nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2021‒11‒15
forty-nine papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. The U.S. Housing and Mortgage Market: Risks and Resilience: a speech at the Women in Housing and Finance Public Policy Luncheon, Washington, D.C., November 8, 2021 By Michelle W. Bowman
  2. Home Sweet Home: Impacts of Living Conditions on Rural-Urban Labor Migration Using Evidence from a Housing Lottery By Filipski, Mateusz; Qiu, Huanguang; Wang, Xiangrui; Hong, Junqiao
  3. Prospering through Prospera: CCT Impacts on Educational Attainment and Achievement in Mexico By Behrman, J.; Parker, S.; Todd, P.; Zhang, W.
  4. What Did Homeowners Do with Home Equity Borrowing? Contemporaneous and Long-term Effects By Sheng Guo
  5. Exploring the Concept of Geographies of Innovation By Victoria Galan-Muros; Fatime Barbara Hegyi; Alep Blancas; Andrea Sagredo
  6. Is Holland a Lumpy Country? An Application of the Lens-Condition to Dutch Cities By Steven Brakman; Tijl Hendrich; Charles van Marrewijk; Jennifer Olsen
  7. Technological Diffusion and Productivity Convergence across European Regions: A Spatial Approach over the Period 2000-2015 By Fabio Manca; Giuseppe Piroli
  8. The Political Geography of Cities By Richard Bluhm; Christian Lessmann; Paul Schaudt
  9. What makes us move, what makes us stay: The role of culture in intra-EU mobility By Ekaterina Sprenger
  10. How to Cope with Dyslexia: The Effects of Special Education on Academic Performance, Personality Traits, and Well-being By Søren Albeck Nielsen
  11. The Italian Geography of Regional Resilience: The Role of Cooperative Firms By Michele Costa; Flavio Delbono
  12. Key Challenges in Sanitizing Transportation Data to Protect Sensitive Information By Bishop, Matt
  13. Is There a Need for Reverse Mortgages in Germany? Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications By Florian Bartsch; Florian Buhlmann; Karolin Kirschenmann; Carolin Schmidt
  14. The Industrial Revolution in Services By Chang-Tai Hsieh; Esteban Rossi-Hansberg
  15. Wage Effects of Educational Mismatch According to Workers’ Origin: The Role of Demographics and Firm Characteristics By Jacobs, Valentine; Rycx, François; Volral, Mélanie
  16. Belonging or estrangement: The European refugee crisis and its effects on immigrant identity By Prömel, Christopher
  17. A Framework to Measure Regional Disparities in Battery Electric Vehicle Diffusion in Ireland By Sanghamitra Mukherjee
  18. Transition from a two-parent to a single-parent household and child development By Kim, Inkyung
  19. Does Expanding Access to Cannabis Affect Traffic Crashes? County-Level Evidence from Recreational Marijuana Dispensary Sales in Colorado By Gunadi, Christian
  20. Land-use hysteresis triggered by staggered payment schemes for more permanent biodiversity conservation By Drechsler, Martin; Grimm, Volker
  21. Global Value Chains from an Evolutionary Economic Geography perspective: a research agenda By Ron Boschma; ;
  22. The Economic Effects of Immigration Restriction Policies - Evidence from the Italian Mass Migration to the US By Davide M. Coluccia; Lorenzo Spadavecchia
  23. Living Wage Update Report: Urban Bangladesh, Dhaka and satellite cities (March 2021) By Lykke E. Andersen; Alejandra Gonzales; Richard Anker; Martha Anker
  24. How Can South Korea Teach, Lead, and Help in Asia's Quest for Smart Cities? By Gillispie, Clara
  25. The distributional effect of a massive exodus in Latin America and the role of downgrading and regularization By Carlo Lombardo; Julian Martinez-Correa; Leonardo Peñaloza-Pacheco; Leonardo Gasparini
  26. The Local Economic Impact of Mineral Mining in Africa: Evidence from Four Decades of Satellite Imagery By Sandro Provenzano; Hannah Bull
  27. Save, Spend or Give? A Model of Housing, Family Insurance, and Savings in Old Age By Fahle, Sean; Barczyk, Daniel; Kredler, Matthias
  28. Geography of eco-innovations vis-à-vis geography of sustainability transitions: Two sides of the same coin? By Hendrik Hansmeier
  29. Sanitization of Transportation Data: Policy Implications and Gaps By Bishop, Matt
  30. Does Labor Protection Increase Support for Immigration? Evidence from Switzerland By Mirjam Bächli; Teodora Tsankova
  31. Panel Study of Emerging Transportation Technologies and Trends in California: Phase 2 Findings By Circella, Giovanni; Iogansen, Xiatian; Matson, Grant; Malik, Jai; Etezady, Ali
  32. Over-perception about Land Use Changes: Assessing Empirical Evidence and Linkage with Decisions and Motivated Beliefs By Hongli Feng; Tong Wang; David A. Hennessy; Gaurav Arora
  33. Does the geographic clustering of universities promote their scientific research performance? Evidence from China By Chu, Shuai; Wu, Mengfei
  34. Mining and quality of public services: The role of local governance and decentralization By Maty Konte; Rose Camille Vincent
  35. Regional variation in women’s education-fertility nexus in Northern and Western Europe By Jonas Wood; Leen Marynissen; Jessica Nisén; Peter Fallesen; Karel Neels; Alessandra Trimarchi; Lars Dommermuth; Ruben Van Gaalen; Martin Kolk; Pekka Martikainen
  36. Did the Covid-19 local lockdowns reduce business activity? Evidence from UK SMEs By Hurley, James; Walker, Daniel
  37. Evaluation of building analysis approaches as a basis for the energy improvement of city districts By Mayer, Zoe; Volk, Rebekka; Schultmann, Frank
  38. Online Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic Among Primary and High School Students in Rural China By Shen, Xuejing; Li, Shaoping; Liu, Chengfang; Luo, Renfu; Chen, Yuting
  39. Living Wage Benchmark Report: Non-metropolitan urban and rural Mexico, Michoacán (October 2020) By Marcelo Delajara; Rocio Espinosa; Claudia Fonseca; Martha Anker; Richard Anker
  40. Machine learning in explaining nonprofit organizations’ participation : a driving factors analysis approach By Zhanxue Gong; Xiyuan Li; Jiawen Liu; Yeming Gong
  41. Regional and national results on entrepreneurship using GEM data By Velilla, Jorge
  42. Urbanisation and demography in North and West Africa, 1950-2020 By Olivier J. Walther
  43. Assessing the Role of Asylum Policies in Refugees' Labor Market Integration: The Case of Protection Statuses in the German Asylum System By Strazzeri, Maurizio
  44. Incentive-Based Electric Vehicle Charging for Managing Bottleneck Congestion By Carlo Cenedese; Patrick Stokkink; Nikolas Gerolimins; John Lygeros
  45. Minimum Wages and Rural and Urban Firm Entry and Exit By Yulong Chen; Liyuan Ma; Peter F. Orazem
  46. The Origins of Talent in Rural and Urban Iowa By John V. Winters
  47. Comparing the immigrant-native pay gap: A novel evidence from home and host countries By Andrej Cupák; Pavel Ciaian; d'Artis Kancs
  48. Flood Disasters and Health Among the Urban Poor By Michelle Escobar Carias; David Johnston; Rachel Knott; Rohan Sweeney
  49. Cognitive ability, financial literacy, and narrow bracketing in time-preference elicitation By Oberrauch, Luis; Kaiser, Tim

  1. By: Michelle W. Bowman
    Date: 2021–11–08
  2. By: Filipski, Mateusz; Qiu, Huanguang; Wang, Xiangrui; Hong, Junqiao
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Labor and Human Capital
    Date: 2021–08
  3. By: Behrman, J.; Parker, S.; Todd, P.; Zhang, W.
    Abstract: This paper develops and estimates a dynamic model of student enrollment, school choice, academic achievement and grade progression to evaluate the impacts of Mexico’s conditional cash transfer program Prospera on educational outcomes over grades 4-9. Academic achievement is measured by nationwide standardized test scores in mathematics and Spanish. Enrollment decisions are the outcomes of sequential decisions at each age from individuals’ feasible choice sets, determined by the types of schools locally available and local-labor-market opportunities. The achievement production function has a value-added structure. Model parameters are estimated by maximum likelihood using nationwide administrative test-score data (the ENCEL data) combined with survey data from students and parents, census labor-market data, and geo-coded school-location data. The estimation approach controls for selective school enrollment in different types of schools, grade retention and unobserved heterogeneity. The results show that the Prospera program increases school enrollment and academic achievement for program beneficiaries in lower-secondary school grades (grades 7-9). The average test-score impacts are 0.09-0.13 standard deviations in mathematics and 0.03-0.05 standard deviations in Spanish. Students from the most disadvantaged backgrounds experience the largest impacts. The availability of telesecondary distance-learning schools is shown to be an important determinant of the Prospera program’s impacts on educational outcomes.
    Date: 2021–11–08
  4. By: Sheng Guo (Department of Economics, Florida International University)
    Abstract: Using a panel sample from the Panel Study Income Dynamics (1999-2015), I find that homeowners’ contemporaneous spending and nonhome wealth increased with home equity withdrawals, but their longer-term spending and wealth declined if their home equity was extracted during the housing boom period. Following Hurst and Stafford’s (2004) definition of liquidity constraint, I find that the constrained homeowners' contemporaneous spending increased less, while their financial wealth increased more than those of the unconstrained. Unconstrained homeowners invested more than constrained homeowners in nonhome real estate and businesses. In the long run, the consumption spending of both groups persistently declined, while their wealth recovered from initial declines.
    Keywords: Consumption, Liquidity constraint, Housing market, Home equity, Mortgage
    JEL: D91 D14 E21 G21 G02
    Date: 2021–11
  5. By: Victoria Galan-Muros (Innovative Futures Institute); Fatime Barbara Hegyi (European Commission - JRC); Alep Blancas; Andrea Sagredo
    Abstract: In the last decades, so-called geographies of innovation have emerged worldwide as vehicles to drive economic development. These urban areas are planned and actively managed spatial clustering of a wide range of innovative organisations and intermediaries to undertake collaborative innovation activities. However, the concept of geography of innovation (or innovation geography) remains ambiguous. In addition, there are no commonly accepted definitions or classifications of different models of geographies of innovation. Terms such as park, hub, district, cluster, and ecosystem are used interchangeably, and their definitions can be far-reaching and adaptable. The key question addressed in this research is the main challenges of current policies for geographies of innovation in Europe, offering a view on how governments can better support the emergence and development of geographies of innovation in Europe.Hence, this report aims to explore the concept of geographies of innovation as an evolution of industrial and business clustering combining theoretical and practical approaches. The authors propose a definition and classification of the different models of geographies of innovation, highlighting some of the main challenges in implementing this identification and measurement. The comparative case study analysis containing thirteen case studies from four cities provide evidence supporting the development of European, national, or regional policies, enabling current and future geographies of innovation to enhance their performance and their contributions to greener, cleaner, socially more just, and overall to more developed cities and regions in Europe and beyond.
    Keywords: geographies of innovation, innovation districts, economic development, social development, policy development, policy support
    Date: 2021–11
  6. By: Steven Brakman; Tijl Hendrich; Charles van Marrewijk; Jennifer Olsen
    Abstract: Traditional trade theory assumes that countries are dimensionless points. Recent research shows, however, that the internal geography of countries is important for the effects on trade. One aspect of internal geography is the uneven spatial distribution of factors of production. Factors of production especially concentrate in urban locations. The so-called lens-condition tests whether the (urban) distribution of factors of production is uneven enough to affect the national structure of trade. Using detailed data and applying the condition to 22 cities and 4 regions within The Netherlands for 2007-2017, shows that the condition is fulfilled. We explain why.
    Keywords: lumpiness of countries, HOS model
    JEL: F10
    Date: 2021
  7. By: Fabio Manca; Giuseppe Piroli
    Abstract: What are the drivers of growth and convergence in productivity at regional level? Differences in the stock of human capital across regions are hypothesized to be the major cause of differences in the speed by which following regions converge and catch-up with the most advanced ones. In addition, we test the role played by R&D expenditures and institutions exploiting a database covering European regions from 1995 to 2015, which includes regional total factor productivity (TFP) computed by the conventional residual approach. We find robust empirical evidence for these hypotheses in terms of both model specifications and sectoral disaggregation.
    Keywords: Regional Studies, European Regions, Catching-up, Total Factor Productivity
    JEL: P48 D24 J24 E02 C31 C33
    Date: 2021–10–07
  8. By: Richard Bluhm; Christian Lessmann; Paul Schaudt
    Abstract: We study the link between subnational capital cities and urban development using a global data set of hundreds of first-order administrative and capital city reforms from 1987 until 2018. We show that gaining subnational capital status has a sizable effect on city growth in the medium run. We provide new evidence that the effect of these reforms depends on locational fundamentals, such as market access, and that the effect is greater in countries where urbanization and industrialization occurred later. Consistent with both an influx of public investments and a private response of individuals and firms, we document that urban built-up, population, foreign aid, infrastructure, and foreign direct investment in several sectors increase once cities become subnational capitals.
    Keywords: capital cities, administrative reforms, economic geography, urban primacy
    JEL: H10 R11 R12 O10
    Date: 2021
  9. By: Ekaterina Sprenger (ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics)
    Abstract: This article analyses the determinants of international migration flows within the European Union and specifically focuses on the role of cultural and linguistic differences in explaining the size of these flows. For that purpose, a set of indicators of cultural distance are controlled for along with economic, demographic, geographical, political and network variables using data from 28 member states of the European Union over the period 1998-2018. Economic factors play an important role in examining migration flows, but economic differentials alone may be insufficient to explain the uneven real-life migration pattern in the EU. The results suggest strong evidence of the importance of linguistic distance in explaining the direction of migration flows across the European Union.
    Keywords: European Union; Geographic Mobility; Labour Mobility; Migration; Optimum Currency Area
    JEL: J61 F22 O15
    Date: 2021–10
  10. By: Søren Albeck Nielsen (Department of Economics and Business Economics, TrygFonden's Centre for Child Research, Centre for Integrated Register-based Research, CIRRAU, Aarhus University)
    Abstract: I use Danish administrative data to study the effects of a special education intervention for pupils with severe dyslexia. My empirical approach exploits individual level panel data that allow me to track pupils before and after the initiation of treatment. Using a difference-in-difference strategy in combination with entropy balancing, I find positive and persistent effects of the intervention on pupils' reading scores, personality traits, and school well-being. The intervention reduces the reading gap to non-dyslexics with up 33 percent and the well-being gap with up to 80 percent.
    Keywords: Dyslexia, Special education, Assistive technology, Personality traits, Difference-in-difference
    JEL: C21 H52 I21 I28
    Date: 2021–11–04
  11. By: Michele Costa; Flavio Delbono
    Abstract: We investigate the economic resilience of the Italian regions between 2008 and 2019. We then calculate some indices of resistance as well as recovery for both real GDP per capita and employment. We show that during (and after) recessions such indices follow different patterns and the Southern regions perform worse than the rest of the country. Then we try to detect if and how the composition of employment relates to regional resilience. We show that the size of the cooperative employment improves the overall resilience of regional employment, especially during recoveries. We also show and explain that this is not the case with cooperative added value as related to the resilience of regional GDP. Overall, the cooperative movement seems to positively contribute to the resilience of regional economies, supporting an inclusive growth especially through the employment channel.
    JEL: E32 J54 L21 R11
    Date: 2021–10
  12. By: Bishop, Matt
    Abstract: As new mobility services such as ridehailing and shared micromobility have grown, so has the quantity of data available about how and where people travel. Transportation data provides government agencies and transportation companies with valuable information that can be used for identifying traffic patterns, predicting infrastructure needs, informing city planning, and other purposes. However, the data may also contain sensitive information that can identify individuals, the beginning and ending points of their trips, and other details that raise concerns about personal privacy. Even if a traveler’s name and address is suppressed, adversaries could use other parts of the information such as trip origin and destination to learn an individual’s identity and their habits. Similarly, another transportation company competing with the company that collected the data could potentially steal their customer base if they can use the data to obtain proprietary information such as frequent dropoff/pick-up locations, vehicle positioning, travel routes, or algorithms for assigning vehicles to clients.
    Keywords: Engineering
    Date: 2021–11–05
  13. By: Florian Bartsch; Florian Buhlmann; Karolin Kirschenmann; Carolin Schmidt
    Abstract: Building up sufficient capital for old‐age provision often is a challenge for private households. For homeowners, one way to generate old‐age income from illiquid housing wealth is the use of equity release products such as home reversion plans or reverse mortgages. However, in Germany the market for reverse mortgages is quasi non‐existent. In this policy brief, we provide evidence on the demand‐ and supply‐side reasons for the absence of a reverse mortgage market in Germany, estimate the potential size of and discuss ways how to establish such a market. Using data from financial market expert and household surveys and information from extensive telephone interviews with (former) suppliers of equity release products, we find that uncertainty relating to the homeowner’s longevity, moral hazard and adverse selection are the strongest deterrents to reverse mortgage supply. At the same time, the demand‐side deterrents are manifold, ranging from product complexity to trust issues and a strong emotional attachment to the home. Estimated market size is very small, but our results suggest that it might grow in the medium term. From a political economy point of view, it might also be worthwhile stimulating the growth of a reverse mortgage market in Germany because it could particularly benefit cash‐poor but house‐rich households, decreasing old‐age poverty.
    Date: 2021
  14. By: Chang-Tai Hsieh; Esteban Rossi-Hansberg
    Abstract: The U.S. has experienced an industrial revolution in services. Firms in service industries, those where output has to be supplied locally, increasingly operate in more markets. Employment, sales, and spending on fixed costs such as R&D and managerial employment have increased rapidly in these industries. These changes have favored top firms the most and have led to increasing national concentration in service industries. Top firms in service industries have grown entirely by expanding into new local markets that are predominantly small and mid-sized U.S. cities. Market concentration at the local level has decreased in all U.S. cities but by significantly more in cities thatwere initially small. These facts are consistent with the availability of a new menu of fixed-cost-intensive technologies in service sectors that enable adopters to produce at lower marginal costs in any markets. The entry of top service firms into new local markets has led to substantial unmeasured productivity growth, particularly in small markets.
    Date: 2021–10
  15. By: Jacobs, Valentine; Rycx, François; Volral, Mélanie
    Abstract: This paper analyses the wage effects of educational mismatch by workers’ origin using a sizeable, detailed matched employer-employee dataset for Belgium. Relying on a fine-grained approach to measuring educational mismatch, the results show that over-educated workers, regardless of their origin, suffer a wage penalty compared to their well-matched former classmates. However, the magnitude of this wage penalty is found to vary considerably depending on workers’ origin. In addition, the estimates show that origin-based differences in over-education wage penalties significantly depend on both demographics (workers’ region of birth, education, and gender) and employer characteristics (firm size and collective bargaining).
    Keywords: Immigrants,educational mismatch,wage gap,linked employer-employee data
    JEL: I24 I26 J15 J24 J31
    Date: 2021
  16. By: Prömel, Christopher
    Abstract: This study deals with the impact of the 2015 European Refugee Crisis on the ethnic identity of resident migrants in Germany. To derive plausibly causal estimates, I exploit the quasiexperimental setting in Germany, by which refugees are allocated to different counties by state authorities without being able to choose their locations themselves. This study finds that higher shares of refugees in a county increased migrants' attachment to their home countries, while not affecting their perceived belonging to Germany. Further analyses uncover strong heterogeneities with respect to country of origin and immigrant characteristics and suggest that the observed effects may be primarily driven by experiences of discrimination and the consumption of foreign media. Lastly, I find that changes in ethnic identity coincide with the political polarization of migrants. These results have various policy implications in terms of the dispersal of asylum seekers, the modes of communication with different migrant groups and the importance of antidiscrimination measures.
    Keywords: Refugees,Migrants,Ethnic Identity,European Refugee Crisis
    JEL: F22 J15 P16 Z13
    Date: 2021
  17. By: Sanghamitra Mukherjee
    Abstract: This work studies the role of socio-economic and geospatial factors in shaping battery electric vehicle adoption for the case study of Ireland. It provides new insights on the level and timing of likely adoption at scale using a Bass diffusion model combined with a spatial model. The Bass model demonstrates that a country like Ireland may experience peak sales between 2025 and 2030 given current trends, reaching overall uptake levels that are not commensurate with current policy goals, whilst also potentially creating gulfs in regional take-up. The key conclusion from the spatial analysis is that location matters for uptake, through various channels that help or hinder adoption such as resources, information, and policy. Additional investment in public charging infrastructure facilities may also be needed as gaps in coverage exist, especially in rural areas to the West and South-West of the country. Although Ireland enjoys good network coverage overall, this study suggests that more charge points may be needed in some counties and Dublin city and suburbia where the number of charge points is currently disproportionate to a minimum network coverage comparable with the land area, population size, number of private vehicle owners, and travel behaviour. As the urgency for climate action intensifies in the coming decade, our spatio-temporal approach to studying uptake will not only help meet Ireland’s socio-ecological vision for the future, but also provide insights and strategies for comparable countries that are similarly placed in terms of electric vehicle adoption.
    Keywords: Battery electric vehicle adoption; Spatial analysis; Consumer behaviour; Bass diffusion model; Ireland
    JEL: D1 D9 O3 Q4
    Date: 2021–08
  18. By: Kim, Inkyung
    Abstract: As Korea is expected to see an increase in the share of single-parent families, this study analyzes the impact of a family transition from a two-parent to single-parent home on child development. The level of development is measured based on health, self-regulated learning, emotional disorders, selfperception, life satisfaction, peer attachment, school adjustment, sense of community, and multicultural acceptance. According to the analysis, children who have experienced a transition have difficulties in academic time management but see improvements in their attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders. However, the impact on other development criteria cannot be confirmed. The ability to manage academic time dropped 8.5% while the level of attention and attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorders improved 14.4%, compared to the averages. These results are possibly due to the fact that the children are able to have a positive relationship with the primary caregiver after the transition as they are no longer caught in the middle of the parental conflict. This finding indicates that contrary to the conventional belief, transitions can also positively influence child development, and thus, policy intervention is needed to alleviate the negative effects on learning ability. Housework support programs should be expanded to enable single parents to spend sufficient time parenting and, if necessary, receive help in better understanding their parental role. Also, schools should lead efforts to improve nurturing and learning environments by serving as a key link between families and local community. Single parents burdened with household chores cannot invest enough time to establish relationships with their children or gain information about nurturing and education. Programs for such services should stretch to reach single parents struggling with labor, study, disease, and disability. Parent education programs that are specifically customized to fit the needs of single parents should be included in housework support programs if needed to resolve grievances in a timely manner. Teachers should serve as a learning coach and emotional support for the children, and counsellor for the parents while closely monitoring the children's learning stages and family conditions that can affect academic performance. To alleviate the academic difficulties of students, schools should encourage teacher cooperation, promote parent-teacher partnerships, and reinforce parents' capability to provide academic support. They should also take the lead in adopting and driving family support services when a child is in need of help that exceeds the capabilities of the school.
    Date: 2021
  19. By: Gunadi, Christian
    Abstract: This article examines the effect of recreational cannabis dispensary sales on traffic crashes by employing difference-in-differences model that exploits the variation in the timing of recreational marijuana dispensary entry across counties within Colorado. Using marijuana-related hospital discharge as a proxy for marijuana use, the results indicate a sizable rise in marijuana-related hospital discharges after the entry of retail cannabis stores. However, there is a lack of evidence that traffic crash incidents are affected by the entry. The preferred estimate suggests that, at 90% confidence level, a large increase in traffic crashes by more than 5% can be ruled out.
    Keywords: Recreational Marijuana Laws,Cannabis Access,Traffic Crashes
    JEL: K00 I1 R41 H23
    Date: 2021
  20. By: Drechsler, Martin; Grimm, Volker
    Abstract: Making conservation payment schemes permanent so that conservation efforts are retained even after the payment has been stopped, is a major challenge. Another challenge is to design conservation so that they counteract the ongoing spatial fragmentation of species habitat. The agglomeration bonus in which a bonus is added to a flat payment if the conservation activity is carried out in the neighbourhood of other conserved land, has been shown to induce the establishment of spatially contiguous habitat. I the present paper we show, with a generic spatially explicit agent-based simulation model, that the interactions between the landowners in an agglomeration bonus scheme can lead to hysteresis in the land-use dynamics, implying permanence of the scheme. It is shown that this permanence translates into efficiency gains, especially if discount rates are low and the spatial heterogeneity of conservation costs is high.
    Keywords: agent-based model, agglomeration bonus, conservation payment, land use, permanence
    JEL: C63 Q24 Q57 Q58
    Date: 2022–10–25
  21. By: Ron Boschma; ;
    Abstract: The research agendas of Evolutionary Economic Geography (EEG) and Global Value Chains (GVC) have developed more or less independently from each other, with little interaction so far. This is unfortunate because both streams of literature have a lot to offer to each other. This paper explores how, looking at four strands in the GVC literature. Promising crossovers between EEG and the GVC literature are identified but also some missing links that need to be taken up in future research. These new research avenues, promoting the adoption of an evolutionary perspective on GVCs, are expected to enrich both literatures in mutual ways.
    Keywords: Evolutionary Economic Geography, Global Value Chains, Global Production Networks, Global Innovation Systems, regional diversification, relatedness
    JEL: B52 F23 O19 O33 R10
    Date: 2021–11
  22. By: Davide M. Coluccia; Lorenzo Spadavecchia
    Abstract: This article studies the impact of immigration restriction policies on technology adoption in sending countries. From 1920 to 1921, the number of Italian immigrants to the United States dropped by 85% after Congress passed the Emergency Quota Act, a severely restrictive immigration law. In a difference-in-differences setting, we exploit variation in exposure across Italian districts to this massive restriction against human mobility. Using novel individual-level data on Italian immigrants to the US and newly digitized historical censuses, we show that this policy substantially hampered technology adoption and capital investment. We interpret this as evidence of directed technical adoption: an increase in the labor supply dampens the incentive for firms to adopt labor-saving technologies. To validate this mechanism, we show that more exposed districts display a sizable increase in overall population and employment in manufacturing. We provide evidence that “missing migrants,” whose migration was inhibited by the Act, drive this result.
    Keywords: age of mass migration, emigration, economic development, immigration barriers, technology adoption
    JEL: N14 N34 O15 O33
    Date: 2021
  23. By: Lykke E. Andersen (SDSN Bolivia); Alejandra Gonzales (SDSN Bolivia); Richard Anker (Anker Research Institute); Martha Anker (Anker Research Institute)
    Abstract: This report updates the living wage and living expenses for Dhaka, Bangladesh and its surrounding Satellite Cities, where most of Bangladesh’s garment industry is located.2 The original study was carried out in March of 2016 (Khan et al., 2016), and it is necessary to take into account the inflation observed during the subsequent five years, in order to obtain a current estimate of living expenses and the living wage in Dhaka and surrounding Satellite Cities.
    Keywords: Living Wage, Bangladesh, urban, textiles, Anker Methodology.
    JEL: D10 J13 J22 J30 J80
    Date: 2021–03
  24. By: Gillispie, Clara (National Bureau of Asian Research (NBR))
    Abstract: As of 2021, virtually every country in Asia has announced some plan for standing up their own smart cities, with national- and/or city-level governments launching either pilot projects or official strategies to coordinate activities and investment across different stakeholder groups. In this context, South Korea could (and does) play a positive role in how countries across the region might be able to realize these plans. This includes through not only providing direct financial, technical, and development support, but also sharing its own lessons learned and practices in promoting sustainable, secure, and inclusive smart cities. Even so, both South Korean and Asian interests could benefit from greater attention to expanding South Korea-Asia engagements and cooperative mechanisms on digital development issues, as a means of better supporting and bolstering ongoing regional priorities.
    Keywords: South Korea; Asia; smart city; development
    Date: 2021–10–13
  25. By: Carlo Lombardo (CEDLAS-IIE-FCE-UNLP); Julian Martinez-Correa (CEDLAS-IIE-FCE-UNLP); Leonardo Peñaloza-Pacheco (Cornell University and CEDLAS-IIE-FCE-UNLP); Leonardo Gasparini (CEDLAS-IIE-FCE-UNLP & CONICET)
    Abstract: The massive displacement of Venezuelan citizens to Colombia is the second most important episode of forced migration in the world. We study the impact of this demographic shock on the Colombian income distribution exploiting the geographical heterogeneity in the intensity of migration. We use RIF regressions in an instrumental variables approach to account for the non-random pattern of location of immigrants. We find that despite the fact that Venezuelan immigrants are relatively skilled compared to native Colombian workers, the exodus had a larger negative effect on the lower tail of the wage distribution, implying increases in income inequality and poverty. We link this result to a sizeable downgrading of (mostly unregistered) Venezuelan recent migrants who work in more routine tasks and earn lower wages than natives with similar characteristics. We also explore a large regularization program for immigrants and find that it was associated to a reduction in the extent of downgrading, and hence, to a mitigation of the unequalizing impact of the exodus
    JEL: F14 F22 F16 F23 J61 L60
    Date: 2020–11
  26. By: Sandro Provenzano; Hannah Bull
    Abstract: This paper assembles large archives of satellite imagery to provide novel insights on how mine openings and closings impact the development of local communities in Africa. We collect 30m-resolution Landsat images between 1984 and 2019 from a 40km radius around 1,658 mineral deposits, covering 12% of the African landmass. Using state-of-the-art techniques in computer vision, we translate these images into economically meaningful indicators, including material wealth predictions as well as urban and agricultural land use. We then use stacked event studies and difference-in-difference models to estimate the local impact of mine openings and closings on these indicators. Our findings demonstrate that mine openings increase wealth and boost local urban growth and agricultural activities in the surrounding area. Furthermore, democratic institutions are a decisive factor for making mining a success for local communities. However, our results show that the fast growth in mining areas is only temporary. After the mines close, former mining areas cannot maintain elevated growth rates and revert to the same pace of development as areas without mines.
    Date: 2021–11
  27. By: Fahle, Sean; Barczyk, Daniel; Kredler, Matthias
    JEL: D1
    Date: 2021
  28. By: Hendrik Hansmeier (Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe, Germany)
    Abstract: The need to develop and disseminate solutions to address environmental challenges such as climate change or resource depletion is more urgent than ever. However, the spatial dimension of pathways towards sustainability has only attracted scholarly interest in recent years, particularly through largely parallel research on the geography of eco-innovations and the geography of sustainability transitions. By systematically reviewing the literature, this article aims to compare both lines of research, devoting special attention to the role of regions and actors. While the geography of eco-innovations field focuses on local and regional conditions that enable the emergence of environmentally friendly technologies and industries, research on the geography of sustainability transitions highlights the place-specific but multiscalar nature of socio-technical change, taking into account the role of different actor groups. The review identifies numerous complementarities between both fields that may serve as starting points to further integrate geographical work on eco-innovations and transformative change.
    Keywords: geography, eco-innovations, sustainability transitions, green technologies, socio-technical systems, systematic literature review
    Date: 2021
  29. By: Bishop, Matt
    Abstract: Data about mobility provides information to improve city planning, identify traffic patterns, detect traffic jams, and route vehicles around them. This data often contains proprietary and personal information that companies and individuals do not wish others to know, for competitive and personal reasons. This sets up a paradox: the data needs to be analyzed, but it cannot be without revealing information that must be kept secret. A solution is to sanitize the data—i.e., remove or suppress the sensitive information. The goal of sanitization is to protect sensitive information while enabling analyses of the data that will produce the same results as analyses of the unsanitized data. However, protecting information requires that sanitized data cannot be linked to data from other sources in a manner that leads to desanitization. This project reviews typical strategies used to sanitize datasets, the research on how some of these strategies are unsuccessful, and the questions that must be addressed to better understand the risks of desanitization.
    Keywords: Engineering, Data, traffic data, data sharing, data cleaning, data fusion, data privacy, computer security, transportation planning
    Date: 2021–11–01
  30. By: Mirjam Bächli; Teodora Tsankova
    Abstract: What affects native support for immigration? At a time of rising anti-immigration sentiments, this is a question raised by both academics and policy makers. We study the role of labor protection in shaping native preferences over migration policies. We look at Swiss national votes which took place from 2000 to 2014. Our results show that a higher immigrant exposure reduces pro-immigration vote shares in municipalities with a relatively low-skilled native population. The negative response is mitigated under higher levels of labor protection as measured by collective bargaining coverage. We look at labor market outcomes to understand mechanisms at play and find some suggestive evidence that collective agreements mitigate negative wage responses among low-skilled natives. Overall, the analysis suggests that labor protection affects vote outcomes by improving in addition other labor market conditions or by alleviating existing fears among the native population.
    Keywords: immigration, popular votes, collective bargaining
    JEL: D72 F22 J52 J61
    Date: 2021
  31. By: Circella, Giovanni; Iogansen, Xiatian; Matson, Grant; Malik, Jai; Etezady, Ali
    Abstract: Emerging transportation services, whose development and adoption have been enabled by information and communication technology, are largely transforming people’s travel and activity patterns. This study investigates the emerging transportation trends and how they transform travel-related decision-making in the population at large through the application of a unique longitudinal approach. As part of this project, a second wave of data collection in 2018 was built with a rotating panel structure as a continuation of the research efforts that started with the collection of the 2015 California Millennials Dataset. This report focuses on the analyses of the data collected in this project, in particular on the differences in attitudes towards transportation and the environment among different generational groups, the adoption and use of shared mobility services, and their relationship with vehicle ownership, the interest in the adoption of alternative fuel vehicles, and the interest in the future adoption of connected and automated vehicles. Due to the small number of respondents who participated in both surveys, for the purposes of the analyses contained in this report, we treated the data as repeated cross-sectional and analyzed the data from each survey separately. The study helps researchers evaluate the complex relationship between observed/latent characteristics and individual travel-related choices and decision-making. The study highlights attitudinal and mode-choice differences across generations. It explores the factors impacting current adoption of and future interest in new transportation technology including alternative fuel vehicles, automated vehicles and shared mobility. Divergent consumer segments are witnessed within each of these markets, with distinctive socio-demographics, latent attitudes, built environment, and level of familiarity with new technologies, which shape the uniqueness of their vehicle ownership, residential location, travel behavior, activity patterns, and lifestyle. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, Longitudinal Data, Cross-sectional Data, Millennials, Individual Lifestyles, Shared Mobility, Travel Behavior, Vehicle Ownership
    Date: 2021–11–01
  32. By: Hongli Feng (Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University); Tong Wang; David A. Hennessy (Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University); Gaurav Arora
    Abstract: Perception biases documented in the literature often pertain to subject matters that are difficult to observe or measure such as one's ability. We study perception biases with respect to a concrete indicator that can be objectively measured: land use changes in a local area. We examine four hypotheses about land use change perceptions and test them with farm survey data complemented by satellite data. We discover systematic biases in farmers' perceptions about local land use changes that are consistent with motivated beliefs, and also evidence that links perceptions with intended future land conversions. Alternative explanations and policy implications are discussed.
    Date: 2021–11
  33. By: Chu, Shuai; Wu, Mengfei
    Abstract: The fundamental purpose of university geographic clustering is to gather resources through "agglomeration" to improve the performance of higher education and scientific research. However, it has been debated whether university clusters can achieve the latter goal. With the help of the “quasi-experiment” of Chinese "University Towns" project in the 1990s, this study determines the impact of university clusters on scientific research performance. Panel data of 2000 colleges and universities from 1993 to 2017 in the compilation of scientific and technical statistics of Chinese higher education and time-varying difference in differences method are used. The results show that the cluster of colleges and universities have a significant negative impact on the scientific research performance due to technological dis-proximity and rising commuting costs. And the clustering effect is related to the number of participating schools and the level of the university. Therefore, university clustering cannot effectively promote the performance of scientific research and unable to bring agglomeration economies.
    Keywords: University cluster,Economies of agglomeration,Scientific research performance,Time-varying difference in differences method
    JEL: I23 O38 O53
    Date: 2021
  34. By: Maty Konte (UNU-MERIT - UNU-MERIT - United Nations University - Maastricht University); Rose Camille Vincent (UNU-MERIT - UNU-MERIT - United Nations University - Maastricht University, CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the local effects of mining on the quality of public services and on people's optimism about their future living conditions in Africa. Most importantly, it assesses the moderating role of local institutions and local governments' taxing rights in shaping the proximity-to-mine effects. The empirical framework connects more than 130,000 respondents from the Afrobarometer survey data (2005–2015) to their closest mines based on the geolocation coordinates of the enumeration areas (EA) and data on the mines and their respective status from the SNL Metals & Mining by the S&P. The geo-referenced data are matched with new indicators on local governments' taxing rights across the African continent. Using a difference-in-differences strategy, the results indicate that citizens living near an active mine are less likely to approve government performance in key public goods and services – including health, job creation and improving living standards of the poor. On the moderating role of local governance and local taxing rights, the findings point to a negative impact of local corruption, yet a positive impact of local authorities' discretion over tax and revenues. However, the positive impact of local taxing powers tends to reduce in environments with poor quality of local governance, high incidence of bribe payment and low level of trust in local government officials. Residents of mining communities with low corruption and comparatively high-level of raising revenue ability have the highest rate of positive appraisal compared to the other scenarios.
    Date: 2021–04
  35. By: Jonas Wood; Leen Marynissen; Jessica Nisén (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Peter Fallesen; Karel Neels; Alessandra Trimarchi (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Lars Dommermuth; Ruben Van Gaalen; Martin Kolk (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Pekka Martikainen (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany)
    Abstract: The relationship between female education and fertility is a long-standing topic in demography, our understanding of which continues to develop. Since the turn of the century, a growing body of research has documented cross-national variation in the female educational gradient in fertility, with mostly positive gradients in Western and Northern European countries. However, such national gradients may mask important variation in the educational gradient in fertility at the subnational level. This study is among the first to use large-scale individual-level administrative data to study regional educational gradients in parity-specific fertility in Northern and Western European countries: Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, the Netherlands, Norway, and Sweden. Adopting hazard models and model-based Synthetic Parity Progression Ratios, our results highlight considerable subnational regional variation in the educational gradient in first, second and third births. We conclude that, in addition to variation between countries, substantial within-country regional variation deserves to receive future scholarly attention. The documentation of regional variation in the female education-fertility nexus is a substantial extension of cross-national comparisons and contributes to the empirical and theoretical debate on the context-contingencies of the education-fertility nexus.
    Keywords: Europe, education, fertility, population registers, regional demography
    JEL: J1 Z0
    Date: 2021
  36. By: Hurley, James (Bank of England); Walker, Daniel (Bank of England)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the local lockdown measures introduced to contain the spread of Covid-19 in the UK. We use a spatial regression discontinuity design to assess whether the fall in business activity during the lockdowns was driven by the policy measures or by other factors, such as voluntary social distancing. We conclude that the local lockdowns did causally reduce business activity but that activity would have probably fallen substantially even in the absence of the lockdowns. During the local lockdowns, the average turnover growth for SMEs in the UK was around -20%. SMEs that were up to two kilometres inside the lockdown boundaries had 8 percentage points lower turnover growth than those up to two kilometres outside. This implies that the local lockdowns accounted for two fifths of the overall drop in business activity at most. The estimates are largest for restaurants and non-food retail (eg clothes shops), which were directly targeted by the restrictions. Costs fell by much less than turnover, reducing cash flow.
    Keywords: Covid-19; small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs); public health measures
    JEL: D22 E65 G30
    Date: 2021–10–15
  37. By: Mayer, Zoe; Volk, Rebekka; Schultmann, Frank
    Abstract: Municipalities in Germany develop policy plans referred to as 'Energetische Quartierskonzepte' (EQ, pl. EQs) to lower and decarbonize the energy consumption of existing buildings in whole city districts. These EQs describe the status-quo, a strategy, and measures for the energy-related improvement of a district based on an initial analysis of the buildings in the considered area. We study 25 publicly available reports of German EQs to identify common state-of-the-art approaches for the analysis of buildings on district scale, summarizing their strengths and weaknesses. We extract ten approaches that are currently applied in practice. Overall, we could not find any connection between the year of the EQ publication, the district size, and the type and quantity of analysis approaches used. The most common approaches for obtaining data for building analyses are the use of representative building typologies, on-site inspections of buildings, datasets from network-operators, and citizen surveys. The main weaknesses of the assessed approaches are for example inaccuracies due to simplifying assumptions, inconsistent data formats from different data sources, and problems due to data protection restrictions. The standardization, combination, and further development of the assessed approaches are recommended.
    Keywords: heating,building retrofits,urban transition,district analysis,building inspection,neighborhood
    Date: 2021
  38. By: Shen, Xuejing; Li, Shaoping; Liu, Chengfang; Luo, Renfu; Chen, Yuting
    Keywords: Health Economics and Policy
    Date: 2021–08
  39. By: Marcelo Delajara (Espinosa Yglesias Research Center); Rocio Espinosa (Espinosa Yglesias Research Center); Claudia Fonseca (Espinosa Yglesias Research Center); Martha Anker (Anker Research Institute); Richard Anker (Anker Research Institute)
    Abstract: This report estimates a living wage for Michoacán, Mexico for October 2020. The report is part of a series of living wage reports for the Global Living Wage Coalition (GLWC) using the Anker methodology to estimate living wages in rural and urban areas around the world.
    Keywords: Living Wage, Mexico, Urban, Anker Methodology.
    JEL: D10 J13 J22 J30 J80
    Date: 2020–10
  40. By: Zhanxue Gong (emlyon business school); Xiyuan Li; Jiawen Liu; Yeming Gong
    Abstract: The construction of smart cities requires the participation of nonprofit organizations, but there are still some problems in the analysis of driving factors of participation. Based on this, using the structural equation model as the research method, a public satisfaction relationship model, based on the machine learning, for nonprofit organizations participating in the construction planning of smart cities was constructed in this study. At the same time, corresponding assumptions are set, and data are collected through questionnaires. Afterward, the Likert tenth scale was used to score questionnaire questions, and deep learning was conducted in conjunction with the model. The research shows that the model established in this study has good analytical results and has certain practical effects. It can provide suggestions for optimization and can provide theoretical references for subsequent research.
    Keywords: public satisfaction,smart city,non-profit organization,Machine Learning,AI-based Management,Artificial Intelligence,Machine learning
    Date: 2019–12–01
  41. By: Velilla, Jorge
    Abstract: In this paper, we use different sources of data from the GEM to show a descriptive and comparative analysis of the different dimensions of the entrepreneurial activity, in the Spanish regions, and at international level. We also study the individual determinants of the entrepreneurial activity in Spain, and Europe, using bootstrapping techniques to avoid overfitted results. The results indicate that entrepreneurial levels in Spain are below the average of European countries, and also below the levels of United States, Canada, and Australia. However, the determinants of entrepreneurship appear to be similar in all the regions studied.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; GEM data; Spain
    JEL: L26
    Date: 2021–10
  42. By: Olivier J. Walther
    Abstract: This brief presents a factual and retrospective analysis of the relationships between urbanisation and demography in North Africa and West Africa. It shows that the process of demographic transition is now fully underway in this region. North of the Sahara the new demographic equilibrium features a birth rate higher than expected, according to theoretical model predictions, resulting in continuous population growth. Over 70% of the population now lives in cities, a number that is expected to continue to rise in the coming decades. South of the Sahara all countries have seen death rates plummet, followed by a decrease in birth rates. The gap between the change in the two variables has contributed to spectacular natural growth in the space of a few decades. This growth is occurring in parallel with a redistribution of populations to urban areas, which are now home to close to one of every two inhabitants. West African urbanisation is likely to accelerate the social, economic and political changes that favour the demographic transition. One of the main challenges facing the region is the question of how to reduce the regional variations seen in fertility rates between the continent’s urban and rural areas.
    Keywords: birth rate, demography, population, urbanisation, West Africa
    JEL: N37 N97 Q56
    Date: 2021–11–11
  43. By: Strazzeri, Maurizio
    JEL: J61
    Date: 2021
  44. By: Carlo Cenedese; Patrick Stokkink; Nikolas Gerolimins; John Lygeros
    Abstract: We propose an incentive-based traffic demand management policy to alleviate traffic congestion on a road stretch that creates a bottleneck for the commuters. The incentive targets electric vehicles owners by proposing a discount on the energy price they use to charge their vehicles if they are flexible in their departure time. We show that, with a sufficient monetary budget, it is possible to completely eliminate the traffic congestion and we compute the optimal discount. We analyse also the case of limited budget, when the congestion cannot be completely eliminated. We compute analytically the policy minimising the congestion and estimate the level of inefficiency for different budgets. We corroborate our theoretical findings with numerical simulations that allow us to highlight the power of the proposed method in providing practical advice for the design of policies.
    Date: 2021–11
  45. By: Yulong Chen; Liyuan Ma; Peter F. Orazem (Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University)
    Abstract: The US federal government has not increased the minimum wage since 2009. However, since then, 29 states and the District of Columbia have increased their minimum wage above the federal level. Many studies analyze the effect of the minimum wage on employment with mixed results. To the extent a consensus exists, it is that the minimum wage likely has small negative effects on low-skill employment. Because prevailing wages are lower in rural markets than in urban markets, rural workers and firms should face the largest positive or negative impacts from a commonly applied minimum wage. While Even and MacPherson did find that rural areas had a greater adverse effect from the minimum wage, Godoy and Rich and Winters find that the lowest wage or least populated areas had the least negative, or even positive, employment effects from minimum wage increases.
    Date: 2021–03
  46. By: John V. Winters (Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University)
    Abstract: A large majority of Iowa residents and talented individuals are homegrown. This is especially true among self-employed workers, non-metropolitan residents, and self-employed persons in agriculture, which highlights the importance of nurturing talent in Iowa, especially for non-metropolitan areas and the agriculture sector. Furthermore, many other states share a similar dependence on homegrown talent, and thus are wise to nurture that talent.
    Date: 2021–06
  47. By: Andrej Cupák; Pavel Ciaian; d'Artis Kancs
    Abstract: We estimate wage differentials and compare inequality trends between foreign-born and native-born workers across developed economies and developing economies. We leverage large internationally harmonised microdata covering 21 countries, 20 years and 1.5 million individuals and employ Blinder-Oaxaca counterfactual decomposition techniques. We find that vis-Ã -vis comparable workers born in developed countries, the workers born in developing economies are disadvantaged both in their home country labour markets and – if migrating – also in developed host countries. The estimated Blinder-Oaxaca wage differentials suggest the opposite for workers born in developed countries – their wages are higher not only in developed countries but for migrants also in developing host countries. After accounting for personal and job-related characteristics, at least 28% of the total native-to-migrant wage gap still remains unexplained. The unexplained wage gap has increased during the last decade and can be attributed to the labour market discrimination, differences in unobserved job characteristics, variation in unobserved skills, and the institutional labour market framework.
    Keywords: labour market, wage gaps, immigrants, decomposition.
    JEL: D31 J15 J7
    Date: 2021–05–05
  48. By: Michelle Escobar Carias; David Johnston; Rachel Knott; Rohan Sweeney
    Abstract: Billions of people live in urban poverty, with many forced to reside in disaster-prone areas. Research suggests that such disasters harm child nutrition and increase adult morbidity. However, little is known about impacts on mental health, particularly of people living in slums. In this paper we estimate the effects of flood disasters on the mental and physical health of poor adults and children in urban Indonesia. Our data come from the Indonesia Family Life Survey and new surveys of informal settlement residents. We find that urban poor populations experience increases in acute morbidities and depressive symptoms following floods, that the negative mental health effects last longer, and that the urban wealthy show no health effects from flood exposure. Further analysis suggests that worse economic outcomes may be partly responsible. Overall, the results provide a more nuanced understanding of the morbidities experienced by populations most vulnerable to increased disaster occurrence.
    Date: 2021–11
  49. By: Oberrauch, Luis; Kaiser, Tim
    Abstract: We study the role of cognitive ability and financial literacy for inter-temporal decision-making using an adapted version of the Convex Time Budget Protocol. We document substantial heterogeneity in choice-patterns and estimated parameters at the individual-level: We find that subjects with higher cognitive ability and domain specific-knowledge are more likely to make patient inter-temporal choices, to allocate the entire budget to a single payment-date, and to allocate the entire budget to corner choices as interest rates increase. At the same time, domain specific knowledge is uncorrelated with choice consistency and estimated individual error parameters, suggesting these results are not driven by a reduction in random noise among high ability respondents. These results serve as suggestive evidence for inter-temporal arbitrage among high ability respondents, thereby revealing a potential confound in time-preference elicitation tasks relying on time-dated monetary rewards.
    Keywords: Intertemporal choice,cognitive ability,financial literacy,narrow bracketing,arbitrage
    JEL: G53 D15 D91
    Date: 2021

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