference-in-differences research design. Our results show that the elimination of IA reduces measures of school quality for low-SES students more than high-SES students. After the ban, low-SES students attend schools with lower value-added and more disadvantaged and low-achieving peers. This effect is primarily driven by a decrease in low-SES admissions at selective schools. Our findings point to an unintended consequence of the IA to DA transition: by encouraging high-SES parents to report their preferences truthfully, DA increases competition for top schools, which crowds out low-SES students.
    JEL: D47 I20
    Date: 2021–12
  3. By: Lesley Mashiri; Aly Karam
    Abstract: Purpose: The interaction between rail transit and the urban property market is a crucial foundation for transit orientated development and policy planning in Metropolitan Cities. However, there are only a few studies which report on the impact transit access has on commercial property value in African cities. This paper presents an empirical study from the City of Johannesburg’s inner-city, to contribute to this subject matter.Design/Methodology: The paper utilises multiple regression models to determine statistical significance relating to the impact that a rail transit station has on commercial property values due to proximity and access. This is based on 87 observations of commercial properties located within a 1km radius of the Jeppestown PRASA railway station located in Johannesburg CBD. The paper also discusses the possible impact of other amenities found around close to the commercial properties.Findings: The findings of the study were that proximity to a railway station alone does not significantly impact commercial property values within a 1km radius. The results also show that there are other determinants which influence commercial property value, namely distance to schools, property age, industrial, and abandoned property. Hence, there is limited impact of the railway station on commercial property value.Implications: The discussion in this paper also delves deeper into providing gaps in knowledge on how railway stations relate to urban property market, especially commercial real estate values in Metropolitan cities. Finally, the findings will contribute towards more effective transit-oriented development policies and a better understanding of how public sector investments can help create value for properties.
    Keywords: commercial property; Planning; Property Value; railway transit; South Africa
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2021–09–01
  4. By: Amer-Mestre, Josep (European University Institute); Ayarza-Astigarraga, Alaitz (European University Institute); Lopes, Marta C (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid)
    Abstract: We study the impact of COVID-19 school closures on differences in online learning usage by regional academic performance. Using data from Google Trends in Italy, we find that during the first lockdown, regions with a previously lower academic performance increased their searches for e-learning tools more than higher-performing regions. Analysing school administrative and survey data before the pandemic, we find that both teachers and students in lower performing regions were using no less e-learning tools than higher performing ones. These two findings suggest that the COVID-19 shock widened the e-learning usage gap between academically lower and higher-performing regions. Exploiting the regional variation in school closure mandates during the 2020/2021 academic year, we report that the patterns detected after the first lockdown were no longer present. Regions with different previous academic performance had the same response in terms of online learning usage when faced with stricter school closures.
    Keywords: school closures, inequality, education, COVID-19, e-learning
    JEL: C31 C81 I24 H75
    Date: 2021–11
  5. By: Jonathan Oladeji; Joseph Yacim; Benita Zulch
    Abstract: Purpose: There is a need for the modification of mortgage finance to embrace new innovative finance options that will facilitate access to housing by low- and middle-income earners in Africa. Thus, this paper seeks to evaluate the suitability of informal finance options for incremental housing development in Africa.Design / methods followed/ approach: A desktop survey of the literature was carried out to consider mortgage financing in contrast to other housing financing options. The approach was used to critically appraise and consolidate existing studies on innovative financing (informal finance option) in Africa. The Mendeley app was used to collate and organize the literature chronologically spanning 24 years of 1994-2018. Thematic content analysis was used to appraise positions, gaps, and lapses in the implementation of different informal housing financing solutions.Findings: In most African countries like Kenya, Rwanda, Nigeria, and Malawi, mortgage finance research continues to grow as a major part of affordable housing finance. However, there are considerable interests in innovative affordable housing finance tools and incremental housing for the low-income groups.Research limitations / implications: This study is limited by the low volume of quantitative literature and data gaps about incremental housing in the African context. However, this motivates the need for a more elaborate exploration of the research and knowledge available.Practical implications: This study adds to the growing discussion of exploring available research on innovative housing finance in Africa.Originality / Value of work: To our knowledge, this study provides insight into the opportunities for a diverse pool of formal and informal financing options to build an acceptable house finance framework for the African housing market.
    Keywords: Affordability; Africa; developing; economies; Finance; Framework; housing; Incremental; loans; Mortgage
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2021–09–01
  6. By: Javier Ortega (Kingston University [London]); Gregory Verdugo (EPEE - Centre d'Etudes des Politiques Economiques - UEVE - Université d'Évry-Val-d'Essonne - Université Paris-Saclay, OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques - Sciences Po - Sciences Po)
    Abstract: We study the impact of local immigration inflows on natives' wages using a large French administrative panel from 1976-2007. We show that local immigration inflows are followed by reallocations of blue-collar natives across commuting zones. Because these reallocations vary with the initial occupation and blue-collar location movers have wages below the blue-collar average, controlling for changes in local composition is crucial to assess how wages adjust to immigration. Immigration temporarily lowers the wages of blue-collar workers, with unskilled workers experiencing larger losses. Location movers lose more than stayers in terms of daily wages but move to locations with cheaper housing.
    Keywords: Immigration,Wages,Employment,France
    Date: 2021
  7. By: Kelly Bishop; Nicolai V. Kuminoff; Sophie Mathes; Alvin Murphy
    Abstract: We provide the first evidence that spatial variation in all-cause mortality risk is capitalized into US housing prices. Using a hedonic framework, we recover the annual implicit cost of a 0.1 percentage-point reduction in mortality risk among older Americans and find that this figure is both relatively low and decreasing in age, from $1,346 for a 67 year old to $246 for an 87 year old. These estimates are one-fifth of the size of comparable estimates found in the labor market, suggesting that the housing market provides an alternative, substantially cheaper channel to reducing mortality risk.
    JEL: H0 I0 Q0 R0
    Date: 2021–12
  8. By: Kevin Bazer; Sílvio Rendon
    Abstract: Using survey data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we document descriptively that unemployment has a relatively large effect on individual mortgage default rates: The average default rate for the employed is 2.4%; whereas for the unemployed, it is 8.5%. Once several other characteristics are controlled for, the unemployed have default rates that are 4 percentage points larger than those of the employed; and when endogeneity is additionally accounted for, the unemployment effect on default rates declines to 3 percentage points. Moreover, we find that more granular metrics for unemployment entail lower comparable effects of unemployment on default rates. That is, the comparable effect of individual unemployment on mortgage defaults is rather lower than the effect of state or county unemployment rates. This finding suggests that local metrics of unemployment, rather than attenuating possibly large individual unemployment effects on defaults, indeed contain more information than the aggregation of these individual effects.
    Keywords: mortgage debt; mortgage default; unemployment; consumer credit
    JEL: G21 R31 J64
    Date: 2021–12–01
  9. By: Coulangeon, Philippe (CNRS); Fougère, Denis (Sciences Po, Paris)
    Abstract: This article assesses the impact of a two-year long project-based learning program conducted by the National Opera of Paris in a large number of junior high-schools located in underprivileged areas, aiming at preventing school dropout and tackling educational inequalities by providing disadvantaged students with the opportunity to discover the world of opera. Taking a counterfactual approach (propensity score matching), we measure the impact of participation in the program on final exam and continuous assessment grades. The analysis displays mixed results: a significant and positive impact for the students who participate in the program for its whole duration (two years), at least for continuous assessment scores, but a negative impact for those who leave the program after only one year. The contrast between the effects of full and partial participation in the program suggests that these may be primarily due to a selection effect in favor of the most culturally and socially compliant students, in line with Bourdieu's and Passeron's reproduction theory (1997 [1970]) rather than a mobility effect (DiMaggio, 1982) resulting from the transfer of cultural capital to disadvantaged students.
    Keywords: project-based learning, middle school, statistical matching, mixed method, cultural capital
    JEL: I21 I29 Z11 Z18 C21
    Date: 2021–12
  10. By: Wang, Xingang (University of Auckland); Maani, Sholeh A. (University of Auckland)
    Abstract: The conventional model of immigrant earnings does not account for the correlation of outcomes across immigrant ethnic networks. We apply a spatial autoregressive network approach to account for the spill-over effects of migrant ethnic group economic resources and labour market outcomes. We employ unit-record data across 10 years for New Zealand, a major immigrant receiving country. By applying generalised method of moment (GMM) estimation, we address endogeneity of the spatial network variable. Results confirm strong positive associations of earnings with both ethnic concentration and networks of resources. The analytically enhanced approach provides opportunities for new research on the determinants of immigrant earnings.
    Keywords: earnings, ethnic network, immigrant, spatial autoregressive model, GMM estimation
    JEL: J30 J31 Z13 Z18
    Date: 2021–11
  11. By: BERTOZZI Cecilia (European Commission - JRC); SIRAGUSA Alice (European Commission - JRC); STAMOS Iraklis (European Commission - JRC); PROIETTI Paola (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: This report summarises the contents and main conclusions of the Workshop “European cities localising the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): experiences and lessons learned“, organised in the frame of the European Week of Regions and Cities (EWRC) 2021. The session launched the report “Building urban datasets for the SDGs. Six European cities monitoring the 2030 Agenda” , that relates the experience of six European cities (Bratislava, Oulu, Porto, Reggio Emilia, Seville, Valencia), in applying the methodology developed by the JRC to localise SDG Voluntary Local Reviews (VLRs). These cities have participated in the URBAN2030 project of the Joint Research Centre since October 2020, working on an evidence-based approach to SDGs and on supporting their policy decisions through meaningful data-based analysis.The URBAN2030 Project aims at fostering the achievement of SDGs in European cities and regions by offering a global reference and inspiration for the design and implementation of SDG Voluntary Local Reviews. These reviews allow cities and regions to make the best use of knowledge and practical activities that are part of the process of the localisation of the 2030 Agenda.
    Keywords: SDGs localization, European cities, urban data, local policies, sustainability strategies
    Date: 2021–12
  12. By: James Bassey Effiong
    Abstract: Purpose: The paper measures risk-return performance of residential and commercial real estate investments in South-South, Nigeria (Calabar, Uyo and Port Harcourt) from 2009 to 2018. To achieve the aim of the study, research objectives were formulated to guide the study. The paper looks at the performance of both residential and commercial real estate investments about their risk-return characteristics.Design/Methodology: The study adopted the descriptive survey research design and questionnaire was used to collect primary data through purposive sampling technique. The data collected was analysed using statistical tools such as descriptive statistics and the Analysis of Variance for testing the research hypotheses formulated.Findings: The results showed the performance of the residential and commercial real estate investments based on risk and return and which of the investment performed better. Residential property in Calabar performed better than commercial property. In Uyo, commercial property investments performed better than Residential and Port in Harcourt, residential property performed better than commercial. At city level, residential property in Port Harcourt outperformed Calabar and Uyo while for commercial Property; Uyo outperformed Calabar and Port Harcourt.Research limitations: The scope is limited to Calabar, Uyo and Port Harcourt (South-South, Nigeria) and data collection is only from practicing estate surveying and valuation firms in the study area.Practical implications: The study has implications for real estate investors/developers especially in an emerging market like Nigeria where real estate investment is very active. Originality/value: This study on measuring risk-return performance of residential and commercial real estate investments have not been conducted in the study area to the best of my knowledge. The study will contribute to the existing knowledge on real estate investment performance and risk analysis.
    Keywords: Investment; Nigeria; Performance; real estate; Return; Risk
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2021–09–01
  13. By: Nakamura, Ryota (Hitotsubashi University); Albanese, Andrea (LISER); Coombes, Emma (University of East Anglia); Suhrcke, Marc (University of York)
    Abstract: This study investigates the impact of economic incentives on travel-related physical activity, leveraging the London Congestion Charge's disincentivising of sedentary travel modes via increasing the cost of private car use within Central London. The scheme imposes charges on most types of cars entering, exiting and operating within the Central London area, while individuals living inside the charging zone are eligible for a 90% reduction in congestion charges. Geographical location information provides the full-digit postcode data necessary to precisely identify the eligibility for the discount of participants in the London Travel Demand Survey for the period 2005–2011. Using a boundary regression-discontinuity design reveals a statistically significant but small impact on active commuting (i.e. cycling and walking) around the border of the charging zone. The effect is larger for lower-income households and car owners. The findings are robust against multiple specifications and validation tests.
    Keywords: economic incentive, health behaviour, London Congestion Charge, geographical information system, regression-discontinuity
    JEL: D04 I12 R48
    Date: 2021–12
  14. By: Andrew Bacher-Hicks; Joshua Goodman; Jennifer G. Green; Melissa Holt
    Abstract: One-fifth of U.S. high school students report being bullied each year. We use internet search data for real-time tracking of bullying patterns as COVID-19 disrupted in-person schooling. We first show that, prepandemic, internet searches contain useful information about actual bullying behavior. We then show that searches for school bullying and cyberbullying dropped 30-35 percent as schools shifted to remote learning in spring 2020. The gradual return to in-person instruction starting in fall 2020 partially returns bullying searches to pre-pandemic levels. This rare positive effect may partly explain recent mixed evidence on the pandemic’s impact on students’ mental health and well-being.
    JEL: I20 I21 I28
    Date: 2021–12
  15. By: Tyler W. Watts; Tutrang Nguyen; Robert C. Carr; Lynne Vernon-Feagans; Clancy Blair
    Abstract: This study examines whether changes in classroom quality predict within-child changes in achievement and behavioral problems in elementary school (ages spanning approximately 6–11 years old).
    Keywords: child development, behavioral problems, elementary school
  16. By: Picard, Pierre M. (Université catholique de Louvain, LIDAM/CORE, Belgium); Selod, Harris
    Abstract: As cities grow and spatially expand, agricultural land is converted into residential land. In many developing countries, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, this process is accompanied by a change in land tenure, whereby plots held under traditional customary arrangements are sold to new urban residents, possibly with formal property rights. This paper studies joint land-use and land-tenure conversion in an urban economics model in which intermediaries purchase agricultural land from customary owners and attempt to transform it into residential plots with statutory property rights. The spatial equilibrium includes a mix of land uses and rights where statutory and non-statutory residential plots coexist with customary land that is mainly used for agriculture. Because customary ownership is subject to uncertainty (because of tenure insecurity), the conversion process includes a potential information asymmetry between customary owners and intermediaries. The analysis shows that a market failure may emerge whereby some customary owners prefer to continue farming their land rather than participate in the urban residential land market, which results in a city that is too small. Empirical analysis using Malian data validates the key features of the model captured by land price gradients, as well as the ranking and the variance of land prices, and is suggestive of the presence of information asymmetry.
    Keywords: Urbanization ; land markets ; property rights ; market failure
    JEL: O43 R14 P14
    Date: 2021–11–04
  17. By: Ernest Miguelez (GREThA - Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée - UB - Université de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Valentina Di Iasio
    Abstract: Abstract This study investigates whether high-skilled migration in a sample of OECD countries fosters technological diversification in the migrants' countries of origin. We focus on migrant inventors and study their role as vectors of knowledge remittances. Further, we particularly analyze whether migrants spark related or unrelated diversification back home. To account for the uneven distribution of knowledge and migrants within the host countries, we break down the analysis at the metropolitan area level. Our results suggest that migrant inventors have a positive effect on the home countries' technological diversification, particularly for developing countries and technologies with less related activities around—thus fostering unrelated diversification.
    Date: 2021–11–29
  18. By: Carlotta Fioretti (European Commission - JRC); Paola Proietti (European Commission - JRC); Guido Tintori (European Commission - JRC); Pieter Bevelander (Malmö University); Paola Briata (Polytechnic University of Milan); Marco Cremaschi (Sciences Po Paris); Nikos Karadimitriou (University College of London); Thomas Maloutas (Harokopio University of Athens); Jérémy Mandin (University of Liege); Erica Righard (Malmö University)
    Abstract: This Science for Policy report focuses on urban and territorial strategies promoted by the EU Cohesion Policy during the 2014-2020 programming period, namely Sustainable Urban Development (SUD), Integrated Territorial Investment (ITI) and Community-led Local Development (CLLD), and explores whether and how they may contribute to the integration and inclusion of international migrants in the local context. The study illustrates the findings of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) Exploratory Research Activity (ERA) International migrants in Functional Urban Areas. How strategies of sustainable urban development can foster the integration of migrants?, which integrates two analytical approaches, with in-depth case studies based on local data and performed by local academics complementing the analysis carried out at EU-level.
    Keywords: Urban and territorial development strategies, Cohesion Policy, migrant integration
    Date: 2021–12
  19. By: Vincent Meisner; Jonas von Wangenheim
    Abstract: Evidence suggests that participants in direct student-proposing deferred-acceptance mechanisms (DA) play dominated strategies. To explain the data, we introduce expectation-based loss aversion into a school-choice setting and characterize choice-acclimating personal equilibria in DA. We find that non-truthful preference submissions can be strictly optimal if and only if they are top-choice monotone. In equilibrium, DA may implement allocations with justified envy. Specifically, it discriminates against students who are more loss averse or less confident than their peers, and amplifies already existing discrimination. To level the playing field, we propose sequential mechanisms as alternatives that are robust to these biases.
    Keywords: market design, matching, school choice, reference-dependent preferences, loss aversion, deferred acceptance
    JEL: C78 D47 D78 D81 D82 D91
    Date: 2021
  20. By: Ahsan, Nazmul; Emran, M. Shahe; Shilpi, Forhad
    Abstract: We provide a theory based empirical analysis of the role of two types of complementarities in intergenerational educational mobility. We develop a model where parental financial investment in children’s schooling can be complementary to or a substitute of school quality and parent’s education level. Such complementarities can make the mobility equation convex with starkly different mobility patterns compared to the workhorse linear model. Mobility and investment equations derived from the model are estimated for Indonesia, using exceptional data that allow us to tackle two major sources of bias: coresidency and cognitive ability heterogeneity. We find that the mobility equation is convex in rural but linear in urban areas. The children of low educated fathers enjoy higher relative mobility in rural areas, while the urban children fare better in highly educated households. The standard linear model in rural areas incorrectly suggests no rural-urban gap in relative mobility. Theoretical insights help interpret the evidence, suggesting complementarity between financial investment and parental education in both rural and urban areas even though the mobility curve is linear in urban areas. We develop an approach to recover the parameters determining the interaction between school quality and parental investment. School quality is complementary to financial investment in rural areas, with stronger effect in more educated households. In urban areas, school quality is a substitute in low educated households, but complementary in the highly educated households. These results imply that public investment in school quality would lower relative mobility in Indonesia
    Keywords: Intergenerational Educational Mobility, Complementarity, Convex Mobility Curve, School Quality, Rural-Urban Divide, Returns to Education, Coresidency, Sample Truncation, Ability Heterogeneity, Developing Countries, Indonesia
    JEL: J62 O12
    Date: 2021–12–16
  21. By: Olayiwola Oladiran; Anupam Nanda
    Abstract: Purpose: In the last decade, IT and digital systems have silently become pervasive in traditional real estate markets, creating a contemporary branch of real estate typically referred to as “PropTech” (property technology). Despite the advancement of property technology and innovations over the last few decades, there has been a disproportionate growth in related scholarly work, particularly in PropTech education. Furthermore, there is no evidence-based approach to developing a Property Technology and innovation educational framework for higher institutions. This research, therefore, develops a practical and pedagogical framework to enhance and sustain the integration and delivery of technology and innovation in real estate higher education.Design/Methodology: Using a stakeholder and analytical approach, we conduct several interviews and focus group sessions with senior managers and CEOs of leading real estate and PropTech firms in the UK. In addition to these, we conduct further interviews with heads of real estate departments, senior real estate educators and professional bodies (RICS and UK PropTech Association). We thereafter design a practical and pedagogical framework for PropTech and real estate innovation in real estate higher education (referred to as PEIF).Findings: The PEIF proposes a blended approach of integration, involving the development of a module to introduce property technology and innovation in the real estate higher education curriculum, while simultaneously incorporating technology and innovation in the already existing real estate modules.Practical implication: This framework, to the best of our knowledge, is the first PropTech education integration framework that has been developed using extensive empirical evidence; it is thus valuable to real estate educators and higher education institutions.
    Keywords: Higher Education; Innovation; PropTech, education; Real Estate Education
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2021–09–01
  22. By: Xiaojuan Yu (Zhongnan University of Economics and Law); Vincent A.C. van den Berg (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam); Erik T. Verhoef (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)
    Abstract: When traveling in an autonomous car, the travel time can be used for performing activities other than driving. This paper distinguishes users’ work-related and home-related activities in autonomous cars and proposes an activity-based bottleneck model to investigate travelers’ behavior in the morning commute, shedding light on how the scope to undertake in-vehicle activities affects travelers’ trip-timing preferences and decisions, and therewith social welfare. These welfare effects can be expected to depend on the optimality of both the market for trips, and the market for vehicles. We therefore consider different supply regimes for automobiles, and un-priced congestion versus queue-eliminating road pricing. We reveal analytically the relationship between users’ various in-vehicle activities and trip timing choices by autonomous and normal car users. Three supply regimes for autonomous cars are investigated: welfare-maximizing public supply, competitive marginal cost supply, and profit-maximizing private supply. Pricing rules under different supply regimes are compared analytically, and the relative efficiencies in terms of the welfare gains are compared numerically. Results show that travelers’ in-vehicle activity choices have significant impacts on the travel patterns, congestion externality, supply decisions and the associated welfare effects.
    Keywords: Activity based modelling; Autonomous cars; Bottleneck model; Private vs public supply; Traffic congestion
    JEL: R48 R41 D62
    Date: 2022–01–18
  23. By: Upreti, Priyanka; Handa, Akanksha; Chaudhari, Dipak; Ghosh, Saurabh
    Abstract: The realty sector plays a crucial role in India in terms of employment generation, access to housing and as a major source of saving in physical form, besides direct contribution to the country’s Gross Value Added (GVA). In this study, we estimate a dynamic factor for housing (DFH) from a range of available high-frequency indicators of real estate activity. Our empirical findings indicate unidirectional causality from DFH to GVA with evidence of the first and second-round impact of revival in DFH driving recovery in GVA. Our empirical results also indicate the critical role of counter-cyclical fiscal and monetary policy measures, housing sector reforms and other policy incentives for the housing sector in reviving construction sector activity and GVA growth in the post- COVID period.
    Keywords: Construction sector, economic growth, dynamic factor model, Granger causality
    JEL: C32 O47
    Date: 2021–12–13
  24. By: Yu, Bo (Deakin University); Tran, Trang (University of Maryland at College Park); Lee, Wang-Sheng (Monash University)
    Abstract: Following market liberalisation, the vehicle population in China has increased dramatically over the past few decades. This paper examines the causal impact of the opening of a heavily used high speed rail line connecting two megacities in China in 2015, Chengdu and Chongqing, on air pollution. We use high-frequency and high spatial resolution data to track pollution along major highways linking the two cities. Our approach involves the use of an augmented regression discontinuity in time approach applied on data that have been through a meteorological normalisation process. This deweathering process involves applying machine learning techniques to account for change in meteorology in air quality time series data. Our estimates show that air pollution is reduced by 7.6% along the main affected highway. We simultaneously find increased levels of ozone pollution which is likely due to the reduction in nitrogen dioxide levels that occurred. These findings are supported using a difference-in-difference approach.
    Keywords: air pollution, China, green infrastructure, high-speed railway, regression discontinuity, machine learning
    JEL: L92 O18 Q53 Q54 R41
    Date: 2021–11
  25. By: Jourquin, Bart (Université catholique de Louvain, LIDAM/CORE, Belgium)
    Abstract: Modal choice models for strategic freight transportation studies covering large inter-regional or international areas generally rely on basic explanatory variables such as transportation costs and transit times. Using origin-destination matrixes, it is also possible to compute an accessibility measure that can further be used as an additional explanatory variable. This paper shows that the inclusion of an accessibility measure in the utility functions used for a logit model significantly improves its predictive power. Moreover, when the refined model is used to compute cost and transit time elasticities, the obtained (absolute) values are somewhat lower. The use of an accessibility measure in the modal choice model has thus a double advantage for policymakers: it improves the predictive power of the freight transport model, giving more accurate traffics on the modal networks, and it avoids overestimations of own and cross-elasticities.
    Keywords: Freight transport model ; Modal choice ; Accessibility ; Elasticity
    Date: 2021–12–21
  26. By: Kazufumi Tsuboi; Naoya Fujiwara; Ryo Itoh
    Abstract: This study investigates the influence of infection cases of COVID-19 and two non-compulsory lockdowns on human mobility within the Tokyo metropolitan area. Using the data of hourly staying population in each 500m$\times$500m cell and their city-level residency, we show that long-distance trips or trips to crowded places decrease significantly when infection cases increase. The same result holds for the two lockdowns, although the second lockdown was less effective. Hence, Japanese non-compulsory lockdowns influence mobility in a similar way to the increase in infection cases. This means that they are accepted as alarm triggers for people who are at risk of contracting COVID-19.
    Date: 2022–01
  27. By: Boldrine Abrita, Mateus; Centuriao, Daniel; Rondina Neto, Angelo; Stradiotto, Rafaella
    Abstract: The Latin American Integration Route (RILA) corresponds to the materialization of an old desire to integrate the peoples of South America. This route will connect important municipalities in Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, and Chile. In the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), it will connect important municipalities, and bring opportunities and threats. The objective of the study was to analyze the productive structure of the municipalities in Mato Grosso do Sul that will be directly affected by the RILA to better understand this process. For this purpose, we used an Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (Spatial EDA) and the spatial Locational Quotient (sLQ) of the sectorial jobs of the municipalities of the State. The results point out a spatial inequality in productive sectors, delimiting “sectorial islands”. In the industrial sector, the northeastern regions and the surroundings of the capital, Campo Grande, stand out. The northeast region of the State also stands out in the Civil Construction sector and, together with the north-central part of the MS, in the agriculture and livestock sector. In the trade sector, the southern region of the MS stands out, with proximity to Paraguay. In the services sector, there is a relative concentration in the capital and the extreme south of the State. In conclusion, we point out the urgent need for public policies to expand opportunities and mitigate the threats of integration managed by the route.
    Keywords: Productive integration; Regional development; Public policies; Latin American Integration Route (RILA).
    JEL: R11 R12
    Date: 2021–12–14
  28. By: Alaina Barca; Lei Ding; Yulin Hou; David Schwegman
    Abstract: Philadelphia’s Actual Value Initiative, adopted in 2013, createsa unique opportunity for us to test whether reassessments at short intervals to true market value and taxing by such values improve equity. Based on a difference-in-differences framework using parcel-level data matched with transactions in Philadelphia and 15 comparable cities, this study finds positive evidence on equity outcomes from more regular revaluations. The quality of assessment, as measured by the coefficient of dispersion, improves substantially after 2014, although the extent of improvement varies across communities. Vertical equity, measured by price related differential, also improved, although it was still above the standard threshold. Cross-city comparisons confirm Philadelphia’s improvement in quality and equity of assessments after adopting the initiative. These results highlight the importance of regular reassessment in places where property values increase quickly, and they shed light on the disparate impacts of reassessment across income, property value, race, and gentrification status. The paper makes the case that the property tax, if designed well, can be an equitable tax instrument
    Keywords: real property tax; valuation; assessment cycle; equity
    JEL: H20 H31 H71 R51
    Date: 2021–12–08
  29. By: Uwizeyimana Valentine; Sikubwabo Cyprien
    Abstract: "The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between the discipline enforcement techniques and academic performance in 9YBE and 12YBE schools in Musanze District, following the cases of indiscipline in these schools at a high rate. The study consists of three specific objectives: To assess the relationship between school-based techniques, home-based techniques, and local leaders' involvement in the discipline enforcement and students' academic performance in 9 &12 YBE schools of Musanze. The questionnaires were the main instruments of data collection. The study's target population was 257 subjects from which a sample of 72 participants was chosen and which is under a quantitative approach. The study used correlational research design as a research technique to measure the relationship between two variables. It's used purposive and simple random sampling techniques to get the sampled respondents- Headteachers, Director of Studies, Director of Discipline, and Parents from School Genera Assembly Committee. This study found a significant relationship (r=0.1729) between students' academic performance and school-based techniques for discipline enforcement in 9YBE and shows a meaningful relationship (r=0.1962) between student academic performance and home-based techniques in discipline enforcement in 9YBE schools of Musanze District. Results showed a significant relationship between local leaders' involvement in discipline enforcement and students' academic performance in 9YBE schools of Musanze District. This research proved that, in 12YBE schools of Musanze District, there is a significant relationship between academic performance and School-based techniques (r=0.439), a significant relationship between academic performance and home-based techniques in discipline enforcement (r=0.2131), as well as between academic performance and local leaders' involvement in the discipline enforcement (r=0.2246). The study recommends that other researchers look for other variables that could impact students' academic performance, such as teachers' remuneration/salaries, incentives, and school materials and equipment." Key Words: Discipline, Academic performance, Nine- and Twelve-Years Basic Education
    Date: 2021–12
  30. By: Kensuke Ohtake
    Abstract: We extend the mathematical model proposed by Ottaviano-Tabuchi-Thisse (2002) to a multi-regional case and investigate the stability of the homogeneous stationary solution of the model in a one-dimensional periodic space. When the number of regions is two and three, the homogeneous stationary solution is stable under sufficiently high transport costs. On the other hand, when the number of regions is four, the homogeneous stationary solution is unstable under any values of the transport cost.
    Date: 2021–12
  31. By: Muktar Babatunde Wahab; Wasiu Ayobami Durosinmi; Matthew Mamman; Dodo Usman Zakari; Adetoye Sulaiman Adepoju
    Abstract: Purpose: Quite a substantial number of academic studies have investigated dynamics of macroeconomic factors in real estate markets across the world. While these studies are valuable in the field of macroeconomic dynamics in real estate markets, a gap still exist in the literature on the recent disruption in the economy caused by covid-19 pandemic and subsequent impact on real estate market of emerging economy in Abuja, Nigeria.Design/Methodology: Monthly returns on real estate investment from sampled registered real estate firms in addition to data on macroeconomic indicators were obtained for the period (February 2020 and April 2021). These data were then analysed using econometric analysis - Augmented Dicker Fuller (ADF), Engle Granger cointegration and cointegrating regression analysis.Findings: The empirical evidence shows a long run negative impact of macroeconomic indicators on real estate market caused by covid-19 disruption in the economy. The study further understood that correction in market disequilibrium caused by economic disruption would require a slow adjustment. The real estate investor should exercise caution in investing into real estate due market disruption or disequilibrium that would take long period to correct.Practical implications: This paper provides empirical evidence of interrelationship between covid-19 driven macro economy and real estate markets. The result showed that the real GDP, exchange rate, inflation and interest rates have been found to have a significant explanatory influence on property return across the markets. The result further suggested that the impact of covid-19 in the economy requires government intervention to correct future abnormalities in the real estate market.
    Keywords: Engle-Granger cointegration; macroeconomic indicators; real estate returns; stationarity test
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2021–09–01
  32. By: Henry Aray (Department of Economic Theory and Economic History, University of Granada.); Janeth Pacheco-Delgado (Technical University of Manabí)
    Abstract: This article analyzes the relationship between fiscal decentralization and the growth rate of per capita public spending by subnational governments in Ecuador. A theoretical model is proposed to support the empirical strategy. Data at provincial level over the period 2001–2015 are used. The estimation results for the aggregation of subnational governments show that financial autonomy is positively correlated with the growth rates of per capita public investment and per capita current spending. However, the latter is also negatively correlated with tax autonomy. When using disaggregated data on provincial and local governments, results for financial autonomy hold in most of the cases. However, no evidence is found for tax autonomy. Evidence on a structural break following the passing of the Constitution of 2008 is also found and suggests that the Constitution has had an overall positive impact on public spending. Moreover, considering the structural break sheds light on the results found when it is not taken into account.
    Keywords: Subnational governments; Decentralization; Public spending; Ecuador.
    JEL: H53 H77 C23
    Date: 2022–01–18
  33. By: Cho, Sungwoo (UCLA); Gonçalves, Felipe (UCLA); Weisburst, Emily (University of California, Los Angeles)
    Abstract: Do reductions in arrests increase crime? We study line-of-duty deaths of police officers, events that likely impact police behavior through increased fear but are unlikely to directly impact civilian behavior. Officer deaths cause significant short-term reductions in all arrest types, with the largest reductions in arrests for lower-level offenses. In contrast, we find no evidence of an increase in crime or a change in victim reporting through 911 calls. There is also no apparent threshold of arrest decline beyond which crime increases. Our findings suggest that enforcement activity can be reduced at the margin without incurring public safety costs.
    Keywords: policing, crime, deterrence, broken windows, Ferguson effect, community trust
    JEL: J15 J18 K42
    Date: 2021–12
  34. By: Nicholas S. Caros; Jinhua Zhao
    Abstract: A gradual growth in flexible work over many decades has been suddenly and dramatically accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic. The share of flexible work days in the United States is forecasted to grow from 4\% in 2018 to over 26\% by 2022. This rapid and unexpected shift in the nature of work will have a profound effect on the demand for, and supply of, urban transportation. Understanding how people make decisions around where and with whom to work will be critical for predicting future travel patterns and designing mobility systems to serve flexible commuters. To that end, this paper establishes a formal taxonomy for describing possible flexible work arrangements, the stakeholders involved and the relationships between them. An analytical framework is then developed for adapting existing transportation models to incorporate the unique dynamics of flexible work location choice. Several examples are provided to demonstrate how the new taxonomy and analytical framework can be applied across a broad set of scenarios. Finally, a critical research agenda is proposed to create both the empirical knowledge and methodological tools to prepare urban mobility for the future of work.
    Date: 2022–01
  35. By: Jan Muckenhaupt (Technische Universität München (TUM)); Martin Hoesli (University of Geneva - Geneva School of Economics and Management (GSEM); Swiss Finance Institute; University of Aberdeen - Business School); Bing Zhu (Technische Universität München (TUM))
    Abstract: This paper is the first to examine the relationship between the performance of public real estate companies (PRECs) and the industrial sector of their tenants. By investigating the performance of a large sample of European real estate firms from 2010 to 2019 and information pertaining to the firms' tenants, we find that the systematic risk in the tenants' industry sectors is priced in real estate company equity returns. Our results stay robust after correcting for selection bias, stock beta modifications, tenant sector alpha, and tenant anchor effects. We propose a long-short hedging strategy that buys the stocks with high tenant sector risk and sells the stocks with low tenant sector risk, which can earn a non-market return of 3.53% annually.
    Keywords: Public Real Estate Companies, Listed Real Estate, Tenants, Industry Sector, Systematic Risk
    JEL: R33 G12 G11
    Date: 2022–01
  36. By: Michael Clemens
    Abstract: Immigration policy can have important net fiscal effects that vary by immigrants’ skill level. But mainstream methods to estimate these effects are problematic. Methods based on cash-flow accounting offer precision at the cost of bias; methods based on general equilibrium modeling address bias with limited precision and transparency. A simple adjustment greatly reduces bias in the most influential and precise estimates: conservatively accounting for capital taxes paid by the employers of immigrant labor. The adjustment is required by firms’ profit-maximizing behavior, unconnected to general equilibrium effects. Adjusted estimates of the positive net fiscal impact of average recent U.S. immigrants rise by a factor of 3.2, with a much shallower education gradient. They are positive even for an average recent immigrant with less than high school education, whose presence causes a present-value subsidy of at least $128,000 to all other taxpayers collectively.
    Keywords: immigration, fiscal, budget, budgetary, tax revenue, benefits, taxes, deficit, surplus, gain, contribution, welfare, social security
    JEL: F22 H68 J61
    Date: 2021
  37. By: Loïc Bonneval (CMW - Centre Max Weber - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne]); Florence Goffette-Nagot (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne] - Université de Lyon - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Zhejin Zhao (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne] - Université de Lyon - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper reexamines the debated issue of the effects of rent control policy on the rental market. We investigate the impact on rents of three different forms of rent regulation in Lyon over a 78-­year period. We use an original historical data set which allows us to track regulation changes, rent paid, and tenant moves for a long-­run panel of flats. Using a difference-­in-­differences method, we estimate the impact of regulation on rents depending on the type of rent control over different economic periods. Our results show that the impact of rent control deepened over time. Starting with an 11% reduction in rents between 1914 and 1929, it reached a decrease by 47% in the regulated rental market in the 1949–­1968 period. We do not find any increase in rents in the unregulated segment of the rental market, which could be a result of a reduction in housing investment in the long run.
    Keywords: Rent control,Housing policy,Difference-in-differences
    Date: 2021–11–08
  38. By: Stepan Mikula; Mariola Pytlikova
    Abstract: This paper examines the causal effects of air pollution on migration by exploiting a natural experiment in which desulfurization technologies were rapidly implemented in coal-burning power plants in the Czech Republic in the 1990s. These technologies substantially decreased air pollution levels without per se affecting economic activity. The results based on a difference-in-differences estimator imply that improvements in air quality reduced emigration from previously heavily polluted municipalities by 24%. We find that the effect of air pollution on emigration tended to be larger in municipalities with weaker social capital and fewer man-made amenities. Thus, our results imply that strengthening social capital and investing in better facilities and public services could partially mitigate depopulation responses to air pollution. Finally, we look at heterogeneous migratory responses to air pollution by education and age and find some evidence that the more educated tend to be more sensitive to air pollution in their settlement behavior.
    Keywords: air pollution; migration; natural experiment;
    JEL: Q53 J61 O15
    Date: 2021–11
  39. By: Martin Halla (Johannes Kepler University Linz); Christopher Kah (Mercedes-Benz AG); Rupert Sausgruber (Department of Economics, Vienna University of Economics and Business)
    Abstract: To test for ethnic discrimination in access to outpatient health care services, we carry out an email-correspondence study in Germany. We approach 3,224 physician offices in the 79 largest cities in Germany with fictitious appointment requests and randomized patients’ characteristics. We find that patients’ ethnicity, as signaled by distinct Turkish versus German names, does not affect whether they receive an appointment or wait time. In contrast, patients with private insurance are 31 percent more likely to receive an appointment. Holding a private insurance also increases the likelihood of receiving a response and reduces the wait time. This suggests that physicians use leeway to prioritize privately insured patients to enhance their earnings, but they do not discriminate persons of Turkish origin based on taste. Still, their behavior creates means-based barriers for economically disadvantaged groups.
    Keywords: Discrimination, immigrants, ethnicity, health care markets, health insurance, inequality, correspondence experiment, field experiment
    JEL: I11 J15 I14 I18 H51 C93
    Date: 2021–12
  40. By: Joel P. Flynn; Christina Patterson; John Sturm
    Abstract: Advanced economies feature complicated networks that connect households, firms, and regions. How do these structures affect the impact of fiscal policy and its optimal targeting? We study these questions in a model with input-output linkages, regional structure, and household heterogeneity in MPCs, consumption baskets, and shock exposures. Theoretically, we derive estimable formulae for the effects of fiscal policies on aggregate GDP, or fiscal multipliers, and show how network structures determine their size. Empirically, we find that multipliers vary substantially across policies, so targeting is important. Beneath these aggregate effects are large spatial and sectoral spillovers from policies directed to any one firm or household. However, virtually all variation in multipliers stems from differences in policies’ direct incidence onto households’ MPCs. Thus, while the distributional effects of fiscal policy depend on the detailed structure of the economy, maximally expansionary fiscal policy simply targets households’ MPCs.
    JEL: E62
    Date: 2021–12
  41. By: Yun Liu
    Abstract: This note analyzes the outcome equivalence conditions of two popular affirmative action policies, majority quota and minority reserve, under the student optimal stable mechanism. The two affirmative actions generate an identical matching outcome, if the market either is effectively competitive or contains a sufficiently large number of schools.
    Date: 2021–12
  42. By: Kamb, Rebecca (Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (RWI)); Tamm, Marcus (Hochschule der Bundesagentur für Arbeit (HdBA))
    Abstract: School entry regulations lead to differences in the age when children start school. While previous literature estimated the effects of age at school entry for compliers with school entry regulations, we look at non-compliers, namely those who enter school one year before the official entry date. Based on an instrumental variable approach, the results show that early enrollment increases the number of children by 0.1, whereas we find no significant impact on rates of childlessness.
    Keywords: school starting age, early school enrollment, fertility, motherhood, childlessness
    JEL: I21 J24
    Date: 2021–11
  43. By: Ketevani Kapanadze
    Abstract: This paper studies two major stages of European integration, the expansion of the European Union (EU) in 2004 and the Schengen Area in 2008, and their impacts on economic performance in subregions of Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. Using European regional data at the NUTS3 level and disaggregated synthetic control method, I construct counterfactuals for sub-regions of CEE countries. This approach allows me to assess regional treatment effects (RTEs) and to study the heterogeneous effects of European integration. I find that the benefits of EU and Schengen memberships to annual GDP per capita are approximately 10% less in border regions, relative to interior areas. The results expose regional economic disparities, as border regions lose relative to interior regions since European integration. Furthermore, integration facilitators in border regions such as fewer geographical barriers, more service employment, and positive attitudes toward the EU did not reduce economic disparities. The results show that the gap persists, regardless of some complementarities. Thus, the main implication of this paper is that sub-regions of CEE countries are far from being fully converged, and that European integration instead seems to have spurred sub-regional divergence.
    Keywords: CEE countries; European integration; RTEs; borders; dissagregated synthetic controls;
    JEL: F15 F16 F20 R12
    Date: 2021–12
  44. By: W. Ben McCartney; John Orellana; Calvin Zhang
    Abstract: Partisanship and political polarization are salient features of today’s society. We merge deeds records with voter rolls and show that political polarization is more than just “political cheerleading.” Descriptively, homeowners are more likely to sell their homes and move when their next-door neighbors are affiliated with the opposite political party. We use a novel, new-next door neighbor identification strategy along with rich demographic control variables and time by-geography fixed effects to confirm causality. Consistent with a partisanship mechanism, our results are strongest when new next-door neighbors (i) are more likely to be partisan and (ii) live especially close by. Our findings help explain increases in political segregation, improve our understanding of residential choice, and illustrate the importance of political polarization for economic decision-making.
    Keywords: Political Polarization; Residential Choice
    JEL: D10 H31 R20
    Date: 2021–03–02
  45. By: Giammetti, Raffaele; Papi, Luca; Teobaldelli, Desiree; Ticchi, Davide
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of a retreat from global economic integration on the European regional production network for the period 2000-2010. We find that production has become increasingly fragmented, although the degree of heterogeneity across regions is substantial. This heterogeneity is also present in the direct and indirect effects of three different deglobalisation scenarios that we simulate. Our results show that deglobalisation generates winners and losers. Specifically, two groups of regions emerge; regions that would benefit from a return to a less integrated world, and regions that would instead gain from a strengthening of the European production network.
    Keywords: Reshoring, Global Value Chains, production networks, input-output, regional fragmentation, supply chains interruption.
    JEL: D57 F16 F62 F66
    Date: 2021–12–16
  46. By: Amez, Simon (Ghent University); Baert, Stijn (Ghent University); Heydencamp, Emily (Ghent University); Wuyts, Joey (Ghent University)
    Abstract: Multitasking – alternating between two different tasks at the same time – has become a daily habit for many university students. However, this may come at a cost since the existing literature emphasises the negative association between multitasking and academic performance. Nonetheless, this literature is based on cross-sectional observational data so that that estimates cannot be given a causal interpretation. To complement these studies, we opted for a longitudinal design in this study. Specifically, for three consecutive years, students at two Belgian universities, in more than ten different study programmes, were surveyed on their multitasking preferences and academic performance. Then, these results were merged with the students' exam scores. We exploited the longitudinal character of the data by running random and fixed effect models. Our results indicate that the positive and negative aspects of multitasking with respect to academic performance cancel each other out.
    Keywords: multitasking, academic performance, longitudinal data
    JEL: I23 J24
    Date: 2021–11
  47. By: Kamei, Kenju; Ashworth, John
    Abstract: A novel field experiment shows that learning activities in pairs with a greater spread in abilities lead to better individual work performance, relative to those in pairs with similar abilities. The positive effect of the former is not limited to their performance in peer learning material, but it also spills over to their performance in other areas. The underlying improvement comes from the stronger increased performance of those whose achievements were weak prior to peer learning. This implies that exogenously determining learning partners with different abilities helps improve productivity through knowledge sharing and potential peer effects.
    Keywords: peer effects, dilemma, knowledge sharing, field experiment, teamwork
    JEL: C93 I23 J24 M54
    Date: 2021–12–19
  48. By: Bazzi, Samuel (University of California, San Diego); Cameron, Lisa A. (University of Melbourne); Schaner, Simone G. (University of Southern California); Witoelar, Firman (Australian National University)
    Abstract: Job seekers often face substantial information frictions related to potential job quality. This is especially true in international labor markets, where intermediaries match prospective migrants with employers abroad. We conducted a randomized trial in Indonesia to explore how information about intermediary quality shapes migration choices and outcomes. Information reduces the migration rate, lowering use of low-quality intermediaries. However, workers who migrate receive better pre-departure preparation and have higher-quality job experiences abroad, despite no change in occupation or destination. Information does not change intentions to migrate or beliefs about the return to migration or intermediary quality. Nor does selection explain the improved outcomes for workers who choose to migrate with the information. Together, our findings are consistent with an increase in the option value of search: with better ability to differentiate offer quality, workers become choosier and ultimately have better migration experiences. This offers a new perspective on the importance of information and matching frictions in global labor markets.
    Keywords: international migration, information, middlemen, quality disclosure, search
    JEL: F22 O15 D83 L15
    Date: 2021–12
  49. By: Konstantin Kucheryavyy; Gary Lyn; Andrés Rodríguez-Clare
    Abstract: In this paper we characterize the set of equilibria in a generalized version of the canonical two-region economic geography model that nests the class of models in Allen and Arkolakis (2014) as well as Krugman (1991). We show that the set of (regular) equilibria corresponds to the set of zeros of a function V(x), where x is the relative price of manufacturing goods produced in the two regions (adjusted by the trade elasticity). Using this approach, we provide sufficient conditions for uniqueness of equilibria that — in contrast to the well-know result in Allen and Arkolakis (2014) — allow for positive agglomeration externalities even in the absence of congestion effects, and highlight the key role played by three additional parameters: the trade elasticity, which regulates the strength of the dispersion force associated with the decline in the terms of trade caused by migration into a region; trade costs, which weaken this dispersion force by limiting trade across regions; and the importance of the agricultural sector, which pushes against agglomeration forces in manufacturing. We also discuss how asymmetries between the two regions tend to push against multiplicity.
    JEL: F10 F20 R0 R13
    Date: 2021–12
  50. By: Uwizeyimana Valentine; Sikubwabo Cyprien
    Abstract: "The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of blended learning on learners’ academic performance in Rwandan public boarding schools. Case of Gicumbi district. The researcher targeted all the 12 public boarding schools from Gicumbi district, 4 public boarding schools were selected basing on the assumption of (Borg and Gall, 2003) indicating that at least 30 percent of the entire population for sample is sufficient. The study population comprises 1334 as total population. And final sample size were 308 people who were selected using Yamane sample size determination. The study approved that blended learning affect learner’s academic performance in Rwandan public boarding schools. And government is recommended to supervision on the use of ICT in Rwandan public boarding schools." Key Words: blended learning and learners’ academic performance.
    Date: 2021–12
  51. By: Lööf, Hans (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: This paper surveys theoretical and empirical literature on non-pecuniary flow of knowledge and the conditions and limitations for firms to benefit from positive externalities. Spillovers from the pool of accumulated knowledge generated by technological and scientific development is considered to be a key factor for economic development in modern growth models. Knowledge spillovers has also been a major topic of empirical research on firms’ innovation and economic performance over the last thirty years or more. By exploiting theoretical and methodological advances, and using more comprehensive, complex and detailed data sources, scholars from various scientific disciplines have improved the identification of factors, mechanisms, and channels that influence flows of knowledge within and across industries, technological regimes and regions. This research has deepened the understanding of the economic importance of knowledge spillovers.
    Keywords: externalities; innovation; knowledge spillovers; productivity; technology
    JEL: L20 M13 O31 O33 O40
    Date: 2022–01–03
  52. By: N. Krey (Rowan University); Karine Picot-Coupey (CREM - Centre de recherche en économie et management - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université); Gérard Cliquet (CREM - Centre de recherche en économie et management - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université)
    Abstract: Shopping malls are unique retail environments offering individual consumption experiences within a holistic retail ecosystem. Drawing on a bibliometric analysis and a systematic review of 31 articles, this research synthetizes Jean-Charles Chebat's contributions to the shopping mall literature. Findings highlight four core clusters of the shopping mall literature, namely spatial wayfinding, atmospherics, consumer differences across shopping mall experiences, and shopping mall consequences. The newly developed Shopping Mall Experience Framework extends Chebat's research proposing additional elements of interest for current mall retailing research. Managerial implications offer practical guidance on successfully designing and maneuvering shopping malls of the future.
    Keywords: Bibliometric analysis,Mall atmospherics,Shopping mall,Systematic review,Value
    Date: 2022
  53. By: Nikolas Kuschnig (Department of Economics, Vienna University of Economics and Business)
    Abstract: Bayesian approaches to spatial econometric models are relatively uncommon in applied work, but play an important role in the development of new methods. This is partly due to a lack of easily accessible, flexible software for the Bayesian estimation of spatial models. Established probabilistic software struggles with computational specifics of these models, while classical implementations cannot harness the flexibility of Bayesian modelling. In this paper, I present bsreg, an object-oriented R package, that bridges this gap. The package enables quick and easy estimation of spatial econometric models and is readily extensible. Using the package, I demonstrate the merits of the Bayesian approach by means of a well-known dataset on cigarette demand. Bayesian and frequentist point estimates coincide, but posterior inference affords better insights on uncertainty. I find that in previous works with distance-based connectivities the average spillover effects were overestimated considerably, highlighting the need for tried and tested software.
    Keywords: Bayesian inference, spatial models, R package, cigarette demand
    JEL: C11 C31 C87
    Date: 2021–12
  54. By: Ferraz, Eduardo (Universidad del Rosario); Soares, Rodrigo R. (Insper, São Paulo); Vargas, Juan (Rosario University)
    Abstract: Intuitively, by increasing the opportunity cost of engaging in criminal activities, positive economic shocks should reduce crime. However, the empirical evidence on the relationship between economic shocks and criminal behavior is at best ambiguous. This may be because certain types of shocks make the booty more attractive and thus constitute an incentive to predate. Beyond this basic distinction between an "opportunity cost" and a "rapacity" mechanism that may mediate the effect of economic shocks on crime, this chapter proposes a simple conceptual framework to understand this nuanced relationship. We posit that the way that economic shocks shape criminal behavior depends on three factors: i) whether the shock comes from a legal or an illegal source, ii) the extent to which the shock source is more or less lootable, and iii) the presence of contextual factors that shape the relative importance of the opportunity cost and the rapacity effect, such as the underlying level of economic inequality, the institutional strength and law enforcement capacity of the state, and whether there are instances of accelerated and hazardous economic growth that likely create social disorganization and institutional unbalance. We use this taxonomy to review the seemingly inconclusive empirical evidence, and close by highlighting current persisting puzzles as well as areas where additional research on the relationship between economic shocks and crime would be welcome.
    Keywords: economic shocks, crime, opportunity cost, rapacity, illegal activity, inequality, institutions, social disorganization
    JEL: K42 J30 D74 F16
    Date: 2021–12
  55. By: Puscas, Georgiana (University of Warwick)
    Abstract: This paper explores whether the political alignment between mayors and the central government brings additional financial benefits to municipalities in Romania, using a novel dataset over 2012-2018. Analysing close municipal elections, I apply a regression discontinuity design to identify the effect of political alignment on several categories of transfers. I find that politically aligned municipalities receive per capita about 19% more equalisation transfers, 46% more subventions and 30% more transfers for roads. The results indicate that transfers for decentralised costs at municipality level are nondiscretionary
    Keywords: transfers allocation ; political alignment ; electoral competition JEL Classification: D72 ; H77 ; H81 ; P16 ; C21
    Date: 2021
  56. By: Ogechi Wechie
    Abstract: Purpose: Currently, climate change effects, in the form of incessant flooding is experienced within the inner cities mostly as a result of the destruction of wetland for developments thereby capable of hampering property investment. This environmental injustice could be attributed to uninformed real estate practice which seeks to secure the optimal use of land and its associated resources in order to meet social and economic needs without considering environmental consequences. This phenomenon indicates the possibility that land management, which addresses the tripartite needs (economic, social and environmental) was not factored in decision making for property development in flood prone areas. The purpose of this study is to describe how Land Management and sustainability indicators can be mainstreamed into the Real Estate Education.Design/methodology: Ethnographic research design was adopted since the researcher was an active participant observer. Data collection was by observation, interviews, and documents from university and departmental academic curricular sampled purposefully and theoretically using triangulation analysis by describing, examining relationships, factors and linkages. Limitations/implications: Although the research design is highly recommended by educational researchers, it requires a lot of time since it takes time to build trust for honest discourse. Since data is limited to the researcher’s workplace, there is every likelihood that it may lead to false assumptions about behaviour patterns.Practical implications: This study will influence the practice of real estate profession capable of reducing climate change effect on property investment by introducing sustainability thinking into decision making.Originality: The research is original birthed by the researcher in the test professional competence and adopted for the purpose of this research.
    Keywords: land management, sustainability, real estate profession, estate surveying and valuation education
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2021–09–01
  57. By: Tong Zhang; Paul J. Burke
    Abstract: This study estimates the effect of gasoline prices on road deaths by vehicle mode using annual data for 62 countries for 2000–2018 and all states of the United States (US) for 1998–2018. Higher gasoline prices are associated with fewer overall road deaths. The proportional effect on motorcyclist deaths tends to be smaller or even have the opposite sign, especially in countries that are not highly dependent on motorcycles. For the US, a positive effect of gasoline prices on motorcyclist deaths is found, with an elasticity of about 0.3. There is also a positive relationship between gasoline prices and motorcycle registrations in the US. The results confirm that additional attention towards motorcyclist safety is warranted in times of high fuel prices.
    Keywords: fuel price, road deaths, motorcyclist deaths, fuel efficient
    JEL: R41 H23 Q43
    Date: 2021–09
  58. By: Gonzalez, Felipe; Prem, Mounu
    Abstract: We study the protest behavior of teenagers linked to a student killed by a stray bullet coming from a policeman in Chile. We use administrative data to follow the schoolmates of the victim and those living nearby the shooting in hundreds of protest and non-protest days. We find that police violence causes lower protest participation in street rallies but more adherence to test boycotts. These effects appear among schoolmates of the victim and not among students living nearby the killing. Negative educational consequences suffered by the schoolmates combined with previous results suggest that psychological mechanisms are a plausible explanation.
    Date: 2022–01–14
  59. By: Catherine Kariuki; Nicky Nzioki
    Abstract: Purpose: Under the Kenya Vision 2030, the Government targeted to raise the share of products sold through the formal retail channels, such as supermarkets from 5% in 2007 to 30% in 2012. The retail sector was among priority sectors projected to make up the largest part of Kenya’s Gross domestic Product and create approximately 50% of the total formal employment. The formal retail market in Kenya is estimated at 33% of these supermarkets and hypermarkets chains constitute at least 20% of the formal retail spaces. Within this period, developers responded and constructed new malls. In Kenya, many of the newer shopping centres offer a mix of shopping, leisure and even hotels. This is to match other countries’ developments as well as new consumer shopping habits. In 2010 to 2015, most of the shopping centres had their anchor tenant as local players. In 2015, however, the country has seen the entry of several international brands, such as GAME, Carrefour, Shoprite and Choppies, which was made easier by the exit of major brands such as Nakumatt, Uchumi and Ukwala. These first two were anchor tenants in most of the shopping malls. Nakumatt had 66 branches across Kenya, Uganda, and Rwanda. Uchumi had 25 branches spread out in Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania. The effect of their going down left many shopping malls without an anchor tenant, left landlords with huge rent arrears and left their suppliers in so much debt, that some have had to close business. In time some of these shopping malls found new anchor tenants in Carrefour and Foodplus. Then the COVID-19 pandemic hit and though the anchor tenants seem to be doing well, many line tenants have had to close their businesses. The paper examines the main factors leading to the collapse of these major supermarkets some of which have been there since 1975 and had the backing of the Government and were considered low risk. The paper also examines the effect of this collapse and the COVID-19 pandemic on shopping malls.Methodology: This was done through literature review and interviews with identified groups. Findings: Findings indicate that some of these supermarkets expanded too quickly meaning the growth was unsustainable. Their failure has negatively impacted many groups in the retail sector. These groups include the landlord where they had rented premises and rents were unpaid, suppliers who in some cases have gone bankrupt because of unpaid invoices. Also affected are other tenants in the shopping centres who were attracted to take up space in a shopping centre, because of the presence of a strong anchor. These tenants are now struggling, and some have had to close shop. Tenants who survived the loss of the anchor tenant, may now not survive the COVID-19 pandemic.Practical implications: The paper recommends that the property manager has a role to play in monitoring tenants and identifying a struggling tenant as early as possible. Secondly, that there should be a code of practice between retailers, their supplier, and their landlords. Thirdly the property manager had a role to play in making shopping malls safer by making sure shoppers and retail stores adhere to the standard distancing protocol, traffic monitoring, & face mask wearing.
    Keywords: anchor tenant; COVID-19; landlords; Property Management; Retail; Shopping centres
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2021–09–01
  60. By: Johnson Kampamba; Masego Meriam Ratlou
    Abstract: Purpose: Geographical information systems (GIS) is widely applied in valuing property using computer assisted mass appraisal (CAMA) or automated valuation models (AMV). However, the use of GIS infused AVMs in Botswana is limited. This has led to long turnaround time as most valuations are done manually and using traditional valuation methods. The purpose of this research was to assess the factors that lead to the lack of application of GIS infused automated valuation models in property valuation in Gaborone.Methodology: For this study, both secondary and primary data were utilised. The primary data was collected through the use of a questionnaire which was distributed to various Property Valuers. The secondary data was retrieved from journals, articles as well books. Analysis of data was done using software packages like SPSS. These packages were used later on to present the findings in charts and graphs for easy comprehension of the data by readers.Findings: The findings show that the variables that have an impact on the lack of usage of GIS infused AVMs include lack of computerized models of valuation, high costs of computer software and hardware, lack of infusion of GIS in school curriculum, lack of interest in GIS as well as fear of change from traditional valuation approaches among others. However the findings reveal that the economic factors are the ones with great impact on the lack of usage of GIS infused AVMs during property valuation in Gaborone.Practical Implication: This research bridges the knowledge gap of the subject matter by availing issues pertaining to the lack of application of GIS infused AVMs in property valuation in Botswana.
    Keywords: Automated Valuation Models; Botswana; Gaborone; Geographical Information Systems; Property Valuation
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2021–09–01
  61. By: Roshinee Naidoo
    Abstract: Purpose: The Local Government: Municipal Property Rates Act No 6 of 2004 (MPRA) heralded a new era for property rating for South Africa. There are no existing localised Standards for Property Rating in South Africa. The purpose of the project was therefore to develop a set of municipal valuation standards which are appropriate to the South African context. In this space there are varying performance by appointed Municipal Valuers and recurring issues relating to the inconsistent delivery of the property register/valuation roll. Together with the lack of expertise in the Municipalities due to the high turnover of staff and different interpretations of legislative requirements, the aim was to therefore customise the South African Municipal Valuation Standards for Property Rating.Design/Methodology: The MPRA is the primary reference point. This legislative framework has supported the development of these standards. It provides the specific legislative requirements in the valuation of property and the compilation and maintenance of valuation rolls for the levying of property rates. It also provides a legislative platform for compliance and assigns responsibilities to the property valuation profession (municipal valuers) and the municipalities. The structure and format of the standard have included the applicable MPRA sections that relate to the municipal valuer function, responsibilities, and obligations, and includes professional valuation practice notes with the applicable corresponding standard. The Practice Note: Templates and Annexures in the standard is intended as supporting best practice in the interpretation and understanding of a particular standard.Findings: Due to the evolving nature of mass valuations and technological advancements in this field. The Standard has a bias towards data and management of data which forms the basis of modern mass valuation principles and the application of computer assisted mass appraisal techniques. The valuation profession must have mass appraisal training if the municipalities, are to benefit from this competency.Practical Implications: The Standards will therefore promote standardisation, efficiency, uniformity and consistency through rules and benchmarks in the preparation and maintenance of valuation rolls (municipal rating), to improve quality and standards for equitable municipal rating. The document also includes setting limits, rules and benchmarks for monitoring and applying the standard and provides for practice notes, guidelines, and technical guidance to support implementation, interpretation and understanding of the standard. Today, we have the customised version known as the STANDARD: MUNICIPAL VALUATIONS FOR PROPERTY RATING (sMVPR), version 8.3 after being reviewed by the International Valuation Standards Council (IVSC). This version with associated appendices has been adopted by SACPVP for the implementation of the Local Government Municipal Property Rates Act and is driven by International best practice which was adapted for use in South Africa. Similarly, a Monitoring Framework has now been developed, the focus is on the Professional Performance and Conduct within the Municipal valuation and rating space. The Investigations and Ethics Committee of SACPVP will monitor any transgressions by the Municipal Valuers.
    Keywords: Mass Appraisal; Municipal Rating; Municipal Valuations for Property Rating; SACPVP
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2021–09–01
  62. By: Sambo Zulu; Ephraim Zulu
    Abstract: Purpose: Like many countries, Zambia is challenged to adopt clean energy solutions to meet its ever-increasing energy demand. The perceived cost of adoption is argued to be a potential hindrance to residential solar energy uptake. A review of the literature suggests that, while there is an increase in research on solar energy transitioning in sub-Sahara Africa, no such studies have been undertaken in Zambia. It is argued that solutions to promote the use of solar energy in the owner-built residential sector in Zambia are crucial to solve this energy dilemma, as over 50% of residences in urban areas are self-build housing. Considering that a significant proportion of houses are owner-built, households must clearly understand their financial commitments when considering solar energy solutions. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the extent to which the perception of the cost of adopting solar energy solutions was an influencing factor in the uptake of solar energy in the residential sector in Zambia.Design/Methodology: Data was collected through a questionnaire survey from 83 households in the Lusaka and Copperbelt provinces of Zambia.Findings: While the findings did not show a significant correlation between cost perception and adoption of solar energy solutions, the households who had adopted solar energy solutions had a relatively higher income than those who had not adopted solar energy.Limitations: The study focused on a small number of potential explanatory variables for solar energy adoption. Future studies should explore the inter and intra relationships between the variables and solar energy adoption.Practical implications: The findings have practical and policy implications as they help understand factors that can increase the uptake of solar energy solutions in the housing sector. Originality: The study contributes to the understanding of factors impacting on solar energy adoption in the Zambian housing sector
    Keywords: Solar Energy; sustainable development, renewable energy, the housing sector
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2021–09–01
  63. By: Alice Ann H. Gola; Holly Figueroa; Sarah Bardin; Liz Gearan
    Abstract: Fourteen percent of households with children under 18 years were food insecure in 2018. However, participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) is lower among adolescents compared to younger children.
    Keywords: Food security, School lunch, Adolescents, Household income, NSLP
  64. By: Bertogg, Ariane; Koos, Sebastian
    Abstract: Contact restrictions and distancing measures are among the most effective non-pharmaceutical measures to stop the spread of the SARS-CoV2 virus. Yet, research has only begun to understand the wider social consequences of these interventions. This study investigates how individuals' social networks have changed since the outbreak of the pandemic and how these changes relate to psychological strain. Based on an online survey of the German adult population, four types of change are distinguished: loss, gain, and intensification of ties, as well as pandemic-related conflicts. One in two respondents has experienced at least one of these four changes. Loss is more frequently reported than gain of ties, and intensification occurred more frequently than conflicts. Loss of ties and conflicts are furthermore associated with higher levels of psychological strain.
    Keywords: Network Change,Social Ties,Health Risks,Covid-19
    JEL: L14 I31
    Date: 2021
  65. By: Tom\'a\v{s} Evan; Vladim\'ir Hol\'y
    Abstract: Hofstede's six cultural dimensions make it possible to measure the culture of countries but are criticized for assuming the homogeneity of each country. In this paper, we propose two measures based on Hofstede's cultural dimensions which take into account the heterogeneous structure of citizens with respect to their countries of origin. Using these improved measures, we study the influence of heterogeneous culture and cultural diversity on the quality of institutions measured by the six worldwide governance indicators. We use a linear regression model allowing for dependence in spatial and temporal dimensions as well as high correlation between the governance indicators. Our results show that the effect of cultural diversity improves some of the governance indicators while worsening others depending on the individual Hofstede cultural dimension.
    Date: 2021–12
  66. By: Andrés F. Castro Torres (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany)
    JEL: J1 Z0
    Date: 2022
  67. By: Oliver Chiriac; Jonathan Hall
    Abstract: The goal of this paper is to revise the Henderson-Chu approach by dividing the commuters into two income-based groups: the `rich' and the `poor'. The rich are clearly more flexible in their arrival times and would rather have more schedule delay cost instead of travel delay. The poor are quite inflexible as they have to arrive at work at a specified time -- travel delay cost is preferred over schedule delay cost. We combined multiple models of peak-load bottleneck congestion with and without toll-pricing to generate a Pareto improvement in Lexus lanes.
    Date: 2021–11
  68. By: Per Pettersson-Lidbom
    Abstract: In this comment, I revisit the question raised in Karadja and Prawitz (2019) concerning a causal relationship between mass emigration and long-run political outcomes. I discuss a number of potential problems with their instrumental variable analysis. First, there are at least three reasons why their instrument violates the exclusion restriction: (i) failing to control for internal migration, (ii) insufficient control for confounders correlated with their instrument, and (iii) emigration measured with a nonclassical measurement error. Second, I also discuss two problems with the statistical inference, both of which indicate that the instrument does not fulfill the relevance condition, i.e., the instrument is not sufficiently correlated with the endogenous variable emigration. Correcting for any of these problems reveals that there is no relationship between emigration and political outcomes.
    Date: 2022–01
  69. By: Bruno Carvalho
    Abstract: Little is known about the influence of public funding for electoral campaigning on campaigning decisions and electoral outcomes. This paper proposes an analytically tractable model to assess such effects and tests its results on local elections in Portugal. The case of Portugal is interesting in that public allowances are the largest source of funds for campaigning, but are capped and conditional on contemporaneous electoral results. This creates a risky lottery for candidates. We show that, when the dispersion of voter ideology is high, candidates that are ex-ante more popular spend more in campaigning. The empirical analysis relies on a novel dataset covering all candidates in 308 municipalities for 3 elections, based on the official declarations of candidates to the Portuguese Constitutional Court. Identification follows from the rules governing the allocation of public funds across candidates in the municipality. We find that the expected public funding is an important determinant ofcampaign spending levels and that campaign spending boosts local vote shares. The spending of the average runner-up yields 7.4 percentage points of his vote share. For the two biggest Portuguese parties the effect hovers around 9-10 percentage points. Our estimates imply a cost-per-vote between e7 and e17, depending on the candidate. When we focus on elections between incumbents and challengers, we find that, as prescribed by the model, incumbents spend more in municipalities where voter ideology is more disperse.
    Keywords: campaign spending, local elections, public funding, probabilistic voting
    Date: 2021–12

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