nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2021‒12‒13
fifty-two papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. Estimating regional house price levels: Methodology and results of a pilot project with Spain By Pierre-Alain Pionnier; Johannes Schuffels
  2. Estimating Experienced Racial Segregation in U.S. Cities Using Large-Scale GPS Data By Athey, Susan; Ferguson, Billy; Gentzkow, Matthew; Schmidt, Tobias
  3. Government spending and economic activity: Regression discontinuity evidence from voting on renewals of tax levies By David M. Brasington; Marios Zachariadis
  4. Urban gravity in the global container shipping network By César Ducruet; Hidekazu Itoh; Justin Berli
  5. The Causal Effects of Place on Health and Longevity By Deryugina, Tatyana; Molitor, David
  6. Regions and trademarks. Research opportunities and policy insights from leveraging trademarks in regional innovation studies By Carolina Castaldi; Sandro Mendonca;
  7. The urban-rural polarisation of political disenchantment: an investigation of social and political attitudes in 30 European countries By Kenny, Michael; Luca, Davide
  8. How Much Do Households Dislike Local Density? And Do Developers Fully Consider Their Preferences? Evidence from a Policy Change in Singapore By Fesselmeyer, Eric; Liu, Haoming; Poco, Louisa
  9. BikewaySim Technology Transfer: City of Atlanta, Georgia By Passmore, Reid; Watkins, Kari E.; Guensler, Randall
  10. Bimodal Transport Infrastructure and Regional Development: Evidence from Argentina, 1960 - 1991 By Belmar, José; Gentile Passaro, Diego
  11. Learning About Opportunity: Spillovers of Elite School Admissions in Peru By Estrada, Ricardo; Gignoux, Jérémie; Hatrick, Agustina
  12. Religious practice and student performance: Evidence from Ramadan fasting By Hornung, Erik; Schwerdt, Guido; Strazzeri, Maurizio
  13. Coping with increasing tides: technological change, agglomeration dynamics and climate hazards in an agent-based evolutionary model By Alessandro Taberna; Tatiana Filatova; Andrea Roventini; Francesco Lamperti
  14. Preferences, Selection, and the Structure of Teacher Pay By Johnston, Andrew C.
  15. Ewing Marion Kauffman School Year 9 Impacts By Matthew Johnson; Alicia Demers
  16. Were Federal COVID Relief Funds for Schools Enough? By Nora E. Gordon; Sarah J. Reber
  17. The Impact of Natives' Attitudes Towards Immigrants on Their Integration in the Host Country By Schilling, Pia; Stillman, Steven
  18. The Role of Educational Attainment in Household Debt and Delinquency Disparities By Ruchi Avtar; Rajashri Chakrabarti; Kasey Chatterji-Len
  19. Electoral incentives, investment in roads, and safety on local roads By Leonzio Rizzo; Massimiliano Ferraresi; Riccardo Secomandi
  20. Environmental Design for Micromobility and Public Transit By Ferguson, Beth; Sanguinetti, Angela PhD
  21. Racial Diversity and Racial Policy Preferences: The Great Migration and Civil Rights By Alvaro Calderon; Vasiliki Fouka; Marco Tabellini
  22. Consumer and employer discrimination in professional sports markets – New evidence from Major League Baseball By Wolfgang Maennig; Steffen Q. Mueller
  23. Waits and Delays in Road Freight Transport By Hernández, Carlos Eduardo
  24. Testing Classic Theories of Migration in the Lab By Batista, Catia; McKenzie, David
  25. Bike-Sharing: Network Efficiency and Demand Profiles By Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio; Gracia-Lazaro, Carlos; Molina, José Alberto
  26. Housing Booms and H-2A Agricultural Guest Worker Employment By Charlton, Diane; Castillo, Marcelo
  27. Borrowing Constraints and the Dynamics of Return and Repeat Migration By Goerlach, Joseph-Simon
  28. The Curious Case of the 2021 Minneapolis Ward 2 City Council Election By David McCune; Lori McCune
  29. The Fiscal Effect of Immigration: Reducing Bias in Influential Estimates By Michael A. Clemens
  30. Direct and indirect effects of universities on European regional productivity By E. Marrocu; R. Paci; S. Usai
  31. Natural Disasters, Social Isolation and Alcohol Consumption in the Long Run: Evidence from the Great East Japan Earthquake By Taiki Kakimoto; Shinsuke Uchida
  32. The Determinants of Landscape and Cultural Heritage Among Italian Regions in the Period 2004-2019 By Leogrande, Angelo; Costantiello, Alberto; Laureti, Lucio; Leogrande, Domenico
  33. The Intergenerational Transmission of Cognitive Skills: An Investigation of the Causal Impact of Families on Student Outcomes By Hanushek, Eric A.; Jacobs, Babs; Schwerdt, Guido; Van der Velden, Rolf; Vermeulen, Stan; Wiederhold, Simon
  34. Secondary Schools with Televised Lessons: The Labor Market Returns of the Mexican Telesecundaria By Laia Navarro-Sola
  35. Broadband Internet and Social Capital By Andrea Geraci; Mattia Nardotto; Tommaso Reggiani; Fabio Sabatini
  36. Unequal Distribution of Delinquencies by Gender, Race, and Education By Ruchi Avtar; Rajashri Chakrabarti; Kasey Chatterji-Len
  37. Misallocated Talent: Teen Pregnancy, Education and Job Sorting in Colombia By Agüero, Jorge M.
  38. Building teachers’ well-being from primary to upper secondary education By OECD
  39. Discontinuities in the Age-Victimization Profile and the Determinants of Victimization By Anna Bindler; Randi Hjalmarsson; Nadine Ketel; Andreea Mitrut
  40. Uneven Distribution of Household Debt by Gender, Race, and Education By Ruchi Avtar; Rajashri Chakrabarti; Kasey Chatterji-Len
  41. Population Growth, Immigration and Labour Market Dynamics By Elsby, Michael; Smith, Jennifer C.; Wadsworth, Jonathan
  42. The effect of embedding foramtive assesment on pupil attainment By Jake Anders; Francesca Foliano; Matt Bursnall; Richard Dorsett; Nathan Hudson; Johnny Runge; Stefan Speckesser
  43. New Work Environments: The Economic Relevance of Flexible Office Space By Gauger, Felix
  44. Global regime diffusion in space: a missed transition in San Diego’s water sector By Johan Miörner; Jonas Heiberg; Christian Binz
  45. The Wage Effects of Offshoring to the East and West: Evidence from Germany By Körner, Konstantin
  46. Diversity on the Screen By Manthos D. Delis; Anastasia Litina; Skerdilajda Zanaj
  47. Designing Services for Youth and Young Adults At-Risk of Homelessness: Initial and Ongoing Implementation of YARH Grantees’ Comprehensive Service Models By Rosalind Keith; Nuzhat Islam; Rumin Sarwar; Cay Bradley
  48. Schools under Mandatory Testing Can Mitigate the Spread of SARS-CoV-2 By Isphording, Ingo E.; Diederichs, Marc; van Ewijk, Reyn; Pestel, Nico
  49. Wage Effects of Educational Mismatch According to Workers' Origin: The Role of Demographics and Firm Characteristics By Jacobs, Valentine; Rycx, Francois; Volral, Mélanie
  50. Carpooling: User Profiles and Well-being By Echeverría, Lucía; Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio; Molina, José Alberto
  51. Employment and Job Perspectives for Female Refugees in Germany: Analysis and Policy Implications from a Local Survey Study By Fabian J. Baier; Paul J.J. Welfens; Tobias Zander
  52. How Chinese Local Governments are Expanding Foreign Economic Cooperation By Lee, Sanghun; Kim, Hongwon; Kim, Joohye; Choi, Jiwon; Choi, Jaehee

  1. By: Pierre-Alain Pionnier; Johannes Schuffels
    Abstract: While indices tracing the evolutions of regional house prices are increasingly available, this is less the case for similar data on house price levels. And where data on house price levels exist, they are not necessarily consistent with the patterns observed from house price indices. Yet, consistent regional statistics on house price levels are fundamental to assess housing affordability, potential barriers to labour mobility across regions, and for the design of housing policies. This article puts forward a method to compile regional house price levels that are consistent with the evolutions given by quality-adjusted house price indices, representative of the underlying stock of dwellings, and based on the information on house price levels that is available at all dates rather than in a single reference year. This method could be scaled up to different countries. The results obtained with Spanish data show that the decline in house prices following the global financial crisis of 2008-09 initially reduced the dispersion in house prices across Spanish regions, but this dispersion has increased again afterwards, and since 2016, it exceeds the one recorded in 2008. A comparison of price-per-m² to regional-income ratios shows that the relative housing affordability in the region of Madrid deteriorated compared to all other Spanish regions in the last decade. Monitoring whether shifts in housing demand following the COVID-19 pandemic will reverse this trend will be key.
    Keywords: House price indices, House price levels, regional statistics, spain
    JEL: R31 R32 C32 C43
    Date: 2021–12–08
  2. By: Athey, Susan (Stanford University); Ferguson, Billy (Stanford University); Gentzkow, Matthew (Stanford University); Schmidt, Tobias (?)
    Abstract: We estimate a measure of segregation, experienced isolation, that captures individuals’ exposure to diverse others in the places they visit over the course of their days. Using Global Positioning System (GPS) data collected from smartphones, we measure experienced isolation by race. We find that the isolation individuals experience is substantially lower than standard residential isolation measures would suggest, but that experienced and residential isolation are highly correlated across cities. Experienced isolation is lower relative to residential isolation in denser, wealthier, more educated cities with high levels of public transit use, and is also negatively correlated with income mobility.
    Date: 2021–11
  3. By: David M. Brasington; Marios Zachariadis
    Abstract: We estimate the impact of plausibly exogenous changes in taxes and government spending on income by utilizing regional data and a regression discontinuity design. More specifically, we identify an exogenous cut in local taxes accompanied by an equivalent reduction in local government spending by exploiting voting on renewals of tax levies of local governments in Ohio from 1991 to 2018, using a unique database that tracks city and village-level incomes and local election outcomes over time for the complete census of cities and villages in the state. We find that such “balanced budget†reductions in taxes and spending cause a drop in local incomes. The effects persist for two or three years before petering out.
    Keywords: Fiscal policy, balanced budget, exogenous, income, fiscal multiplier
    JEL: E62 H72 R11
    Date: 2021–11
  4. By: César Ducruet (EconomiX - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, GC (UMR_8504) - Géographie-cités - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UP - Université de Paris); Hidekazu Itoh (Kwansei Gakuin University); Justin Berli (GC (UMR_8504) - Géographie-cités - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UP - Université de Paris)
    Abstract: While the spatial and functional relationships between ports and cities have been put in question in the last decades, the continued importance of urbanization and maritime transport in global socio-economic development motivates deeper research on their interaction. The global trade network is often studied at the country level and all transport modes included, concluding that distance remains a strong counterforce to exchange. This article wishes to detect whether the global container shipping network obeys similar properties at the city level. More than 2 million inter-port vessel movements between 1977 and 2016 are assigned to about 9000 ports and 4600 cities to run a gravity model on two different network topologies. Gravitational properties are found, as larger cities connect more with each other but less at distance. The degree of distance effects negatively expanded in 40 years, confirming the "puzzling" or reinforcing effect of distance, yet it varies greatly depending on node aggregation and network topology. We conclude that ports and cities continue to share important interdependencies, but these often rest on a detrimental physical transformation. A discussion is proposed about the underlying operational and theoretical mechanisms at stake. Keywords container shipping; gravity model; maritime trade; port cities; spatial interaction; world city networks.
    Keywords: globalization,container shipping,complex networks,ACL,PARIS team,world city networks,urban systems,spatial interaction,port cities,maritime trade,gravity model,graph theory
    Date: 2020–05
  5. By: Deryugina, Tatyana (University of Illinois); Molitor, David (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
    Abstract: Life expectancy varies substantially across local regions within a country, raising conjectures that place of residence affects health. However, population sorting and other confounders make it difficult to disentangle the effects of place on health from other geographic differences in life expectancy. Recent studies have overcome such challenges to demonstrate that place of residence substantially influences health and mortality. Whether policies that encourage people to move to places that are better for their health or that improve areas that are detrimental to health are desirable depends on the mechanisms behind place effects, yet these mechanisms remain poorly understood.
    Keywords: life expectancy, regional variation, place effects
    JEL: I10 R10
    Date: 2021–09
  6. By: Carolina Castaldi; Sandro Mendonca;
    Abstract: At the intersection of regional and innovation studies, trademark research is producing stylized facts, methodological lessons and policy insights underlining the importance of softer intangible assets for regional resilience and growth. Despite all the recent attention, there are still several opportunities that the present agenda-framing piece tries to canvas, identifying at least two directions for further research: the geography of innovation/entrepreneurship and regional specialization/diversification. Not only do these emerge from a dedicated special issue in Regional Studies (to which this paper also serves as an Editorial), they also unfold in emerging research and policy trajectories.
    Keywords: trademarks, regions, geography, intangibles, innovation, specialization, diversification
    JEL: O3 L5 R1
    Date: 2021–12
  7. By: Kenny, Michael; Luca, Davide
    Abstract: Relatively little research has explored whether there is a systemic urban-rural divide in the political and socioeconomic attitudes of citizens across Europe. Drawing on individual-level data from the European Social Survey, we argue that there are strong and significant differences between the populations in these different settings, especially across western European countries. We suggest that this divide is a continuum, running on a gradient from inner cities to suburbs, towns and the countryside. The differences are explained by both composition and contextual effects, and underscore how a firmer appreciation of the urban-rural divide is integral to future place-based policy responses.
    Keywords: Europe; geography of discontent; political disenchantment; regional inequality; urban-rural divide
    JEL: D72 R20 R58 Z13
    Date: 2021–11–01
  8. By: Fesselmeyer, Eric (Monmouth University); Liu, Haoming (National University of Singapore); Poco, Louisa (National University of Singapore)
    Abstract: This paper measures how much households dislike density in their immediate surroundings. Using transaction and administrative data in Singapore, and exploiting the introduction of a regulation that restricted the number of housing units for certain land lots, we find that households do indeed discount density: a 10% increase in within-development density decreases price per square meter by up to 4%. Further, we find that the mean price per square meter of the average development increased by 1 to 3% after the regulation was introduced, while the amount of built-up space remained constant. The increase in total revenue suggests that developers may underestimate the externality caused by density. Our results are particularly relevant during the lockdowns and social distancing of the coronavirus pandemic.
    Keywords: land-use policy, regulation, density, externalities
    JEL: R20 R21 R38
    Date: 2021–09
  9. By: Passmore, Reid; Watkins, Kari E.; Guensler, Randall
    Abstract: Bicycle transportation is often excluded from travel demand and route choice models. Even when bicycle modes are incorporated, models may use a simplified network that does not contain all streets and bicycle paths that a cyclist could feasibly take. These models may also only use trip distance and travel time when modelling a cycling trip; research on revealed route choice preferences of cyclists has shown that cyclist routing is influenced by other factors, such as the presence of a bicycle facility or road elevation gain. The City of Atlanta plans to triple its mileage of protected bicycle infrastructure in the next two years, and needs a tool to be able to plan and prioritize these projects based on the estimated effects on bicycle accessibility, bicycle mode share, energy usage, and emissions, to make the best use of the limited funding. The objective of this project is to develop this analytical tool and an associated network that includes all possible bicycle paths (i.e., roads, bicycle paths, cut-through paths, etc.) for a 12 square mile study area in the City of Atlanta that can be expanded later to the Atlanta Metro area. The tool, BikewaySim, is a shortest path calculator that uses Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm to find both the preferred route from any origin to any destination within the study area using lowest travel time and lowest total impedance cost. The BikewaySim network was created by conflating network data from the Atlanta Regional Commission (ARC), OpenStreetMap (OSM), and HERE into a whole road and pathway for BikewaySim and future use in the ARC’s activity-based travel demand model. The methods for conflating networks and developing the shortest path model are publicly available resources. The final model is destined to include all viable pathways and incorporate cyclist preferences for use in planning and modelling bicycle travel for research, planning, and design. The framework allows other organizations and researchers to contribute to the project over time. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Engineering, Bicycle route choice, network conflation, bicycle facility preference
    Date: 2021–12–01
  10. By: Belmar, José; Gentile Passaro, Diego
    Abstract: We estimate the impact of railroad and road infrastructure on local economic development through the study of massive transport infrastructure changes in Argentina. Following a World Bank study, 10,000 kilometers of railroads were closed and 18,000 kilometers of paved roads were built between 1960 and 1991. Our empirical strategy relies on instrumental variables that exploit a discontinuity in how experts chose railroad segments to be studied for closure and hypothetical networks connecting main cities. We show that conventional IV estimates can be misleading when omitting potential substitution of different transport modes. We find that dismantling railroads had a negative impact on population and industrial production, and shifted the distribution of labor away from agriculture. On the other hand, we find weak evidence of roads construction having a positive impact on the share of employment in manufacturing and non-tradable industries, but no impacts on total population nor industrial production.
    Keywords: Aduanas, Agricultura, Ciudades, Comunicación, Infraestructura, Investigación socioeconómica, Políticas públicas, Transporte,
    Date: 2021
  11. By: Estrada, Ricardo; Gignoux, Jérémie; Hatrick, Agustina
    Abstract: This paper studies how the admission of a student to an elite school changes the schooling outcomes of younger cohorts in the student’s origin school in Peru. Using a sharp regression discontinuity design, the analysis finds that the admission of an older schoolmate increases the probability that students in origin schools will apply and gain admission to the same elite school system. The effect is concentrated among students whose parents have low education levels, which indicates a process of information diffusion. Furthermore, there is a slightly positive effect on the learning achievement of potential applicants and no negative effect on the learning of students who are ineligible to apply. Overall, the findings show that selective schools can have effects that go beyond their own students and indicate that role models can be an effective mechanism for increasing the demand from high-achieving, low-income students for high-quality education.
    Keywords: Educación, Estudiantes, Familia, Habilidades y destrezas, Investigación socioeconómica, Jóvenes, Políticas públicas, Sector académico,
    Date: 2021
  12. By: Hornung, Erik; Schwerdt, Guido; Strazzeri, Maurizio
    Abstract: We investigate how the intensity of Ramadan affects educational outcomes by exploiting spatio-temporal variation in annual fasting hours. Longer fasting hours are related to increases in student performance in a panel of TIMMS test scores (1995-2019) across Muslim countries but not other countries. Results are confirmed in a panel of PISA test scores (2003-2018) allowing within country-wave comparisons of Muslim to non-Muslim students across Europe. We provide evidence consistent with the hypothesis that a demanding Ramadan during adolescence affects educational performance by facilitating formation of social capital and social identity via increased religious participation and shared experiences among students.
    Keywords: Education,Religion,Religious Participation,Ramadan,Social Identity,Social Capital,PISA,TIMMS
    JEL: I21 Z12 J24 O15
    Date: 2021
  13. By: Alessandro Taberna; Tatiana Filatova; Andrea Roventini; Francesco Lamperti
    Abstract: By 2050 about 70% of the worldùs population is expected to live in cities. Cities offer spatial economic advantages that boost agglomeration forces and innovation, fostering further concentration of economic activities. For historic reasons urban clustering occurs along coasts and rivers, which are prone to climate-induced flooding. To explore trade-offs between agglomeration economies and increasing climate-induced hazards, we develop an evolutionary agent-based model with heterogeneous boundedly-rational agents who learn and adapt to a changing environment. The model combines migration decision of both households and firms between safe Inland and hazard-prone Coastal regions with endogenous technological learning and economic growth. Flood damages affect Coastal firms hitting their labour productivity, capital stock and inventories. We find that the model is able to replicate a rich set of micro- and macro-empirical regularities concerning economic and spatial dynamics. Without climate-induced shocks, the model shows how lower transport costs favour the waterfront region leading to self-reinforcing and path-dependent agglomeration processes. We then introduce five scenarios considering flood hazards characterized by different frequency and severity and we study their complex interplay with agglomeration patterns and the performance of the overall economy. We find that when shocks are mild or infrequent, they negatively affect the economic performance of the two regions. If strong flood hazards hit frequently the Coastal region before agglomeration forces trigger high levels of waterfront urbanization, firms and households can timely adapt and migrate landwards, thus absorbing the adverse impacts of climate shocks on the whole economy. Conversely, in presence of climate tipping points which suddenly increase the frequency and magnitude of flood hazards, we find that the consolidated coastal gentrification of economic activities locks-in firms on the waterfront, leading to a harsh downturn for the whole economy.
    Keywords: Agglomeration; path-dependency; climate; flood; shock; relocation; migration; agent-based model; tipping point; resilience; lock in.
    Date: 2021–11–29
  14. By: Johnston, Andrew C. (University of California, Merced)
    Abstract: I conduct a discrete-choice experiment with responses linked to administrative teacher and student records to examine teacher preferences for compensation structure and working conditions. I calculate willingness-to-pay for a rich set of work attributes. High-performing teachers have similar preferences to other teachers, but they have stronger preferences for performance pay. Taking the preference estimates at face value I explore how schools should structure compensation to meet various objectives. Under each objective, schools appear to underpay in salary and performance pay while overpaying in retirement. Restructuring compensation can increase both teacher welfare and student achievement.
    Keywords: teacher labor markets, compensation structure, teacher quality
    JEL: I20 J32 J45 M50
    Date: 2021–11
  15. By: Matthew Johnson; Alicia Demers
    Abstract: This report evaluates the impact of the Ewing Marion Kauffman School on college enrollment, high school graduation, attendance, and suspensions.
    Keywords: Kauffman School, charter schools, education, elementary education, secondary education, college enrollment
  16. By: Nora E. Gordon; Sarah J. Reber
    Abstract: Congress responded to the COVID pandemic’s disruptions to instruction with unprecedented federal aid for school districts. While this relief has been widely characterized as a major windfall for K-12 education, per-pupil amounts vary considerably across districts, as will the costs districts face for COVID mitigation and recovery. In this paper, we conduct simulations to understand the potential distribution of net effects of the pandemic and federal aid on the finances of local school districts in the next several years. In our baseline scenario, we assume one-time adjustment costs of $500 per pupil plus additional costs of $1,000 per student in poverty and $500 per student not in poverty per year for four years. Federal aid was distributed proportional to the longstanding Title I program, which sends more money per pupil to higher poverty districts. Low-poverty districts are therefore projected to face some budgetary shortfalls, while many higher poverty districts are projected to have excess funds, which they could direct towards long-standing challenges. While our findings depend on key assumptions about the COVID-related costs, we find significant district-level variation in simulated net fiscal impacts, in part but not completely due to poverty rates, across all the scenarios we consider.
    JEL: H52 H75
    Date: 2021–11
  17. By: Schilling, Pia (Free University of Bozen/Bolzano); Stillman, Steven (Free University of Bozen/Bolzano)
    Abstract: Exploiting the random allocation of asylum seekers to different locations in Germany, we study the impact of right-wing voting on refugees' integration. We find that in municipalities with more voting for the right-wing AfD, refugees have worse economic and social integration. These impacts are largest for groups targeted by AfD campaigns and refugees are also more likely to suffer from harassment and right-wing attacks in areas with greater AfD support. Positive interactions with locals are also less likely in these areas.
    Keywords: immigrants’ integration, refugees, hostile attitudes, voting behaviour
    JEL: J15 J61 Z13
    Date: 2021–09
  18. By: Ruchi Avtar; Rajashri Chakrabarti; Kasey Chatterji-Len
    Abstract: This post concludes a three-part series exploring the gender, racial, and educational disparities of debt outcomes of college students. In the previous two posts, we examined how debt holding and delinquency behaviors vary among students of different race and gender, breaking up our analyses by level of degree pursued by the student. We found that Black and Hispanic students were less likely than white students to take on credit card debt, auto loans, and mortgage debt, but experienced higher rates of delinquency in each of these debt areas by the age of 30. In contrast, Black students were more likely to take out student debt and both Black and Hispanic students experienced higher rates of student debt delinquency. We found that Asian students broadly followed reverse patterns from Black and Hispanic students by age 30. They were more likely than white students to acquire mortgages and less likely to hold student debt, but their delinquency patterns were in general similar to those of white students. Women were less likely to hold an auto loan or mortgage and more likely to hold student debt by age 30, and in most cases their delinquency outcomes were indistinguishable from males. In this post, we seek to understand mechanisms behind these racial and gender disparities and examine the role of educational attainment in explaining these patterns.
    Keywords: inequality; CUNY; student debt; mortgage; credit card; auto
    JEL: D14 Q12 R10
    Date: 2021–11–17
  19. By: Leonzio Rizzo; Massimiliano Ferraresi; Riccardo Secomandi
    Abstract: It is widely recognized that politicians deliberately allocate goods and services just prior to the election, and road investments are arguably among the most visible infrastructure to influence voters. Using a comprehensive dataset on Italian municipalities over the period 2010-2015, we test whether investments in roads and transport services are affected by political manipulations close to elections using as independent variables the year-in-term dummies. We exploit the staggered time of local election to show, indeed, that investment spending on road and transport in the year before election is 30% higher than in the electoral year. Further analyses suggest that our results are more marked (i) in cities guided by a mayor who can run for re-election and (ii) in municipalities with a lower share of educated voters. We isolated the portion of the (exogenous) correlation between the probability of observing an accident and the amount of expenditure on road services that is induced by the political cycle by using the year-in-the-term dummies as instruments. We did not detect any relationship between the increase of investments in road services induced by the political cycle and the local need for road safety, as the probability of having an accident in local roads remained unchanged. Taken together, these findings suggest that politicians manipulate the budget only for re-electoral purposes. Therefore, it is needed a rule, binding visible expenditures, such as those on road services, of the year before the election, or allowing visible expenditures not to exceed those of the previous year within the mandate of the mayor. Such rules would let avoid or at least reduce the estimated inefficient spending by properly programming investment according to real needs and not to electoral convenience.
    Keywords: Political Budget Cycle; road accidents; municipalities; local elections; road investments
    JEL: D72 H12 H77 Z18
    Date: 2021–12–02
  20. By: Ferguson, Beth; Sanguinetti, Angela PhD
    Abstract: Micromobility has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, traffic congestion, and air pollution, particularly when replacing private vehicle use and working in conjunction with public transit for first- and last-mile travel. The design of the built environment in and around public transit stations plays a key role in the integration of public transit and micromobility. This research presents a case study of rail stations in the San Francisco Bay Area, which are in the operation zone of seven shared micromobility operators. Nineteen stations and their surroundings were surveyed to inventory design features that could enable or constrain use of micromobility for first- and last-mile access. Shared mobility service characteristics, crime records, and connections to underserved communities were also documented. An interactive Bay Area Micromobility Transit ArcGIS map tool was created to aid analysis and provide a useful resource to stakeholders. The map shows layers such as train stations, bike lanes, bike share kiosks, and micromobility operation zones that vary between Oakland, Emeryville, Berkeley, San Francisco, and San Jose. Key design solutions were identified based on the findings, including protected bike lanes, increased shared bike and scooter fleet size and service area, and clear signage indicating bike rack parking corral and docking points.
    Keywords: Architecture, Micromobility, shared mobility, public transit, rail transit stations, accessibility, urban design, digital mapping, case studies
    Date: 2021–11–01
  21. By: Alvaro Calderon (Alvaro Calderon); Vasiliki Fouka (Vasiliki Fouka); Marco Tabellini (Marco Tabellini)
    Abstract: Between 1940 and 1970, more than 4 million African Americans moved from the South to the North of the United States, during the Second Great Migration. This same period witnessed the struggle and eventual success of the civil rights movement in ending institutionalized racial discrimination. This paper shows that the Great Migration and support for civil rights are causally linked. Predicting Black inflows with a shift-share instrument, we find that the Great Migration raised support for the Democratic Party, increased Congress members’ propensity to promote civil rights legislation, and encouraged pro-civil rights activism outside the US South. We provide different pieces of evidence that support for civil rights was not confined to the Black electorate, but was also shared by segments of the white population.
    Keywords: Race, diversity, civil rights, Great Migration
    JEL: D72 J15 N92
    Date: 2021–12
  22. By: Wolfgang Maennig (Chair for Economic Policy, University of Hamburg); Steffen Q. Mueller (Chair for Economic Policy, University of Hamburg)
    Abstract: We investigate the relationship between consumer discrimination, racial matching strategies, and employer discrimination in Major League Baseball (MLB) from 1985 to 2016. To this end, we assess the extent to which both fan attendance and team performance respond to changes in teams’ and their local market areas’ racial compositions. We innovate by using a significantly enhanced data basis with individual player data that we derive from combining web scraping and using facial recognition techniques to identify player race and using County-level Census data instead of Metropolitan Statistical Area data. We find that fans in both MLB Leagues developed a taste for racial diversity in the late 1980s; since the 2000s, discrimination starts to increase again. However, this discrimination is not fully rationalizing the performance gap across athletes of different race and ethnicity; employer discrimination is not primarily driven by fans’ racial preferences.
    Keywords: Consumer preferences, Discrimination, Race, Ethnicity, Facial recognition, Ticket sales
    JEL: C5 J1 Z2
    Date: 2021–12–07
  23. By: Hernández, Carlos Eduardo
    Abstract: This paper studies waits and delays in the trucking industry of a developing country: Colombia. We follow 186,000 longhaul trips over 926 routes between 2015 and 2019, using GPS devices located in trucks. We find that waits, rather than periods when the truck is moving, are the largest drivers of travelntimes: on average, trucks spend 38% of their travel time movingn between origin and destination, 38% parked at the side of the road, and 24% parked before or after the trip. Furthermore, waiting time accounts for 82% of the variation in travel times across trips, whereas moving time only explains 18%. Overall, the cost of waits amounts to 46% of freight rates, whereas the cost of delays amounts to 7%. Most of the cost of delays is generated during waits, rather than when the truck is moving. Shipper, carrier, truck and driver characteristics, as well as the day of the week and the hour of the day in which loading and unloading occurs, explain 35% of the variation in waiting times across trips. There are large potential gains from reducing waiting times and delays through capacity building and optimization.
    Keywords: Infraestructura, Investigación socioeconómica, Movilidad urbana, Políticas públicas, Servicios públicos, Transporte,
    Date: 2021
  24. By: Batista, Catia (Nova School of Business and Economics); McKenzie, David (World Bank)
    Abstract: We test different classic migration theories by using incentivized laboratory experiments to investigate how potential migrants decide between working in different destinations. We test theories of income maximization, skill-selection, and multi-destination choice as we vary migration costs, liquidity constraints, risk, social benefits, and incomplete information. The standard income maximization model leads to a much higher migration rate and more negative skill-selection than occurs when migration decisions take place under more realistic assumptions. The independence of irrelevant alternatives assumption mostly holds when decisions just involve wages, costs, and liquidity constraints, but breaks down once we add risk and incomplete information.
    Keywords: migrant selection, destination choice, lab experiment, IIA
    JEL: F22 O15 C91
    Date: 2021–09
  25. By: Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio (University of Zaragoza); Gracia-Lazaro, Carlos (University of Zaragoza); Molina, José Alberto (University of Zaragoza)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes a bike-sharing service from both network efficiency and demand profiles perspectives. Specifically, it focuses on the BIZI service in the city of Zaragoza (Spain), which was launched in May 2008 with the aim of increasing the use of the bicycle in the city. Since then, the number of users has increased smoothly, and the service currently constitutes an integrated transport mode as an alternative to the use of cars and public transport in the city. The paper analyzes the evolution of the use of the BIZI service, using network analysis to show that efficiency increased rapidly over time until reaching an optimum value after two years. Furthermore, using regression models the paper characterizes the groups that most use this service, and relates service demand to factors such as weather conditions, number of bike lanes, and service extensions. This analysis will allow us to characterize the demand for this service, which can be of great importance when developing integrated transport payment systems.
    Keywords: BIZI service, efficiency, weather conditions, socio-demographic characteristics, bike lanes, bike stations
    JEL: R40 C45
    Date: 2021–10
  26. By: Charlton, Diane; Castillo, Marcelo
    Keywords: Labor and Human Capital
    Date: 2021–08
  27. By: Goerlach, Joseph-Simon (Bocconi University)
    Abstract: As wages in migrant sending countries catch up with those in destinations, migrants adjust on several margins, including their duration of stay, the number of migrations they undertake, as well as the amount saved while abroad. This paper combines Mexican and U.S. data to estimate a dynamic model of consumption, emigration and re-migration, accounting for financial constraints. An increase in Mexican household earnings shortens migration duration, but raises the number of trips per migrant. For lower-income migrants, a rise in Mexican wages leads to a more than proportional effect on consumption expenditure in Mexico, arising from repatriated savings.
    Keywords: migration duration, repeat migration, borrowing constraints
    JEL: J61 D15 F22
    Date: 2021–10
  28. By: David McCune; Lori McCune
    Abstract: In this article we explain why the November 2021 election for the Ward 2 city council seat in Minneapolis, MN, may be the mathematically most interesting ranked choice election in US history.
    Date: 2021–11
  29. By: Michael A. Clemens (Michael A. Clemens)
    Abstract: Immigration policy can have important net fiscal effects that vary by immigrants’ skill level. But mainstream methods to estimate these effects are problematic. Methods based on cash-flow accounting offer precision at the cost of bias; methods based on general equilibrium modelling address bias with limited precision and transparency. A simple adjustment greatly reduces bias in the most influential and precise estimates: conservatively accounting for capital taxes paid by the employers of immigrant labor. The adjustment is required by firms’ profit-maximizing behavior, unconnected to general equilibrium effects. Adjusted estimates of the positive net fiscal impact of average recent U.S. immigrants rise by a factor of 3.2, with a much shallower education gradient. They are positive even for an average recent immigrant with less than high school education, whose presence causes a present-value subsidy of at least $128,000 to all other taxpayers collectively.
    JEL: F22 H68 J61
    Date: 2021–12
  30. By: E. Marrocu; R. Paci; S. Usai
    Abstract: For the first time we investigate the effects that Universities exert on Total Factor Productivity dynamics for a very ample sample of 270 European regions over the period 2000-2016. This novel contribution goes beyond the traditional human capital and technological capital indirect effects and proposes a sound empirical assessment of the highly differentiated "third mission" activities. These are unique to engaged academic institutions and shape the key role they play as societal development-promoting agencies. Our analysis provides evidence of sizeable and robust universities direct supply-side effects, which complement the traditional ones in driving European regional productivity growth.
    Keywords: university;Regional Total Factor Productivity;human capital;technological capital;Universities' third mission
    Date: 2021
  31. By: Taiki Kakimoto; Shinsuke Uchida
    Abstract: Large-scale natural disasters are known to increase disaster victims' risk-taking behavior such as alcohol consumption, but the potentially prolonged phenomenon has rarely been tracked. This study examines the long-term causal effect of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent Fukushima nuclear accident on alcohol consumption by using the monthly expenditure data of representative households in 47 prefecture capitals in Japan in 2000-2019. We use the seismic intensity (Shindo) of each city to identify the causal relationship between the earthquake and alcohol consumption. The results reveal a persistent increase in alcohol consumption in cities with a seismic intensity of 6 or higher. This trend is particularly pronounced for non-employed (retired) households. We also find that the long-term increase in alcohol consumption is associated with the persistent decline of spending on things that maintain social connections.
    Date: 2021–11–29
  32. By: Leogrande, Angelo; Costantiello, Alberto; Laureti, Lucio; Leogrande, Domenico
    Abstract: We estimate the Landscape and Cultural Heritage among Italian regions in the period 2004-2019 using data from ISTAT-BES. We use Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Panel Data with Random Effects, Pooled OLS, WLS, Dynamic Panel. We found that the Landscape and Cultural Heritage is negatively associated with “Dissatisfaction with the landscape of the place of life”, “Illegal building”, “Density and relevance of the museum heritage”, “Internal material consumption”, “Erosion of the rural space due to abandonment”, “Availability of urban green”, and positively associated with “Pressure from mining activities”, “Erosion of the rural space by urban dispersion”, “Concern about the deterioration of the landscape”, “Diffusion of agritourism farms”, “Current expenditure of the Municipalities for culture”. Secondly, we have realized a cluster analysis with the k-Means algorithm optimized with the Silhouette Coefficient and we found two clusters in the sense of “Concern about the deterioration of the landscape”. Finally, we use eight different machine learning algorithms to predict the level of “Concern about the deterioration of the landscape” and we found that the Tree Ensemble Regression is the best predictor.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics; Valuation of Environmental Effects; Pollution Control Adoption and Costs; Sustainability; Government Policy.
    JEL: Q50 Q51 Q52 Q56 Q58
    Date: 2021–11–24
  33. By: Hanushek, Eric A. (Stanford University); Jacobs, Babs (Maastricht University); Schwerdt, Guido (University of Konstanz); Van der Velden, Rolf (ROA, Maastricht University); Vermeulen, Stan (Maastricht University); Wiederhold, Simon (Ifo Institute for Economic Research)
    Abstract: The extensive literature on intergenerational mobility highlights the importance of family linkages but fails to provide credible evidence about the underlying family factors that drive the pervasive correlations. We employ a unique combination of Dutch survey and registry data that links math and language skills across generations. We identify a causal connection between cognitive skills of parents and their children by exploiting within-family between-subject variation in these skills. The data also permit novel IV estimation that isolates variation in parental cognitive skills due to school and peer quality. The between-subject and IV estimates of the key intergenerational persistence parameter are strikingly similar and close at about 0.1. Finally, we show the strong influence of family skill transmission on children's choices of STEM fields.
    Keywords: intergenerational mobility, parent-child skill transmission, causality, STEM
    JEL: I24 I26 J12 J24 J62
    Date: 2021–11
  34. By: Laia Navarro-Sola (Northwestern University)
    Abstract: In areas with an insufficient supply of qualified teachers, delivering instruction through technology may be a solution to provide education. This paper analyzes the educational and labor market impacts of an expansion of junior secondary education in Mexico through schools using televised lessons, the telesecundarias. Exploiting their staggered rollout from 1968 to 2000, I show that for every additional telesecundaria per 50 children, ten students enroll in junior secondary education. I find that an additional year of education increases long-run income by 12.5–13.9%, driven partly by increased labor force participation and a shift away from agriculture and the informal sector.
    Keywords: secondary education, educational attainment, returns to education
    JEL: I28 O15 J24
    Date: 2021–12
  35. By: Andrea Geraci; Mattia Nardotto; Tommaso Reggiani; Fabio Sabatini
    Abstract: We study the impact of broadband penetration on social capital in the UK. Our empirical strategy exploits a technological feature of the telecommunication infrastructure that generated substantial variation in the quality of Internet access across households. The speed of a domestic connection rapidly decays with the distance of a user's line from the network's node serving the area. Merging information on the topology of the network with geocoded longitudinal data about individual social capital from 1997 to 2017, we show that access to fast Internet caused a significant decline in civic and political engagement. Overall, our results suggest that broadband penetration crowded out several dimensions of social capital.
    Keywords: ICT; broadband infrastructure; networks; Internet; social capital; civic capital
    JEL: D91 L82 Z13
    Date: 2021–11
  36. By: Ruchi Avtar; Rajashri Chakrabarti; Kasey Chatterji-Len
    Abstract: Once again, we utilize multivariate regression analysis and present bar charts for the regression coefficients of interest; these show the correlations between demographics, educational outcomes, and debt delinquencies, controlling for factors such as immigration and visa status, type of high school attended, year of entry to CUNY, and whether a student has a disability, is economically disadvantaged, or is an English language learner. The charts shown below are split into two panels: the upper panel represents results for students who enter CUNY for an associate (AA) degree, while the lower panel depicts results for students who enter CUNY for a bachelors (BA) degree. We will refer to the former group of students as AA students and to the latter group of students as BA students.
    Keywords: CUNY; debt; mortgage; NYC; inequality; credit card; student debt; auto
    JEL: D14 R10 Q12
    Date: 2021–11–17
  37. By: Agüero, Jorge M.
    Abstract: Policy makers and international organizations often argue that teenage pregnancy affects girls’ life trajectories by, for example, limiting their employment opportunities. These concerns are amplified in regions with high teen pregnancy rates such as Latin America. We use a unique dataset from Colombia that allows us to instrument for early motherhood with the age at menarche. We find that teen pregnancy reduces school attainment and increases the number of children ever born. However, when considering eight indicators of labor supply, including labor force participation, type of job and occupation while accounting for multiple hypothesis testing, we find that much (if not all) of the negative effects on labor supply attributed to teen motherhood are due to selection. Our findings weaken the claim that early motherhood leads to a path of low-quality employment or a misallocation of talent due to job sorting. We discuss the role that family network and co-residence plays as a mechanism to buffer the effects of early motherhood on labor supply.
    Keywords: Cuidado infantil, Educación, Estudiantes, Familia, Investigación socioeconómica, Jóvenes, Mujer, Niñez, Políticas públicas,
    Date: 2021
  38. By: OECD
    Abstract: As education systems face a post-COVID-19 world, we must not lose sight of the importance of teachers’ well-being. Already, prior to the pandemic, teachers were struggling to cope with workload and stress, as shown by the Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS), one of the first international efforts to capture the well-being of the teaching workforce. Nevertheless, schools and teachers have the tools to improve well-being and reduce stress at the work place.The goal of this brief is to provide some glimpses into concrete actions that schools and education systems could take to improve teachers’ well-being and job satisfaction.
    Keywords: job satisfaction, schools, teachers, teaching, well-being
    Date: 2021–12–07
  39. By: Anna Bindler (University of Cologne and University of Gothenburg); Randi Hjalmarsson (University of Gothenburg); Nadine Ketel (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam); Andreea Mitrut (University of Gothenburg)
    Abstract: Many rights are conferred on Dutch youth at ages 16 and 18. Using national register data for all reported victimizations, we find sharp and discontinuous increases in victimization rates at these ages: about 13% for both genders at 16 and 9% (15%) for males (females) at 18. These results are comparable across subsamples (based on socio-economic and neighborhood characteristics) with different baseline victimization risks. We assess potential mechanisms using data on offense location, cross-cohort variation in the minimum legal drinking age driven by a 2014 reform, and survey data of alcohol/drug consumption and mobility behaviors. We conclude that the bundle of access to weak alcohol, bars/clubs and smoking increases victimization at 16 and that age 18 rights (hard alcohol, marijuana coffee shops) exacerbate this risk; vehicle access does not play an important role. Finally, we do not find systematic spillover effects onto individuals who have not yet received these rights.
    Keywords: victimization, crime, youth, youth protection laws, alcohol, inequality, RDD
    JEL: K42 K36 J13 I12 I14
    Date: 2021–12
  40. By: Ruchi Avtar; Rajashri Chakrabarti; Kasey Chatterji-Len
    Abstract: Household debt has risen markedly since 2013 and amounts to more than $15 trillion dollars. While the aggregate volume of household debt has been well-documented, literature on the gender, racial and education distribution of debt is lacking, largely because of an absence of adequate data that combine debt, demographic, and education information. In a three-part series beginning with this post, we seek to bridge this gap. In this first post, we focus on differences in debt holding behavior across race and gender. Specifically, we explore gender and racial disparities in different types of household debt and delinquencies—for auto, mortgage, credit card, and student loans—while distinguishing between students pursuing associate’s (AA) and bachelor’s (BA) degrees. In the second post in this series, we investigate gender and racial disparities in delinquencies across these various kinds of consumer debt. We close with a third post where we try to understand some of the mechanisms behind differences in debt and delinquencies across gender and race.
    Keywords: inequality; CUNY; mortgage; student debt; auto debt; credit card debt
    JEL: D14 Q12 R10
    Date: 2021–11–17
  41. By: Elsby, Michael (University of Edinburgh); Smith, Jennifer C. (University of Warwick); Wadsworth, Jonathan (Royal Holloway, University of London)
    Abstract: This paper examines the role of population flows on labour market dynamics across immigrant and native-born populations in the United Kingdom. Population flows are large, and cyclical, driven first by the maturation of baby boom cohorts in the 1980s, and latterly by immigration in the 2000s. New measures of labour market flows by migrant status uncover both the flow origins of disparities in the levels and cyclicalities of immigrant and native labour market outcomes, as well as their more recent convergence. A novel dynamic accounting framework reveals that population flows have played a nontrivial role in the volatility of labour markets among both the UK-born and, especially, immigrants.
    Keywords: immigration, worker flows, labour market dynamics
    JEL: E24 J6
    Date: 2021–11
  42. By: Jake Anders (UCL Centre for Education Policy & Equalising Opportunities); Francesca Foliano (UCL Social Research Institute); Matt Bursnall; Richard Dorsett (University of Westminster); Nathan Hudson (NatCen Social Research); Johnny Runge (National Institute of Economic and Social Research); Stefan Speckesser (University of Brighton)
    Abstract: Evidence suggests that adapting teaching responsively to pupil assessment can be effective in improving students' learning. However, existing studies tend to be small-scale, leaving unanswered the question of how such formative assessment can operate when embedded as standard practice. In this paper, we present the results of a randomised trial conducted in 140 English secondary schools. The intervention uses light-touch training and support, with most of the work done by teacher-led teaching and learning communities within schools. It is therefore well-suited to widespread adoption. In our pre-registered primary analysis, we estimate an effect size of 0.09 on general academic attainment in national, externally assessed examinations. Sensitivity analysis, excluding schools participating in a similar programme at the outset, suggests a larger effect size of 0.11. These results are encouraging for this approach to improving the implementation of formative assessment and, hence, academic attainment. Our findings also suggest that the intervention may help to narrow the gap between high and low prior attainment pupils, although not the gap between those from disadvantaged backgrounds and the rest of the cohort.
    Keywords: Formative assessment; Embedding practice; Professional development; Randomised controlled trial; Pupil attainment.
    JEL: I20
    Date: 2021–11
  43. By: Gauger, Felix
    Abstract: Technological, societal, and organizational changes have changed the way people accomplish work. Coworking spaces are a response to the new demands that come with these changes. They are new, flexible workspaces where heterogeneous user work together. In addition to the physical workspace, users benefit from a community and a network of like-minded people. They are worldwide in scope and foster collaboration, creativity, and innovation. To date, there has been a lack of in-depth understanding of how these workspaces contribute to work success and other outcomes such as entrepreneurial activity, or economic growth. In order to comprehensively understand the impact of these new workspaces, it is necessary to grasp and categorize their influence on a wide variety of levels. For this purpose, this dissertation uses five research articles to analyze the significance of coworking spaces on a micro, meso, and macro-level. The first article analyzes user preferences in three different countries using stated choice experiments. This study serves first to understand why individuals use coworking spaces and second, what features of the workspaces are valued by users. This allows coworking space operators to design their spaces in a more targeted way and adapt them to local markets and conditions. The second research article examines coworking spaces from a real estate perspective (meso level). From the perspective of commercial users, the value proposition for firms through the use of coworking spaces is outlined and empirically validated. Furthermore, the business model of flexible office space is examined and the implications for investors of this innovative operating model are elaborated. The third study explores corporate coworking spaces and analyzes determinants that influence job satisfaction in this work environment. The study forms the interface between the micro and meso levels. The fourth article situates coworking spaces for public administration, so-called “public coworking spaces,” in the scientific debate, as knowledge workers in public administration have special requirements that differ from the private sector. The fifth research article situates coworking spaces in an entrepreneurial context and examines these new work environments on a macro level. It explores how start-ups relate to coworking spaces and how the life cycle stage of start-ups is dependent on the product market competition of coworking spaces. The study finds a positive relation between the number of coworking spaces and start-ups in a region and thus has important implications for economic development and regional growth. This dissertation, therefore, extends the understanding that coworking spaces are more than just physical workspaces. They represent a complex and multi-layered social system that influences individuals, firms, and society on different levels. The systematic examination across all actors and perspectives allows for a holistic picture of these new workspaces as well as their influence on the future development of new work. In addition to the scientific contribution, recommendations for practitioners are given. These are intended to assist decision-makers in the irreversible process of new ways of working.
    Date: 2021
  44. By: Johan Miörner (Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Switzerland); Jonas Heiberg (Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Switzerland); Christian Binz (Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Switzerland)
    Abstract: Socio-technical regimes are potentially global sets of highly institutionalized rationalities that have co-evolved with actors, technologies and institutions. Transition studies features an extensive focus on regimes dynamics within specific territorial contexts. However, we know surprisingly little of how regime rationalities are constructed, diffused and reproduced across geographical contexts. This is a key gap in the literature on the geography of sustainability transitions, in explaining why transitions happen in some places and not in others. This paper introduces a conceptual model to analyze transformative opportunities in regions and how regime actors strategically diffuse and implement regime solutions through combinations of discursive- and system building activities. The empirical analysis draws upon a combination of Socio-Technical Configuration Analysis (STCA) of 354 newspaper articles and 10 in-depth interviews to illuminate how regime actors prevailed in diffusing and legitimizing the water sector’s dominant socio-technical configuration in San Diego during a period of substantial transformation pressure.
    Keywords: global regimes, regime diffusion, regional discourse dynamics, desalination, San Diego, socio-technical configuration analysis
    Date: 2021
  45. By: Körner, Konstantin (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg, Germany)
    Abstract: "This paper analyzes the labor market effects of offshoring in a high-wage home country and how these effects crucially depend on (1) job complexity and (2) the characteristics of the destination country. It thereby links several sources: rich administrative data on individuals and plants in the German manufacturing sector, information on a job’s task bundle, and the evolution of imported inputs from low- or high-wage destinations, which are represented by Eastern and Western Europe, respectively. Offshoring to these origins has opposing effects on German wages with respect to the relative task complexity of jobs: While offshoring to the West puts pressure on the wages of complex jobs and increases the wages of simple jobs, offshoring to the East entails the opposite effect. The overall effect adds up to a 4.2 percent increase in wages for jobs with high complexity, while low-complexity jobs see a 3.9 percent decrease in wages." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    Keywords: Bundesrepublik Deutschland ; Osteuropa ; Westeuropa ; Ausland ; Auswirkungen ; Einkommenseffekte ; Lohnhöhe ; Niedriglohnland ; outsourcing ; Zielgebiet
    JEL: F15 F16 J31
    Date: 2021–10–29
  46. By: Manthos D. Delis (Montpellier Business School); Anastasia Litina (University of Macedonia); Skerdilajda Zanaj (Université du Luxembourg)
    Abstract: Using hand-collected data on movies from 1998 to 2008, we examine how deep-rooted population diversity in the origin countries of the cast (actors) and the production team (director, writer, and producer) affects movie performance (spectator ratings and box office revenue). We contend that distinguishing between the cast (what is visible by spectators-consumers) and the production team allows an analysis of how “visible diversity” affects performance. Once meticulously controlling for selection- endogeneity concerns, we find that the visible component has a hump-shaped effect on our movie performance measures and mostly drives our findings. We also show that the optimal level of cast diversity (the one that maximizes movie performance) is significantly higher than the sample’s average value.
    Keywords: Population diversity; Visible diversity; Movie industry; Movie ratings; Box office; Origin country.
    Date: 2021
  47. By: Rosalind Keith; Nuzhat Islam; Rumin Sarwar; Cay Bradley
    Abstract: This brief describes Youth At-Risk of Homelessness (YARH) grantees’ experiences with initial and ongoing implementation of their comprehensive service models.
    Keywords: Youth, homelessness, YARH, implementation, services, policy
  48. By: Isphording, Ingo E. (IZA); Diederichs, Marc (University of Mainz); van Ewijk, Reyn (University of Mainz); Pestel, Nico (ROA, Maastricht University)
    Abstract: We use event-study models based on staggered summer vacations in Germany to estimate the effect of school re-openings after the summer of 2021 on the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Estimations are based on daily counts of confirmed coronavirus infections across all 401 German counties. Our results are consistent with mandatory testing contributing to containment of cases by uncovering otherwise undetected (asymptomatic) cases. Case numbers in school-aged children spike in the first week after the summer breaks but then turn not significantly different from zero. Case numbers in prime-aged age groups gradually decrease after school re-openings, arguably as a result of detected clusters through the school testing. The age group 60+ remains unaffected by the school re-openings. We conclude that the combination of mandatory testing and compulsory school attendance can provide an unbiased and near-complete surveillance of the pandemic. Thus, under certain conditions open schools can play a role in containing the spread of the virus. The trade-off between reducing contacts and losing an important monitoring device has to be taken seriously when re-considering school closures as a nonpharmaceutical intervention under the current circumstances.
    Keywords: COVID-19, schooling, education, Germany
    JEL: I12 I18 I28
    Date: 2021–11
  49. By: Jacobs, Valentine (Free University of Brussels); Rycx, Francois (Free University of Brussels); Volral, Mélanie (University of Mons)
    Abstract: This paper examines the influence of educational mismatch on wages according to workers' region of birth, taking advantage of our access to rich matched employer-employee data for the Belgian private sector for the period 1999-2010. Using a fine-grained approach to measuring educational mismatch and controlling for a large set of covariates, we first find that workers born in developed countries benefit from positive wage returns to their years of attained-, required and over-education, and that these returns are significantly higher for them than for their peers born in developing countries. Second, our results show that the wage return to a year of over-education is positive but lower than that to a year of required education. This suggests that over-educated workers suffer a wage penalty compared to their well-matched former classmates (i.e. workers with the same level of education in jobs that match their education). However, the magnitude of this wage penalty is found to vary considerably depending on the origin of the workers. Indeed, all else being equal, our estimates show that it is much greater for workers from developing countries – especially for those born in Africa and the Middle and Near East – than for those from developed countries. Regardless of workers' origin, our estimates further indicate that the wage penalty associated with over-education is higher for workers who: i) have attained tertiary education, ii) are male, iii) have more seniority in employment, iv) are employed in smaller firms, and v) are covered by a collective agreement at the firm level. Yet, whatever the moderating variable under consideration, the estimates also show that the wage penalty associated with over-education remains higher for workers born in developing countries.
    Keywords: immigrants, educational mismatch, wage gap, linked employer-employee data
    JEL: I24 I26 J15 J24 J31
    Date: 2021–10
  50. By: Echeverría, Lucía (University of Zaragoza); Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio (University of Zaragoza); Molina, José Alberto (University of Zaragoza)
    Abstract: Carpooling is a sustainable daily mobility mode, implying significant reductions in energy consumption and CO2 emissions, although it remains an uncommon practice. With the aim of stimulating this green transportation mode, this paper focus on understanding why certain individuals will agree to share a car to a common destination, apart from the obvious environmental benefit in emissions. It first describes the profile of users and then explores the relationship between this transportation mode and the participants' well-being. To that end, we have selected two countries, the UK and the US, where the use of cars represents a high proportion of daily commuting. We use the UK Time Use Survey (UKTUS) from 2014-2015 and the Well-Being Module of the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) from 2010-2012-2013 to identify which groups in the population are more likely to pool their cars, and with whom those individuals enjoy carpooling more. Results indicate that individuals with certain socio-demographic characteristics and occupations are more likely to commute by carpooling, but the profile seems to be country-specific. Furthermore, our evidence reveals a positive relationship between carpooling and well-being during commuting.
    Keywords: carpooling, green mobility, user profiles, subjective well-being
    JEL: R40 J22
    Date: 2021–09
  51. By: Fabian J. Baier (Europäisches Institut für Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen (EIIW)); Paul J.J. Welfens (Europäisches Institut für Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen (EIIW)); Tobias Zander (Europäisches Institut für Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen (EIIW))
    Abstract: Based on an analysis of a survey carried out by the EIIW/Jobcenter Wuppertal among female refugees, we identify significant drivers of the prospect of finding employment and of being in employment for individuals from this particular sub-group in society. The majority of survey respondents used German or Arabic as their preferred language to complete the survey questionnaire of the EIIW/Jobcenter Wuppertal. Probit/ordered probit and Logit/ordered logit regressions are used to identify the impact of a battery of potential influences relevant for the employment perspectives of female refugees. The probit variable meant looking at those currently in employment (coded 1) or, alternatively, those currently unemployed while the alternative approach was to consider an ordered variable indicating ascending hours worked as a measure of "more work" being undertaken. Personal skills, demographic characteristics, as well as family-related characteristics plus certain types of knowledge/skills and competencies as well as access to digital technologies and social networks, respectively, are identified as being key drivers of employment perspectives for female refugees. For female refugees, access to a computer increases the likelihood of having a job. Marriage also has a positive indirect impact on finding a job. Female refugees with university degrees do not have better chances of finding a job in Germany than those of the respective control group - i.e., those without a degree. It is found that the amount of years women already live in Germany is positively and significantly related to the probability of finding employment, a result which holds across a broad framework of control variables. Concerning the country of origin - using specific control groups - we find weak evidence that women from African countries find it more difficult to integrate into the job market than women from Europe who tend to find a job more easily regardless of their language, culture, family status and education. Refugees from Syria are also rather difficult to integrate into the job market.
    Keywords: International migration, labor market, supply of labor, immigrant workers
    JEL: F22 J20 J61 J82
    Date: 2021–12
    Abstract: As the Chinese economy becomes more advanced and the internal and external economic environment surrounding China changes, so too does China's strategy for external openness and economic cooperation. Accordingly, specific policies are diversifying from the past focus on manufacturing and foreign direct investment to services, overseas investment, bilateral and multilateral FTAs, and bilateral investment treaties (BITs). As the central government's policy stance changes, China's local governments are also promoting external openness and cooperation based on regional development stages, industrial structure, and regional development policies, reflecting the central government's strategy. In particular, after the 19th Party Congress, the central government showed a strategic stance expanding external openness. In response, local governments have moved away from the traditional method of cooperation in the manufacturing sector centered on industrial complexes, and in recent years various cooperative methods have been promoted, including regional economic integration, service and investment, the use of FTAs, and innovations in institutions to expand external openness. Along with the shift in China's foreign economic strategy, the economic cooperation environment surrounding Korea and China is changing as well, including the strengthening of protectionism, structural changes in the Chinese economy, the Korea-China FTA coming into effect, and the launch of follow-up negotiations. Therefore Korea needs to find new strategies and measures for economic cooperation with China, making it time to find new ways to expand cooperation with China's central and local governments. Against this backdrop, this study aims to analyze the strategies, detailed policies and major cases of China's central and local governments' external openness and economic cooperation, and to draw policy implications for strengthening economic cooperation between Korea and China in the future.
    Keywords: Chinese; local governments; cooperation; Korea; China; FTA
    Date: 2020–10–27

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