nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2021‒12‒06
74 papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. Migration, housing and regional disparities: A gravity model of inter-regional migration with an application to selected OECD countries By Maria Chiara Cavalleri; Nhung Luu; Orsetta Causa
  2. The capitalization of school quality in rents in the Beijing housing market: A propensity score method By Song, Zisheng
  3. Quantifying Land Use Regulation and its Determinants - Ease of Residential Development across Swiss Municipalities By Simon Büchler, Maximilian v. Ehrlich
  4. The receding housing ladder: house price inflation, parental support, and the changing intergenerational distribution of housing in China By John Knight; Wan Haiyuan
  5. Rooted to the soil: The impact of social housing on population in Ireland since 1911 By De Bromhead, Alan; Lyons, Ronan C.
  6. Better Alone? Evidence on the Costs of Intermunicipal Cooperation By Clémence Tricaud
  7. Exposure to Socially Influential Peer Parents: Cadres and Randomization Evidence in China By Liwen Chen; Bobby Chung; Guanghua Wang
  8. Gentrification and Affordable Housing Policies By Rainald Borck; Niklas Gohl
  9. Local access to skill-related high-income jobs facilitates career advancement for low-wage workers By Zoltan Elekes; Anna Baranowska-Rataj; Rikard Eriksson
  10. Do Lenders Make Less-Informed Investments in High-Growth Housing Markets? By Mr. Lev Ratnovski; Sophia Chen; Yangfan Sun
  11. Who Watches the Watchmen? Local News and Police Behavior in the United States By Nicola Mastrorocco; Arianna Ornaghi
  12. The Role of Local Public Goods for Gender Gaps in the Spatial Economy By Fabian Bald, Marcel Henkel
  13. Dock-based and Dockless Bikesharing Systems: Analysis of Equitable Access for Disadvantaged Communities By Jaller, Miguel; Niemeier, Debbie; Qian, Xiaodong; Hu, Miao
  14. The Legacy of COVID-19 in Education By Werner, Katharina; Woessmann, Ludger
  15. Does Being "Left–Behind" in Childhood Lead To Criminality in Adulthood? Evidence from Data on Rural-Urban Migrants and Prison Inmates in China By Cameron, Lisa A.; Meng, Xin; Zhang, Dandan
  16. Is raising the school leaving age enough to decrease dropping out? By Adamecz-Völgyi, Anna
  17. The Long-Term Effects of Forced Migration: An Early-Life Approach with Evidence from Yugoslavian Refugees in Sweden By Serratos-Sotelo, Luis
  18. Religious Practice and Student Performance: Evidence from Ramadan Fasting By Hornung, Erik; Schwerdt, Guido; Strazzeri, Maurizio
  19. How the COVID-19 Pandemic Changed Household Migration in New England By Nicholas Chiumenti
  20. Regional Disparities and Fiscal Federalism in Russia By Ms. Annette J Kyobe; Oksana Dynnikova; Mr. Slavi T Slavov
  21. How Long Does It Last? The Relative Age Ef ect inKorean Elementary Education By Dirk Bethmann; Jae Il Cho
  22. Does Gender Matter? The Effect of High Performing Peers on Academic Performances By Modena, Francesca; Rettore, Enrico; Tanzi, Giulia
  23. School Integration of Refugee Children: Evidence from the Largest Refugee Group in Any Country By Kirdar, Murat G.; Koc, Ismet; Dayioglu-Tayfur, Meltem
  24. Contact vs. Information: What shapes attitudes towards immigration? Evidence from an experiment in schools By Florio, Erminia
  25. Colocation of Entrepreneurs and New Firm Survival: Role of New Firm Founder’s Experiential Relatedness to Local Entrepreneurs By Tavassoli, Sam; Jienwatcharamongkhol, Viroj; Arenius, Pia
  26. Internationalisation of the next Smart Specialisation Strategy: Opportunities and barriers in the Friuli Venezia Giulia region By OECD
  27. Transformation in Industrial Towns in Slovenia and Switzerland By Arnault Morisson, David Bole, Jani Kozina, Maruša Goluža, Clara Turner, Heike Mayer
  28. The Misalignment of Fiscal Multipliers in Italian Regions By Francesco Simone Lucidi
  29. Parental Investment, School Choice, and the Persistent Benefits of Intervention in Early Childhood By Lei Wang; Yiwei Qian; Nele Warrinnier; Orazio Attanasio; Scott Rozelle; Sean Sylvia
  30. Models of Peer Effects in Education By Wennberg, Karl; Norgren, Axel
  31. Provincial-Local Equalization in Canada: Time for a Change? By Richard M. Bird; Enid Slack
  32. The impact of a macroprudential borrower based measure on households’ leverage and housing choices By Sónia Félix; Daniel Abreu; Vítor Oliveira; Fátima Silva
  33. The long-run impact of historical shocks on the decision to migrate: Evidence from the Irish Migration By Gaia Narciso; Battista Severgnini; Gayane Vardanyan
  34. The Role of Out-group Network in the Choice of Migration Destination: Evidence from Turkey By Filiz Künüroğlu; Ali Sina Önder
  35. Migration and Cultural Change By Rapoport, Hillel; Sardoschau, Sulin; Silve, Arthur
  36. Understanding Curb Management and Targeted Incentive Policies to Increase Transportation Network Company Pooling and Public Transit Linkages By Shaheen, Susan; Darling, Wesley; Broader, Jacquelyn; Cohen, Adam
  37. Foreign Labor Migration Control in Russian Regions using Multicultural Barometer (The Case of the Republic of Karelia, Russia) By Pitukhina, Maria; Pitukhin, Eugene; Radikov, Ivan; Tolstoguzov, Oleg; Kulakova, Lyubov
  38. Skill Downgrading Among Refugees and Economic Immigrants in Germany: Evidence from the Syrian Refugee Crisis By Plamen Nikolov; Leila Salarpour; David Titus
  39. Tax Competition and Leviathan with decentralized leadership By Steve BILLON
  40. European Structural Funds and Resilient and Recovery Facility Governance By Carlos San Juan Mesonada; Carlos Sunyer Manteiga
  41. Do Workers Share in Firm Success? Pass-through Estimates for New Zealand By Allan, Corey; Maré, David C.
  42. Wage Premium and Labor’s Migration Choice: New Evidence from Rural China By Yongqing, Dong
  43. Wealth Inequality and the Racial Wealth Gap By Aditya Aladangady; Akila Forde
  44. Testing for rational bubbles in Australian housing market from a long-term perspective By Vicente Esteve; María A. Prats
  45. Inequality and Earnings Dynamics in France: National Policies and Local Consequences By Francis Kramarz; Elio Nimier-David; Thomas Delemotte
  46. Autonomous Vehicle Policies Must Be Flexible to Support Deployment in Rural Regions By Dowds, Jonathan; Sullivan, James; Rowangould, Gregory; Aultman-Hall, Lisa
  47. Real estate ETNs in strategic asset allocation By Sebastian, Steffen P.; Steininger, Bertram I.
  48. Advanced Air Mobility: Demand Analysis and Market Potential of the Airport Shuttle and Air Taxi Markets By Goyal, Rohit; Reiche, Colleen; Fernando, Chris; Cohen, Adam
  49. American Hate Crime Trends Prediction with Event Extraction By Songqiao Han; Hailiang Huang; Jiangwei Liu; Shengsheng Xiao
  50. Effects of Early Childhood Exposure to Pollution on Crime: Evidence from 1970 Clean Air Act By Sadana, Divya
  51. Does Multitasking Affect Students' Academic Performance? Evidence From a Longitudinal Study By Amez, Simon; Baert, Stijn; Heydencamp, Emily; Wuyts, Joey
  52. A Pacific Skills Visa: Improving Opportunities for Skilled Migration throughout the Pacific Region By Chand, Satish; Clemens, Michael A.; Dempster, Helen
  53. A tale of two “AR” models: a spatial analysis of Corsican second home incidence By Yuheng Ling
  54. Air Pollution Affects Decision-Making: Evidence from the Ballot Box By Bellani, Luna; Ceolotto, Stefano; Elsner, Benjamin; Pestel, Nico
  55. Sunset Long Shadows: Time, Crime, and Perception of Change By Jelnov, Pavel
  56. Can mentorship improve students’ study skills and academic performance? By Liss, Erik; Wennberg, Karl
  57. The Geography of Investor Attention By Stefano Mengoli; Marco Pagano; Pierpaolo Pattitoni
  58. Designing Coastal Adaptation Strategies to Tackle Sea Level Rise By Théophile Bongarts Lebbe; Hélène Rey-Valette; Éric Chaumillon; Guigone Camus; Rafael Almar; Anny Cazenave; Joachim Claudet; Nicolas Rocle; Catherine Meur-Férec; Frédérique Viard; Denis Mercier; Christine Dupuy; Frédéric Ménard; Bernardo Aliaga Rossel; Lauren Mullineaux; Marie-Alexandrine Sicre; Anna Zivian; Françoise Gaill; Agathe Euzen
  59. Does Village Debt Has Positive Effect on Land Transfer? Evidence from County-Level Panel Data of Village Finance in Zhejiang Province By Zheng, Suwen; Ye, Chunhui
  60. Analyzing Usage and Effectiveness Of E-Learning Applications among Rural and Urban Students: An Empirical Study By G.K., Chetan Kumar; K.B., Rangappa
  61. Science after Communism: Peers and Productivity in East German Science By Ho Fai Chan; Vincent Lariviére; Naomi Moy; Ali Sina Önder; Donata Schilling; Benno Torgler
  62. Port specialization and connectivity in the global maritime network By César Ducruet
  63. Scaling Up Quality Infrastructure Investment By Laura Jaramillo; Olivier Bizimana; Mr. Saji Thomas
  64. Diversify or Specialise? Impacts of Diversification on Household Welfare and Inequalities in Pastoral Areas in Senegal By Ndiaye, Alioune
  65. Inequality in Mortality between Black and White Americans by Age, Place, and Cause, and in Comparison to Europe, 1990-2018 By Schwandt, Hannes; Currie, Janet; Bär, Marlies; Banks, James; Bertoli, Paola; Bütikofer, Aline; Cattan, Sarah; Chao, Beatrice Zong-Ying; Costa, Claudia; Gonzalez, Libertad; Grembi, Veronica; Huttunen, Kristiina; Karadakic, René; Kraftman, Lucy; Krutikova, Sonya; Lombardi, Stefano; Redler, Peter; Riumallo Herl, Carlos; Rodríguez-González, Ana; Salvanes, Kjell G.; Santana, Paula; Thuilliez, Josselin; van Doorslaer, Eddy; Van Ourti, Tom; Winter, Joachim; Wouterse, Bram; Wuppermann, Amelie
  66. Telework and Time Use By Pabilonia, Sabrina Wulff; Vernon, Victoria
  67. Human development and governance in Africa: do good fences make good neighbours? By Asongu, Simplice; Diop, Samba
  68. Redistribution across Europe: How much and to whom? By Bernhard Hammer; Michael Christl; Silvia De Poli
  69. Resilient Infrastructure in Indonesia: A Way Forward By Teuku Riefky; Faizal Rahmanto Moeis; Yusuf Sofiyandi; Muhammad Adriansyah; Anas Izzuddin; Aqilah Farhani; Sendy Jasmine
  70. Higher Education Expansion and Supply of Teachers in China By Dai, Fengyan; Xu, Lei; Zhu, Yu
  71. Regional unterschiedliche Beschäftigungsentwicklung von Helfertätigkeiten By Kaufmann, Klara; Kotte, Volker; Schwengler, Barbara; Wiethölter, Doris
  72. Labor Market Reform Options to Boost Employment in South Africa By Mr. Romain A Duval; Mr. Ippei Shibata; Yi Ji
  73. Banking Diversity, Financial Complexity and Resilience to Financial Shocks: Evidence From Italian Provinces By Beniamino Pisicoli
  74. Do search engines increase concentration in media markets? By Joan Calzada; Nestor Duch-Brown; Ricard Gil

  1. By: Maria Chiara Cavalleri; Nhung Luu; Orsetta Causa
    Abstract: Inter-regional migration – the movements of the population from one region to another within the same country – can be an important mechanism of spatial economic adjustment, affecting regional demographic and growth patterns. This paper examines the economic and housing-related factors that affect the decision of people to migrate to another region within the same country, drawing empirical evidence from country-specific gravity models of inter-regional migration for 14 OECD countries. The results suggest that inter-regional migrants move in search of higher income and better employment opportunities, but are discouraged by high housing costs. In particular, house prices are found to be an important barrier to migration, especially in countries having experienced strong increases in the level and cross-regional dispersion of house prices. There is however large heterogeneity across countries in terms of what factors matter the most and in terms of the magnitude of the migration response.
    Keywords: house prices, housing, inter-regional migration, internal migration, local labour markets, regional disparities, regional mobility
    JEL: R12 R23 R31 J61
    Date: 2021–12–01
  2. By: Song, Zisheng (Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: The capitalization of education resources in housing prices has been widely discussed, however, insufficient attention is paid to its capitalization in rents. This paper mainly aims to identify the capitalization of school quality in rents using 49,438 rental transaction data points from 2016 to 2018 in Beijing, China. In addition, we introduce the propensity score method (PSM) to reduce the sample selection bias and estimate a hedonic treatment effects model by regarding the high-quality school as a treatment within a 750-meter radius neighborhood of rental housing. Our findings reveal that school quality can be significantly capitalized in rents, and that this capitalization varies across not only school quality (ranking) but also space and time. Within rental neighborhoods, high-quality school density can significantly moderate the nearest school’s capitalization, promoting a 3.5% capitalization increase in outer municipal districts but a 3% decrease of top-ranked schools’ capitalization effect in inner municipalities. Further, we investigate school capitalization’s spatial dependency and find that top-ranked schools cannot be significantly capitalized in the rent of outer municipal areas due to existing tenant discrimination. Third-ranked schools can be capitalized into the rent of inner municipalities, probably because of other exogenous factors (e.g., housing prices, public transit). In addition, equitable housing policy shows the potential failure in the municipalities concerning high competition for top schools, as increasing school capitalization that might worsen social inequality between homeowners and renters. In contrast, the policy may remedy school capitalization in less competitive municipalities for high-quality schools.
    Keywords: rental housing; school capitalization; propensity score method (PSM); neighborhood school density
    JEL: C31 C51 R12 R23 R32 R38
    Date: 2021–12–01
  3. By: Simon Büchler, Maximilian v. Ehrlich
    Abstract: We analyze land use regulation and the determinants thereof across the majority of Swiss municipalities. Based on a comprehensive survey, we construct several indices on the ease of local residential development, which capture various aspects of local regulation and land use coordination across jurisdictions. The indices provide harmonized information about what local regulation entails and the local regulatory environment across municipalities. Our analysis shows that, among others, historical building density, socio-demographic factors, local taxes, cultural aspects, and the quality of natural amenities are important determinants of local land-use regulation. We test the validity of the index with regard to information about the local refusal rates of development projects and show that the index captures a significant part of the variation in local housing supply elasticities. Based on a machine learning cross-validation model, we impute the values for nonresponding municipalities.
    Keywords: Local regulation, zoning, housing markets
    JEL: R1 R14 R31 R52
    Date: 2021–08
  4. By: John Knight; Wan Haiyuan
    Abstract: China has experienced very rapid house price inflation in recent years – by some 10% per annum relative to consumer price inflation. Existing house-owners have benefited from capital gain and have been able to climb the housing ladder. Young household heads – wanting to own a house and facing rising house prices relative to their incomes - have found it increasingly difficult to get onto the housing ladder. However, their difficulty is eased by the strength of family support and the developing market for housing loans. The China Household Income Project (CHIP) surveys of 2002 and 2013 are analysed to test the hypothesis that the age distributions of house ownership and of housing wealth have moved against the young. There is indeed evidence of a receding housing ladder, especially in the large cities. The paper, on an original topic, is of interest both for China and for other countries with rapid house price inflation.
    Keywords: China; Family support; House price inflation; House ownership; Housing ladder; Housing wealth; Intergenerational distribution.
    Date: 2021–10–08
  5. By: De Bromhead, Alan; Lyons, Ronan C.
    Abstract: How does housing policy influence the distribution of population? We examine the impact of the world's first large-scale rural public housing scheme on the long-term dynamics of rural population, specifically the case of Ireland's Labourers Acts. We link detailed data on the location of over 45,000 heavily subsidized cottages for agricultural laborers built 1883-1915 in over 200 districts to decennial Censuses between 1841 and 2002. We examine how the density of this social housing, which effectively halved rents for landless laborers, affected subsequent population change and find significant persistence in the effect of this treatment on the population. These findings are from specifications that include other factors plausibly related to future population growth, including initial housing stock, land values and population density, as well as distance to urban centres. A causal interpretation is supported by an assessment of pre-trends, by no effect of cottages authorized but not built and by an IV approach that exploits a 1906 limit on legal costs. Our findings suggest that deep housing policy interventions can have longlasting effects on population distribution.
    Keywords: Ireland,Labourers Acts,population growth,social housing,migration
    JEL: N34 N94 O18 R23 R38
    Date: 2021
  6. By: Clémence Tricaud (UCLA Anderson School of Management, CEPR - Center for Economic Policy Research - CEPR, LIEPP - Laboratoire interdisciplinaire d'évaluation des politiques publiques [Sciences Po] - Sciences Po - Sciences Po)
    Abstract: This paper provides new evidence on why municipalities are often reluctant to integrate. Exploiting a French reform that made intermunicipal cooperation mandatory, I find that urban municipalities forced to integrate experienced a large increase in construction, consistent with NIMBYism explaining their resistance, while rural municipalities ended up with fewer local public services. I do not find the same effects for municipalities that had voluntarily integrated prior to the law, while both types of municipality enjoyed similar benefits in terms of public transport and fiscal revenues. These findings support the fact that municipalities resisted to avoid the local costs of integration.
    Keywords: Local governments,Intermunicipal cooperation,Difference-in-differences,Housing regulations,Local public services
    Date: 2021–10–10
  7. By: Liwen Chen (East China Normal University); Bobby Chung (St Bonaventure University); Guanghua Wang (Nanjing Audit University)
    Abstract: Parents are a crucial input into the education production function, both for their children and children's friends. This paper studies the effect of socially influential peer parents on students. Utilizing random classroom assignments in China middle schools, we probe the effect of parents who are cadres (government officials) on the educational outcome of their children's classmates. Because cadres in China have broad local influences in resource allocation, their presence elicits responses by surrounding students, parents, and teachers. We find that increased exposure to peer parents who are cadres raises a student's test score. We identify changes in parental behaviors and increased parent-teacher interaction as plausible channels. Cadre spillover is stronger in rural areas and schools with more government support, consistent with the variation in the local influence of cadres. The spillover concentrates on students who have good relationships with parents, echoing the role of parents in driving the spillover.
    Keywords: cadres, peer effects, parental investments, peer parent, early-life development
    JEL: D91 I25 J62 O53 P36
    Date: 2021–11
  8. By: Rainald Borck (University of Potsdam, CESifo, DIW Berlin); Niklas Gohl (University of Potsdam, Berlin School of Economics)
    Abstract: We use a quantitative spatial equilibrium model to evaluate the distributional and welfare impacts of a recent temporary rent control policy in Berlin, Germany. We calibrate the model to key features of Berlin’s housing market, in particular the recent gentrification of inner city locations. As expected, gentrification benefits rich homeowners, while poor renter households lose. Our counterfactual analysis mimicks the rent control policy. We find that this policy reduces welfare for rich and poor households and in fact, the percentage change in welfare is largest for the poorest households. We also study alternative affordable housing policies such as subsidies and re-zoning policies, which are better suited to address the adverse consequences of gentrification.
    Keywords: rent control, housing market, gentrification
    JEL: R00 R21 R30 R31
    Date: 2021–12
  9. By: Zoltan Elekes; Anna Baranowska-Rataj; Rikard Eriksson
    Abstract: A considerable proportion of jobs across labour markets of the Western world are low-wage jobs, while the number of “bad†jobs with deteriorating working conditions and task content is growing. This puts pressure on both successful and lagging regions as low- wage workers struggle to avoid getting priced out of urban areas, while diminishing economic opportunities in more lagging regions fuel social and political discontent. The aim of this paper is to provide empirical evidence on the role of local labour market structure and evolution in enabling or constraining workers in escaping low-wage jobs. Drawing on the network-based approach of evolutionary economic geography in measuring local labour market structure we employ a uniquely detailed individual-level panel dataset provided by Statistics Sweden to construct skill-relatedness networks for 72 functional labour market regions in Sweden. Our fixed-effect panel regressions indicate that the density of skill-related high-income jobs within a region is conductive of low-wage workers moving to better-paid jobs. While metropolitan regions offer a premium for this relationship, it also holds for smaller regions, as well as across various worker characteristics.
    Keywords: skill-relatedness network; local labour market; low-wage workers; structural change; relatedness density
    Date: 2021–11
  10. By: Mr. Lev Ratnovski; Sophia Chen; Yangfan Sun
    Abstract: Nonlocal mortgage lenders with greater exposure to high-growth housing markets accept fewer loan applications in these markets and experience greater stock return volatility. When these lenders expand to high-growth markets, they also ration credit to a significantly greater degree than when they ex-pand to other markets. Mean-variance analyses show that nonlocal lenders’ exposure to high-growth markets is associated with more risk, more efficiency, and more return on mortgage portfolios. Overall, these results imply that expansion to high-growth markets leads to a decline in screening and riskier investment by nonlocal lenders, which may reflect a risk–return tradeoff in their portfolio strategy.
    Keywords: nonlocal lender; nonlocal mortgage lender; return volatility; high-growth market; lender control; Mortgages; Loans; Housing prices
    Date: 2021–05–27
  11. By: Nicola Mastrorocco (Department of Economics, Trinity College Dublin); Arianna Ornaghi (Department of Economics, University of Warwick)
    Abstract: Do the police respond to media coverage of crime? In this paper, we study how a decline in news coverage of local crime affects municipal police departments in the United States. Exogenous variation in local news is from acquisitions of local TV stations by a large broadcast group, Sinclair. To control for other content changes that might be induced by Sinclair but are not municipality-specific, we implement a triple differences-in-differences design that interacts the timing of the acquisitions with an indicator for whether the municipality is covered by the news at baseline, a proxy for exposure to the local news shock. Using a unique dataset of almost 300,000 newscasts, we show that stations that are acquired by Sinclair decrease their coverage of local crime. This matters for policing: after Sinclair enters a media market, covered municipalities experience 10% lower violent crime clearance rates relative to non- covered municipalities. Finally, we provide evidence to suggest that the effect is consistent with a decrease in the salience of crime in the public opinion.
    Keywords: Media, accountability, police
    JEL: D72 D83 K42 L82
    Date: 2020–02
  12. By: Fabian Bald, Marcel Henkel
    Abstract: We assess the role of local public goods provision for gender gaps in the labour market. We find that higher fiscal revenues of local governments are associated with decreasing gender employment gaps in German labour market areas because it decreases labour supply for male workers at a higher rate than for female workers. The results are robust when we include instrumental variables that address the endogeneity of local public goods provision. To assess the impact of fiscal transfers across regions on gender gaps we quantify a spatial general equilibrium model with multiple types of workers, who are differently affected by local public goods provision in their labour supply decision. We find that transfers reduce disparities across regions. This goes along with smaller gender gaps in employment in treated regions because female workers are disproportionately pulled into market work and regions with low productivity.
    Keywords: gender, local public goods, labor force participation, taxes, transfers
    JEL: H4 H7 J1 J2 J6 R2 R5
    Date: 2021–09
  13. By: Jaller, Miguel; Niemeier, Debbie; Qian, Xiaodong; Hu, Miao
    Abstract: Dockless bikeshare systems show potential for replacing traditional dock-based systems, primarily by offering greater flexibility for bike returns. However, many cities in the US currently regulate the maximum number of bikes a dockless system can deploy due to bicycle management issues. Despite inventory management challenges, dockless systems offer two main advantages over dock-based systems: a lower (sometimes zero) membership fee, and being free-range (or, at least free-range within designated service areas). Moreover, these two advantages may help to solve existing access barriers for disadvantaged populations. To date, much of the research on micro-mobility options has focused on addressing equity issues in dock-based systems. There is limited knowledge of whether, and the extent to which dockless systems might help mitigate barriers to bikeshare for disadvantaged populations. Using San Francisco and Los Angeles as case studies, because both cities have both dock-based and dockless systems running concurrently, the research team quantified bikeshare service levels for communities of concern (CoCs) by analyzing the spatial distribution of service areas, available bikes and bike idle times, trip data, and rebalancing among the dock-based and dockless systems. They found that dockless systems can provide greater availability of bikes for CoCs than for other communities, attracting more trip demand in these communities because of a larger service area and frequent bike rebalancing practices. More importantly, they noticed that the existence of electric bikes helps mitigate the bikeshare usage gap between CoCs and other tracts. Besides the data analyses for bikeshare trips, the research team also studied the spatial distribution of online suggested station locations and find that the participants’ desired destinations for work/school purposes have not been covered to the same extent in CoCs as in other communities. The results provide policy insights to local municipalities on how to properly regulate and develop dockless bikeshare systems to improve mobility equity. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Engineering, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Bikesharing, equity, dockless, dockbased, planning
    Date: 2021–12–01
  14. By: Werner, Katharina (Ifo Institute for Economic Research); Woessmann, Ludger (University of Munich)
    Abstract: If school closures and social-distancing experiences during the Covid-19 pandemic impeded children's skill development, they may leave a lasting legacy in human capital. To understand the pandemic's effects on school children, this paper combines a review of the emerging international literature with new evidence from German longitudinal time-use surveys. Based on the conceptual framework of an education production function, we cover evidence on child, parent, and school inputs and students' cognitive and socio-emotional development. The German panel evidence shows that children's learning time decreased severely during the first school closures, particularly for low-achieving students, and increased only slightly one year later. In a value-added model, learning time increases with daily online class instruction, but not with other school activities. The review shows substantial losses in cognitive skills on achievement tests, particularly for students from disadvantaged backgrounds. Socio-emotional wellbeing also declined in the short run. Structural models and reduced-form projections suggest that unless remediated, the school closures will persistently reduce skill development, lifetime income, and economic growth and increase inequality.
    Keywords: COVID-19, school closures, education, schools, students, educational inequality
    JEL: I20 H52 J24
    Date: 2021–10
  15. By: Cameron, Lisa A. (University of Melbourne); Meng, Xin (Australian National University); Zhang, Dandan (Peking University)
    Abstract: Large scale rural-to-urban migration and China's household registration system have resulted in about 61 million children being left-behind in rural villages when their parents migrate to the cities. This paper uses survey and experimental data from male rural-urban migrants – prison inmates and comparable non-inmates – to examine whether parental absence in childhood as a result of migration is associated with increased criminality in adulthood. Control functions and sibling fixed effects are used to identify causal impacts. Parental absence due to migration is found to increase the propensity of adult males to commit crimes. Being left-behind decreases educational attainment and increases risk-loving behavior, both of which increase criminality.
    Keywords: migration, crime, China
    JEL: O12 O15 J12
    Date: 2021–10
  16. By: Adamecz-Völgyi, Anna
    Abstract: This paper examines the effects of increasing the compulsory school leaving age from 16 to 18 in Hungary using a difference-in-regression-discontinuities design identification strategy. While the reform increased the length of schooling, it did not decrease the probability of dropping out of secondary school, either on average or among the most at-risk group of Roma ethnic minority young people. Due to grade retentions, marginal students were older than their peers and couldn't have made it to the final grade of secondary school by age 18. Neither did the reform increase the probability of employment at age 20 and 25. I show descriptive evidence that the share of disadvantaged students increased heavily in vocational training schools -that most marginal students attended- and potentially crowded out resources. This mechanism raises concerns about using school leaving age reforms as instrumental variables for education as it may violate its monotonicity assumption.
    Keywords: compulsory school leaving age,differences-in-regression discontinuities,dropping out
    JEL: I2
    Date: 2021
  17. By: Serratos-Sotelo, Luis (Department of Economic History, Lund University)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effect of being exposed to forced migration during childhood (ages 0-5) on educational achievement at age 15 (grade 9). Using register data from the Swedish Interdisciplinary Panel, I identify children who migrated to Sweden as a consequence of the rising conflict during the disintegration of the former Yugoslavia, and follow them until age 15, when they received their grades at the end of the 9 years of compulsory education in Sweden. The results show that those who experienced forced migration performed worse in school, as measured by Math and Swedish grades and Merit Rating scores, with forced migrants achieving grades that were on average 5 (Merit Rating), 7 (Swedish), and 22 (Math) percentage points of a standard deviation lower than those of native Swedes. Forced migrants outperformed Swedes only in English, obtaining grades that were on average 12 percentage points of a standard deviation higher than did their native-born counterparts.
    Keywords: forced migration; refugees; education; early-life; Sweden
    JEL: I24 J13 J15 N34
    Date: 2021–10–13
  18. By: Hornung, Erik (University of Cologne); Schwerdt, Guido (University of Konstanz); Strazzeri, Maurizio (University of Bern)
    Abstract: We investigate how the intensity of Ramadan affects educational outcomes by exploiting spatio-temporal variation in annual fasting hours. Longer fasting hours are related to increases in student performance in a panel of TIMMS test scores (1995–2019) across Muslim countries but not other countries. Results are confirmed in a panel of PISA test scores (2003–2018) allowing within country-wave comparisons of Muslim to non-Muslim students across Europe. We provide evidence consistent with the hypothesis that a demanding Ramadan during adolescence affects educational performance by facilitating formation of social capital and social identity via increased religious participation and shared experiences among students.
    Keywords: social identity, Ramadan, religious participation, religion, education, social capital, PISA, TIMMS
    JEL: I21 Z12 J24 O15
    Date: 2021–10
  19. By: Nicholas Chiumenti
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic and the policies implemented to limit the spread of the virus brought about changes to domestic migration patterns in New England. Overall, the region lost about 50,000 fewer households to permanent out-migration in 2020 compared with 2019, as measured by United States Postal Service change-of-address requests. Every New England state except Massachusetts either lost fewer households or gained households for the first time since at least 2017. However, counties that added households generally saw an increase of less than 1 percent. The characteristics of a community mattered as to whether it gained or lost households. Communities with more than 1,000 people per square mile lost an average of 3 percent of households in 2020, while those with fewer than 1,000 people gained an average of 2 percent. The size of the college-student population in an area did not have a large effect on net migration, despite the move to online schooling for much of 2020. However, the share of seasonal housing in a community did. The number of households in areas with 25 percent to 50 percent seasonal housing stock grew by almost 2 percent through permanent net migration. Temporary net migration also led to positive net migration overall in much of New England in 2020, indicating that many of the new residents may not remain in their communities for the long term.
    Keywords: COVID-19
    Date: 2021–11–30
  20. By: Ms. Annette J Kyobe; Oksana Dynnikova; Mr. Slavi T Slavov
    Abstract: This paper examines how regional disparities have evolved in Russia and how Russia’s system of intergovernmental fiscal relations is managing these disparities. Regional disparities have fallen over the past two decades but remain relatively high. Socioeconomic outcomes remain worse in lagging regions despite faster growth and convergence in income levels. The twin shocks of COVID-19 and lower oil prices appear to have impacted richer regions disproportionately. Compared to other large countries with federal systems of government, Russia stands out with its high reliance on direct taxes as a revenue source for its regions. Transfers from the federal budget to the regions provide some redistribution by reducing the dispersion in real per capita fiscal spending, but also tend to be associated with lower growth. The Russian fiscal system offers degrees of redistribution and risk sharing of around 26 and 18 percent, respectively—with in-kind social transfers contributing the most. Finally, federal transfers in the aggregate tend to be procyclical and are also fairly unresponsive to shocks to regions’ own revenues.
    Keywords: risk sharing; Russia's system; transfers from the federal budget; complex system; inequality in Russia; Income; Income inequality; Disposable income; Fiscal federalism; Global
    Date: 2021–05–20
  21. By: Dirk Bethmann (Korea University; Department of Economics; Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu; Seoul 02841); Jae Il Cho (Vanderbilt University; Department of Economics; 010-back Calhoun Hall, Nashville, TN, 37240, United States)
    Abstract: An elementary school student‟s relative age is defined as the child‟s age relative to the age of its classmates. To what extent relative age gaps influence academic outcomes is an ongoing debate in educational economics and related fields. Our study analyzes the existence, magnitude, and duration of relative age effects in South Korea for various school subjects. Our results show that relative age effects are stronger for science related subjects and that they disappear after students graduate from elementary school and start their secondary school education.
    Keywords: relative age effect; seasonal birth; academic achievement
    JEL: I20 I21 J13
    Date: 2021
  22. By: Modena, Francesca (Bank of Italy); Rettore, Enrico (University of Padova); Tanzi, Giulia (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: This paper exploits student-level administrative data on the population of Italian university students from 2006 to 2014 to analyze the effects of high performing (HP) male or female peers on individual academic performance, according to the gender of the student. The identification strategy is based on quasi-random variation in the exposure to HP peers across cohorts, within the same university and the same degree program. The impact of HP students, proxied by their high school final grade, is heterogeneous. We found that female HP peers have stronger positive effects than HP males, in particular with peers of the same gender. Moreover, there is evidence that the exposure to HP males can be even negative, especially for female students in competitive environments, such as the STEM fields, and for low ability students of both genders.
    Keywords: human capital, higher education, university performance, gender, peers
    JEL: I22 I23 C21 C35
    Date: 2021–10
  23. By: Kirdar, Murat G. (Bogazici University); Koc, Ismet (Hacettepe University); Dayioglu-Tayfur, Meltem (Middle East Technical University)
    Abstract: Although school integration of the children of economic migrants in developed countries is well-studied in the literature, little evidence based on large scale representative data exists on the school integration of refugee children—many of whom live in low- or middle-income countries. This study focuses on Syrian refugee children in Turkey and examines the underlying causes of the native-refugee differences in school enrollment. We also analyze employment and marriage outcomes, as they are potentially jointly determined with schooling. For this purpose, we use the 2018 Turkish Demographic and Health Survey, which includes a representative sample of Syrian refugee households. We find that once a rich set of socioeconomic variables are accounted for, the native-refugee gap in school enrollment drops by half for boys and two-thirds for girls, but the gap persists for both genders. However, once we restrict the sample to refugees who arrive in Turkey at or before age 8 and account for the socioeconomic differences, the native-refugee gap completely vanishes both for boys and girls. In one outcome—in never attending school—the native-refugee gap persists even for children who arrive before age 8. Data for Syrians from the pre-war period suggest that this might be an "ethnic capital" that they bring with them from Syria. Finally, we find that the timing of boys' school drop-out coincides with their entry into the labor market, whereas girls' drop-out mostly takes place earlier than their marriage.
    Keywords: refugees, education, school enrollment, integration, child labor, marriage, Turkey
    JEL: F22 I21 I28 O15
    Date: 2021–09
  24. By: Florio, Erminia
    Abstract: We analyze whether (correct) information provision on immigration is more effective than contact in shaping attitudes towards immigration. We collect data from a randomized experiment in 18 middle- and high-school classes in the city of Rome. Half of the classes meet a refugee from Mauritania and read a book about his story, whereas the rest of them attend a lecture on figures and numbers on immigration in Italy and the world. On average, students develop better attitudes towards immigration (especially in the case of policy preferences and the perceived number of immigrants in their country) and somewhat improve their feelings associated with immigrants after the information treatment more than they do after the contact treatment. Also, students having received the information treatment strongly adjust their knowledge on immigration. However, students' individual characteristics (sex and, to a lesser extent, age) affect treatments' relative effectiveness.
    Keywords: Attitudes towards immigration,Information Provision,Contact Theory,Randomized Experiment
    Date: 2021
  25. By: Tavassoli, Sam (CIRCLE, Lund University); Jienwatcharamongkhol, Viroj (Blekinge Institute of Technology); Arenius, Pia (RMIT University)
    Abstract: Geographical clustering (colocation) influences new firm survival; however, not all new firms within a cluster are impacted equally. In this paper, we elaborate on how the colocation of local entrepreneurs may have different influences on new firm founder’s learning depending on his/her fit, in terms of his/her experiential relatedness, to that of local entrepreneurs. We then associate such founder’s learning with the higher survival of his/her new firm. We test our hypotheses using a matched founder-firm dataset that covers the population of the knowledge-intensive business service sector in Sweden during 2001-2012. We find support for our propositions concerning the relatedness of new firm founders’ experiential background to that of local entrepreneurs. Specifically, we find that high level of relatedness to local entrepreneurs enhances the survival rate of a new firm started by a novice founder, whereas intermediate level of relatedness suits better for a new firm started by an experienced founder.
    Keywords: Colocation; Entrepreneurial learning; New firm survival; Experiential relatedness; Entrepreneurial performance
    JEL: M13
    Date: 2021–11–24
  26. By: OECD
    Abstract: Smart Specialisation Strategy is a place-based EU policy that seeks to enhance regional competitiveness through leveraging and bolstering innovation in the selected priority areas (industries or technologies) in each region. The new iteration of S3 requires developing cross-border collaborations with regions possessing complex and complementary technological expertise currently missing in a region to upgrade its technological evolution. The reason for this is that new growth opportunities arise from recombining existing technological capabilities while more complex technologies offer strong competitive advantage. This paper presents a simple roadmap for regional S3 internationalisation and the results of an in-depth case study on the opportunities for and barriers to S3 internationalisation in Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG), a region in the North East of Italy. The paper develops recommendations on how to make the most of the Research, Technology, Development and Innovation endowments in FVG through enhancing the innovation-internationalisation nexus in order to improve competitiveness of the region.
    Keywords: Friuli Venezia Giulia, regional innovation systems, S3 internationalisation, Smart Specialisation Strategy (S3)
    JEL: O19 O30 R12 R58
    Date: 2021–11–30
  27. By: Arnault Morisson, David Bole, Jani Kozina, Maruša Goluža, Clara Turner, Heike Mayer
    Abstract: This report is the result of the first phase of the SNF Project on Industrial Towns titled “Places that don’t matter? Socio-economic transformation of industrial towns in Switzerland and Slovenia”, SNF grant number 192764. The report explores industrial transformation in small- and medium-sized towns (SMSTs) using six case-study towns—namely Biel/Bienne, Glarus and Mendrisio in Switzerland and Idrija, Kocevje, and Trbovlje in Slovenia. It provides a general overview of the institutional contexts of the case-study towns in their respective countries and regional profiles. The report describes the process of industrial transformations in different towns’ contexts.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, industrial culture, new industrial path development, institutional context, regional innovation system, local policy
    JEL: L26 R58 Z18 P48 P25 P16 O38
    Date: 2021–11
  28. By: Francesco Simone Lucidi
    Abstract: By accounting for the structural heterogeneity between northern and southern economies, this paper estimates fiscal multipliers resulting from shocks to current public expenditure, total public revenues and public investment in Italian regions. The estimation is carried out by estimating a panel Bayesian VAR, where the structural shocks are identified by means of sign restrictions suggested by economic theory. The results shed new light on the magnitude of regional fiscal shocks and their propagation. Moreover, a misalignment of fiscal multipliers is revealed, which is possibly policy relevant for both local and central authorities.
    Keywords: Fiscal multipliers; Public investment; Panel VAR; Sign restrictions
    JEL: E01 E62 E63 H5
    Date: 2021–11
  29. By: Lei Wang; Yiwei Qian; Nele Warrinnier; Orazio Attanasio; Scott Rozelle; Sean Sylvia
    Abstract: We present evidence from a randomized experiment testing the impacts of a six-month early childhood home-visiting program on child outcomes at school entry. Two and a half years after completion of the program, we find persistent effects on child working memory - a key skill of executive functioning that plays a central role in children’s development of cognitive and socio-emotional skills. We also find that the program had persistent effects on parental time investments and preschool enrolment decisions. Children were enrolled earlier and in higher quality preschools, the latter reflecting a shift in preferences over preschool attributes toward quality. Our findings imply an important role for the availability of high-quality subsequent schooling in sustaining the impacts of early intervention programs.
    Keywords: Early Childhood Development, Parenting, China, Poverty
    JEL: J13 I21 I28 H11
    Date: 2021
  30. By: Wennberg, Karl (Stockholm School of Economics); Norgren, Axel (Stockholm School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper summarizes the current state of research on peer effects in education. Focusing on specific models of peer effects and their underlying theoretical rationales, we review empirical evidence for these models and their implications for future research and discuss potential implications for educational policy. Our review highlights evidence for various types of peer effects to be sensitive to research design, data and study context. We propose a broader utilization of models testing various types of peer effects in specific datasets, attention to methodological issues beyond identifying cause- and effect, and further scrutiny of the theoretical mechanisms underlying identified peer effects in educational settings.
    Keywords: Peer effects; Literature review
    Date: 2021–11–30
  31. By: Richard M. Bird; Enid Slack (University of Toronto)
    Abstract: This paper makes the case for provincial-municipal equalization transfers, to ensure that all local governments can provide reasonably comparable levels of service at reasonably comparable tax rates. A municipality’s inability to provide a comparable level of service may arise because the costs of services in the municipality are higher, the need for services is greater, the tax base is smaller, or some combination of these factors. Although six provinces in Canada provide some form of equalization to municipalities, arguably none provides sufficient funding to achieve the underlying objective of equalization. To design a proper equalization system, this paper sets out a number of issues that need to be resolved. These include the overall amount of equalization and how it is determined from year to year, which municipalities are entitled to equalization, whether the variables determining the grant allocation can be influenced by municipalities, how fiscal capacity is measured, how needs are measured, and whether transitional funding is required to ensure that no municipality is worse off even if fiscal capacity and needs change. The paper concludes that every province in Canada would do well to establish a sound equalization transfer approach, which is an essential element of a fair and efficient system of local public finance.
    Keywords: Canada, fiscal federalism, provincial-municipal equalization, municipal finance
    JEL: H73 H71
    Date: 2021–11
  32. By: Sónia Félix; Daniel Abreu; Vítor Oliveira; Fátima Silva
    Abstract: Banco de Portugal implemented new limits to the loan-to-value (LTV) ratio in July 2018. This paper investigates the impact of these new lending limits on households’ leverage and housing choices. Using credit register data that covers the universe of loans granted to households, which allows us to account for loan and households’ characteristics and bank heterogeneity, we document a decline in the LTV ratio after the implementation of the macroprudential measure. Importantly, using a difference-in-differences estimation strategy we estimate the impact of the policy change on households that were more likely to exceed the new LTV limits in the absence of the policy change. Our results show that the policy change was effective in reducing households’ leverage as constrained households take out smaller loans and have lower loan-to-income ratios. These households pay higher interest rate spreads and have higher loan-service-to-income ratios than the control group. This paper also shows that the policy change affected households’ housing choices as constrained households bought cheaper houses. Overall, our results highlight the improvement of the risk profile of households following the introduction of the LTV limits.
    JEL: D14 E58 E61 G21 G28
    Date: 2021
  33. By: Gaia Narciso (Department of Economics, Trinity College Dublin); Battista Severgnini (Copenhagen Business School); Gayane Vardanyan (Department of Economics, Trinity College Dublin)
    Abstract: What is the long-run impact of large negative historical events on the individual decision to migrate? We investigate this research question by looking at the effect of the Great Irish Famine (1845-1850) on the long-run individual decision to migrate to the US during the Age of the Mass Migration. We construct a unique dataset based on two early 20th century Irish Censuses and the Ellis Island Administrative Records. This allows us to test whether the Great Irish Famine, one of the most lethal episodes of mass starvation in history, had a long-run impact on individuals’ migration decisions. Controlling for individual and geographical characteristics, we find that the Irish Famine was a significant long-run driver of individuals’ migration choices.
    Keywords: mass migration, negative shock, long-run impact, Great Famine.
    JEL: F22 N33 N93
    Date: 2020–01
  34. By: Filiz Künüroğlu (Izmir Katip Çelebi University); Ali Sina Önder (University of Portsmouth)
    Abstract: We analyse the association between cultural contact and international migration decision drawing on the inter-group contact hypothesis. Using data on Turkish migrant stock in 22 countries and immigration from these countries to Turkey between 2000 and 2015, we find strong association between the size of the Turkish community and migration flow of host country nationals to Turkey. Our results are robust to country-specific and year-specific effects as well as to exclusion of different channels of cultural contact. Our research brings a new perspective to the importance of networks in migration destination as most research focuses on the presence of in-group national community in the target country. Our findings contribute to the improvement of extant theories of international migration providing insight in the role of cultural contact with the out-group in the choice of migration destination.
    Keywords: International migration; network migration, contact hypothesis
    Date: 2021–11–25
  35. By: Rapoport, Hillel (Paris School of Economics); Sardoschau, Sulin (Humboldt University Berlin); Silve, Arthur (Université Laval)
    Abstract: We propose a novel perspective on migration and cultural change by asking both theoretically and empirically – and from a global viewpoint – whether migration is a source of cultural convergence or divergence between home and host countries. Our theoretical model derives distinctive testable predictions as to the sign and direction ofconvergence for various compositional and cultural diffusion mechanisms. We use the World Value Survey for 1981-2014 to build time-varying measures of cultural similarity for a large number of country pairs and exploit within country-pair variation over time. Our results support migration-based cultural convergence, with cultural remittances as its main driver. In other words and in contrast to the populist narrative, we find that while immigrants do act as vectors of cultural diffusion, this is mostly to export the host country culture back home.
    Keywords: migration, cultural change, globalization
    JEL: F22 O15 Z10
    Date: 2021–10
  36. By: Shaheen, Susan; Darling, Wesley; Broader, Jacquelyn; Cohen, Adam
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences
    Date: 2021–08–01
  37. By: Pitukhina, Maria; Pitukhin, Eugene; Radikov, Ivan; Tolstoguzov, Oleg; Kulakova, Lyubov
    Abstract: The article deals with foreign labor migration flows control as well as migration monitoring which are important for the Russian Federation regions’ economy development. A new migration monitoring toolkit is proposed by the authors - Multicultural Barometer. It allows to quantify migration indicators in a region from 4 various angles: labor market; national identity; migrants’ adaptation; migrants’ integration. The research data is coming from open sources (Federal Migration Service of the Republic of Karelia, Ministry of Labor and Employment of the Republic of Karelia, data obtained from Centers for Interethnic Cooperation in Karelian municipalities); both migrants’ pilot survey and host community survey organized in 18 municipalities of the Republic of Karelia. The study conducted in Karelia seems to be important in a context of its geographical location (on a border with Finland) highlighting both successful practices and developing new tools for migration monitoring aimed at scientifically based solutions for migration control. Multicultural barometer as a tool was recommended by the Federal Agency on Ethnic Issues of Russia (FADN) and Strategic Initiatives Agency in 2017 as best regional practice for further implementation all over the Russian Federation.
    Keywords: foreign labour migration; migration flows control; Multicultural barometer; migrants’ integration; migrants’ adaptation
    JEL: J15 J61
    Date: 2020–01–07
  38. By: Plamen Nikolov; Leila Salarpour; David Titus
    Abstract: Upon arrival to a new country, many immigrants face job downgrading, a phenomenon describing workers being in jobs below the ones they have based on the skills they possess. Moreover, in the presence of downgrading immigrants receiving lower wage returns to the same skills compared to natives. The level of downgrading could depend on the immigrant type and numerous other factors. This study examines the determinants of skill downgrading among two types of immigrants - refugees and economic immigrants - in the German labor markets between 1984 and 2018. We find that refugees downgrade more than economic immigrants, and this discrepancy between the two groups persists over time. We show that language skill improvements exert a strong influence on subsequent labor market outcomes of both groups.
    Date: 2021–10
  39. By: Steve BILLON (LaRGE Research Center, Université de Strasbourg)
    Abstract: The traditional approach of public choice suggests that decentralization in the form of a fiercer competition may play an efficient constraint on the growth of self-interested governments. This paper analyzes the effect of decentralization on Leviathan state governments in the presence of intergovernmental grants provided by a federal layer. Under decentralized leadership, state governments strategically set their tax policy and wasteful consumption of public expenditures by anticipating the reaction of the federal government in terms of grants. The transfer scheme eliminates any incentive to engage in tax competition. However, it also creates an opportunity for state policy-makers to pass the financing of a part of their inefficient expenditures onto other members of the federation. In contrast to the conventional wisdom of public choice that focuses on simultaneous central and local decisions, increased competition in the decentralized leadership equilibrium might reduce citizens' welfare. Decentralization enhances the sharing of wasteful expenditures and the incentives to extract rents from tax revenues. The conditions under which more competition leads to higher wasteful expenditures and welfare worsening are derived.
    Keywords: Federalism, Tax Competition, Decentralization, Government waste.
    JEL: H1 H3 H7
    Date: 2021
  40. By: Carlos San Juan Mesonada; Carlos Sunyer Manteiga
    Abstract: The paper attempts to recover empirical evidence related to the European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF) to promote growth for the management of the Recovery & Resilience Facility (RRF). We analyse the impact of the EU Cohesion Policy on regional development over the period 1986-2018, using dynamic panel data models. In doing so, we use a neoclassical Solow growth model, extending the current literature in at least three ways. First, we make use of a new dataset, which contains highly detailed data on regional commitments and payments of Structural Funds; secondly, we address the endogeneity via a difference GMM estimator; finally, we control for the spatial interdependence among regions via a Spatial Durbin model. We find that the Cohesion Policy fosters regional growth both in the short and long run, regardless of the Objective considered. The role of the business cycle in the speed of regional convergence is quantified. The funds’ effectiveness is hindered during the crisis, especially in the least developed regions, partly due to lower absorptive rates. Furthermore, human capital and quality of government are crucial growth determinants necessary for improving the performance of the Structural Funds. Finally, we discuss if the combination of ESIF & RRF funds will be appropriate for accelerating the post-pandemic recovery versus the financial recession recovery.
    Date: 2021
  41. By: Allan, Corey; Maré, David C. (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research Trust)
    Abstract: We study the extent to which firm financial performance is passed on to workers in the form of higher wages and how this has changed over 2002-2018. We measure financial performance as value added per worker and as quasi-rents. Quasi-rents better approximate the resources available to be shared between workers and firms as the measure takes into account the rental cost of capital as well as the reservation wages. We estimate the reservation wage bill for each firm using estimates from a two-way fixed-effect model and further decompose the pass-through into contributions from worker sorting and rent-sharing. Our IV estimates of pass-through are in the range of 0.12 and 0.19 for value added and 0.11 and 0.07 for quasi-rents. Worker sorting explains between 35% and 50% of pass-through. While the extent of overall pass-through is relatively stable over time, the contribution of worker sorting declines dramatically to explain almost none of the estimated pass-through.
    Keywords: wage determination, rent sharing, worker sorting
    JEL: J31 J71 E25 D22
    Date: 2021–10
  42. By: Yongqing, Dong
    Keywords: Labor and Human Capital, Community/Rural/Urban Development
    Date: 2021–08
  43. By: Aditya Aladangady; Akila Forde
    Abstract: In the United States, the average Black and Hispanic or Latino households earn about half as much as the average White household and own only about 15 to 20 percent as much net wealth. As we see in Figure 1 below, this wealth gap has widened notably over the past few decades.
    Date: 2021–10–22
  44. By: Vicente Esteve (Universidad de Valencia and Universidad de Alcalá, Spain); María A. Prats (Universidad de Murcia, Spain)
    Abstract: In this article, we use tests of explosive behavior in real house prices with annual data for the case of Australia for the period 1870?2020. The main contribution of this paper is the use of very long time series. It is important to use longer span data because it o¤ers more powerful econo- metric results. In order to detect episodes of potential explosive behavior in house prices over this long period, we use the recursive unit root tests for explosiveness proposed by Phillips, Wu, and Yu (2011), and Phillips, Shi, and Yu (2015a,b). According to the results, there is clear specula- tive bubble behavior in real house prices between 1997-2020, speculative process that has not yet been adjusted.
    Keywords: House price; Explosiveness; Recursive unit root test; Multiple Structural Breaks
    JEL: E31 R21 E62 H62 R39
    Date: 2021–11
  45. By: Francis Kramarz (CREST-ENSAE, Institut Polytechnique de Paris); Elio Nimier-David (CREST-ENSAE, Institut Polytechnique de Paris); Thomas Delemotte (CREST-ENSAE, Institut Polytechnique de Paris)
    Abstract: This paper provides new stylized facts about labor earnings inequality and dynamics in France for the period 1991-2016. Using Linked Employer-Employee Data, we show that (i) Labor inequality in France is low compared to other developed countries and has been decreasing until the financial crisis of 2009 and increasing since then. (ii) Women experienced high earnings growth, in particular at the bottom of the distribution, in contrast to the stability observed for men. Both result from a decrease in labor costs at the minimum wage and an increase in the hourly minimum in the aftermath of the 35h work week policy. (iii) Top earnings (top 5 and 1%) grew moderately while very top earnings (top 1 and .01%) experienced a much higher growth. (iv) Inequality between and within cohorts follow the same U-shaped pattern as global inequality: it decreased before 2009 and then increased until 2016. (v) Individual earnings mobility is stable between 1991 and 2016, and very low at the top of the distribution. (vi) The distribution of earnings grow this negative lyskewed, leptokurtic, andvaries with age. Then, studying earnings dispersion both within and between territories, we document strong differences across cities as well as between urban and rural areas, even after controlling for observable characteristics. We also observe a continuous decrease in earnings inequality between cities as well as between rural and urban territories. However, the higher price increases in rural territories attenuates this convergence. Finally, we document a strong reduction in inequality within rural and remote territories, again driven by changes at the bottom of the wage distribution.
    Date: 2021–10–29
  46. By: Dowds, Jonathan; Sullivan, James; Rowangould, Gregory; Aultman-Hall, Lisa
    Abstract: Fully autonomous vehicles (AVs) hold the potential to significantly improve traffic safety, mobility and accessibility, and energy efficiency—longstanding challenges for rural transportation planning. Some of these benefits are inherent to automation and therefore achievable through private AV ownership, while other benefits can only be achieved if AVs are operated in a shared fleet through a carsharing model. AV benefits such as increased vehicle occupancy are only achieved if the AV is used for ridesharing. AVs may also significantly increase vehicle travel and associated environmental impacts. The magnitude of the changes in vehicle travel and environmental impact will depend to a significant degree on the extent to which AVs are available for individual ownership vs. carsharing or ridesharing. As a result, shared mobility is commonly cited as an important strategy for mitigating growth in vehicle travel. Most AV research to date has been done in an urban context. Changes in travel behavior brought about by automation will likely differ in rural areas, which are characterized by long travel distances and dispersed populations. Different policies may be needed to realize the mobility and safety benefits of vehicle automation in rural areas. To consider these issues, researchers at the University of Vermont and University of Waterloo reviewed the existing literature on AVs in shared and private ownership scenarios and assessed the benefits inherent to AVs (regardless of ownership model) as well as of the benefits and challenges of AV-sharing in rural areas relative to urban areas. This policy brief summarizes the findings from that research and provides policy implications. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, Autonomous vehicles, Implementation, Rural areas, Surveys, Travel demand, Vehicle miles of travel
    Date: 2021–11–01
  47. By: Sebastian, Steffen P. (University of Regensburg, Germany); Steininger, Bertram I. (Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: Previous research has shown that real estate serves as a diversifier in mixed-asset portfolios. However, this empirical funding is beset with some drawbacks associated with direct real estate investment. In order to overcome some of these drawbacks, we use theoretical real estate exchange traded notes (ETNs) in a mean-shortfall setting to optimize an international mixed-asset portfolio. In addition, the typical long-only strategy is abandoned in favor of a 130/30 long-short and an exchange rate hedge strategy. Not only in-sample but also out-of-sample portfolios yield significant diversification benefits by means of real estate ETNs in different portfolio strategies.
    Keywords: real estate derivatives; exchange traded notes; asset allocation; mixed-asset portfolio
    JEL: G11 G13 G15 G19 G20 R30
    Date: 2021–12–02
  48. By: Goyal, Rohit; Reiche, Colleen; Fernando, Chris; Cohen, Adam
    Abstract: Advanced air mobility (AAM) is a broad concept enabling consumers access to on-demand air mobility, cargo and package delivery, healthcare applications, and emergency services through an integrated and connected multimodal transportation network. However, a number of challenges could impact AAM’s growth potential, such as autonomous flight, the availability of take-off and landing infrastructure (i.e., vertiports), integration into airspace and other modes of transportation, and competition with shared automated vehicles. This article discusses the results of a demand analysis examining the market potential of two potential AAM passenger markets—airport shuttles and air taxis. The airport shuttle market envisions AAM passenger service to, from, or between airports along fixed routes. The air taxi market envisions a more mature and scaled service that provides on-demand point-to-point passenger services throughout urban areas. Using a multi-method approach comprised of AAM travel demand modeling, Monte Carlo simulations, and constraint analysis, this study estimates that the air taxi and airport shuttle markets could capture a 0.5% mode share. The analysis concludes that AAM could replace non-discretionary trips greater than 45 min; however, demand for discretionary trips would be limited by consumer willingness to pay. This study concludes that AAM passenger services could have a daily demand of 82,000 passengers served by approximately 4000 four- to five-seat aircraft in the U.S., under the most conservative scenario, representing an annual market valuation of 2.5 billion USD.
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences
    Date: 2021–07–02
  49. By: Songqiao Han; Hailiang Huang; Jiangwei Liu; Shengsheng Xiao
    Abstract: Social media platforms may provide potential space for discourses that contain hate speech, and even worse, can act as a propagation mechanism for hate crimes. The FBI's Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program collects hate crime data and releases statistic report yearly. These statistics provide information in determining national hate crime trends. The statistics can also provide valuable holistic and strategic insight for law enforcement agencies or justify lawmakers for specific legislation. However, the reports are mostly released next year and lag behind many immediate needs. Recent research mainly focuses on hate speech detection in social media text or empirical studies on the impact of a confirmed crime. This paper proposes a framework that first utilizes text mining techniques to extract hate crime events from New York Times news, then uses the results to facilitate predicting American national-level and state-level hate crime trends. Experimental results show that our method can significantly enhance the prediction performance compared with time series or regression methods without event-related factors. Our framework broadens the methods of national-level and state-level hate crime trends prediction.
    Date: 2021–11
  50. By: Sadana, Divya
    Abstract: Past literature has shown that 1970 amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA) led to significant reduction in air pollution early 1970s, and that it had positive infant health consequences for the cohorts treated by CAA. Because effects of in-utero and early childhood conditions are persistent, and the health effects can remain latent for years, CAA may impact the future adult outcomes. In this paper, I investigate the impact of the CAA on the future crime. In a difference-in-differences framework, I find that the cohorts that were born in the year of the CAA’s first implementation commit fewer crimes 15 to 24 years later. The magnitude of this impact is about 4 percent. Property crimes rather than violent crimes are impacted. I also estimate that CAA reduced the ambient air pollution by 14 percent. These reduced form estimates suggest that a one percent reduction in air pollution reduces future crime rate by 0.3 percent.
    Keywords: Pollution, Crime, Birthweight, Education, Employment Status, Earnings
    JEL: I15 I25 J24 K14 K42 Q53
    Date: 2021–03
  51. By: Amez, Simon; Baert, Stijn; Heydencamp, Emily; Wuyts, Joey
    Abstract: Multitasking - alternating between two different tasks at the same time - has become a daily habit for many university students. However, this may come at a cost since the existing literature emphasises the negative association between multitasking and academic performance. Nonetheless, this literature is based on cross-sectional observational data so that that estimates cannot be given a causal interpretation. To complement these studies, we opted for a longitudinal design in this study. Specifically, for three consecutive years, students at two Belgian universities, in more than ten different study programmes, were surveyed on their multitasking preferences and academic performance. Then, these results were merged with the students' exam scores. We exploited the longitudinal character of the data by running random and fixed effect models. Our results indicate that the positive and negative aspects of multitasking with respect to academic performance cancel each other out.
    Keywords: multitasking,academic performance,longitudinal data
    Date: 2021
  52. By: Chand, Satish (University of New South Wales); Clemens, Michael A. (Center for Global Development); Dempster, Helen (Center for Global Development)
    Abstract: The demand for skills exceeds supply, both within the Pacific Islands and the high-income countries of the Pacific Rim. Enhancing skilled migration therefore has the potential to generate large economic gains. The Global Skill Partnership is a migration model that can support such mutually beneficial mobility by moving training into the country of origin. In this paper, we outline its regional application to the Pacific. To assess the potential economic gains from such a Pacific Skills Partnership, we present new data on earnings and the cost of training in the Pacific Islands for three qualifications— accountants, computer science graduates, and chefs—and explore how such training could be financed through loan schemes. Graduates could be provided with internationally accredited qualifications and a new Pacific Skills Visa, facilitating their access to work opportunities abroad, particularly in the regions' high-income countries. This Pacific Skills Partnership could bring large economic benefits to countries of origin, destination, and the migrants themselves.
    Keywords: immigration, labor, low-skill, visa, mobility, Pacific Islands, Papua New Guinea, seasonal, temporary
    JEL: F22 J11 J24
    Date: 2021–11
  53. By: Yuheng Ling (Università di Corsica)
    Abstract: Spatial autoregressive (AR) models can accommodate various forms of dependence among data with discrete support in a space, and hence are widely used in economics and social science. We examine the relationship between spatial (autoregressive) error models and conditional autoregressive models, considered to be the two main types of spatial AR models. This topic is likely incomplete in the literature and is often overlooked by econometricians. To further develop and broaden this topic, we demonstrate that spatial error and conditional autoregressive models can be made equivalent via hierarchal models, but have different variance-covariance matrices. We then propose a Bayesian approach, known as integrated nested Laplace approximations (INLA), to produce accurate estimates for these models and to speed up inferences. We also discuss how to interpret model coefficients, especially estimates of spatial latent effects. We illustrate the two AR models with the proposed methodology in an application to the second home incidence rates of Corsica, France in 2017. We find that both models can capture spatial dependence, but conditional autoregressive models perform slightly better and produce a higher spatial autocorrelation coefficient. We further illustrate estimates of latent effects by identifying several “hot spots” and “cold spots” in terms of second home incidence rates.
    Date: 2021–12
  54. By: Bellani, Luna (University of Konstanz); Ceolotto, Stefano (Trinity College Dublin); Elsner, Benjamin (University College Dublin); Pestel, Nico (ROA, Maastricht University)
    Abstract: Does poor air quality affect decision-making? We study this question based on elections, in which millions of people decide on the same issue on the same day in different locations. We use county-level data from 64 federal and state elections in Germany over a nineteen-year period and exploit plausibly exogenous variation in ambient air pollution within counties across election dates. Our results show that a high concentration of particulate matter (PM10) on an election day significantly affects voting behavior. An increase in the concentration of PM10 by 10μg/m3 – around two within-county standard deviations – reduces the vote share of the incumbent by 2 percentage points and increases the vote share of the established opposition by 2.8 percentage points. These are strong effects, equivalent to 4% and 7% of the respective mean vote shares. We generalize these findings by documenting similar effects with data from a weekly opinion poll and a large-scale panel survey. We provide further evidence that emotions are a likely mechanism: the survey data show that poor air quality leads to greater anxiety and unhappiness, which may reduce the support for the political status quo.
    Keywords: pollution, decisions, voting
    JEL: D70 D72 D91 Q53
    Date: 2021–09
  55. By: Jelnov, Pavel (Leibniz University of Hannover)
    Abstract: How long survives perception of change after evaporation of the actual change? I investigate the effect of daylight on crime and fear of crime. Forty years of reforms shifted the boundaries between Russian eleven time zones. I find that a permanent switch to a later sunset leads to a two year long decrease in robbery and has no effect on homicide. The magnitude of the effect on robbery is similar to the previous estimates from other countries immediately after daylight saving time transitions. Even though the actual effect lasts two years, women report in a 10-year perspective increased feeling of safety even in darkness. However, men report increased feeling of safety only as long as the actual decrease in robbery persists.
    Keywords: crime, daylight saving time, fear of crime, homicide, robbery, Russia, time zones
    JEL: J18
    Date: 2021–10
  56. By: Liss, Erik (Linköping University); Wennberg, Karl (Stockholm School of Economics)
    Abstract: Research suggest that tutoring initiatives sometimes, but not always, improve academic performance and help induce interest in the pursuit of higher education. We investigate whether mentorship can improve academic performance and aspirations among lower secondary school students from underprivileged backgrounds by evaluating a collaborative project where three cohorts of ninth graders engaged in weekly meetings with university students during a one-year period. The purpose of the Mentorship Project was to offer study support and to inspire students to pursue higher education. The results indicate that participation in the project led to higher grades in the subjects English, social studies, science, and ‘Swedish as a second language’ relative to a control group of ninth-graders who did not participate in the project. The participants also accumulated higher grade point averages and were more likely to choose university prep high school programs. Our statistical analysis combined with survey data and interviews with project participants and organizers indicate that clear expectations, which encourage students to commit to regular attendance, coupled with a direct connection to the school, seem to have contributed to the Mentorship Project's success.
    Keywords: Mentorship; Academic performance; Aspirations; Lower secondary school students
    Date: 2021–11–30
  57. By: Stefano Mengoli (University of Bologna); Marco Pagano (University of Naples Federico II, CSEF and EIEF); Pierpaolo Pattitoni (University of Bologna)
    Abstract: Retail investors pay over twice as much attention to local companies than non-local ones, based on Google searches. News volume and volatility amplify this attention gap. Attention appears causally related to perceived proximity: first, acquisition by a nonlocal company is associated with less attention by locals, and more by nonlocals close to the acquirer; second, COVID-19 travel restrictions correlate with a drop in relative attention to nonlocal companies, especially in locations with fewer flights after the outbreak. Finally, local attention predicts volatility, bid-ask spreads and nonlocal attention, not viceversa. These findings are consistent with local investors having an information-processing advantage.
    Date: 2021
  58. By: Théophile Bongarts Lebbe (Plateforme Océan et Climat); Hélène Rey-Valette; Éric Chaumillon; Guigone Camus; Rafael Almar; Anny Cazenave; Joachim Claudet; Nicolas Rocle; Catherine Meur-Férec; Frédérique Viard; Denis Mercier; Christine Dupuy; Frédéric Ménard; Bernardo Aliaga Rossel; Lauren Mullineaux; Marie-Alexandrine Sicre (LOCEAN - Laboratoire d'Océanographie et du Climat : Expérimentations et Approches Numériques - SU - Sorbonne Université - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - MNHN - Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - IPSL (FR_636) - Institut Pierre-Simon-Laplace - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UVSQ - Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines - CEA - Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives - INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers - X - École polytechnique - CNES - Centre National d'Études Spatiales [Toulouse] - SU - Sorbonne Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UP - Université de Paris); Anna Zivian; Françoise Gaill; Agathe Euzen
    Abstract: Faced with sea level rise and the intensification of extreme events, human populations living on the coasts are developing responses to address local situations. A synthesis of the literature on responses to coastal adaptation allows us to highlight different adaptation strategies. Here, we analyze these strategies according to the complexity of their implementation, both institutionally and technically. First, we distinguish two opposing paradigms – fighting against rising sea levels or adapting to new climatic conditions; and second, we observe the level of integrated management of the strategies. This typology allows a distinction between four archetypes with the most commonly associated governance modalities for each. We then underline the need for hybrid approaches and adaptation trajectories over time to take into account local socio-cultural, geographical, and climatic conditions as well as to integrate stakeholders in the design and implementation of responses. We show that dynamic and participatory policies can foster collective learning processes and enable the evolution of social values and behaviors. Finally, adaptation policies rely on knowledge and participatory engagement, multi-scalar governance, policy monitoring, and territorial solidarity. These conditions are especially relevant for densely populated areas that will be confronted with sea level rise, thus for coastal cities in particular.
    Date: 2021–11–03
  59. By: Zheng, Suwen; Ye, Chunhui
    Keywords: Land Economics/Use, Public Economics
    Date: 2021–08
  60. By: G.K., Chetan Kumar; K.B., Rangappa
    Abstract: Although Information communication technology was bound to transform teaching learning pedagogy in developing nations, advent of Covid-19 and subsequent nation-wide lock down has acted as a catalyst for the process. Experience from developed world has shown that Information Communication Technology enhances learning process. In India there has always been a prevalence of dichotomy of resources between rural and urban regions. Government of India has taken initiatives like Provision of Urban Amenities to Rural Areas, Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana, Deendayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana, Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Gar Yojana to strengthen socio economic infrastructure in rural area. Along with this some of the State Governments like that of Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh have initiatives to promote digital learning among students in both urban and rural areas. In this context it becomes pertinent to analyze whether students in rural area are on par with the students in urban area to access digital learning. This is even more relevant as nearly 65% of Indian population resides in rural areas. Our research paper aims to suggest appropriate policy suggestions to bridge this gap, if any.
    Keywords: Digital devices, E-Applications, Rural and urban students, Information Communication Technology, Learning Outcomes, Binomial Regression
    JEL: I24 I25 I28
    Date: 2021–08–18
  61. By: Ho Fai Chan (Queensland University of Technology); Vincent Lariviére (University of Montreal); Naomi Moy (University of Bologna); Ali Sina Önder (University of Portsmouth); Donata Schilling (London School of Economics); Benno Torgler (Queensland University of Technology)
    Abstract: We analyze the role of complementarities in collaboration and academic productivity using a unique dataset on East German scientists’ publications in fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) after the German re-unification in 1990. We focus on East German scientists’ connections to their peers, their scientific productivity and impact as measured by the number of publications, citation accumulation, and the quality of journals where they publish. East German scientists show a significant convergence to their West German peers in all productivity accounts. We use the similarity of research portfolio to West German research in 1980s as identification and find that the effect of losing a collaborator on the productivity and collaborations of East German scientists differs with respect to their complementarities. Moreover, we find East Germans who collaborated with Soviet scientists on non-Western research fields during the 1980s are significantly more likely to re-wire their collaboration net- works towards Western Europe and the US in 1990s and 2000s. They are also more likely to switch their field of research and collaborate with West Germans who moved to an East German university or research institute after the re-unification.
    Keywords: Peer-Effects; Productivity; Institutions; Migration; East Germany
    JEL: J61 O33
    Date: 2021–11–29
  62. By: César Ducruet (GC (UMR_8504) - Géographie-cités - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UPD7 - Université Paris Diderot - Paris 7, EconomiX - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: While ports of the world are more or less diversified, the influence of traffic diversity on the global port hierarchy and maritime network is not yet well understood. This research uses a complex network approach to analyze the interplay between no less than 20 shipping traffic types connecting more than 1,600 ports. A database covering about 155000 daily movements of 24000 vessels in 2008 is used to construct a global matrix of inter-port shipping flows. Main results show that the global network is highly dependent on more diversified nodes, which in turn catch the most traffic and exhibit higher connectivity. It also underlines the role and nature of specific shipping segments as layers of an all-encompassing maritime system.
    Keywords: complex networks,connectivity,maritime transport,port hierarchy
    Date: 2021
  63. By: Laura Jaramillo; Olivier Bizimana; Mr. Saji Thomas
    Abstract: South Asia needs large infrastructure investments to achieve its development goals, and public investment can also support the Covid-19 recovery. Regression estimates that account for the quantity and quality of investment suggest that public infrastructure was a key driver of productivity growth in South Asia. Going forward, higher public infrastructure spending can raise growth, but its benefits depend on how it is financed and managed. Model simulations show that tax financing, concessional lending, or private sector financing through public private partnerships (PPPs) are more advantageous than government borrowing through financial markets because they support growth while containing the impact on public debt. However, the optimal choice also depends on available fiscal space, taxation capacity, implementation risks, and public investment efficiency. To reap the most benefits from higher infrastructure investment, South Asian countries need to manage fiscal risks carefully, including from PPPs and state-owned enterprises, and improve public investment efficiency.
    Keywords: infrastructure investment; tax financing; quality of investment; PPP financing; efficiency gap; multiyear investment planning; Public investment spending; Infrastructure; Capital budget; South Asia; Asia and Pacific; Caribbean
    Date: 2021–04–30
  64. By: Ndiaye, Alioune
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Community/Rural/Urban Development
    Date: 2021–08
  65. By: Schwandt, Hannes (Northwestern University); Currie, Janet (Princeton University); Bär, Marlies (Erasmus School of Health Policy and Management); Banks, James (Institute for Fiscal Studies, London); Bertoli, Paola (University of Verona); Bütikofer, Aline (Norwegian School of Economics); Cattan, Sarah (Institute for Fiscal Studies, London); Chao, Beatrice Zong-Ying (Northwestern University); Costa, Claudia (University of Coimbra); Gonzalez, Libertad (Universitat Pompeu Fabra); Grembi, Veronica (University of Milan); Huttunen, Kristiina (Aalto University); Karadakic, René (Norwegian School of Economics); Kraftman, Lucy (Institute for Fiscal Studies, London); Krutikova, Sonya (Institute for Fiscal Studies, London); Lombardi, Stefano (VATT, Helsinki); Redler, Peter (University of Munich); Riumallo Herl, Carlos (affiliation not available); Rodríguez-González, Ana (Lund University); Salvanes, Kjell G. (Norwegian School of Economics); Santana, Paula (University of Coimbra); Thuilliez, Josselin (University Paris 1); van Doorslaer, Eddy (Erasmus University Rotterdam); Van Ourti, Tom (Erasmus School of Economics); Winter, Joachim (University of Munich); Wouterse, Bram (Erasmus University Rotterdam); Wuppermann, Amelie (Martin-Luther University, Halle-Wittenberg)
    Abstract: Although there is a large gap between Black and White American life expectancies, the gap fell 48.9% between 1990-2018, mainly due to mortality declines among Black Americans. We examine age-specific mortality trends and racial gaps in life expectancy in rich and poor U.S. areas and with reference to six European countries. Inequalities in life expectancy are starker in the U.S. than in Europe. In 1990 White Americans and Europeans in rich areas had similar overall life expectancy, while life expectancy for White Americans in poor areas was lower. But since then even rich White Americans have lost ground relative to Europeans. Meanwhile, the gap in life expectancy between Black Americans and Europeans decreased by 8.3%. Black life expectancy increased more than White life expectancy in all U.S. areas, but improvements in poorer areas had the greatest impact on the racial life expectancy gap. The causes that contributed the most to Black mortality reductions included: Cancer, homicide, HIV, and causes originating in the fetal or infant period. Life expectancy for both Black and White Americans plateaued or slightly declined after 2012, but this stalling was most evident among Black Americans even prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. If improvements had continued at the 1990-2012 rate, the racial gap in life expectancy would have closed by 2036. European life expectancy also stalled after 2014. Still, the comparison with Europe suggests that mortality rates of both Black and White Americans could fall much further across all ages and in both rich and poor areas. Significance Statement From 1990-2018, the Black-White life expectancy gap fell 48.9% though progress stalled after 2012 as life expectancy plateaued or declined. If improvements had continued at the 1990-2012 rate, the racial gap in life expectancy would have closed by 2036. Black life expectancy in 1990 started below European or White American levels but grew at a faster rate: the gap between Europeans and Black Americans decreased by 8.3% between 1990-2018. In 1990 White Americans and Europeans in rich areas had similar life expectancy, while White Americans in poor areas had lower life expectancy than poor Europeans. But all White Americans have lost ground relative to Europeans. Current incomebased life expectancy gaps are starker in the U.S. than in comparable European countries.
    Keywords: life expectancy, racial disparity, area-level socioeconomic status, international comparison
    JEL: I14
    Date: 2021–09
  66. By: Pabilonia, Sabrina Wulff (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics); Vernon, Victoria (Empire State College)
    Abstract: This chapter reviews the evidence on the relationship between telework and households' time allocation, drawing heavily on the empirical evidence from time diary data, and discusses the implications of telework for workers' productivity, wages, labor force participation, and well-being. Telework results in significant time savings for workers, as they reduce time on commuting and grooming activities by over one hour on telework days. This time is reallocated to household and leisure activities, but differentially for men and women. Men spend most of their time windfall on leisure activities; however, fathers also increase time on primary child care. Women, on the other hand, increase their household production. Children and parents benefit because they spend more time together; however, average full-time workers spend more time alone when they telework.
    Keywords: working from home, telework, telecommuting, commuting, home-based work, alternative work arrangements, work-life balance, time use, productivity, well-being, wages
    JEL: J22 J31 D13
    Date: 2021–11
  67. By: Asongu, Simplice; Diop, Samba
    Abstract: In this paper, we revisit the relationship between governance and human development in Africa during the period 2010-2019 taking into account the existence of spatial dependence and controlling the endogeneity problem through a Generalized Spatial Two Stage Least Squares (2SLS). The exploratory spatial data analysis reveals the existence of spatial dependence of human development and governance quality. Our empirical findings support that in Africa, “good fences make good neighbours” or proximity matters in the distribution of human development. Implications are discussed.
    Keywords: Governance, human development, Africa
    JEL: D31 I10 I32 K40 O55
    Date: 2021–01
  68. By: Bernhard Hammer (TU Wien); Michael Christl (JRC Seville); Silvia De Poli (JRC Seville)
    Abstract: Governments face a potential trade-off between provision for the growing population in retirement and the support of working-age households with low income. Using EUROMOD-based microdata from 28 countries, we (a) quantify the redistribution to the pensioner and non-pensioner populations, (b) study the position of net beneficiaries in the overall income distribution and (c) analyse how taxes and benefits affect the working-age population with low income. Our results provide novel insights into the distributive role of tax-benefit systems across Europe. Interestingly, a strong overall redistribution between households is associated with generous pensions for a portion of the retirees but negatively related to support for low-income households.
    Keywords: Redistribution, Welfare state, Inequality, Microsimulation, EUROMOD
    JEL: H11 H23
    Date: 2020–11
  69. By: Teuku Riefky (Institute for Economic and Social Research, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Indonesia (LPEM FEB UI)); Faizal Rahmanto Moeis (Institute for Economic and Social Research, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Indonesia (LPEM FEB UI)); Yusuf Sofiyandi (Institute for Economic and Social Research, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Indonesia (LPEM FEB UI)); Muhammad Adriansyah (Institute for Economic and Social Research, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Indonesia (LPEM FEB UI)); Anas Izzuddin (Institute for Economic and Social Research, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Indonesia (LPEM FEB UI)); Aqilah Farhani (Institute for Economic and Social Research, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Indonesia (LPEM FEB UI)); Sendy Jasmine (Institute for Economic and Social Research, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Indonesia (LPEM FEB UI))
    Abstract: Indonesia is in the middle of its long-term development challenge to escape the ‘middle-income trap’. As often as developing countries face the same challenge, one common strategy to be implemented by the Government of Indonesia (GoI) is to develop a massive infrastructure plan across the country. Despite the ambitious development and planning of infrastructure in Indonesia, Indonesia’s current state of infrastructure is under threat due to natural disasters. Natural disasters cause damage to infrastructure, which affects the infrastructure’s ability to provide benefits for the society and economy. The geographical position of Indonesia and climate-related factors have raised the exposure of environmental risks and climate change to Indonesia’s infrastructure. In general, the current infrastructure conditions in Indonesia are simply not resilient enough to endure future disaster and climate change risks. Therefore, to mitigate and adapt to these risks, Indonesia should build resilient infrastructures, which are able to withstand damage or disruptions, but if affected, can be readily and cost-effectively restored (Scalingi, 2007). Indonesia has created several national-level development plans for resilient infrastructure development, such as the 2014 RAN-API, 2012 RAN-MAPI, and the 2020–2024 RPJMN that complement each other, emphasize resilient infrastructure to reduce losses due to disasters. Regionally, several districts have their own climate change adaption disaster risk reduction plan, such as Makassar City and Kupang City, that accommodate local disaster and climate risks. However, not all districts have designed their climate change adaptation disaster risk reduction plan as it is not mandatory. Moreover, the GoI has created several regulations regarding resilient infrastructure, such as Green Buildings, infrastructure in tsunami-prone areas, and building technical requirements. These plans and regulations have also been supported by several actors, both from the public and private sector.
    Keywords: climate change — development planning — Indonesia — natural disasters — resilient infrastructure
    JEL: H54 O21 Q54 Q58 R58
    Date: 2021
  70. By: Dai, Fengyan (Nanjing University of Finance and Economics); Xu, Lei (National Institute of Economic and Social Research (NIESR)); Zhu, Yu (University of Dundee)
    Abstract: We examine the teacher labour market in China using the 2005 mini-Census, in the context of the transformation of the world's largest education system. We first document a significant increase not only in quantity, but also in quality of teachers during 1990-2005. Instrumental Variables results based on the natural experiment of a substantial expansion of higher education in 1992/93 indicate a large positive causal effect of the expansion on supply of teachers. Consistent with differential opportunity costs across graduate occupations, the supply effect is more pronounced for women and those living in less developed regions. Further analyses of differential college premiums in earnings and non-pecuniary benefits between teaching and non-teaching occupations suggest that teacher recruitment has become more market-oriented and flexible, in attracting low to lower-middle ability college graduates into teaching in an increasingly decentralized and competitive graduate labour market.
    Keywords: higher education expansion, supply of teachers, China, instrumental variables, college premium, non-pecuniary benefits
    JEL: I23 I26 J45
    Date: 2021–11
  71. By: Kaufmann, Klara (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg, Germany); Kotte, Volker (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg, Germany); Schwengler, Barbara (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg, Germany); Wiethölter, Doris (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg, Germany)
    Abstract: "In this report, we analyse how employment has developed for unskilled and semi-skilled jobs, which generally do not require an apprenticeship training, from 2015 to 2019. As a result, the number of these jobs has increased at an above-average rate during this period. The positive employment trend was largely driven by foreign employees, especially by people from the eight main countries of origin of asylum who were able to take up an employment for the first time during the period we analysed. Unskilled and semi-skilled work has developed quite differently from state to state. The reason for this is different industry structures. There are some striking differences between eastern and western Germany and between cities and rural areas. While in western Germany, the number of un-skilled and semi-skilled work has increased significantly in the construction industry, in eastern Germany the number of occupations in these jobs has increased to a much higher extent in the transport and warehousing sector. In addition, in health care and social services and in other ser-vices the number of unskilled and semi-skilled work has increased much more in the eastern states than in western Germany. On the one hand, the Covid-19-pandemic starting in 2020 hit unskilled and semi-skilled jobs com-paratively hard, resulting in a 2.4 percent decline in employment from 2019 to 2020. On the other hand, the number of high skilled jobs in particular increased considerably. The reason is that some industries with a lot of unskilled and semi-skilled work were seriously affected by the Corona crisis, such as business-related services, catering and the manufacturing sector." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    Date: 2021–11–19
  72. By: Mr. Romain A Duval; Mr. Ippei Shibata; Yi Ji
    Abstract: Raising South Africa’s low employment rate to levels seen in emerging market or advanced economy peers could raise GDP per capita by 50 to 60 percent and reduce income inequality dramatically in the long term. By putting further strain on an already fragile labor market, Covid-19 has raised the urgency of action. This paper reviews labor market policy and other reform options to enhance South Africa’s job market performance, drawing from international evidence and new analysis. We find much scope for improving the design of key labor market institutions—including collective bargaining and employment protection legislation—and active labor market policies to improve job seekers’ prospects. These reforms should come hand-in-hand with others, such as in the areas of education or product market regulation, that may work pay. Labor market and other reforms would primarily benefit disadvantaged groups such as youth.
    Keywords: reform option; paper reviews labor market policy; labor market performance; youth employment; product market regulation; Labor markets; Employment; Employment protection; Wages; Africa
    Date: 2021–06–11
  73. By: Beniamino Pisicoli (DEF, University of Rome "Tor Vergata")
    Abstract: In this paper we investigate the influence of banking and financial diversity on stability. We compute an index of banking diversity for Italian provinces and, drawing from network theory, we propose a measure of the diversity and development of the overall provincial financial sector. Our results show that diversity in the banking and financial markets promotes greater stability. Such beneficial effects are particularly evident during periods of financial distress. We ascribe our findings to the better diversification achieved by more diverse financial systems, as documented by lower loans concentration and higher loans diversification in terms of economic destination and borrower category.
    Keywords: financial diversity; financial stability; non-performing loans; financial complexity; financial crises; banking diversity
    JEL: G01 G20 P34
    Date: 2021–11–09
  74. By: Joan Calzada (Universitat de Barcelona); Nestor Duch-Brown (Joint Research Centre); Ricard Gil (Smith School of Business, Queen’s University)
    Abstract: Search engines are one of the main channels to access news content of traditional newspapers. In the European Union, organic search traffic from Google accounts for 35% of news outlets’ visits. Yet, the effects of Google Search on market competition and information diversity are ambiguous, as the firm indexes news outlets considering both domain authority and information accuracy. Using detailed daily data traffic for 606 news outlets from 15 European countries, we assess the effect of Google Search’s indexation on search visits. Our identification strategy exploits nine core algorithm updates rolled out by Google between 2018 and 2020 in order to achieve exogenous variation in news outlets’ indexation. Several conclusions follow from our estimations. First, Google core updates overall reduce the number of keywords that news outlets have in top positions in search results. Second, keywords ranked in top search position have a positive effect on news outlets’ visits. Third, our results are robust when we focus the analysis on different types of news outlets, but are less conclusive when we consider national markets separately. Our paper also analyzes the effects of Google core updates on media market concentration. We find that the three “big†core updates identified in this period reduced market concentration by 1%, but this effect was mostly compensated by the rest of the updates.
    Keywords: Media market, Google Search, Europe, core algorithm updates.
    JEL: L1 L5
    Date: 2021

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