nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2021‒08‒30
58 papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. How Do Teachers from Alternative Pathways Contribute to the Teaching Workforce in Urban Areas? Evidence from Kansas City By Yang An; Cory Koedel
  2. The Yardstick of What School Do You Go To? An Estimation of School Socioeconomic Segregation in Urban Pakistan By Saman Nazir; Hafsa Hina
  3. Choose the school, choose the performance. New evidence on the determinants of student performance in eight European countries By Luca Bonacini; Irene Bfrunetti; Giovanni Gallo
  4. Setting Transportation Network Company Policies to Increase Sustainability By Fuller, Sam; Kunz, Tatjana; Brown, Austin L.; D’Agostino, Mollie C.
  5. The Cushioning Effect of Immigrant Mobility By Cem Özgüzel
  6. Public Debt, Private Pain: Regional Borrowing, Default, and Migration By Grey Gordon; Pablo Guerrón-Quintana
  7. The Revealed Preferences for School Reopening: Evidence from Public-School Disenrollment By Thomas Dee; Elizabeth Huffaker; Cheryl Phillips; Eric Sagara
  8. Plug-in Electric Vehicle Diffusion in California: Role of Exposure to New Technology at Home and Work By Chakraborty, Debapriya; Bunch, David S.; Xu, Bingzheng; Brownstone, David; Tal, Gil
  9. Selective Schooling Has Not Promoted Social Mobility in England By Buscha, Franz; Gorman, Emma; Sturgis, Patrick
  10. Loan-to-Value Caps, Bank Lending, and Spillover to General-Purpose Loans By Selva Bahar Baziki; Tanju Capacioglu
  11. What Drivers Road Infrastructure Spending? By James Alm; Trey Dronyk-Trosper
  12. Convergence in retail gasoline prices: Insights from Canadian cities By Mark J. Holmes; Jesús Otero; Theodore Panagiotidis
  13. Home Sweet Home: Impacts of Living Conditions on Rural Emigration using a Housing Lottery By Qiu, Huanguang; Hong, Junqiao; Wang, Xiangrui; Filipski, Mateusz J.
  14. The Effect of 3.6 Million Refugees on Crime By Kirdar, Murat G.; Cruz, Ivan Lopez; Türküm, Betül
  15. Cooling Measures and Housing Wealth: Evidence from Singapore By Wolfgang Karl H\"ardle; Rainer Schulz; Taojun Sie
  16. Employment limitations of peripheral regions: The case of Gozo By Reuben Ellul
  17. Transport policy for a post-Covid UK By David Newbery
  18. College Credit on the Table? Advanced Placement Course and Exam Taking By Fazlul, Ishtiaque; Jones, Todd R.; Smith, Jonathan
  19. Does Money Still Matter? Attainment and Earnings Effects of Post-1990 School Finance Reforms By Jesse Rothstein; Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach
  20. Semiparametric Spatial Autoregressive Panel Data Model with Fixed Effects and Time-Varying Coefficients By Xuan Liang; Jiti Gao; Xiaodong Gong
  21. Agglomeration Economies and Labour Misallocation in Cote d’Ivoire By BAH, Mamadou Mouminy
  22. Child Education-Induced Migration and Its Impact on the Economic Behaviors of Migrated Households in China By Yan, Weibo; Nie, Peng
  23. Identification of Peer Effects using Panel Data By Marisa Miraldo; Carol Propper; Christiern Rose
  24. Network regressions in Stata By Morad Zekhnini
  25. Local Policies for Better Micromobility By Brown, Austin L; D'Agostino, Mollie C; Fuller, Samuel J
  26. Immigration and Local Business Dynamics: Evidence from U.S. Firms By Parag Mahajan
  27. Labor Market Competition and the Assimilation of Immigrants By Albert, Christoph; Glitz, Albrecht; Llull, Joan
  28. Measuring and Summarizing the Multiple Dimensions of Teacher Effectiveness By Christine Mulhern; Isaac M. Opper
  29. Assessing real estate prices in Slovakia – a structural approach By Martin Cesnak; Jan Klacso
  30. Estimating test-score growth for schools and districts with a gap year in the data By Ishtiaque Fazlul; Cory Koedel; Eric Parsons; Cheng Qian
  31. Mortgage pricing and monetary policy By Benetton, Matteo; Gavazza, Alessandro; Surico, Paolo
  32. Spatial Distribution of Supply and the Role of Market Thickness: Theory and Evidence from Ride Sharing By Soheil Ghili; Vineet Kumar
  33. Does relative age at the onset of compulsory education affects the speed and quality of one’s transition from school to work? By Luca Fumarco; Alessandro Vandromme; Levi Halewyck; Eline Moens; Stijn Baert
  34. Do disadvantaged students benefit from attending classes with more skilled colleagues?: Evidence from a top university in Brazil By Henrique Z. Motte; Rodrigo C. Oliveira
  35. Parental Incarceration and Children's Educational Attainment By Carolina Arteaga
  36. Density and Allocative Efficiency in Turkish Manufacturing By Orhun Sevinc
  37. The Problem of False Positives in Automated Census Linking: Evidence from Nineteenth-Century New York's Irish Immigrants By Anbinder, Tyler; Connor, Dylan; O Grada, Cormac; Wegge, Simone
  38. Concurrent elections and voting behaviour: evidence from an Italian referendum By Francesco Armillei; Enrico Cavallotti
  39. Have pandemic-induced declines in home listings fueled house price growth? By Neil Bhutta; Adithya Raajkumar; Eileen van Straelen
  40. The Role of Pedagogy in Developing Life Skills By Renu Gupta
  41. Station heterogeneity and asymmetric gasoline price responses By Emmanuel Asane-Otoo; C. Dannemann
  42. Resilience after a large firm's closure: the role of place leadership, local resources, and social capital in the transformation of an Entrepreneurial Ecosystem By Alvedalen, Janna
  43. Import competition and informal employment: Empirical evidence from China By Wang, Feicheng; Liang, Zhe; Lehmann, Hartmut
  44. netivreg: Estimation of peer effects in endogenous social networks By Juan Estrada
  45. Incarceration, Earnings, and Race By Kartik B. Athreya; Grey Gordon; John Bailey Jones; Urvi Neelakantan
  46. Analysis of the Impact of Borrower-Based Measures By Martin Cesnak; Jan Klacso; Roman Vasil
  47. Learning and Product Innovation Performance in Informal Enterprises: Evidence from Urban Ghana By Avenyo, Elvis Korku
  48. How Do Subnational Governments React to Shocks to Different Revenue Sources? Evidence from Hydrocarbon-Producing Provinces in Argentina By Martin Besfamille; Diego Jorrat; Osmel Manzano; Pablo Sanguinetti
  49. Exploration and Exploitation in US Technological Change By Carvalho, Vasco M.; Draca, Mirko; Kuhlen, Nikolas
  50. Higher Education in Real Estate and Facility Management in Switzerland By Wrase Isabelle; Antje Junghans
  51. Identifying residential consumption patterns using data-mining techniques: A large-scale study of smart meter data in Chengdu, China By Jieyi Kang; David Reiner
  52. Labor Market Hardships and Preferences for Public Sector Employment and Employers: Evidence from Russia By Olivia Jin; William Pyle
  53. Trust and Financial Development: Forms of Trust and Ethnic Fractionalization Matter By Ali Recayi Ogcem; Ruth Tacneng; Amine Tarazi
  54. The COVID-19 shock on the labour market: Poverty and inequality effects across Spanish regions By C. Palomino, Juan; G. Rodríguez, Juan; Sebastian, Raquel
  55. Can Restorative Justice Conferencing Reduce Recidivism? Evidence From the Make-it-Right Program By Yotam Shem-Tov; Steven Raphael; Alissa Skog
  56. Chat more and contribute better: An empirical study of a knowledge-sharing community By Chen, Xiaomeng; Forman, Christopher; Kummer, Michael E.
  57. Social ties, clientelism, and the poor's expectations of future service provision: Receiving more, expecting less? By Prisca Jöst; Ellen Lust
  58. Does class size matter? How, and at what cost? By Kedagni, Desire; Krishna, Kala; Megalokonomou, Rigissa; Zhao, Yingyan

  1. By: Yang An (Department of Economics, University of Missouri); Cory Koedel (Department of Economics, University of Missouri)
    Abstract: We examine how teachers from two alternative preparation programs—Teach for America (TFA) and Kansas City Teacher Residency (KCTR)—contribute to the teacher labor market in and around Kansas City, Missouri. TFA and KCTR teachers are more likely than other teachers to work in charter schools, and more broadly, in schools with more low-income, low-performing, and underrepresented minority (Black and Hispanic) students. Teachers from both programs are more racial/ethnically diverse than the larger local-area teaching workforce, but only KCTR teachers are more diverse than teachers in the same districts where they work. We estimate value-added to achievement for teachers in both programs compared to non-program teachers, with the caveat that our KCTR sample for this analysis is small. In math we find large, positive impacts of TFA and KCTR teachers on test-score growth; in English Language Arts (ELA) we also estimate positive impacts but they are smaller.
    Keywords: alternative teacher pathways, alternative teacher certification, TFA, KCTR, urban teacher labor markets
    JEL: I20 I24
    Date: 2021
  2. By: Saman Nazir (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad.); Hafsa Hina (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad.)
    Abstract: School socioeconomic de/segregation is a primary policy concern as it can foster or limit children’s opportunities in society. This study measures the magnitude of school socioeconomic segregation in Pakistan. By using the data from the 2001-02 and 2018-19 Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurements (PSLM) surveys, we estimated the school segregation at national, urban, and city levels. Our study suggests high levels of segregation in the public school for students from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds. Segregation in schools has significantly increased over the years. Public schools are more segregated than low-cost and high-cost private schools at the national, all urban, and city levels. However, the low-cost private school is significantly less segregated than public and high-cost private schools. Additionally, we found the highest socioeconomic segregation (grades 1–10) for Islamabad, followed by Multan, Gujranwala, and Faisalabad.
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Luca Bonacini; Irene Bfrunetti; Giovanni Gallo
    Abstract: This study aims to identify the main determinants of student performance in reading and maths across eight European Union countries (Austria, Croatia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Slovakia, and Slovenia). Based on student-level data from the OECD’s PISA 2018 survey and by means of the application of efficient algorithms, we highlight that the number of books at home and a variable combining the type and location of their school represent the most important predictors of student performance in all of the analysed countries, while other school characteristics are rarely relevant. Econometric results show that students attending vocational schools perform significantly worse than those in general schools, except in Portugal. Considering only general school students, the differences between big and small cities are not statistically significant, while among students in vocational schools, those in a small city tend to perform better than those in a big city. Through the Gelbach decomposition method, which allows measuring the relative importance of observable characteristics in explaining a gap, we show that the differences in test scores between big and small cities depend on school characteristics, while the differences between general and vocational schools are mainly explained by family social status.
    Keywords: Gelbach decomposition, Education inequalities, Machine learning, PISA, Schooling tracking, Student performance.
    JEL: I21 I24 J24
    Date: 2021–08
  4. By: Fuller, Sam; Kunz, Tatjana; Brown, Austin L.; D’Agostino, Mollie C.
    Abstract: Use of Transportation Network Companies (TNCs) such as Uber and Lyft has grown rapidly in cities across the United States. TNCs often provide a cheaper and more flexible travel option than traditional taxi services, and could improve transportation sustainability if they facilitated more pooled travel and public transit use. However, TNCs’ growth has been linked to increased congestion and emissions. Cities and states have begun regulating TNCs, imposing taxes that are assessed per ride at a flat or percentage rate. Researchers at the University of California, Davis assessed 21 state and local TNC taxes across the United States and developed a method of comparing per-ride and percentage taxes. The researchers then assessed the likelihood of these taxes encouraging more sustainable travel. This policy brief summarizes the findings from that research and provides policy implications. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, Alternatives analysis, Fees, Policy analysis, Pollutants, Ridesharing, Ridesourcing, Sustainable transportation, Taxes, Traffic congestion
    Date: 2021–08–01
  5. By: Cem Özgüzel
    Abstract: During the Great Recession, immigrants reacted to the drop in labour demand in Spain through internal migration or leaving the country. Consequently, provinces lost 13.5% of their immigrants or - 3% of the total labour supply, on average. Using municipal registers and longitudinal administrative data, I find that immigrant outflows slowed the decline in employment and wage of natives. I use a modified shift-share instrument based on past settlements to claim causality. Employment effects were driven by increased entries to employment, while wage effects were limited to natives that were already employed. These effects also persisted in the medium-term.
    Keywords: immigrant mobility, wages, employment, local labour market, Great Recession, Spain
    JEL: F22 J31 J61 R23
    Date: 2021
  6. By: Grey Gordon; Pablo Guerrón-Quintana
    Keywords: migration; population; debt; default; cities; bankruptcy
    JEL: E21 F22 F34 R23 R51
    Date: 2021–07–30
  7. By: Thomas Dee; Elizabeth Huffaker; Cheryl Phillips; Eric Sagara
    Abstract: Before the 2020-21 school year, educators, policymakers, and parents confronted the stark and uncertain trade-offs implied by the health, educational, and economic consequences of offering instruction remotely, in person, or through a hybrid of the two. Most public schools in the U.S. chose remote-only instruction and enrollment fell dramatically (i.e., a loss of roughly 1.1 million K-12 students). We examine the impact of these choices on public-school enrollment using unique panel data that combine district-level enrollment trajectories with information on their instructional modes. We find offering remote-only instead of in-person instruction reduced enrollment by 1.1 percentage points (i.e., a 42 percent increase in disenrollment from -2.6 to -3.7 percent). The disenrollment effects of remote instruction are concentrated in kindergarten and, to a lesser extent, elementary schools. We do not find consistent evidence that remote instruction influenced middle or high-school enrollment or that hybrid instruction had an impact.
    JEL: I2
    Date: 2021–08
  8. By: Chakraborty, Debapriya; Bunch, David S.; Xu, Bingzheng; Brownstone, David; Tal, Gil
    Abstract: The market for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) that primarily include battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) has been rapidly growing in California for the past few years. Given the targets for PEV penetration in the state, it is important to have a better understanding of the pattern of technology diffusion and the factors that are driving the process. Using spatial analysis and Poisson count models, the researchers identify the importance of a neighborhood effect (at home locations) and workplace effect (at commute destinations) in supporting the diffusion of PEV technology in California. In the case of new BEV sales, they found that exposure to one additional BEVor PHEV within a 1-mile radius of a block group centroid is associated with a 0.2%increase in BEV sales in the block group. Interestingly, for new PHEV sales,the neighborhood effect of BEV sales is negative, suggesting that enhanced exposure to this type of technology (which is differentiated in distinctive ways from PHEVs) may impact new PHEV sales through a substitution effect. Specifically, higher BEVconcentration in an area can have an overall negative effect on new PHEV sales. While the neighborhood effect at residential locations is important, the workplace effect also have a notably important effect on new PEV sales. Both effects work in combination with socioeconomic, demographic, policy, and built environment factors in encouraging PEV adoption. These results suggest that policymakers should consider targeted programs and investments that can boost the impact of neighborhood and peer effects on PEV sales View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Engineering, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Plug-in electric vehicles, Peer effects, Spatial analysis, Count model
    Date: 2021–08–01
  9. By: Buscha, Franz (University of Westminster); Gorman, Emma (University of Westminster); Sturgis, Patrick (London School of Economics)
    Abstract: In this paper we use linked census data to assess whether an academically selective schooling system promotes social mobility, using England as a case study. Over a period of two decades, the share of pupils in academically selective schools in England declined sharply and differentially by area. Using a sample of census records matched to administrative data on selective system schooling within local areas, we exploit temporal and geographic variation to estimate the effects of the selective schooling system on absolute and relative social class mobility. Our results provide no support for the contention that the selective schooling system increased social mobility in England, whether considered in absolute or relative terms. The findings are precisely estimated and robust to a comprehensive battery of robustness checks.
    Keywords: social mobility, selective schooling, grammar schools
    JEL: I21 J18 J24
    Date: 2021–08
  10. By: Selva Bahar Baziki; Tanju Capacioglu
    Abstract: This paper studies the effect of the introduction of and a subsequent easing in residential credit loan-to-value (LTV) ratio caps on bank lending and borrowers' loan usage with a unique and comprehensive bank-linked individual credit data set in a large emerging economy. We first show that following the introduction of an LTV cap, banks that were previously lending at rates above the limit have reduced residential lending, as targeted by the policy. We find that banks change their balance sheet composition as a response, replacing the reduction in residential lending with higher commercial loans and general-purpose loans issued to new residential borrowers.
    Keywords: Loan to value ratio, Credit risk, Housing loans, General-purpose loans, Credit spillover
    JEL: G21 G28 E51 E58 G20
    Date: 2021
  11. By: James Alm (Tulane University); Trey Dronyk-Trosper (, Inc)
    Abstract: It is widely believed that basic infrastructure in the United States has been seriously underfunded in recent years. We examine this broad issue by focusing on two specific questions. First, how has subnational government spending on infrastructure changed over the last half-century, focusing especially on transportation spending? Second, what factors have driven these spending changes? To answer these questions, we collect data on local, state, and combined state and local government spending on roads and other expenditure categories from 1957 to 2013. With these data, we first demonstrate that infrastructure spending has increased on average in real per capita terms across all states, even while it has declined significantly across all states as a percentage of government spending. Second, we also examine empirically several causal factors that help explain what has driven these changes in transportation spending over time, using several estimation methods and robustness tests. We find suggestive evidence that it is primarily changes in government spending on welfare programs that have driven these sizeable changes in transportation spending. Indeed, we calculate that, if state governments were spending the same percentage of their budgets on transportation in 2013 as they had been in 1957, then state government spending on transportation across all states would increase in total by an additional $133.5 billion in 2013, an amount equal to an additional $422 per capita.
    Keywords: Infrastructure, state and local governments
    JEL: H72 R42 H41
    Date: 2021–08
  12. By: Mark J. Holmes (Department of Economics, Waikato University, New Zealand); Jesús Otero (Facultad de Economía, Universidad del Rosario, Colombia); Theodore Panagiotidis (Department of Economics, University of Macedonia, Greece)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the extent of convergence club formation in retail gasoline prices. Our study provides new insights through the use of a large disaggregated panel database for Canada that comprises three types of gasoline grades, namely regular, medium and premium, for a sample of 44 cities over a period of almost two decades. The paper analyses gasoline price data that are inclusive or exclusive of taxes. The findings suggest that the retail gasoline markets are not integrated in terms of requiring multiple numbers of convergence clubs to explain relative price movements across cities. In addition to this, wholesale gasoline prices cities are probably less integrated than retail prices. Key drivers of retail price divergence across cities include distances between cities and the need to be explicit on distinguishing fuel quality. These findings are robust to the inclusion or exclusion of taxes in retail gasoline prices.
    Keywords: Convergence, clubs, gasoline prices
    JEL: C33 Q43 R10
    Date: 2021–08
  13. By: Qiu, Huanguang; Hong, Junqiao; Wang, Xiangrui; Filipski, Mateusz J.
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, International Development
    Date: 2021–08
  14. By: Kirdar, Murat G. (Bogazici University); Cruz, Ivan Lopez (Sabanci University); Türküm, Betül (European Economic Institute)
    Abstract: Most studies examining the impact of migrants on crime rates in hosting populations are in the context of economic migrants in developed countries. However, we know much less about the crime impact of refugees in low- and middle-income countries—whose numbers are increasing worldwide. This study examines this issue in the context of the largest refugee group in any country—Syrian refugees in Turkey. Although these refugees are much poorer than the local population, have limited access to formal employment, and face partial mobility restrictions, we find that total crime per person (including natives and refugees) falls due to the arrival of the refugees. This finding also applies to several types of crime; the only exception is smuggling, which increases due to the population influx. We also show that the fall in crime does not result from tighter security; we find no evidence of a change in the number of armed forces (military and civil personnel) in the migrant-hosting regions.
    Keywords: refugees, crime, security, immigration-crime nexus, civil war
    JEL: J15 K42 D74
    Date: 2021–08
  15. By: Wolfgang Karl H\"ardle; Rainer Schulz; Taojun Sie
    Abstract: Excessive house price growth was at the heart of the financial crisis in 2007/08. Since then, many countries have added cooling measures to their regulatory frameworks. It has been found that these measures can indeed control price growth, but no one has examined whether this has adverse consequences for the housing wealth distribution. We examine this for Singapore, which started in 2009 to target price growth over ten rounds in total. We find that welfare from housing wealth in the last round might not be higher than before 2009. This depends on the deflator used to convert nominal into real prices. Irrespective of the deflator, we can reject that welfare increased monotonically over the different rounds.
    Date: 2021–08
  16. By: Reuben Ellul
    Abstract: Employment in Gozo is characterised by disadvantages due to the island’s geographical and transportation constraints. It also benefits from advantages linked with its geography – in terms of physical and environmental endowment - as well as the abilities of its workers. This study attempts to measure these effects on employment data, both at regional and sectoral levels. A shift-share analysis is carried out using data from 2000 to 2019, estimating a deficit in regional employment numbers with respect to the whole of Malta of between 1271 and 1948 jobs, with a further shift share regression indicating that employment in Gozo grew by 1.5% less than the national average. The performance of eleven sectors is assessed, with three sectors, (i) Professional, scientific and technical activities; administrative and support service activities, (ii) Real estate activities and (ii) Information and communication, appearing to have some innate advantages.
    JEL: R11 R15
  17. By: David Newbery (Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge)
    Keywords: Transport policy, fuel taxes, road pricing, road investment
    JEL: D62 H23 R41 R48
    Date: 2020–09
  18. By: Fazlul, Ishtiaque (University of Missouri); Jones, Todd R. (Mississippi State University); Smith, Jonathan (Georgia State University)
    Abstract: Millions of high school students who take an Advanced Placement (AP) course in one of over 30 subjects can earn college credit by performing well on the corresponding AP exam. Using data from four metro-Atlanta public school districts, we find that 15 percent of students' AP courses do not result in an AP exam. We predict that up to 32 percent of the AP courses that do not result in an AP exam would result in a score of 3 or higher, which generally commands college credit at colleges and universities across the United States. Next, we examine disparities in AP exam-taking rates by demographics and course taking patterns. Most immediately policy relevant, we find evidence consistent with the positive impact of school district exam subsidies on AP exam-taking rates. In fact, students on free and reduced-price lunch (FRL) in the districts that provide a higher subsidy to FRL students than non-FRL students are more likely to take an AP exam than their non-FRL counterparts, after controlling for demographic and academic covariates.
    Keywords: educational economics, advanced placement, high school coursework
    JEL: I22 I20
    Date: 2021–08
  19. By: Jesse Rothstein; Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach
    Abstract: Card and Krueger (1992a,b) used labor market outcomes to study the productivity of school spending. Following their lead, we examine effects of post-1990 school finance reforms on students’ educational attainment and labor market outcomes. Lafortune et al. (2018) show that these reforms increased school spending and narrowed spending and achievement gaps between high- and low-income districts. Using a state-by-cohort panel design, we find that reforms increased high school completion and college-going, concentrated among Black students and women, and raised annual earnings. They also increased the return to education, particularly for Black students and men and driven by the return to high school.
    JEL: I21 I24 J24
    Date: 2021–08
  20. By: Xuan Liang; Jiti Gao; Xiaodong Gong
    Abstract: This paper considers a semiparametric spatial autoregressive panel data model with fixed effects with time-varying coefficients. The time-varying coefficients are allowed to follow an unknown function of time while the other parameters are assumed to be constants. We propose a "local linear concentrated quasi-maximum likelihood estimation" method to obtain consistent estimators for the spatial autoregressive coefficient, the variance of the error term and the nonparametric time-varying coefficients. We show that the estimators of the parametric components converge at the rate of sqrt(NT), and those of the nonparametric time-varying coefficients converge at the rate of sqrt(NTh). Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to illustrate the finite sample performance of our proposed method. We apply our method to study the spatial influences and the time-varying spillover effects in the wage level among 159 Chinese cities.
    Keywords: concentrated quasi-maximum likelihood estimation, local linear estimation, time-varying coefficient
    JEL: C21 C23
    Date: 2021
  21. By: BAH, Mamadou Mouminy
    Abstract: This paper analyses the effects of agglomeration economies on firm labour misallocation, using the Ivorian firm data from 2013-2016. After measuring the degree of firm labour misallocation in the first step, we assess the level of labour misallocation in denser regions in the second step. The results show on the one hand that the average labour misallocation (labour gap) at the firm level is 2,825,887 FCFA ($5,137.97 ) over the period 2013-2016 and this gap has significantly decreased over years. On the other hand, firms located in denser regions exhibit lower labour misallocation. In terms of the magnitude, both localisation and urbanisation economies are large and statistically significant. A 10% increase in the degree of localisation in a region reduces the labour misallocation by 7.41% on average, while a 10% increase in the degree of urbanisation alters the labour misallocation by 4.26%. These findings confirm that labour misallocation has a geographical dimension, in addition to the firm characteristics. A sound policy needs to accounts for the spatial distribution of firms and the creation of active poles of development in major Ivorian regions.
    Keywords: Localisation, Urbanisation, Misallocation, Total factor productivity, firm-level data
    JEL: D24 L25 O4 R3
    Date: 2021–08–15
  22. By: Yan, Weibo (Zhongnan University of Economics and Law); Nie, Peng (Xi’an Jiaotong University)
    Abstract: Using the 2011-2013 China Migrants Dynamic Survey, this paper utilizes the quarter of the year in which a child was born as an instrumental variable to measure child education shock and explores its impact on migrated households. We only find significant education-induced migration among boys, which we attribute to son preference in China. Due to child education-induced migration, the per capita household consumption increases by 56.7%, the savings rate decreases by 40.3%, and remittances sent home decline by about 1.3 monthly household incomes, however, there are no effects on income, food consumption, and house rent. After exploring the mechanisms underlying child education-induced migration, we find that children migrate with their parents for a better education in urban areas. Because of the closure and consolidation of rural primary schools, children are forced to migrate due to their education needs. The accessibility of primary schools in urban areas is also responsible for migration decisions regarding children. This paper facilitates understanding of how Hukou influences gender inequality in China. We also provide evidence to show that the segregation of the education system through Hukou is a possible explanation for the low consumption rate of migrants.
    Keywords: education-induced migration, Hukou, son preference, economic behaviors
    JEL: O15 I28 D14
    Date: 2021–08
  23. By: Marisa Miraldo; Carol Propper; Christiern Rose
    Abstract: This paper provides new identification results for panel data models with contextual and endogenous peer effects, respectively operating through time-invariant individual heterogeneity and outcomes. The results apply for general network structures governing peer interactions, and hinge on a conditional mean restriction requiring exogenous mobility of individuals between groups over time. Some networks preclude identification, in which case we propose additional conditional variance restrictions. We apply our method to surgeon-hospital-year data to study take-up of keyhole surgery, finding a positive effect of the average individual heterogeneity of peers. This effect is equally due to endogenous and contextual effects.
    Date: 2021–08
  24. By: Morad Zekhnini (Michigan State University)
    Abstract: Network analysis has become critical to the study of social sciences. While several Stata programs are available for analyzing network structures, programs that execute regression analysis with a network structure are currently lacking. We fill this gap by introducing the nwxtregress command. Building on spatial econometric methods (LeSage and Pace 2009), nwxtregress uses MCMC estimation to produce estimates of endogenous peer effects, as well as own-node (direct) and cross-node (indirect) partial effects, where nodes correspond to cross-sectional units of observation, such as firms, and edges correspond to the relations between nodes. Unlike existing spatial regression commands (for example, spxtregress), nwxtregress is designed to handle unbalanced panels of economic and social networks as in Grieser et al. (2021). Networks can be directed or undirected with weighted or unweighted edges, and they can be imported in a list format that does not require a shapefile or a Stata spatial weight matrix set by spmatrix. Finally, the command allows for the inclusion or exclusion of contextual effects. To improve speed, the command transforms the spatial weighting matrix into a sparse matrix. Future work will be targeted toward improving sparse matrix routines, as well as introducing a framework that allows for multiple networks.
    Date: 2021–08–07
  25. By: Brown, Austin L; D'Agostino, Mollie C; Fuller, Samuel J
    Abstract: The rapid growth of micromobility, which includes shared e-scooters and bicycles, seems poised to continue. There is a distinct need to understand which policies are most effective in maximizing the benefits and minimizing the issues for micromobility services. There is also a need to understand how different micromobility policies affect broader transportation systems, and to identify best practices for policy consistency across jurisdictional boundaries.
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, Micromobility, Policy, scooters, e-bikes, shared mobility, Cities
    Date: 2021–08–01
  26. By: Parag Mahajan
    Abstract: This paper finds that establishment entry and exit—particularly the prevention of establishment exit—drive immigrant absorption and immigrant-induced productivity increases in U.S. local industries. Using a comprehensive collection of confidential survey and administrative data from the Census Bureau, it shows that inflows of immigrantworkers lead to more establishment entry and less establishment exit in local industries. These relationships are responsible for nearly all of long-run immigrant-induced job creation, with 78 percent accounted for by exit prevention alone, leaving a minimal role for continuing establishment expansion. Furthermore, exit prevention is not uniform: immigrant inflows increase the probability of exit by establishments from low productivity firms and decrease the probability of exit by establishments from high productivity firms. As a result, the increase in establishment count is concentrated at the top of the productivity distribution. A general equilibrium model proposes a mechanism that ties immigrantworkers to high productivity firms and shows how accounting for changes to the firm productivity distribution can yield substantially larger estimates of immigrant-generated economic surplus than canonical models of labor demand.
    Keywords: Immigration, Business Dynamics, Job Creation, Productivity, Firm Heterogeneity
    JEL: J23 J61 L11 F22
    Date: 2021–08
  27. By: Albert, Christoph (CEMFI, Madrid); Glitz, Albrecht (Universitat Pompeu Fabra); Llull, Joan (MOVE, Barcelona)
    Abstract: In this paper, we show that the wage assimilation of immigrants is the result of the intricate interplay between individual skill accumulation and dynamic equilibrium effects in the labor market. When immigrants and natives are imperfect substitutes, increasing immigrant inflows widen the wage gap between them. Using a simple production function framework, we show that this labor market competition channel can explain about one quarter of the large increase in the average immigrant-native wage gap in the United States between the 1960s and 1990s arrival cohorts. Once competition effects and compositional changes in education and region of origin are accounted for, we find that the unobservable skills of newly arriving immigrants increased over time rather than decreased as traditionally argued in the literature. We corroborate this finding by documenting closely matching patterns for immigrants' English language proficiency.
    Keywords: immigrant assimilation, labor market competition, cohort sizes, imperfect substitution, general and specific skills
    JEL: J21 J22 J31 J61
    Date: 2021–08
  28. By: Christine Mulhern; Isaac M. Opper
    Abstract: There is an emerging consensus that teachers impact multiple student outcomes, but it remains unclear how to summarize these multiple dimensions of teacher effectiveness into simple metrics that can be used for research or personnel decisions. Here, we discuss the implications of estimating teacher effects in a multidimensional empirical Bayes framework and illustrate how to appropriately use these noisy estimates to assess the dimensionality and predictive power of the true teacher effects. Empirically, our principal components analysis indicates that the multiple dimensions can be efficiently summarized by a small number of measures; for example, one dimension explains over half the variation in the teacher effects on all the dimensions we observe. Summary measures based on the first principal component lead to similar rankings of teachers as summary measures weighting short-term effects by their prediction of long-term outcomes. We conclude by discussing the practical implications of using summary measures of effectiveness and, specifically, how to ensure that the policy implementation is fair when different sets of measures are observed for different teachers.
    Date: 2021
  29. By: Martin Cesnak (National Bank of Slovakia); Jan Klacso (National Bank of Slovakia)
    Abstract: In this paper, we apply the borrowing capacity approach and the intrinsic value approach to assess property prices in Slovakia. We estimate the maximum attainable house price for a given household. It means that we apply downpayment, DSTI or DTI parameters in line with the macroprudential limits implemented by the NBS. We consider the possible top-up in the form of a consumer loan for households not having enough own capital. Finally, we make use of an internal database of NBS of individual retail loan data that gives us a better picture of the average income of borrowers. Results based on the SBC approach point to a possible overvaluation during the pre-crisis period in 2007 and 2008. After the crisis, lowering interest rates and increasing income led to a robust increase of affordability. Since 2014, the implementation of borrower-based measures decreased the affordability, at least for households with not enough own capital. Based on the results, borrower-based measures could under some circumstances ease the upward pressure on house prices even in an environment of historically low interest rates, unemployment and increasing income.
    JEL: G12 G18 E37
    Date: 2021–06
  30. By: Ishtiaque Fazlul (Department of Economics, University of Missouri); Cory Koedel (Department of Economics, University of Missouri); Eric Parsons (Department of Economics, University of Missouri); Cheng Qian (Department of Economics, University of Missouri)
    Abstract: We evaluate the feasibility of estimating test-score growth for schools and districts with a gap year in test data. Our research design uses a simulated gap year in testing when a true test gap did not occur, which facilitates comparisons of district- and school-level growth estimates with and without a gap year. We find that growth estimates based on the full data and gap-year data are generally similar, establishing that useful growth measures can be constructed with a gap year in test data. Our findings apply most directly to testing disruptions that occur in the absence of other disruptions to the school system. They also provide insights about the test stoppage induced by COVID-19, although our work is just a first step toward producing informative school- and district-level growth measures from the pandemic period.
    Keywords: value-added modeling, growth modeling, test gap, COVID-19 test stoppage
    JEL: I20
    Date: 2021
  31. By: Benetton, Matteo (Haas School of Business, University of California); Gavazza, Alessandro (London School of Economics); Surico, Paolo (London Business School)
    Abstract: This paper provides novel evidence on lenders’ mortgage pricing and on how central bank operations affected it. Using the universe of mortgages originated in the UK, we show that lenders seek to segment the market by offering two-part tariffs composed of interest rates and origination fees, and that during recent periods of unconventional monetary policy, such as UK’s Funding for Lending Scheme, lenders decreased interest rates and increased origination fees. To understand lenders’ pricing strategies and their effects on market equilibrium, we develop and estimate a structural discrete-continuous model of mortgage demand and lender competition in which borrowers may have different sensitivities to rates and fees. We use the estimated model to decompose the effects of central bank unconventional monetary policy on mortgage pricing and lending, finding that central bank operations increased borrower surplus and lender profits. Moreover, although origination fees allow lender to price discriminate and capture surplus, banning fees would lower borrower surplus and aggregate welfare.
    Keywords: origination fees; mortgage demand; heterogeneity; structural estimation; unconventional monetary policy
    JEL: E52 G21
    Date: 2021–08–13
  32. By: Soheil Ghili; Vineet Kumar
    Abstract: This paper studies the effects of economies of density in transportation markets, focusing on ridesharing. Our theoretical model predicts that (i) economies of density skew the supply of drivers away from less dense regions, (ii) the skew will be more pronounced for smaller platforms, and (iii) rideshare platforms do not find this skew efficient and thus use prices and wages to mitigate (but not eliminate) it. We then develop a general empirical strategy with simple implementation and limited data requirements to test for spatial skew of supply from demand. Applying our method to ride-level, multi-platform data from New York City (NYC), we indeed find evidence for a skew of supply toward busier areas, especially for smaller platforms. We discuss the implications of our analysis for business strategy (e.g., spatial pricing) and public policy (e.g., consequences of breaking up or downsizing a rideshare platform)
    Date: 2021–08
  33. By: Luca Fumarco (Tulane University); Alessandro Vandromme (Ghent University); Levi Halewyck (Ghent University); Eline Moens (Ghent University); Stijn Baert (Ghent University)
    Abstract: We are the first to estimate the impact of relative age (i.e., the difference in classmates’ ages) on both speed and quality of individuals’ transition from education to the labour market. Moreover, we are the first to explore whether and how this impact passes through characteristics of students’ educational career. We use rich data pertaining to schooling and to labour market outcomes one year after graduation to conduct instrumental variables analyses. We find that a one-year increase in relative age decreases the likelihood of having a school delay at sixteen and attending vocational high-school, while it increases the likelihood of having a student job. Furthermore, we find that a one-year increase in relative age increases the likelihood of (i) being employed by 3.5 percentage points, (ii) having a permanent contract by 5.1 percentage points, and (iii) having full-time employment by 6.5 percentage points. We find no effect on the likelihood of obtaining a job that matches one’s educational level. Finally, we find that only 8 percent to 14 percent of relative age effects on the likelihood of being employed and on full-time employment pass through educational attainments. Moreover, the mediator role of having a student job is as important as that of standard educational outcomes. The impact of relative age on student’s job and, in turn, its impact on the labour market was previously neglected.
    Keywords: relative age, school starting age, labour market transition
    JEL: I21 J23 J24 J6
    Date: 2021–08
  34. By: Henrique Z. Motte; Rodrigo C. Oliveira
    Abstract: Peers play an essential role in cognitive and non-cognitive skills formation. Ordinal rank may also change incentives and environment, impacting students' efforts. Using two rich administrative data sets and a rule of admission at one top university in Brazil, we apply a regression discontinuity design to study the effect of class allocation on academic performance and labour market outcomes. The rule creates two potential effects on students: peer and ranking effects.
    Keywords: Affirmative action, Peer effect, Ranking effect, Brazil, Education
    Date: 2021
  35. By: Carolina Arteaga
    Abstract: This paper presents new evidence showing that parental incarceration increases children's educational attainment. I collect criminal records for 90,000 low-income parents who have been convicted of a crime in Colombia, and link them with administrative data on the educational attainment of their children. I exploit exogenous variation in incarceration resulting from the random assignment of defendants to judges, and extend the standard framework to incorporate both conviction and incarceration decisions. I show that the effect of incarceration for a given conviction threshold can be identified. My results indicate that parental incarceration increases educational attainment by 0.78 years for the children of convicted parents on the margin of incarceration.
    Keywords: Incarceration, Education, Parenting
    JEL: I24 J24 K42
    Date: 2021–08–23
  36. By: Orhun Sevinc
    Abstract: Using administrative data covering the economic geography of Turkish manufacturing firms I show that density increases a location’s productivity through both typical firm productivity and stronger association of firm size and productivity—a measure of within-sector allocative efficiency. IV estimates suggest a density elasticity of allocative efficiency that accounts for about one third of the overall impact of density on productivity. A model with decreasing returns to scale and convex cost of avoidance from the burden of regulations can explain the estimated density-allocative efficiency relationship on the grounds that denser locations provide lower degree of internal diseconomies.
    Keywords: Density, Allocative efficiency, Cities in developing economies
    JEL: R10
    Date: 2021
  37. By: Anbinder, Tyler (George Washington University); Connor, Dylan (Arizona State University); O Grada, Cormac (University College, Dublin); Wegge, Simone (College of Staten Island and The Graduate Center—CUNY)
    Abstract: Automated census linkage algorithms have become popular for generating longitudinal data on social mobility, especially for immigrants and their children. But what if these algorithms are particularly bad at tracking immigrants? Using nineteenth-century Irish immigrants as a test case, we examine the most popular of these algorithms—that created by Abramitzky, Boustan, Eriksson (ABE), and their collaborators. Our findings raise serious questions about the quality of automated census links. False positives range from about one-third to one-half of all links depending on the ABE variant used. These bad links lead to sizeable estimation errors when measuring Irish immigrant social mobility.
    Keywords: JEL Classification:
    Date: 2021
  38. By: Francesco Armillei; Enrico Cavallotti
    Abstract: In September 2020 Italy held a constitutional referendum. On the same election days, many municipalities and some regions held municipal and regional elections. We exploit this unique occasion, caused by the unexpected Covid-19 crisis, to obtain a causal estimate of the effects of the overlap of concurrent elections on the referendum results. When the referendum overlaps with either municipal or regional elections, we find a positive effect on turnout and on the proportion of blank and null votes. We also find a quantitatively small but statistically significant effect on the referendum preferences. We interpret the results through the use of the calculus of voting model, exploiting a slightly modified version of the most widespread one in the literature. Our findings are relevant from a policy-making standpoint, with respect to both fostering turnout and reducing election organizational costs.
    Keywords: Concurrent elections, Voting behaviour, Referendum, Calculus of voting
    Date: 2021
  39. By: Neil Bhutta; Adithya Raajkumar; Eileen van Straelen
    Abstract: New homes listed for sale fell sharply at the beginning of the pandemic. Anecdotal evidence suggests that fear of COVID made homeowners reluctant to list their homes, driving down new listings. Figure 1 shows that from March to April 2020, as COVID lockdowns went into effect, new listings declined by more than one-third relative to previous years and did not return to normal levels until July 2020.
    Date: 2021–08–16
  40. By: Renu Gupta (Sardar Patel Vidyalaya)
    Abstract: In response to recent concerns expressed by Indian industry about the ‘employability’ of school and university graduates, this paper examines the role of pedagogy in developing life skills (or 21st century skills) and how these can be incorporated in the school/university curriculum. In recent curricular frameworks, life skills have been incorporated within the school curriculum by stressing the importance of inquiry and collaborative work through all subjects taught in school. The paper finds a similar emphasis in the National Curriculum Framework (NCF) in India. Using classroom observations and textbook analyses, it shows that learning objectives in schools are frequently incorrect or misaligned with the NCF vision. The paper briefly touches on how the beliefs of teachers affect their classroom practices and recommends that attention should be paid to the professionalisation of teachers, as only then can students acquire skills that are relevant for the 21st century, which is what employers want.
    Keywords: Education, Non-cognitive Skills, Employability, Skill, Socio-emotional, Pedagogy, India
    JEL: I29 J24
    Date: 2021–06
  41. By: Emmanuel Asane-Otoo (University of Oldenburg, Department of Economics); C. Dannemann (University of Oldenburg, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: Besides temporal and spatial aggregation issues in the analysis of asymmetric response of retail gasoline prices, previous studies have also largely ignored parameter heterogeneity across fuel stations. This paper addresses the aggregation issues and the parameter homogeneity assumption by examining the responsiveness of stations to input cost changes using daily station-specific retail and wholesale gasoline prices for 12,613 geographically diverse stations. Based on individual station analysis using asymmetric error correction models, we find that 48% of stations engage in competitive pricing while the remaining 52% exhibit the rockets and feathers pricing pattern. Our findings suggest that the rockets and feathers phenomenon is a feature of individual stations and local market characteristics are important determinants. We also show that pooled panel regression techniques obscure the actual pricing pattern observed from station-level time series analysis.
    Keywords: Asymmetric Pricing, Input Cost, Price Transparency, Aggregation
    Date: 2021–08
  42. By: Alvedalen, Janna (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: Studies have argued for the pivotal role of large firms in Entrepreneurial Ecosystems (EE). The sudden closure of large firms can be expected to have a substantial negative impact on an EE. This paper investigates the resilience of an EE in the aftermath of a large firm exit in the Lund region. A qualitative case study shows how agency and resources turned the local EE into a dynamic center for Life Sciences. Factors that contributed to the resilience of the EE in Lund were entrepreneurial place leadership, local resources, and social capital. The study provides a framework to understand the transformation of an EE after a crisis.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial ecosystem; resilience; place leadership; social capital; entrepreneurship; closure of large firm
    JEL: L26 M21 O33
    Date: 2021–08–20
  43. By: Wang, Feicheng; Liang, Zhe; Lehmann, Hartmut
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of trade liberalisation induced labour demand shocks on informal employment in China. We employ a local labour market approach to construct a regional measure of exposure to import tariffs by exploiting initial differences in industrial composition across prefectural cities and then link it with the employment status of individuals. Using three waves of household survey data between 1995 and 2007, our results show that workers from regions that experienced a larger tariff cut were more likely to be employed informally. Further results based on firm-level data reveal a consistent pattern; tariff reductions increased the share of informal workers within firms. Such effects are more salient among smaller and less productive firms. Our findings suggest an important margin of labour market adjustment in response to trade shocks in developing countries, i.e. employment adjustment along the formal-informal dimension.
    Keywords: Trade liberalisation,Import competition,Informal employment,Firms,China
    JEL: F14 F16 F66 J46
    Date: 2021
  44. By: Juan Estrada (Emory University)
    Abstract: I present the netivreg command, which implements the generalized three-stage least-squares (G3SLS) estimator for the endogenous linear-in-means model developed in Estrada et al. (2020, “On the Identification and Estimation of Endogenous Peer Effects in Multiplex Networks"). The G3SLS procedure utilizes full observability of a two-layered multiplex network data structure using Stata 16's new multiframes capabilities and Python integration. Implementations of the command utilizing simulated data as well as three years' worth of data on peer-reviewed articles published in top general-interest journals in economics in Estrada et al. (2020) are also included.
    Date: 2021–08–07
  45. By: Kartik B. Athreya; Grey Gordon; John Bailey Jones; Urvi Neelakantan
    Keywords: earnings dynamics; incarceration; racial inequality
    JEL: C23 D31 J15
    Date: 2021–07–02
  46. By: Martin Cesnak (National Bank of Slovakia); Jan Klacso (National Bank of Slovakia); Roman Vasil (National Bank of Slovakia)
    Abstract: The National Bank of Slovakia has been actively implementing borrower-based measures since 2014. In this paper we provide a cost-benefit analysis of these measures. DSTI measures affected mainly the riskiest borrowers with at most secondary education and lower income. Exemptions from DTI limits are provided mainly to borrowers with a higher volume of loans and higher education. LTV limits affected mainly younger borrowers up to 35 years old. The impact of respective measures was affected by front-loading, by the gradual tightening of the limits and by other legislative changes. The highest impact is estimated in 2019, when the volume of newly granted loans was lowered by 17% due to the measures. The estimated impact on residential real estate prices is relatively mild. The current coronavirus pandemic is the first period when systemic risks could have materialized after the implementation of the measures. Due to the possible loan payment deferral the number of loans defaulted has remained relatively low, therefore LTV measures have not been able to limit credit losses. On the other hand, DSTI measures have helped to mitigate credit risk. Households affected the most by the pandemic were those with an already high debt burden even before the outbreak of the crisis. These households have used loan payment deferral to a larger extent.
    JEL: C58 D61 G21 G28
    Date: 2021–08
  47. By: Avenyo, Elvis Korku
    Abstract: Recognising that enterprises learn how to produce goods and services in the informal economy, this paper examines the effect of two learning processes (apprenticeship and ‘formal interactions’) on the product innovativeness of informal enterprises in Ghana. Employing unique survey data on 513 enterprises and the Type II Tobit model, our analyses reveal that apprenticeship, on the one hand, enhances the technological capability of enterprises leading to product innovativeness, while competitive formal interactions, on the other hand, provide important market feedback that enhances the innovativeness of enterprises. The paper concludes by discussing the policy implications of these findings.
    Keywords: Innovation; Informal Sector; Learning; SMEs; Ghana; sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)
    JEL: D22 L25 L53 O12 O17 O31
    Date: 2021
  48. By: Martin Besfamille; Diego Jorrat; Osmel Manzano; Pablo Sanguinetti
    Abstract: Based on the fiscal regime that prevailed in Argentina from 1988 to 2003, we estimate the effects that changes in intergovernmental transfers and hydrocarbon royalties had on provincial public consumption and debt. From a one-peso increase in intergovernmental transfers, all provinces spent 76 centavos on public consumption and decreased their debt by 22 centavos. However, when hydrocarbon-producing provinces faced a one-peso increase in royalties, they saved 95 centavos. We provide evidence that the exhaustible nature of royalties may explain this saving reaction in hydrocarbon-producing provinces.
    Keywords: tax sharing regime, intergovernmental transfers, non-renewable resources, hydrocarbon royalties, provincial public consumption and debt, Argentina
    JEL: C30 H72 H77
    Date: 2021
  49. By: Carvalho, Vasco M. (University of Cambridge); Draca, Mirko (University of Warwick and CAGE); Kuhlen, Nikolas (University of Cambridge and The Alan Turing Institute)
    Abstract: How do firms and inventors move through ‘knowledge space’ as they develop their innovations? We propose a method for tracking patterns of ‘exploration and exploitation’ in patenting behaviour in the US for the period since 1920. Our exploration measure is constructed from the text of patents and involves the use of ‘Bayesian Surprise’ to measure how different current patent-based innovations are from existing portfolios. Our results indicate that there are distinct ‘life-cycle’ patterns to firm and inventor exploration. Furthermore, exploration activity is more geographically concentrated than general patenting, but this concentration is centred outside the main hubs of patenting.
    Keywords: JEL Classification:
    Date: 2021
  50. By: Wrase Isabelle; Antje Junghans
    Abstract: Higher Education in Real Estate and Facility Management is provided at Universities and Universities of Applied Sciences (UAS) in Switzerland. The first Master of Science Program in Facility Management has been established at the Institute of Facility Management in 2008 at the Department of Life Sciences and Facility Management at Zurich UAS. The MSc in FM achieved accreditation by IFMA and attracted a high number of international students. Referring to IFMA all competence fields and the entire life cycle in Real Estate and FM where addressed. About ten years later the first Master of Science in Real Estate Management has been established at the School of business and finance at the UAS Luzern. Before that and in addition to the Bachelor and Master of Science Programs academic qualification was provided at Universities and UAS within professional training courses on academic level. The swiss education system provides several qualification tracs and involves training on the job and continuous education programs towards lifelong learning possibilities. Today about 18% of Bachelor graduates decide to continue studying on Master level at Swiss UAS. Higher education has become more and more important. Continuous education in the context of Real Estate and FM has been provided in Master of Advanced Studies (MAS) and Certificates of Advanced Studies (CAS) at several UAS and universities in Switzerland. Table 1 (see attachment) provides an overview of Higher Education programs in Real Estate and Facility Management in Switzerland, Netherland, and Norway at business schools and at faculties of architecture and the built environment. Research, education, and practice at the IFM are integrated towards an interdisciplinary approach. The IFM has expertise in strategic facilities management, real estate management, workplace management and business skills, as well as hospitality and service management, property technology, sustainability, and digital transformation. Research and Education at the Institute of Facility Management (IFM) at ZHAW: ZHAW is the largest UAS in Switzerland with 13’000 students and about 3000 employees. The Zurich UAS is located on three campus areas and is structured in eight schools from Architecture to Social Sciences. The IFM is located at the School of Life Sciences and Facility Management (LSFM) at the Lake of Zurich (Campus Wädenswil, Canton Zurich). In addition, IFM has a long tradition in the provision of continuous education courses in Zurich (Campus Zurich, Canton Zurich). Zurich is a very attractive location and ZHAW in the canton of Zurich and Winterthur provides an excellent environment for higher education in MSc REFM. In 2020/21 about 250 students have been enrolled in the bachelor in FM program. Main areas of education and research are: Workplace, FM in Health Care, and Real Estate and Service Management. Around 60 new Master students per year are expected with the new Curriculum of the MSc REFM starting by autumn 2022. Considered the interdisciplinary context of Real estate, architecture and engineering industry FM has become the missing link between realization, operation, and usability of the built environment. Reengineering of a Master of Science study program in Real Estate and Facility Management: The former Master of Science program came to the end of its life cycle after more than 13 years in existence. How should an existing Master of Science program be reengineered to attract students? Didactically, the heterogeneity of the students’ background must be dealt with in many Master of Science programs. This is also true for this MSc REFM. The article introduces fundamental considerations and presents a structural framework that is tailored to a reengineered teaching and learning process. Based on interviews with executives from the private sector and public administration, an expert workshop with participants from senior management from the private sector and public institutions, market and internal research at the IFM, student surveys, and requirements of the FM professional associations, it is shown that the (future) specialists and executives in real estate and facility management are confronted with challenges which require a holistic management of infrastructures - starting with the planning and creation through the use up to the dismantling (see also “Real Estate Economics: Volume 1 - Business Basics”, 3rd edition, edited by Karl-Werner Schulte, Munich, page 374). These requirements are also reflected in the GEFMA 100 guideline of the German Facility Management Association. Furthermore, the disciplines that are primarily to be located in a real estate life cycle, such as architecture, business administration and engineering, are supplemented by an entrepreneurial dimension consisting of content from disciplines such as personnel management, change management, law, operational technologies, building technology and IT. In addition, knowledge about topics in sustainability and digitalization is a nowadays must, nearly independently of the chosen study program. Instead of reengineering the MSc program on its own, the IFM choose to build strong cooperation and links with other departments at the ZHAW, and partners in the public and private real estate sector. The Reengineering of the MSc REFM curriculum has been also developed in cooperation with the division Banking Finance Insurance (ABF) at the School of Management and Law (SML), which is located in the city of Winterthur (Campus Winterthur, Canton Winterthur). Conclusion and outlook: Master of Science in Real Estate and Facility Management has become an academia and industry driven program IFM’s mission is the sustainable development of healthy work and living environments. Research and education are guided by basic understanding of Facilities Management definition as the integration of people, process, place, and technology. The institutes international network with universities and UAS, like international PhD Program with NTNU, participation in European research and students exchange programs is developing further. The IFM is looking forward to strengthening collaboration in research and education and starting the new interdisciplinary MSc REFM in autumn 2022.
    Keywords: Higher Education in Real Estate and Facility Management in Switzerland; Reengineering of a Master of Science study program in Real Estate and Facility Management; Research and Education at the Institute of Facility Management (IFM) at ZHAW
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2021–01–01
  51. By: Jieyi Kang (Department of Land Economy, University of Cambridge); David Reiner (EPRG, CJBS, University of Cambridge)
    Keywords: Residential electricity, household consumption behaviour, China, machine learning
    JEL: C55 D12 R22 Q41
    Date: 2021–05
  52. By: Olivia Jin; William Pyle
    Abstract: A growing literature connects labor market hardships to stronger preferences for government welfare and redistribution programs. Potential preference shifts with respect to other types of state involvement in the economy, however, have gone unexplored. We draw on both longitudinal and pseudo-panel data from Russia to explore how labor market hardships relate to preferences for public sector employment and employers. In fixed effects specifications, we demonstrate that feelings of job insecurity, experiences with wage arrears, and spells of unemployment all increase the attractiveness of work in the public sector. Pseudo-panel data provide only mixed evidence as to whether such effects endure over the longer run.
    Keywords: economic shocks, personal experience, public employment, political preferences
    JEL: H10 J45 J60 P35
    Date: 2021
  53. By: Ali Recayi Ogcem (LAPE - Laboratoire d'Analyse et de Prospective Economique - GIO - Gouvernance des Institutions et des Organisations - UNILIM - Université de Limoges); Ruth Tacneng (LAPE - Laboratoire d'Analyse et de Prospective Economique - GIO - Gouvernance des Institutions et des Organisations - UNILIM - Université de Limoges); Amine Tarazi (LAPE - Laboratoire d'Analyse et de Prospective Economique - GIO - Gouvernance des Institutions et des Organisations - UNILIM - Université de Limoges)
    Abstract: We examine the relationship between trust and financial development using detailed regional data in Turkey. We distinguish different forms of trust (i.e., generalized, narrow, and wide) and investigate whether varying degrees of generalized and narrow trust, as well as wide and narrow trust imply different financial development outcomes. Moreover, we assess how different forms of trust and their combination affect financial development in the presence of ethnically fragmented populations. We use instrumental variable (IV) estimations to address endogeneity issues and the potential reverse causality between trust and financial development. Our main results indicate that wide trust has a significantly positive impact on financial development. Moreover, in regions where narrow trust is relatively high, we find financial development benefits from increasing generalized trust. Our findings also highlight that whereas wide trust leads to more developed financial markets in more ethnically fragmented regions, generalized trust plays a stronger role in less fragmented ones. Further, we also analyze the impact of trust on the proportion of credit backed by stable funds such as deposits. Our findings show that generalized trust plays an important role in mitigating the adverse effects that ethnic fractionalization have on the availability of deposits or stable sources to fund loans. On the whole, our study highlights the importance of distinguishing the impact of different forms and combinations of trust. Generalized trust, which is the focus of most studies, is not an all-encompassing one-size-fits-all solution to enhance economic performance.
    Keywords: Trust,Financial development,Regional development,Ethnic fractionalization
    Date: 2021–08–19
  54. By: C. Palomino, Juan; G. Rodríguez, Juan; Sebastian, Raquel
    Abstract: We evaluate the distributional consequences of social distancing for the case of Spanish regions. Under 2 months of lockdown plus 10 months of partial functioning our study consistently finds potential wage losses that are sizeable and uneven across the wage distribution all around Spain, but with different intensity depending on the region's productive structure. The increase of the headcount poverty index oscillates between 8.2 (Navarre) and 19.2 (the Balearic Islands) percentage points, while the Gini coefficient rises between 2.3 (Navarre) and 5.3 (the Balearic Islands) Gini points. We also find that inequality between regions increases, eroding regional cohesion in Spain.
    Keywords: COVID-19, poverty, inequality, teleworking, social distancing, regions, Spain
    JEL: D33 E24 J21 J31
    Date: 2021–01
  55. By: Yotam Shem-Tov; Steven Raphael; Alissa Skog
    Abstract: This paper studies the effect of a restorative justice intervention targeted at youth ages 13 to 17 facing felony charges of medium severity (e.g., burglary, assault). Eligible youths were randomly assigned to participate in the Make-it-Right (MIR) restorative justice program or to a control group in which they faced criminal prosecution. We estimate the effects of MIR on the likelihood that a youth will be rearrested in the four years following randomization. Assignment to MIR reduces the likelihood of a rearrest within six months by 19 percentage points, a 44 percent reduction relative to the control group. Moreover, the reduction in recidivism persists even four years after randomization. Thus, our estimates show that juvenile restorative justice conferencing can reduce recidivism among youth charged with relatively serious offenses and can be an effective alternative to traditional criminal justice practices.
    JEL: J18 K14 K42
    Date: 2021–08
  56. By: Chen, Xiaomeng; Forman, Christopher; Kummer, Michael E.
    Abstract: We analyze whether an informal second channel for communication can improve the efficiency of knowledge transfer in an electronic network of practice. We explore this question by analyzing the effect of chat rooms in the well-known Q&A forum Stack Overflow. We identify the causal effect using a difference-in-differences approach, which exploits a feed functionality that non-selectively pushed all questions from the Q&A into the relevant chat rooms. We report two main findings: First, chat rooms reduced the time until a question in the main Q&A received a satisfactory answer. Second, chat rooms disproportionately benefited new users who asked low-quality questions. Our study has clear managerial implications: A second channel for communication can complement the main channel in online communities to enhance both efficiency and inclusion.
    Keywords: Knowledge sharing,Online community,User contribution
    JEL: L17 O31 O36
    Date: 2021
  57. By: Prisca Jöst; Ellen Lust
    Abstract: Are candidates who hand out clientelistic goods at election time less likely to provide services once they take office? This paper examines the poor's expectations of future service provision by candidates who hand out money and other goods versus those who do not. We hypothesize that the poor's expectations should depend on the density of social ties. To test this hypothesis, we use hierarchical models to analyse observational data and two conjoint experiments embedded in a unique survey of Kenyans, Malawians, and Zambians.
    Keywords: vote-buying, Clientelism, Social cohesion, Poverty, Service delivery
    Date: 2021
  58. By: Kedagni, Desire; Krishna, Kala; Megalokonomou, Rigissa; Zhao, Yingyan
    Abstract: Using high quality administrative data on Greece we show that class size has a hump shaped effect on achievement. We do so both nonparametrically and parametrically, while controlling for potential endogeneity and allowing for quantile effects. We then embed our estimates for this relationship in a dynamic structural model with costs of hiring and firing.We argue that the linear specification form used in past work may be why it found mixed results. Our work suggests that while discrete reductions in class size may have mixed effects, discrete increases are likely to have very negative effects while marginal changes in class size would have small negative effects.We find optimal class sizes around 27 in the absence of adjustment costs and achievement maximizing ones around 15, and firing costs much larger than hiring costs consistent with the presence of unions. Despite this, reducing firing costs actually reduces achievement. Reducing hiring costs raises achievement and reduces class size. We show that class size caps are costly, and more so for small schools, even when set at levels well above average.
    Date: 2021–04–01

This nep-ure issue is ©2021 by Steve Ross. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.