nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2021‒11‒08
fifty-five papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. Is the monocentric urban economic model still empirically relevant? Assessing urban econometric predictions in 192 cities on five continents By Charlotte Liotta; Vincent Vigui\'e; Quentin Lepetit
  2. Teacher Effects in Germany: Evidence from Elementary School By Araujo P., María Daniela; Quis, Johanna Sophie
  3. What Makes a Classmate a Peer?Examining Which Peers Matter in NYC Elementary Schools Abstract By William C. Horrace; Hyunseok Jung; Jonathan L. Pressler; Amy Ellen Schwartz
  4. Towards a dynamic spatial microsimulation model for projecting Auckland’s spatial distribution of ethnic groups By Mohana Mondal; Michael P. Cameron; Jacques Poot
  5. Who stays and who leaves? Immigration and the selection of natives across locations By Javier Ortega; Gregory Verdugo
  6. Couples, Careers, and Spatial Mobility By Nassal, Lea; Paul, Marie
  7. An exploratory analysis of housing and the distribution of COVID-19 in Sweden By Ismail, Muhammad; Warsame, Abukar; Wilhelmsson, Mats
  8. Excellence for all ? Heterogeneity in high-schools' value-added By Pauline Givord; Milena Suarez
  9. Consumption Access and Agglomeration: Evidence from Smartphone Data By Yuhei Miyauchi; Kentaro Nakajima; Stephen J. Redding
  10. Crowding in School Choice By William PHAN; Ryan TIERNEY; Yu ZHOU
  11. The Riskiness of Outstanding Mortgages in the United States, 1999 - 2019 By William D. Larson
  12. Suburbanization in the United States 1970-2010 By Stephen J. Redding
  13. Buying citizenship: A boon to district-level house prices in Istanbul By Lokman Gunduz; Ismail Genc; Ahmet Faruk Aysan
  14. Effects of residential push-pull on tenants' intention to relocate from larger megacities: Evidence from a Beijing, China survey By Wu, Yidong; Song, Zisheng
  15. Regional disparities in Europe: should we be concerned? By Gergely Hudecz; Edmund Moshammer; Thomas Wieser
  16. Do Cohesion Funds foster regional trade integration? A structural gravity analysis for the EU regions By Yevgeniya Shevtsova; Jorge Diaz-Lanchas; Damiaan Persyn; Giovanni Mandras
  17. Peer Effects in Academic Research: Senders and Receivers By Clément Bosquet; Pierre-Philippe Combes; Emeric Henry; Thierry Mayer
  18. The Covid-19 pandemic and school closure: learning loss in mathematics in primary education By Dalit Contini; Maria Laura Di Tommaso; Caterina Muratori; Daniela Piazzalunga; Lucia Schiavon
  19. How short-term rentals are changing the neighborhood By Wrede, Matthias
  20. The resiliency of school outcomes after the COVID-19 pandemic. Standardised test scores and inequality one year after long term school closures By Letizia Gambi; Kristof De Witte
  21. Building urban datasets for the SDGs. Six European cities monitoring the 2030 Agenda By Alice Siragusa; Paola Proietti; Cecilia Bertozzi; Eloína Coll Aliaga; Serena Foracchia; Andrej Irving; Suvi Monni; Maria Pacheco Oliveira; Raffaele Sisto
  22. The Heterogeneous Impacts of Higher Education Institutions on Regional Firm Location: Evidence from the Swiss Universities of Applied Sciences By Tobias Schlegel; Uschi Backes-Gellner
  23. Empirical modelling of internal migration and commuting flows for economic regions in Norway By Tom Kornstad; Terje Skjerpen; Lasse S. Stambøl
  24. The economic spillovers of EU Cohesion policy 2007-2013 By Philippe Monfort; Francesca Crucitti; Nicholas Lazarou; Simone Salotti
  25. Alone and Lonely. The economic cost of solitude for regions in Europe By Chiara Burlina; Andres Rodriguez-Pose;
  26. How residence permits affect the labor market attachment of foreign workers: Evidence from a migration lottery in Liechtenstein By Gangl, Selina; Huber, Martin; Buechel, Berno
  27. First Time Around: Local Conditions and Multi-dimensional Integration of Refugees By Cevat Giray Aksoy; Panu Poutvaara; Felicitas Schikora
  28. Sugar rush or sugar crash? Experimental evidence on the impact of sugary drinks in the classroom By Fritz Schiltz; Kristof De Witte
  29. Dismantling the 'Jungle' : Relocation and Extreme Voting in France By Paul Vertier; Max Viskanic; Matteo Gamalerio
  30. How Bad Is Labor Market Concentration?: Evidence From Soviet (Urban) Satellites By Zhuravleva, Nadezhda
  31. Impact of Ability-Tracking on Student’s Academic and Non-Academic Outcomes: Empirical Evidence from Junior High Schools in China By Gupta, Shriyam; Liu, Chengfang; Li, Shaoping; Chang, Fang; Shi, Yaojiang
  32. Islam and the State: Religious Education in the Age of Mass Schooling By Samuel Bazzi; Masyhur Hilmy; Benjamin Marx
  33. Children’s patience and school-track choices several years later: Linking experimental and field data By Silvia Angerer; Jana Bolvashenkova; Daniela Glätzle-Rützler; Philipp Lergetporer; Matthias Sutter
  34. Getting Off on the Wrong Foot: The Long-Term Effects of Missing a Large-Scale Amnesty for Immigrant Workers By Claudio Deiana; Ludovica Giua; Roberto Nisticò
  35. The medium-term impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions. The case of the 1918 influenza in US cities By Guillaume Flamerie de la Chapelle
  36. The social consequences of the increase in refugees to Germany 2015-2016 By Giesselmann, Marco; Brady, David; Naujoks, Tabea
  37. Place-based Innovation Ecosystems for emerging mobility-based business models By Miguel Ángel De Urquía; Ramón Compañó; Sergio Díez
  38. Real-World Simulations of Life with an Autonomous Vehicle Suggest Increased Mobility and Vehicle Travel By Harb, Mustapha; Walker, Joan; Malik, Jai; Circella, Giovanni
  39. Rail freight transport in France. A new recovery plan, a new rail freight corridor but many uncertainties By Laurent Guihéry
  40. Ethnicity and risk sharing network formation: Evidence from rural Viet Nam By Quynh Hoang; Camille Saint Macary; Laure Pasquier-Doumer
  41. Borrowing Constraints and the Dynamics of Return and Repeat Migrations By Joseph-Simon Görlach
  42. Social Information and Educational Investment – Nudging Remedial Math Course Participation By Brade, Raphael
  43. Do workers share in firm success? Pass-through estimates for New Zealand By Corey Allan; David C Maré
  44. Waiting on a Friend: Strategic Learning and Corporate Investment By Decaire, Paul H.; Wittry, Michael D.
  45. Socioemotional Skills and Refugees’ Language Acquisition By Yuliya Kosyakova
  46. The state of hiring discrimination: A meta-analysis of (almost) all recent correspondence experiments By Lippens, Louis; Vermeiren, Siel; Baert, Stijn
  47. COVID-19 and Local Market Power in Credit Markets By Thiago Christiano Silva; Sergio Rubens Stancato de Souza; Solange Maria Guerra
  48. FinTech Lending By Tobias Berg; Andreas Fuster; Manju Puri
  50. Regional Governance: Begriffe, Wirkungszusammenhänge und Evaluationsansätze By Pollermann, Kim
  51. Spatial Inequality in Sub-Saharan Africa By Shifa, Muna; Leibbrandt, Murray
  52. The Effects of Access to Land on Youth Migration and Employment Decisions in Rwanda By Byishimo, Patrick; Tufa, Adane; Yami, Mastewal; Alene, Arega; Feleke, Shiferaw; Abdoulaye, Tahirou; Manyong, Victor
  53. A Qualitative Study on How Perceptions of Environmental Changes are Linked to Migration in Morocco, Senegal, and DR Congo. By Lore Van Praag; Samuel Lietaer; Caroline Michellier
  54. A sound environment: health effects of traffic noise mitigation By Lindgren, Samuel
  55. Telework and Time Use By Pabilonia, Sabrina Wulff; Vernon, Victoria

  1. By: Charlotte Liotta; Vincent Vigui\'e; Quentin Lepetit
    Abstract: Despite a large body of work that developed over more than 60 years, and numerous applications in theoretical papers, the empirical knowledge accumulated on the monocentric urban model and its extensions remains limited. Using a unique dataset gathering spatially explicit data on rents, population densities, housing sizes, and transport times in neighborhoods inside 192 cities on all continents, we investigate on a systematic basis the empirical relevance of the key stylized facts predicted by this model. Some of these predictions appear extremely robust: cities are more spread out when they are richer, more populated, and when transportation or agricultural land is less costly, and 95\% of the cities of our sample exhibit the predicted negative density gradient from the city center to suburbs. Rent variations inside cities are also significantly explained by transport times in most of the cities (159 cities). However, housing production (and population densities) seem significantly impacted by rents in only slightly more than half of the cities (106 cities). Nevertheless, high levels of informality, strong regulations and planning, specific amenities (e.g. coastal amenities) are, as expected by the theory, main factors leading to the discrepancies. Overall, several decades after its creation, the standard urban model seems to still capture surprisingly well the inner structure of many cities across the world, both in developed and in developing countries.
    Date: 2021–11
  2. By: Araujo P., María Daniela; Quis, Johanna Sophie
    JEL: I20 J45
    Date: 2021
  3. By: William C. Horrace (Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University, 426 Eggers Hall, Syracuse, NY 13244); Hyunseok Jung (University of Arkansas); Jonathan L. Pressler (Saint Louis University); Amy Ellen Schwartz (Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University, 426 Eggers Hall, Syracuse, NY 13244)
    Abstract: We identify and estimate the effects of student-level social spillovers on standardized test performance in New York City (NYC) elementary schools. We leverage student demographic data to construct within classroom social networks based on shared student characteristics, such as a gender or ethnicity. Rather than aggregate shared characteristics into a single network matrix, we specify additively separate network matrices for each shared characteristic and estimate city-wide peer effects for each one. Conditional on sharing a classroom, we find that the most important student peer effects are shared ethnicity, gender, and primary language spoken at home. Identification of the model is discussed.
    Keywords: Peer Effect, Network, Homophily, Education
    JEL: C31 I21
    Date: 2021–11
  4. By: Mohana Mondal (University of Waikato); Michael P. Cameron (University of Waikato); Jacques Poot (University of Waikato and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)
    Abstract: In this paper we describe the development, calibration and validation of a dynamic spatial microsimulation model for projecting small area (area unit) ethnic populations in Auckland, New Zealand. The key elements of the microsimulation model are a module that projects spatial mobility (migration) within Auckland and between Auckland and the rest of the world, and a module that projects ethnic mobility. The model is developed and calibrated using 1996-2001 New Zealand Linked Census (i.e. longitudinal) data, and then projected forward to 2006. We then compare the results with the actual 2006 population. We find that in terms of indexes of overall residential sorting and ethnic diversity, our projected values are very close to the actual values. At a more disaggregated spatial scale, the model performs well in terms of the simulated normalised entropy measure of ethnic diversity for area units, but performs less well in terms of projecting residential sorting for each individual ethnic group.
    Keywords: dynamic microsimulation model; ethnic identity; location transition; ethnic transition
    JEL: J11 R10 R15
    Date: 2021–10–30
  5. By: Javier Ortega; Gregory Verdugo (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques - Sciences Po - Sciences Po)
    Abstract: We study the impact of local immigration inflows on natives' wages using a large French administrative panel from 1976-2007. We show that local immigration inflows are followed by reallocations of blue-collar natives across commuting zones. Because these reallocations vary with the initial occupation and blue-collar location movers have wages below the blue-collar average, controlling for changes in local composition is crucial to assess how wages adjust to immigration. Immigration temporarily lowers the wages of blue-collar workers, with unskilled workers experiencing larger losses. Location movers lose more than stayers in terms of daily wages but move to locations with cheaper housing.
    Keywords: immigration,wages,employment,France
    Date: 2021
  6. By: Nassal, Lea; Paul, Marie
    JEL: J61 J16 R23
    Date: 2021
  7. By: Ismail, Muhammad (Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, Royal Institute of Technology); Warsame, Abukar (Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, Royal Institute of Technology); Wilhelmsson, Mats (Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: The impact of COVID-19 on various aspects of our life is evident. Proximity and close contact with individuals infected with the virus, and as well as the extent of such contact, contribute to the intensity of the spread of the virus. Healthy and infected household members, who both require sanctuary and quarantine space, come into proximate and extended contact in housing. In other words, housing and living conditions can impact the health of occupants and the spread of COVID-19. This study investigates the relationship between housing characteristics and variations in the spread of COVID-19 per capita across Sweden's 290 municipalities. For this purpose, we have used the number of infected COVID-19 cases per capita during the pandemic period, February 2020 through April 2021, per municipality. The focus is variables that measure housing and housing conditions in the municipalities. We have used exploratory and principal components analysis to reduce highly correlated variables into a set of linearly uncorrelated variables. We then use the generated variables to estimate direct and indirect effects in a spatial regression analysis. The results indicate that housing and housing availability are important explanatory factors for the geographical spread of COVID-19. Overcrowding, availability, and quality are all critical explanatory factors.
    Keywords: COVID-19; Housing; Exploratory analysis
    JEL: I10 R10 R30
    Date: 2021–11–02
  8. By: Pauline Givord (Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques (INSEE)); Milena Suarez (INSEE)
    Abstract: This paper presents a new method that goes beyond the measurement of average value-added of schools by measuring whether schools mitigate or intensify grades dispersion among initially similar students. In practice, school value-added is estimated at different levels of final achieve- ments' distribution by quantile regressions with school specific fixed effects. This method is applied using exhaustive data of the 2015 French high-school diploma and controlling for initial achievements and socio-economic background. Results suggest that almost one-sixth of the high schools significantly reduce, or on the contrary increase, the dispersion in final grades which were expected given the initial characteristics of their intake.
    Keywords: school value-added, quantile regression, Student Growth Percentiles
    Date: 2020–10–01
  9. By: Yuhei Miyauchi (Boston University); Kentaro Nakajima (Hitotsubashi University); Stephen J. Redding (Princeton University and CEPR and NBER)
    Abstract: Using smartphone data for Japan, we show that non-commuting trips are frequent, more localized than commuting trips, strongly related to the availability of non-traded services, and occur along trip chains. Guided by these empirical findings, we develop a quantitative urban model that incorporates travel to work and travel to consume non-traded services. We use the gravity equation predictions of the model to estimate theoretically-consistent measures of travel access. We show that consumption access makes a substantial contribution to the observed variation in residents and land prices and the observed impact of the opening of a new subway line.
    Keywords: Japan
    JEL: O18 R12 R20 R30 R40 R41
    Date: 2020–06
  10. By: William PHAN; Ryan TIERNEY; Yu ZHOU
    Abstract: We consider the problem of matching students to schools when students are able to express preferences over crowding. For example, schools have varying per capita expenditures, average teacherstudent ratios, etc. These characteristics of a school are now endogenously determined—matchings with more students to a particular school decrease each of the variables above. We propose a new equilibrium notion, the Rationing Crowding Equilibrium (RCE), that accommodates crowding, noenvy, and respect for priorities. We prove the existence of RCE under mild domain conditions, and establish a Rural Hospitals Theorem and welfare lattice result on the set of RCE. The latter implies the existence of a maximal RCE, and that such RCE are studentoptimal. Moreover, the mechanism defined by selection from the maximal RCE correspondence is strategyproof. We also identify an algorithm to find a maximal RCE for a natural subdomain.
    Keywords: School choice with crowding; Rationing crowding equilibrium; Student optimality;Strategyproofness
    JEL: C78 D47 D62 I20
    Date: 2021–10
  11. By: William D. Larson (Federal Housing Finance Agency)
    Abstract: This paper introduces summary measures of credit risk for the stock of all outstanding mortgages in the United States for each quarter between 1999 and 2019. Mortgage terminations play a fundamental role in offsetting risk introduced by the flow of new originations because of refinance activity and the often dual nature of home buyers as concurrent sellers. To illustrate these concepts in a policy setting, I show the Home Affordable Refinance Program increased origination risk metrics but reduced overall risk due to the associated terminations of even riskier loans. Generally, book-level risk tends to lag behind originations: while origination risk peaked in 2006, the risk of outstanding mortgages peaked in 2007, and while origination risk bottomed out in 2011 and has been rising since, book-level risk continued its downward trend in 2019. Other results highlight previously rarely-examined market segments, including credit unions, the Federal Home Loan Bank system, and loans guaranteed by the Farm Service Agency/Rural Housing Service.
    Keywords: mortgage risk, systemic risk, housing cycles, stress test
    JEL: E32 G21 G28 H22 R31
    Date: 2021–10
  12. By: Stephen J. Redding (Princeton University and CEPR and NBER)
    Abstract: The second half of the twentieth century saw large-scale suburbanization in the United States, with the median share of residents who work in the same county where they live falling from 87 to 71 percent between 1970 and 2000. We introduce a new methodology for discriminating between the three leading explanations for this suburbanization (workplace attractiveness, residence attractiveness and bilateral commuting frictions). This methodology holds in the class of spatial models that are characterized by a structural gravity equation for commuting. We show that the increased openness of counties to commuting is mainly explained by reductions in bilateral commuting frictions, consistent with the expansion of the interstate highway network and the falling real cost of car ownership. We find that changes in workplace attractiveness and residence attractiveness are more important in explaining the observed shift in employment by workplace and employment by residence towards lower densities over time.
    JEL: R12 R30 R40
    Date: 2021–05
  13. By: Lokman Gunduz; Ismail Genc (American University of Sharjah); Ahmet Faruk Aysan (HBKU - Hamad Bin Khalifa University)
    Abstract: Citizenship by investment (CBI) programs have recently garnered significant academic and media attention. Turkey introduced such a program in 2017 that offers citizenship in exchange for investment in residential property. Eventually, thousands of foreigners, mainly from the Middle East and Asia have purchased houses, particularly in Istanbul. Foreigners' share in total houses sold in Istanbul almost sextupled and exceeded 10 percent of total sales. This study estimates the short-run impact of relatively wealthy foreigners on the residential property prices in Istanbul to buy a Turkish passport. It finds that the Turkish CBI program positively impacts house prices by two percent in the districts, which are likely to be favored most by immigrant investors.
    Keywords: Citizenship by investment program,house prices,immigration,Istanbul JEL codes: C21,J15,R38,R21
    Date: 2021–10–05
  14. By: Wu, Yidong (Anhui University of Technology, China); Song, Zisheng (Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: Tenants' residential relocation always presents diverse space-temporal tendencies and is highly influenced by institutional, socio-economic, and subjective factors in China. This paper aims to construct a relocation intention (RI) model and estimate the effects of its push-pull factors, including the household's registration system (hukou), homeownership status, and residential dissatisfaction. The empirical research relies on a questionnaire survey of 2,187 tenants conducted in 2019 in Beijing, China. Our findings confirm that non-local hukou status significantly pushes female and unmarried tenants to relocate, and non-local homeownership noticeably pulls male and married tenants' relocation. These two factors also significantly influence the RI of tenants without higher education experience. For tenants younger than 35, non-local hukou status shows a strong pushing force, but non-local homeownership does not present notable differences by age. Additionally, residential dissatisfaction significantly pushes tenants' RI and shows a moderating effect in non-local homeownership. Moreover, for tenants who have an explicit relocation intention, non-local hukou status plays a vital role in shortening their stay duration before relocation.
    Keywords: tenants relocation intention; push-pull determinants; hukou; non-local homeownership; China
    JEL: D91 J18 J61 J68 R23 R28
    Date: 2021–11–02
  15. By: Gergely Hudecz (ESM); Edmund Moshammer (ESM); Thomas Wieser
    Abstract: The economic impact of the coronavirus is likely to differ from region to region, depending on their sectoral specialisation, and may exacerbate regional disparities. This paper provides an overview of how regional disparities have evolved since the euro’s inception with an aim to help policymakers develop appropriate policy responses to support recovery following the economic shock caused by the coronavirus, and maintain the convergence process. Modes of regional support and policy intervention are crucial to helping adjustment and boosting productivity to ensure long-term sustainability and income convergence.
    Date: 2020–07–15
  16. By: Yevgeniya Shevtsova (European Commission - JRC); Jorge Diaz-Lanchas (Universidad Pontifica Comillas); Damiaan Persyn (University of Göttingen); Giovanni Mandras (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: This paper uses a structural gravity model to explore the regional trade and welfare impact of the EU Cohesion Policy Transport Infrastructure Investment programme estimated using a novel dataset of the Generalised Transport Costs for the EU regions at the NUTS2 level. The results indicate that on average additional investment in transport infrastructure can increase NUTS2 total regional exports by 0.40% and regional real GDP 1.13%. Central and Eastern European Regions enjoy the highest exports and GDP gains, while few Western European regions experience a negligible decrease in wages, which may occur as a result of factor price convergence.
    Keywords: structural gravity, trade policy, general equilibrium analysis.
    JEL: F13 F14 F15 R13
    Date: 2021–10
  17. By: Clément Bosquet (SERC - Spatial Economic Research Center - LSE - London School of Economics and Political Science); Pierre-Philippe Combes (GREQAM - Groupement de Recherche en Économie Quantitative d'Aix-Marseille - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales, ECON - Département d'économie (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CEPR - Center for Economic Policy Research - CEPR); Emeric Henry (ECON - Département d'économie (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CEPR - Center for Economic Policy Research - CEPR); Thierry Mayer (ECON - Département d'économie (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Using an instrument based on a national contest in France determining researchers' location, we find evidence of peer effects in academia, when focusing on precise groups of senders (producing the spillovers) and receivers (benefiting from the spillovers), defined based on field of specialisation, gender and age. These peer effects are shown to exist even outside formal co-authorship relationships. Furthermore, the match between the characteristics of senders and receivers plays a critical role. In particular, men benefit a lot from peer effects provided by men, while all other types of gender combinations produce spillovers twice as small.
    Keywords: Economics of Science,Peer Effects,Research Productivity,Gender Publication Gap
    Date: 2019–11–01
  18. By: Dalit Contini; Maria Laura Di Tommaso; Caterina Muratori; Daniela Piazzalunga; Lucia Schiavon
    Abstract: Italy was the first Western country hit by Covid-19 in February 2020, responding with a tight lockdown and full school closure until the end of the school year. This paper estimates the effect of the pandemic and school closure on the math skills of primary school pupils in Italy. We compare the learning achievements of two cohorts of pupils, the pre-Covid and the Covid cohort. For both cohorts, we match scores on the national standardised assessment in grade 2 with scores on a standardised test delivered by the researchers at the end of grade 3. The pandemic had a large negative impact on the pupils’ performance in mathematics (-0.19 standard deviations). Among children of low-educated parents, the learning loss was larger for the best-performing ones (up to -0.51 s.d.) and for girls (-0.29 s.d.).
    Keywords: COVID-19; school closure; learning loss; mathematics; standardised tests; inequality; primary school.
    JEL: I21 I24
    Date: 2021
  19. By: Wrede, Matthias
    JEL: R21 R31 Z32
    Date: 2021
  20. By: Letizia Gambi; Kristof De Witte
    Abstract: Almost two years after the largest disruption of education in history, the question remains as to whether, and to what extent, school outcomes are resilient and inequality persists. To answer these questions, this paper exploits a unique panel data-set with standardised test scores and administrative data pertaining to the last year of primary education in the Flemish region of Belgium. For the subjects of native language (Dutch), math, science, social science and foreign language (French), exactly the same standardised tests were administered in 2019 (pre-pandemic), 2020 and 2021. Our empirical specification-cation captures (un)observed heterogeneity at school level, a time trend, and time-varying control variables. The resilience in school outcomes differs per subject as we observe additional attainment deficits in the Dutch and French language one year after the pandemic. For math, the impact of the COVID-19 school closures is halted, but not reversed yet. For science, students in the 2021 cohort have started catching up (though insignificantly) with previous cohorts, while the 2021 test scores improved significantly for social sciences. Notwithstanding the halted attainment deficits in math in 2021, a quantile analysis suggests that the math test scores of the best-performing students in a school (i.e., quantile 70 to 95) have significantly declined, while those of low performing students seem to have slightly improved (though insignificantly). One year after the COVID-19 school closures, the inequality within schools seems to have increased in the Dutch language and decreased in mathematics. Further, the findings suggest that targeted remedial actions (in particular summer schools), which were mainly focusing on the most vulnerable students, were successful in halting attainment deficits. However, further policy attention should also be given to the best-performing students, who seem to fall behind one year after the pandemic.
    Keywords: COVID-19; School closures; Attainment deficits; Educational attainment; Standardised tests
    Date: 2021–10–19
  21. By: Alice Siragusa (European Commission - JRC); Paola Proietti (European Commission - JRC); Cecilia Bertozzi (European Commission - JRC); Eloína Coll Aliaga; Serena Foracchia; Andrej Irving; Suvi Monni (Benviroc Oy); Maria Pacheco Oliveira; Raffaele Sisto (Smart&City Solutions, ITD - Universidad Politecnica de Madrid)
    Abstract: Local governments stand at the frontline of social, economic and environmental challenges, and even more so in times of emergencies and disruptive changes. European local governments, and cities in particular, are increasingly using the framework of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as a support to design, monitor and evaluate their strategies and activities. Indeed, the 2030 Agenda and its SDGs have proven to be an added value for the elaboration of strategies at different geographical and institutional levels. The evidence-based approach is one of the main features characterising the 2030 Agenda, which has fostered the development of a common language when discussing sustainable development, in particular with regard to monitoring.In this framework, the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has developed an integrated approach that combines methodological contributions on the local monitoring of the SDGs as a valuable tool to transpose the 2030 Agenda in the local context and enhancing the creation of SDG ecosystems. This involves hands-on cooperation with cities to test and continuously improve the proposed framework so that it can properly assist municipalities willing to engage in a Local Voluntary Review.This report is one of the building blocks of this work. It illustrates the results of the analyses performed in partnership with six European pilot cities between 2020 and 2021. The report details, for each city – Bratislava (SK), Reggio Emilia (IT), Oulu (FI), Porto (PT), Seville (ES), and Valencia (ES) – the availability of data for calculating the indicators proposed in the first edition of the European Handbook for SDG Voluntary Local Reviews; but also the local alternatives used when data were not available or when cities preferred to measure, in accordance with their local priorities, different indicators. In conclusion, for each city, the report illustrates the overall process of building a local SDG monitoring system and assesses the SDG monitoring capacities of the cities, identifying challenges encountered during the process, gaps to address and points of strength on which to build.
    Keywords: sustainable development goals, indicators
    Date: 2021–10
  22. By: Tobias Schlegel; Uschi Backes-Gellner
    Abstract: The empirical literature on knowledge spillovers provides evidence that higher education institutions (HEIs) have positive effects on regional firm location, i.e., the number of start-ups or firms located in a region. However, less is known about how HEIs in different fields of study impact regional firm location in different industries. To estimate effects on firm location in different industries, we exploit the establishment of universities of applied sciences (UASs)-bachelor degree-granting three-year HEIs in Switzerland-in different fields of study. We find that effects are heterogeneous and UASs specializing in "chemistry and life sciences" and "business, management, and services" are the only UASs that positively affect regional firm location. These positive effects are limited to service industries that are characterized by both radical service innovations and incremental product and process innovations.
    Keywords: Higher Education and Research Institutions, Government Policy, Regional Economic Development
    JEL: I23 I28 O18
    Date: 2021–11
  23. By: Tom Kornstad; Terje Skjerpen; Lasse S. Stambøl (Statistics Norway)
    Abstract: This paper provides empirical results for internal migration and commuting flows using panel data for 89 economic regions in Norway for the years 2001-2014. The emphasis is on the potential effects of different incentive variables. We consider both in- and out-migration as well as in- and outcommuting with a common set of explanatory variables. We perform panel data analysis for four educational groups using seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) models, acknowledging that the effects of the incentive variables may vary across educational groups. Generally, we find weak responses to the incentive variables for the eight response variables, but they differ somewhat across the educational groups. The group comprised of those with a low education appears to be most responsive.
    Keywords: Internal migration; commuting; panel data; educational groups; sets of regressions
    JEL: C33 C51 J11 J61
    Date: 2021–10
  24. By: Philippe Monfort (European Commission - DG REGIO); Francesca Crucitti (European Commission - JRC); Nicholas Lazarou (European Commission - JRC); Simone Salotti (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: We investigate the macroeconomic impact of the 2007-2013 Cohesion Policy investments in the regions of the European Union (EU). We use the dynamic spatial general equilibrium model called RHOMOLO to assess the effects of the policy both in the short run and in the long run, with a focus on the spatial spillovers generated by the investments. The analysis shows that the Cohesion policy investments have a particularly positive economic impact on the least developed regions of the EU, with significant benefits spreading to the more developed regions. Our results bear relevant implications for the debate over the financing of the policy and the divide between its net contributors and net beneficiaries.
    Keywords: rhomolo, region, growth, cohesion policy, general equilibrium, spatial spillovers
    JEL: C68 R13
    Date: 2021–10
  25. By: Chiara Burlina; Andres Rodriguez-Pose;
    Abstract: Solitude is a rising phenomenon in the western world. The number of people affected by solitude has been rising for some time and the Covid-19 pandemic has brought this trend to the fore. Yet, we know next to nothing about the aggregate subnational economic consequences of the rise in solitude. In this paper we analyse the consequences of solitude on regional economic performance across Europe, distinguishing between two of its key dimensions: alone living, proxied by the regional share of the population in one-person households; and loneliness, proxied by the aggregate share of social interactions. We find that solitude has important implications for economic development, but that these go in different directions. While alone living is a substantial driver of economic growth across European regions, high shares of lonely people undermine it. The connection of loneliness with economic growth is, however, dependent on the frequency of in-person meetings, with large shares of the population meeting others on a weekly basis yielding the best economic returns.
    Keywords: solitude, alone living, loneliness, growth, GDP per capita, regions
    JEL: J12 P48 R23
    Date: 2021–10
  26. By: Gangl, Selina; Huber, Martin; Buechel, Berno
    JEL: F22 J61
    Date: 2021
  27. By: Cevat Giray Aksoy; Panu Poutvaara; Felicitas Schikora
    Abstract: We study the causal effect of local unemployment and attitudes towards immigrants at the time of arrival on refugees’ multi-dimensional integration outcomes. We leverage a centralized allocation policy in Germany where refugees were exogenously assigned to live in specific counties. Both high unemployment and negative attitudes hurt refugees’ economic and social integration, independently of each other. A onestandard-deviation increase in unemployment or in negative sentiment index based on geo-coded tweets in 2014 predicts five percentage points lower probability of refugees being employed in 2016 to 2018. The estimated negative effects of far-right vote share are qualitatively similar.
    Keywords: International migration, refugees, integration, allocation policy, far-right voting, negative sentiment
    JEL: F22 J15 J24
    Date: 2021
  28. By: Fritz Schiltz; Kristof De Witte
    Abstract: Sugary drinks in schools have been demonized for their potential long-term contribution to rising obesity rates. Surprisingly, there is only little evidence on the immediate effects of sugary drinks in schools. This paper provides experimental evidence on the in-class effects of sugary drinks on behavior and student achievement. We randomly assigned 462 preschool children to receive sugary drinks or artificially sweetened drinks and collected data before and after consumption. Our findings suggest that the consumption of one sugary drink induces an initial `relaxing' effect for boys, before making them more restless. Girls' behavior is not significantly affected. We find a negative effect on student achievement for boys and a positive effect for girls. We show the robustness of the results across two field experiments.
    Date: 2021–10–05
  29. By: Paul Vertier (Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Max Viskanic (Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Matteo Gamalerio
    Abstract: Large migrant inflows have in the past spurred anti-immigrant sentiment, but is there a way small inflows can have a different impact? In this paper, we exploit the redistribution of migrants in the aftermath of the dismantling of the "Calais Jungle" in France to study the impact of the exposure to few migrants. Using an instrumental variables approach, we find that in the presence of a migrant center (CAO), the percentage growth rate of vote shares for the main far-right party (Front National, our proxy for anti-immigrant sentiment) between 2012 and 2017 is reduced by about 12.3 percentage points. Given that the Front National vote share increased by 20% on average between 2012 and 2017 in French municipalities, this estimation suggests that the growth rate of Front National votes in municipalities with a CAO was only 40% compared to the increase in municipalities without a CAO (which corresponds to a 3.9 percentage points lower increase). These effects, which dissipate spatially and depend on city characteristics, and crucially on the inflow's size, point towards the contact hypothesis (Allport (1954)).
    Keywords: migrant inflows,voting
    Date: 2020–09–01
  30. By: Zhuravleva, Nadezhda
    JEL: E24 J30 J31 J42
    Date: 2021
  31. By: Gupta, Shriyam; Liu, Chengfang; Li, Shaoping; Chang, Fang; Shi, Yaojiang
    Keywords: Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession
    Date: 2021–08
  32. By: Samuel Bazzi (BU - Boston University [Boston]); Masyhur Hilmy (BU - Boston University [Boston]); Benjamin Marx (ECON - Département d'économie (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Public schooling systems are an essential feature of modern states. These systems often developed at the expense of religious schools, which undertook the bulk of education historically and still cater to large student populations worldwide. This paper examines how Indonesia's longstanding Islamic school system responded to the construction of 61,000 public elementary schools in the mid-1970s. The policy was designed in part to foster nation building and to curb religious influence in society. We are the first to study the market response to these ideological objectives. Using novel data on Islamic school construction and curriculum, we identify both short-run effects on exposed cohorts as well as dynamic, long-run effects on education markets. While primary enrollment shifted towards state schools, religious education increased on net as Islamic secondary schools absorbed the increased demand for continued education. The Islamic sector not only entered new markets to compete with the state but also increased religious curriculum at newly created schools. Our results suggest that the Islamic sector response increased religiosity at the expense of a secular national identity. Overall, this ideological competition in education undermined the nation-building impacts of mass schooling.
    Date: 2020–05–01
  33. By: Silvia Angerer (UMIT – Private University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology); Jana Bolvashenkova (ifo Institute at the University of Munich); Daniela Glätzle-Rützler (University of Innsbruck); Philipp Lergetporer (Ohio University); Matthias Sutter (Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods, University of Cologne, University of Innsbruck, IZA, and CESifo)
    Abstract: We present direct evidence on the link between children’s patience and educational-track choices years later. Combining an incentivized patience measure of 493 primary-school children with their high-school track choices taken at least three years later at the end of middle school, we find that patience significantly predicts choosing an academic track. This relationship remains robust after controlling for a rich set of covariates, such as family background, school-class fixed effects, risk preferences, and cognitive abilities, and is not driven by sample attrition. Accounting for middle-school GPA as a potential mediating factor suggests a direct link between patience and educational-track choice.
    Keywords: patience, education, school track choice, children, lab-in-the-field experiment
    JEL: C91 D90 I21 J2
    Date: 2021–05–21
  34. By: Claudio Deiana (Università di Cagliari and University of Essex); Ludovica Giua (European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC)); Roberto Nisticò (Università di Napoli Federico II, CSEF and IZA)
    Abstract: We estimate the long-run effects of ineligibility for legalization on immigrants' formal employment and assimilation at work. Our empirical approach exploits the exogenous change in probability of obtaining legal status induced by a 2002 Italian amnesty program targeting irregular foreign workers. We show that immigrants unexposed to the amnesty have a 15% lower probability of being regularly employed a decade later than their counterparts. They also experience a deterioration in their working conditions in the long run, with increases in job immobility and segregation, and a decline in linguistic assimilation.
    Keywords: Undocumented immigrants, Amnesty program, Formal employment, Discrimination, Segregation.
    JEL: J15 J61 K37
    Date: 2021–09–30
  35. By: Guillaume Flamerie de la Chapelle (Sciences Po - Sciences Po, Ausonius-Institut de recherche sur l'Antiquité et le Moyen âge - Université Bordeaux Montaigne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper uses a difference-in-differences (DID) framework to estimate the impact of Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions (NPIs) used to fight the 1918 influenza pandemic and control the resultant mortality in 43 U.S. cities. The results suggest that NPIs such as school closures and social distancing, as implemented in 1918, and when applied for a relatively long and sustained time, might have reduced individual and herd immunity and the population general health condition, thereby leading to a significantly higher number of deaths in subsequent years.
    Keywords: non-pharmaceutical interventions,1918 influenza,difference-in-differences,health policies
    Date: 2020–10–01
  36. By: Giesselmann, Marco; Brady, David; Naujoks, Tabea
    Abstract: More than one million refugees migrated to Germany in 2015-2016. The increase in refugees was rapid, visible and controversial, and varied substantially across German districts. Therefore, the increase provides unique leverage for analyzing the consequences of immigration and ethnolinguistic heterogeneity. We innovatively focus on within-district/within-person change with individual-level panel data and precise measures of district-level refugee shares. Using the German Socio-Economic Panel 2009-2017, we analyze three-way (person, year and district) fixed effects models of five exclusionary beliefs and behaviors. At the national level, concerns about immigration and social cohesion and strong far right party support increased at the same time as refugee shares increased. However, district-level refugee shares are robustly negatively associated with concerns about immigration and (less robustly) with strong far right party support. They are also not associated with concerns about social cohesion, residential moves, or subjective fair tax rates. Interaction estimators reveal that where unemployment is high, there are positive relationships between refugee shares and concerns about immigration and residential moves. Aside from high unemployment districts however, the results mostly support contact theory, and contradict fractionalization and minority threat theories. Overall, rising district-level refugee shares reduced or at least did not heighten exclusionary beliefs and behaviors.
    Date: 2021
  37. By: Miguel Ángel De Urquía; Ramón Compañó (European Commission - JRC); Sergio Díez
    Abstract: This report presents a methodology to describe and assess place-based innovation ecosystems. The methodology is based upon a two-step qualitative and qualitative approach and the key performance indicators have been targeted to assess place-based Mobility Innovation Ecosystems. The geographical area is limited to metropolitan areas of cities, while the thematic focus is on emerging mobility business models. The methodology has been tested on five diverse case studies (Barcelona, Graz, Malta, Prague and Vigo) and confirms the adequacy and usefulness of the approach. It also determines the strengths and weaknesses of each ecosystem and offers valuable insights with regard to the ecosystem’s positioning on emerging mobility business trends. Comparing the differences and commonalties of the five case studies, we can deduce a number of best practices and recommendations for policy makers. Finally, we outline to the steps to take to assess the viability to turn separate ecosystems into a networked system of ecosystems.
    Keywords: innovation ecosystems, industrial ecosystems, industrial cluster, mobility, mobility-as-a-service
    JEL: O14 O25 O33
    Date: 2021–10
  38. By: Harb, Mustapha; Walker, Joan; Malik, Jai; Circella, Giovanni
    Abstract: Fully autonomous vehicles are expected to have a profound effect on travel behavior. The technology will provide convenience and better mobility for many, allowing owners to perform other tasks while traveling, summon their vehicles from a distance, and send vehicles off to complete tasks without them. These travel behaviors could lead to increases in vehicle miles traveled that will have major implications for traffic congestion and pollution. To estimate the extent to which travel behavior will change, researchers and planners have typically relied on adjustments to existing travel simulations or on surveys asking people how they would change their behavior in a hypothetical autonomous vehicle future. Researchers at UC Berkeley and UC Davis used a new approach to understand the potential influence of autonomous vehicles on travel behavior by conducting the first naturalistic experiment mimicking the effect of autonomous vehicle ownership. Private chauffeurs were provided to 43 households in the Sacramento, California region for one or two weeks. By taking over driving duties for the household, the private chauffeurs served the household as an autonomous vehicle would. Researchers tracked household travel prior to, during, and after the week(s) with access to the chauffeur service.
    Keywords: Engineering
    Date: 2021–11–01
  39. By: Laurent Guihéry (CY - CY Cergy Paris Université)
    Abstract: Editorial
    Abstract: Editorial
    Date: 2021–10–16
  40. By: Quynh Hoang (DIAL - Développement, institutions et analyses de long terme, IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement); Camille Saint Macary (DIAL - Développement, institutions et analyses de long terme, LEDa - Laboratoire d'Economie de Dauphine - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - Université Paris Dauphine-PSL - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement); Laure Pasquier-Doumer (DIAL - Développement, institutions et analyses de long terme, LEDa - Laboratoire d'Economie de Dauphine - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - Université Paris Dauphine-PSL - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement)
    Abstract: Ethnic inequality remains a persistent challenge for Viet Nam. This paper aims at better understanding this ethnic gap through exploring the formation of risk sharing networks in rural areas. It first investigates the differences in risk sharing networks between the ethnic minorities and the Kinh majority, in terms of size and similarity attributes of the networks. Second, it relies on the concept of ethnic homophily in link formation to explain the mechanisms leading to those differences. In particular, it disentangles the effect of demographic and local distribution of ethnic groups on risk-sharing network formation from cultural and social distance between ethnic groups, while controlling for the disparities in the geographical environment. Results show that ethnic minorities have smaller and less diversified networks than the majority. This is partly explained by differences in wealth and in the geographical environment. But ethnicity also plays a direct role in risk-sharing network formation through the combination of preferences to form a link with people from the same ethnic group (in breeding homophily) and the relative size of ethnic groups conditioning the opportunities to form a link (baseline homophily). In breeding homophily is found to be stronger among the Kinh majority, leading to the exclusion of ethnic minorities from Kinh networks, which are supposed to be more efficient to cope with covariant risk because they are more diversified in the occupation and location of their members. This evidence suggests that inequalities among ethnic groups in Viet Nam are partly rooted in the cultural and social distances between them.
    Abstract: Les inégalités inter-ethniques demeurent un problème préoccupant au Viet Nam. Dans cet article, nous cherchons à mieux comprendre l'origine de ce phénomène en explorant la formation de réseaux de solidarité dans les zones rurales. Nous examinons d'abord quelles sont les différences de composition de ces réseaux entre les minorités ethniques et la majorité Kinh. Nous montrons que les minorités ethniques ont des réseaux plus petits et moins diversifiés que la majorité. Nous explorons ensuite les mécanismes à l'origine de ces différences, en nous appuyant sur le concept d'homophilie. Plus précisément, nous distinguons l'effet de la répartition démographique et locale des groupes ethniques de l'effet de la distance culturelle et sociale entre groupes ethniques, ou autrement dit des préférences à former un lien avec des personnes du même groupe ethnique. Nous montrons que les différences de composition des réseaux de solidarité s'expliquent en partie par les écarts de richesse entre les groupes ethniques et des 2 environnements géographiques différents. Mais l'ethnicité joue toutefois un rôle direct dans la formation de ces réseaux à travers un effet combiné de préférences à se lier avec des personnes de la même ethnie et de composition démographique différenciées selon les groupes ethniques. Les préférences à se lier avec des personnes du même groupe ethnique sont plus fortes chez les Kinh majoritaires, ce qui entraîne l'exclusion des minorités ethniques des réseaux Kinh, supposés être plus efficaces pour faire face à des risques covariants car ils sont plus diversifiés dans l'occupation et la localisation de leurs membres. Ces résultats suggèrent que les inégalités entre les groupes ethniques au Viet Nam sont en partie enracinées dans les distances culturelles et sociales qui les séparent.
    Keywords: Réseau de solidarité,homophilie,inégalités inter-ethniques,homophily,ethnic gap,Viet Nam,Risk-sharing network,Vietnam
    Date: 2021–10–01
  41. By: Joseph-Simon Görlach (Joseph-Simon Görlach)
    Abstract: As wages in migrant sending countries catch up with those in destinations, migrants adjust on several margins, including their duration of stay, the number of migrations they undertake, as well as the amount saved while abroad. This paper combines Mexican and U.S. data to estimate a dynamic model of consumption, emigration and re-migration, accounting for financial constraints. An increase in Mexican household earnings shortens migration duration, but raises the number of trips per migrant. For lower-income migrants, a rise in Mexican wages leads to a more than proportional effect on consumption expenditure in Mexico, arising from repatriated savings.
    Keywords: migration duration, repeat migration, borrowing constraints
    JEL: J61 D15 F22
    Date: 2021–10
  42. By: Brade, Raphael
    JEL: D83 I21 I23 C93
    Date: 2021
  43. By: Corey Allan (Ministry of Business, Innovation & Employment); David C Maré (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research)
    Abstract: We study the extent to which firm financial performance is passed on to workers in the form of higher wages and the degree to which this pass-through has changed over the period 2002-2018. We use both value added per worker and a measure of quasi-rents as measures of financial performance. Value added per worker is the standard measure used internationally. Quasi-rents better approximate the resources available to be shared between workers and firms as it takes into account the rental cost of capital as well as the reservation wages of workers. We estimate the reservation wage bill for each firm using estimates from a two-way fixed-effect model. We estimate models similar to those typically used in the international literature and further decompose the estimated pass-through into the contribution from worker sorting and the contribution from rent-sharing. Our instrumental variables estimates of pass-through are in the range of 0.12 and 0.19 for value added and 0.11 and 0.07 for quasi-rents. Worker sorting explains between 35% and 50% of pass-through. While the extent of overall pass-through is relatively stable over time, the contribution of worker sorting declines dramatically to explain almost none of the estimated pass-through. We contribute to the literature by demonstrating a method to calculate quasi-rents, by testing for changes over time in pass-through, and examining the relative importance of worker sorting over time.
    Keywords: Wage determination, Rent sharing, Worker sorting
    JEL: J31 J71 E25 D22
    Date: 2021–11
  44. By: Decaire, Paul H. (Arizona State University); Wittry, Michael D. (Ohio State University)
    Abstract: Using detailed project-level data, we document a novel mechanism through which information externalities distort investment. Firms anticipate information spillover from peers’ investment decisions and delay project exercise to learn from their peers’ outcomes. To establish a causal interpretation of our results, we exploit local exogenous variation from the 1800s that shapes the number of peers that a firm can learn from today. The strategic learning incentive is most salient for projects with uncertain profitability, when peers’ underlying assets are similar, and in environments where peers are skilled. Finally, our results suggest that the anticipation of peer information dampens aggregate investment.
    JEL: D25 D82 D83 G30 G31 G41 O13 Q15 R14
    Date: 2021–09
  45. By: Yuliya Kosyakova (Yuliya Kosyakova)
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the existing literature by extending Chiswick and Miller’s (2001) model to include socioemotional skills. While the theoretical model predicts that exposure, efficiency, and incentives determine language proficiency, we additionally assume that socioemotional skills influence these three constructs and thereby language proficiency. Specifically, we seek to answer the following research questions: How do socioemotional skills affect the language attainment of recent refugees? What is the relative importance of socioemotional skills in refugees’ language learning process? Given the findings of the prior literature that personality traits may compensate for socioeconomic adversity (e.g. Damian et al. 2015), we further ask whether socioemotional skills may compensate for refugees’ resource disadvantages. Empirically, we rely on growth curve models and recent longitudinal data from the IAB-BAMF-SOEP Refugee Sample.
    Keywords: language acquisition, refugees, socioemotional skills, Big Five, risk aversion, locus of control, Germany
    JEL: J15 D91 I26 J24
    Date: 2021–10
  46. By: Lippens, Louis; Vermeiren, Siel; Baert, Stijn
    Abstract: Notwithstanding the improved integration of various minority groups in the workforce, unequal treatment in hiring still hinders many individuals' access to the labour market. To tackle this inaccessibility, it is essential to know which and to what extent minority groups face hiring discrimination. Past meta-studies have charted parts of the discrimination literature but permit only limited comparisons across minority groups. This meta-analysis synthesises a quasi-exhaustive register of correspondence experiments on hiring discrimination published between 2005 and 2020. Using a random-effects model, we computed pooled discrimination ratios concerning a total of ten discrimination grounds upon which unequal treatment in hiring is forbidden under United States federal or state law. First, we find that hiring discrimination against candidates with disabilities, older candidates, and less physically attractive candidates is at least equally severe as the unequal treatment of candidates with salient racial or ethnic characteristics. Remarkably, hiring discrimination against older applicants is even higher in Europe than in the United States. Furthermore, unequal treatment in hiring based on sexual orientation seems to be prompted mainly by signalling activism through an affiliation with an LGB+ rights organisation rather than same-sex orientation in itself. Last, hiring discrimination remains pervasive. Aside from a decrease in hiring discrimination based on race and national origin in Europe, we find no structural evidence of temporal changes in hiring discrimination based on the various other grounds within the scope of this review.
    Keywords: hiring discrimination,unequal treatment,meta-analysis,correspondence experiment,audit study
    JEL: J71 J23 J14 J15 J16
    Date: 2021
  47. By: Thiago Christiano Silva; Sergio Rubens Stancato de Souza; Solange Maria Guerra
    Abstract: This paper investigates how COVID-19 affected the local market power of Brazilian credit markets. We first propose a novel methodology to estimate bank market power at the local level. We design a data-intensive method for computing a local Lerner index by developing heuristics to allocate national-level bank inputs, products, and costs to each branch locality using data from many sources. We then explore the exogenous variation in COVID-19 prevalence across Brazilian localities to analyze how the pandemic influenced local market power through the effective price and marginal cost channels. Despite reducing the economic activity substantially in more affected localities, COVID-19 did not significantly impact the effective price channel: bank branches offset the decrease in credit income by reducing credit concessions. However, bank branches more affected by COVID-19 experienced increased marginal costs as they could not rapidly adjust their cost factors in response to the decrease in credit concessions. Consequently, COVID-19 reduced banks’ local market power via the marginal cost channel. However, banks that spent more in IT before the COVID-19 outbreak suffered less replacing more easily local borrowers with remote ones. We then design a bank-specific measure of exposure to COVID-19 to examine how the pandemic affected different banks within the same locality. Banks more exposed to COVID-19 increased their local market power mainly via the effective price channel, which operated through a negative supply shock and not increased credit income. The paper provides new insights as to how crises can affect local market power in non-trivial ways.
    Date: 2021–10
  48. By: Tobias Berg (Frankfurt School of Finance & Management); Andreas Fuster (Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne; Swiss Finance Institute; Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR)); Manju Puri (Duke University - Fuqua School of Business; NBER)
    Abstract: In this paper, we review the growing literature on FinTech lending – the provision of credit facilitated by technology that improves the customer-lender interaction or lenders’ screening and monitoring of borrowers. FinTech lending has grown rapidly, though in developed economies like the U.S. it still only accounts for a small share of total credit. An increase in convenience and speed appears to have been more central to FinTech lending’s growth than improved screening or monitoring, though there is certainly potential for the latter, as is the case for increased financial inclusion. The COVID 19 pandemic has shown potential vulnerabilities of FinTech lenders, although in certain segments they have displayed rapid growth.
    Keywords: FinTech, lending, COVID-19
    JEL: G21 G23 G51
    Date: 2021–10
  49. By: Francesco Aiello (Dipartimento di Economia, Statistica e Finanza "Giovanni Anania" - DESF, Università della Calabria); Graziella Bonanno (Departimento di Economia, Università di Salerno); Francesco Foglia (Università Dante Alighieri, Reggio Calabria)
    Abstract: This note focuses on the impact of coronavirus on Italian tourism. Using a sample of 1056 travellers, we find a positive relationship between the security of destination and the probability to accommodate in hotels and B&B. Furthermore, regional contagion is negatively associated to the willingness to pay for accommodation services. The policy implications are twofold. Firstly, hotels/B&B claim for financial support to ensure social distancing and, thus, security that will attract tourists. Secondly, public finance could sustain the demand of tourist services in hotels and B&B which is lowering because of coronavirus.
    Keywords: Covid-19, Italian tourism, willingness to pay, pandemic crisis, accommodation type, hotels and B&B
    Date: 2021–10
  50. By: Pollermann, Kim
    Abstract: The term governance describes structures and processes for the intentional steering of collective societal matters, typically addressed in concurrence by actors of state, economy and civil society. In the German-speaking community, the term “regional governance”, which corresponds to „local governance” in the English language, is well-established in the spatial sciences. The purpose of this work is to display and newly systematize the state of knowledge about regional governance. Therefore, possibilities for empirical research as well as restrictions for impact analyses are elaborated. Up to now, there is no common and generally acknowledged definition of governance. To enable a clear use of the term, an overview of critical estimations surrounding the term governance will be given. This involves methodological problems as well as blind spots in theoretical approaches. Against this background, a separate definition of regional governance is established. The examination of impact interdependencies within regional governance shows that for a comprehensive impact model, a kind of a meta theory would be needed. However, such a model is not possible due to its high degree of complexity. In fact, there is a double-sided complexity as it is necessary to regard the impact interdependencies of the governance arrangements themselves as well as of regional development as a whole. In addition, characteristic phases of governance processes must be taken into an account. Possible explanations of impact relations are derived from success factors. The examination of impact interdependencies within regional governance shows that for a comprehensive impact model, a kind of a meta theory would be needed. However, such a model is not possible due to its high degree of complexity. In fact, there is a double-sided complexity as it is necessary to regard the impact interdependencies of the governance arrangements themselves as well as of regional development as a whole. In addition, characteristic phases of governance processes must be taken into an account. Possible explanations of impact relations are derived from success factors.
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development
    Date: 2021–11–03
  51. By: Shifa, Muna; Leibbrandt, Murray
    Abstract: This paper provides within-country spatial and national inequality estimates in SSA using comparable data from the DHS. Two indicators are used to measure household welfare. First, detailed information on living standards indicators is used to calculate asset indices using data from 24 SSA countries with comparable data in recent years. The inequality estimates based on the asset indices are used to provide contemporary asset inequality estimates in SSA. Results reveal high levels of within-country spatial and national asset inequalities in SSA, with large variations across countries. The second indicator of household welfare is based on data on access to basic services. Access to basic services is measured by deriving an index calculated using indicators such as access to water, sanitation, electricity, a telephone, and education. We compare changes in inequalities in access to basic services using data from 27 SSA countries that have comparable data for at least two periods between 1995 and 2018. The findings suggest that, apart from a few countries, within-country spatial and national inequalities in access to basic services have declined over time. Nevertheless, the level of inequality and the magnitude of the changes in inequality over time varies greatly across countries, and disparities in access to basic services remain quite large in some SSA countries. Our findings, using both indices, show that within-country regional inequality is a significant component of national inequality in the majority of SSA nations, with significant policy implications.
    Keywords: Spatial inequality,asset inequality,basic services,Africa
    JEL: D31 D10 D4
    Date: 2021
  52. By: Byishimo, Patrick; Tufa, Adane; Yami, Mastewal; Alene, Arega; Feleke, Shiferaw; Abdoulaye, Tahirou; Manyong, Victor
    Keywords: Land Economics/Use, Labor and Human Capital
    Date: 2021–08
  53. By: Lore Van Praag; Samuel Lietaer; Caroline Michellier
    Abstract: Abstract Environmental migration is a growing concern of academics and policymakers, who foresee a rise in the number of such migrants. However, most prevailing academic and policy discourses ignore the variety of perceptions of environmental changes among people living in highly affected areas across the world. We examine the perceptions of environmental changes and how these are seen to be relevant to migration in Senegal, DR Congo, and Morocco. In total, we conducted 410 interviews with people living in two regions in each of these countries. Results indicate differences in the perception of environmental changes across regions, gender, education, and livelihoods. The economic activities of individuals determine exposure and sensitivity to environmental changes, while educational levels increase familiarity with prevailing environmental discourses and policies. Despite country-specific and regional differences across research sites, few people perceived environmental factors as directly related to their own or family members’ migration projects.
    Keywords: Environmental change · Migration · Perceptions · Democratic Republic of Congo · Senegal · Morocco
    Date: 2021–10–01
  54. By: Lindgren, Samuel (Swedish National Road & Transport Research Institute (VTI))
    Abstract: This study investigates the health effects of a nationwide program that provided noise mitigation to dwellings. The analysis uses hospitalization records and a difference-in- differences model that compares residents in treated homes to those with similar at- tributes in untreated homes. Results show that noise mitigation measures lower the risk of cardiovascular diseases by 10% after seven years, with effects driven by reduced risk of hypertension. Health effects are larger among the population exposed to higher baseline noise levels. These findings suggest that implementing similar noise mitigation measures will produce meaningful health benefits.
    Keywords: Health; Environmental policy; Noise pollution
    JEL: Q51 Q52 Q53
    Date: 2021–10–29
  55. By: Pabilonia, Sabrina Wulff; Vernon, Victoria
    Abstract: This chapter reviews the evidence on the relationship between telework and households' time allocation, drawing heavily on the empirical evidence from time diary data, and discusses the implications of telework for workers' productivity, wages, labor force participation, and well-being as well as its impacts on traffic congestion and greenhouse gas emissions. Telework results in significant time savings for workers, as they reduce time on commuting and grooming activities by over one hour on telework days. This time is reallocated to household and leisure activities, but differentially for men and women. Men spend most of their time windfall on leisure activities; however, fathers also increase time on primary child care. Women, on the other hand, increase their household production. Children and parents benefit because they spend more time together; however, average full-time workers spend more time alone when they telework, which leads to an increase in loneliness for some. There is also evidence that telework can increase productivity for some workers and those workers may consequently earn higher wages, except for mothers who are willing to accept lower pay for the option to work from home. Finally, the reduction in commuting due to telework leads to reduced congestion during peak travel times, especially in the morning hours.
    Keywords: working from home,telework,telecommuting,commuting,home-based work,alternative work arrangements,work-life balance,time use,productivity,well-being,wages
    JEL: J22 J31 D13
    Date: 2021

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