nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2021‒08‒23
sixty-six papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. Public Services and Liveability in European Cities in Comparison By Mario Holzner; Roman Römisch
  2. The 2000s Housing Cycle With 2020 Hindsight: A Neo-Kindlebergerian View By Gabriel Chodorow-Reich; Adam M. Guren; Timothy J. McQuade
  3. What difference do schools make?: a mixed methods study in secondary schools in Peru By León, Juan; Guerrero, Gabriela; Cueto, Santiago; Glewwe, Paul
  4. Teacher Compensation and Structural Inequality: Evidence from Centralized Teacher School Choice in Peru By Matteo Bobba; Tim Ederer; Gianmarco Leon-Ciliotta; Christopher Neilson; Marco G. Nieddu
  5. Examining the Associations Between Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and the Potential Distribution of Four Urban Ecosystem Services in Rochester, NY By Greene, Joshua; Stack Whitney, Kaitlin; Korfmacher, Karl
  6. Time to Lead: An Illustrative Look at How Elementary School Principals Spend Their Workweek By Matthew Johnson; Christina Tuttle; Susanne James-Burdumy; Alison Wellington
  7. Regional income inequalities and labour mobility in Hungary By Svraka, András
  8. The Damages and Distortions from Discrimination in the Rental Housing Market By Peter Christensen; Christopher Timmins
  9. Tilted Platforms: Rental Housing Technology and the Rise of Urban Big Data Oligopolies By Geoff Boeing; Max Besbris; David Wachsmuth; Jake Wegmann
  10. Walking Trip Generation and Built Environment: A Comparative Study on Trip Purposes By Hosseinzadeh, Aryan; Baghbani, Asiye
  11. Reconfiguring actors and infrastructure in city renewable energy transitions: a regional perspective By Christina E. Hoicka; Jessica Conroy; Anna Berka
  12. Do Lenders Still Discriminate? A Robust Approach for Assessing Differences in Menus By David Hao Zhang; Paul S. Willen
  13. Propagation and Amplification of Local Productivity Spillovers By Xavier Giroud; Simone Lenzu; Quinn Maingi; Holger Mueller
  14. SimUAM: A Comprehensive Microsimulation Toolchain to Evaluate the Impact of Urban Air Mobility in Metropolitan Areas By Yedavalli, Pavan; Burak Onat, Emin; Peng, Xi; Sengupta, Raja; Waddell, Paul; Bulusu, Vishwanath; Xue, Min
  15. The Impact of Public Transportation and Commuting on Urban Labour Markets: Evidence from the New Survey of London Life and Labour, 1929-32 By Seltzer, Andrew; Wadsworth, Jonathan
  16. ClockBoard: a zoning system for urban analysis By Lovelace, Robin; Tennekes, Martijn; Carlino, Dustin
  17. From Referrals to Suspensions: New Evidence on Racial Disparities in Exclusionary Discipline By Liu, Jing; Hayes, Michael S.; Gershenson, Seth
  18. Place-based policies - How to do them and why By Südekum, Jens
  19. The impact of transit monetary costs on transport equity analyses By Herszenhut, Daniel; Pereira, Rafael H. M.; da Silva Portugal, Licinio; de Sousa Oliveira, Matheus Henrique
  20. Students Attending School Remotely Suffer Socially, Emotionally, and Academically By Angela L. Duckworth; Tim Kautz; Amy Defnet; Emma Satlof-Bedrick; Sean Talamas; Benjamin Lira; Laurence Steinberg
  21. MobilityCoins -- A new currency for the multimodal urban transportation system By Klaus Bogenberger; Philipp Blum; Florian Dandl; Lisa-Sophie Hamm; Allister Loder; Patrick Malcom; Martin Margreiter; Natalie Sautter
  22. Geographical indications and local development: the strength of territorial embeddedness By Crescenzi, Riccardo; De Filippis, Fabrizio; Giua, Mara; Vaquero Pineiro, Cristina
  23. Consistent Inequality across Germany? Exploring Spatial Heterogeneity in the Unequal Distribution of Air Pollution By Rüttenauer, Tobias; Best, Henning
  24. A Unified Theory of Cities By Jacques-François Thisse; Matthew Turner; Philip Ushchev
  25. Task-Based Discrimination By Erik Hurst; Yona Rubinstein; Kazuatsu Shimizu
  26. Strategic coupling and regional resilience in times of uncertainty: the industrial chain chief model in Zhejiang, China By Huiwen Gong; Robert Hassink; Cassandra Wang
  27. The multi-level context for local climate governance in Germany: The role of the federal states By Eckersley, Peter; Kern, Kristine; Haupt, Wolfgang; Müller, Hannah
  28. Experimentally Validating Welfare Evaluation of School Vouchers: Part I By Peter Arcidiacono; Karthik Muralidharan; Eun-young Shim; John D. Singleton
  29. The Making of Social Democracy: The Economic and Electoral Consequences of Norway's 1936 Folk School Reform By Acemoglu, Daron; Pekkarinen, Tuomas; Salvanes, Kjell G.; Sarvimäki, Matti
  30. Uber and Alcohol-Related Traffic Fatalities By Michael L. Anderson; Lucas W. Davis
  31. Local Shocks and Internal Migration: The Disparate Effects of Robots and Chinese Imports in the US By Faber, Marius; Sarto, Andrés; Tabellini, Marco
  32. The Effect of School Report Card Design on Usability, Understanding, and Satisfaction By Jesse Chandler; Jacob Hartog; Erin Lipman; Jonathan Gellar
  33. Telementoring and homeschooling during school closures: A randomized experiment in rural Bangladesh By Hashibul Hassan; Asad Islam; Abu Siddique; Liang Choon Wang
  34. Pork, Infrastructure and Growth: Evidence from the Italian Railway Expansion By Roberto Bonfatti; Giovanni Facchini; Alexander Tarasov; Gian Luca Tedeschi; Cecilia Testa
  35. Labor Market Competition and the Assimilation of Immigrants By Christoph Albert; Albrecht Glitz; Joan Llull
  36. What We Teach About Race and Gender: Representation in Images and Text of Children’s Books By Anjali Adukia; Alex Eble; Emileigh Harrison; Hakizumwami Birali Runesha; Teodora Szasz
  37. Transforming the Early Childhood Workforce: Overview of 2019 Innovation Grants in Colorado By Mark Ezzo; Gretchen Kirby; Jonathan McCay
  38. Place-Based Redistribution in Location Choice Models By Morris Davis; Jesse M. Gregory
  39. Pensions, Income Taxes and Homeownership: A Cross-Country Analysis By Hans Fehr; Maurice Hofmann; George Kudrna
  40. Causal Inference with Noncompliance and Unknown Interference By Tadao Hoshino; Takahide Yanagi
  41. Supporting Student Engagement in Remote and Hybrid Learning Environments By Regional Educational Laboratory Mid‑Atlantic
  42. Youth Engagement: Lessons Learned By Nathan Mix; Elizabeth Clary; Cay Bradley
  43. Local participatory budgeting in a multilevel government – an institutional analysis of Ecuadorian municipal expenditure policies By Droste, Nils; Lienhoop, Nele; Hansjürgens, Bernd
  44. Entrepreneurship enhancement policies and the competitiveness web: The case of the European South By Vlados, Charis; Koutroukis, Theodore; Chatzinikolaou, Dimos; Demertzis, Michail
  45. A New Look at Racial Disparities Using a More Comprehensive Wealth Measure By Alice Henriques Volz; Jeffrey P. Thompson
  46. The Lasting Effects of Early Childhood Education on Promoting the Skills and Social Mobility of Disadvantaged African Americans By Jorge Luis García; James J. Heckman; Victor Ronda
  47. COVID-19 Effects and Youth Unemployment Rates in Metro Areas, January-June 2021 By Hande Inanc; Megan Caruso
  48. Supporting School Transitions for Young Learners: Considerations in the Era of COVID-19 and Beyond By Regional Educational Laboratory Mid‑Atlantic
  49. Leaving terrorism behind? Impact of terrorist attacks on migration intentions around the world By Killian Foubert; Ilse Ruyssen
  50. Homophily and peer influence in early-stage new venture informal investment By Qin, Fei; Mickiewicz, Tomasz; Estrin, Saul
  51. A Multi-level Network Approach to Spillovers Analysis: An Application to the Maltese Domestic Investment Funds Sector By Meglioli, Francesco; Gauci, Stephanie
  52. Rethinking ‘kampung’ or ‘village’ in the (re)making of Singapore and Singaporeans By Nallari, Anupama; Poorthuis, Ate
  53. Effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on bike-sharing demand and hire time: Evidence from Santander Cycles in London By Shahram Heydari; Garyfallos Konstantinoudis; Abdul Wahid Behsoodi
  54. The migrant wealth gap at the household level: Evidence from RIF regressions for Austria By Muckenhuber, Mattias; Rehm, Miriam; Schnetzer, Matthias
  55. Way2Work Maryland Demonstration: Impacts 24 Months After Enrollment By David Mann; Kathleen Feeney; Todd Honeycutt; Marlena Luhr
  56. Migrant Selection and Sorting during the Great American Drought By Sichko, Christopher
  57. Shifting Punishment on Minorities: Experimental Evidence of Scapegoating By Michal Bauer; Jana Cahlíková; Julie Chytilová; Gérard Roland; Tomas Zelinsky
  58. Long-Term Consequences of Teaching Gender Roles: Evidence from Desegregating Industrial Arts and Home Economics in Japan By Hara, Hiromi; Rodríguez-Planas, Núria
  59. Coworker Networks and the Role of Occupations in Job Finding By Gyetvai, Attila; Zhu, Maria
  60. Systemic Discrimination Among Large U.S. Employers By Patrick M. Kline; Evan K. Rose; Christopher R. Walters
  61. The innovative mobility landscape: The case of mobility as a service By OECD
  62. Intergenerational Homeownership in France over the 20th Century By Bertrand Garbinti; Frédérique Savignac
  63. Poor peer work does not boost student confidence By Kappes, Heather Barry; Fasolo, Barbara; Han, Wenjie; Barnes, Jessica; Ter Meer, Janna
  64. Should we abolish GCSEs? By Gill Wyness
  65. A Note on the Level of Customer Support by State Governments: A Mystery-Shopping Approach By Oeindrila Dube; Sendhil Mullainathan; Devin G. Pope
  66. Regional disparities in Social Mobility of India By Anuradha Singh

  1. By: Mario Holzner (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Roman Römisch (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)
    Abstract: A high level of public services in housing, transport, education and health care is essential for liveability in urban centres, as shown in this report, with the help of European data for large cities. Inhabitants of larger cities, where the housing market is heavily commercialised in terms of the share of homeownership, and where little social housing exists, have to save on consumption items that offer a higher quality of life, such as in Italy. On the opposite side, for instance, cities in Austria, the Netherlands, Sweden and France have housing markets that are much less commercialised and where a lot of social housing exists. These are exactly the urban centres that achieve the top rankings in our new Urban Public Services and Liveability Index (UPSLIde), with Austria in first place. Over time, UPSLIde trends downward, with the ratio of expenditure on the finer things in life relative to obligatory consumption items influenced by public services provision sliding from around 70% in the late 1980s to less than 50% in the 2010s. In order for this negative trend to be reversed, public services provision needs to be stepped up and, in particular, rising housing rental costs need to be countered by more social housing construction.
    Keywords: Housing policy, transport policy, education policy, health policy, public services, urban well-being, index ranking, household expenditure, cities, Europe
    JEL: C43 D12 E21 R38 R48 H44 H51 H52 H53 H54 H75 H76 I18 I28 I38
    Date: 2021–08
  2. By: Gabriel Chodorow-Reich; Adam M. Guren; Timothy J. McQuade
    Abstract: With “2020 hindsight,” the 2000s housing cycle is not a boom-bust but rather a boom- bust-rebound at both the national level and across cities. We argue this pattern reflects a larger role for fundamentally-rooted explanations than previously thought. We construct a city-level long-run fundamental using a spatial equilibrium regression framework in which house prices are determined by local income, amenities, and supply. The fundamental predicts not only 1997-2019 price and rent growth but also the amplitude of the boom-bust-rebound and foreclosures. This evidence motivates our neo-Kindlebergerian model, in which an improvement in fundamentals triggers a boom-bust-rebound. Agents learn about the fundamentals by observing “dividends” but become over-optimistic due to diagnostic expectations. A bust ensues when over-optimistic beliefs start to correct, exacerbated by a price-foreclosure spiral that drives prices below their long-run level. The rebound follows as prices converge to a path commensurate with higher fundamental growth. The estimated model explains the boom-bust-rebound with a single fundamental shock and accounts quantitatively for cross-city patterns in the dynamics of prices and foreclosures.
    JEL: E32 G01 G4 R31
    Date: 2021–08
  3. By: León, Juan; Guerrero, Gabriela; Cueto, Santiago (Grupo de Análisis para el Desarrollo (GRADE)); Glewwe, Paul
    Abstract: This study contributes to filling the existing gap in the scarce literature on school effectiveness in secondary education in Peru by addressing the following questions: i) which educational processes within schools are most influential in math and reading comprehension? and in the case of the most effective schools, ii) what is the importance that principals, teachers, and students place on school processes variables in explaining educational outcomes? We use a mixed-method design that follows a sequential explanatory design. First, using the Young Lives secondary school survey in Peru (2017), we estimate a random effects model to explore the effect of teacher and school level variables on math and reading comprehension. Then, we conduct a qualitative case study in two schools identified as high-performance schools (HPS) by the survey, with the aim of explaining the role of school processes variables on educational results. The multivariate analysis shows that among teacher and classroom level variables, feedback provided to students and the satisfaction with his/her relationship with the educational actors were statistically significant. Among school level variables, school principal´s experience, average level of school wealth index, students per classroom and the infrastructure were statistically significant. The analysis of in-depth interviews and focus groups with vice-principals, teachers, and students from the two HPS shows that these two effective schools promote higher student achievement through different policies. At the school level, they have monitoring and constant teacher training policies to improve the quality of teaching. They also have student discipline and teacher collaboration policies to promote a conducive school learning environment. Correspondingly, at the classroom level, these schools are characterized by the quality of their teaching strategies regarding peer-mentoring, feedback and use of materials, and by their positive classroom learning environments based on teachers’ monitoring of students’ progress and teacher-student relations of care and trust. Our results point out the importance of the pedagogical work of the different educational actors inside the school. Educational programs carried out by local and national governments should pay more attention to the dynamics within the school to mitigate the educational inequalities, equalizing upwards the opportunities for children in impoverished public schools.
    Keywords: Educación secundaria, Escuela secundaria, Logros académicos, Rendimiento escolar, Secondary education, Secondary school, Academic achievement, Perú, Peru
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Matteo Bobba; Tim Ederer; Gianmarco Leon-Ciliotta; Christopher Neilson; Marco G. Nieddu
    Abstract: This paper studies how increasing teacher compensation at hard-to-staff schools can reduce inequality in access to qualified teachers. Leveraging an unconditional change in the teacher compensation structure in Peru, we first show causal evidence that increasing salaries at less desirable locations attracts better quality applicants and improves student test scores. We then estimate a model of teacher preferences over local amenities, school characteristics, and wages using geocoded job postings and rich application data from the nationwide centralized teacher assignment system. Our estimated model suggests that the current policy is helpful but both inefficient and not large enough to effectively undo the inequality of initial conditions that hard-to-staff schools and their communities face. Counterfactual analyses that incorporate equilibrium sorting effects characterize alternative wage schedules and quantify the cost of reducing structural inequality in the allocation of teacher talent across schools. Overall our results show that a policy that sets compensation at each job posting using the information generated by the matching platform is more efficient and can help reduce structural inequality in access to learning opportunities. In comparison, a rigid system that ignores teacher preferences will indirectly reinforce such inequalities.
    JEL: H52 I20 J3 J45 O15 R23 R58
    Date: 2021–07
  5. By: Greene, Joshua; Stack Whitney, Kaitlin; Korfmacher, Karl
    Abstract: As populations and the total area of impervious surfaces continue to grow in developed areas, planners and policy makers must consider how local ecological resources can be utilized to meet the needs and develop climate resilient and sustainable cities. Urban green spaces (UGS) have been identified as critical resources in improving the climate resiliency of cities and the quality of life for residents through the urban ecosystem services (UES) that they provide. However, certain communities within cities do not have uniform access to these UGS, and this may be due to historical legacies (i.e. redlining) and/or contemporary practices (i.e. urban planning). Therefore, we sought to determine if the supply of UES throughout the city of Rochester, NY is inequitably distributed. We assessed UES using geospatial analysis and literature-based coefficients to measure ecosystem services. We also assessed the distribution of socioeconomic status (SES), including contemporary demographic information (population density, household median income, homeownership percentages, race percentages, and median property value) and historic neighborhood assessment grades assigned by the HomeOwners Loan Corporation (HOLC), throughout the city. By looking at these two sets of data together, we considered the social-ecological conditions and spatial patterns throughout the city to determine if the supply of UES is correlated with SES distribution. We found that there are statistically significant positive correlations between the production of UES in block groups and the SES indicator homeownership percentages, and negative correlations with the percentage of the population that is Black and lower HOLC grades. Furthermore, clusters of block groups with significantly high levels of social need for urban greening projects and a low production of UES were found primarily in the city’s downtown area and the neighborhoods directly surrounding it. This information provides a useful framework for city planners and policy makers to identify where UGS development needs to be prioritized as well how the supply of UES in the city is inequitably distributed.
    Date: 2021–08–17
  6. By: Matthew Johnson; Christina Tuttle; Susanne James-Burdumy; Alison Wellington
    Abstract: New evidence suggests that elementary school principals spend more than one-third of their workweek providing direct and indirect instructional support to teachers.
    Keywords: principals, professional development, instructional support, instructional leadership, time-use logs, teacher feedback, teacher evaluation, school improvement
  7. By: Svraka, András (Tax Policy and Research Unit, Ministry of Finance)
    Abstract: We analyse regional wage inequalities in the 2010s using administrative data sources at highly disaggregated regional levels, including commuting zones. The decline in national wage inequalities during this period is reflected at regional levels and we find convergence between regions in income levels and in the decreasing weight of between region inequalities as well. There are still large differences, and high income employees are concentrated in prosperous regions. Interregional mobility was also a driving force behind changes in income inequalities even in a country with low overall mobility rates. High income employees are much more likely to move, typically from less central, less developed regions to more central, larger labour markets. We find some evidence for a transitory mobility premium, although we cannot establish the causality of this relationship.
    JEL: D31 J61 R12
    Date: 2021–08
  8. By: Peter Christensen; Christopher Timmins
    Abstract: By constraining an individual’s choice during a search, housing discrimination dis- torts sorting decisions away from true preferences and results in a ceteris paribus reduction in welfare. This study combines a large-scale field experiment with a residential sorting model to derive utility-theoretic measures of renter welfare loss associated with the constraints imposed by discrimination in the rental housing market. Results from experiments conducted in five cities show that key neighbor- hood amenities are associated with higher levels of discrimination. Results from the structural model indicate that discrimination imposes costs equivalent to 4.7% of annual income for renters of color, and that search behavior results in greater welfare costs for African Americans as their incomes rise. Renters of color must make substantial investments in additional search to mitigate the costs of these constraints. We find that a naive model ignoring discrimination constraints yields significantly biased estimates of willingness to pay.
    JEL: Q51 Q53 R31
    Date: 2021–07
  9. By: Geoff Boeing; Max Besbris; David Wachsmuth; Jake Wegmann
    Abstract: This article interprets emerging scholarship on rental housing platforms -- particularly the most well-known and used short- and long-term rental housing platforms - and considers how the technological processes connecting both short-term and long-term rentals to the platform economy are transforming cities. It discusses potential policy approaches to more equitably distribute benefits and mitigate harms. We argue that information technology is not value-neutral. While rental housing platforms may empower data analysts and certain market participants, the same cannot be said for all users or society at large. First, user-generated online data frequently reproduce the systematic biases found in traditional sources of housing information. Evidence is growing that the information broadcasting potential of rental housing platforms may increase rather than mitigate sociospatial inequality. Second, technology platforms curate and shape information according to their creators' own financial and political interests. The question of which data -- and people -- are hidden or marginalized on these platforms is just as important as the question of which data are available. Finally, important differences in benefits and drawbacks exist between short-term and long-term rental housing platforms, but are underexplored in the literature: this article unpacks these differences and proposes policy recommendations.
    Date: 2021–08
  10. By: Hosseinzadeh, Aryan; Baghbani, Asiye
    Abstract: In recent decades, enhancing the share of walking in individuals’ daily trips has become a priority for transportation policymakers, urban planners and public health researchers as an interdisciplinary area. In this regard, determining influential factors on walking has become a matter of contention to move toward a sustainable mode of transportation. This study investigates the impact of the influencing factors on the share of walking in trip generation from/to Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZ) of a city across four trip purposes. In this study, individuals’ trip information for four trip purposes has been tested in order to detect influencing factors on walking trip generation based on 112 TAZs for the city of Rasht, Iran. According to the results, density and design are found to be more influential for produced walking trips and diversity is shown to be more effective for attracted walking trips.
    Keywords: walking, built environment, trip generation, transportation network design, population density, land use diversity
    JEL: C1 C10 C18 R0 R41
    Date: 2020–07–16
  11. By: Christina E. Hoicka (University of Victoria, Canada); Jessica Conroy (York University, Canada); Anna Berka (Massey University, New Zealand)
    Abstract: Cities as large centres of energy demand and population are important spatially and materially in a renewable energy transition. This study draws on available literature on material dimensions, energy decentralization, and regional approaches to provide a conceptual framework to analyse emerging city renewable energy transition plans for their material- and place-based actor scalar strategies. This framework outlines how the increase in renewable energy provided to cities results in new locations of productivity, interscalar relationships between new and centralized actors, and socio-economic outcomes. We use this to analyse 47 ambitious renewable energy transition plans in densely populated cities. Empirically, this study confirms that, for the most part, regions are important emerging actors in the decentralization of energy systems in a renewable energy transition; that city renewable energy transitions involve the forging of new economic relationships between cities and neighbouring communities and regions, and, as the community energy literature emphasises, that the involvement of a wide range of civic and local actors is important in shaping renewable energy transitions for cities. Further research can investigate how the institutional context is shaping these distinct actor material strategies and emerging interscalar relationships across regions. The socio-economic outcomes, particularly as they relate to new economic relationships between cities and the surrounding region and the re-spatialization of productivity and benefits, should also be examined.
    Keywords: Renewable energy transition, cities, decentralization, regional approaches, carbon neutral
    Date: 2021
  12. By: David Hao Zhang; Paul S. Willen
    Abstract: Motivated by the assessment of racial discrimination in mortgage pricing, we introduce a new methodology for comparing the menus of options borrowers face based on their choices. First, we show how standard regression-based approaches for assessing discrimination in the menus context can lead to misleading and contradictory results. Second, we propose a new methodology that is robust these problems based on relatively weak economic assumptions. More specifically, we use pairwise dominance relationships in choices supplemented by restrictions on the range of plausible menus to define (1) a test statistic for equality in menus and (2) a difference in menus (DIM) metric for assessing whether one group of borrowers would prefer to switch to another group's menus. Our statistics are robust to arbitrary heterogeneity in borrower preferences across racial groups, are sharp in terms of identification, and can be efficiently computed using Optimal Transport methods. Third, we devise a new approach for inference on the value of Optimal Transport problems based on directional differentiation. Fourth, we use our methodology to estimate mortgage pricing differentials by race on a novel data set linking 2018--2019 Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) data to Optimal Blue rate locks. We find robust evidence for mortgage pricing differentials by race, particularly among Conforming mortgage borrowers who are relatively creditworthy.
    JEL: C12 G21 G51
    Date: 2021–08
  13. By: Xavier Giroud; Simone Lenzu; Quinn Maingi; Holger Mueller
    Abstract: This paper shows that local productivity spillovers propagate throughout the economy through the plant-level networks of multi-region firms. Using confidential Census plant-level data, we show that large manufacturing plant openings not only raise the productivity of local plants but also of distant plants hundreds of miles away, which belong to multi-region firms that are exposed to the local productivity spillover through one of their plants. To quantify the significance of plant-level networks for the propagation and amplification of local productivity shocks, we develop and estimate a quantitative spatial model in which plants of multi-region firms are linked through shared knowledge. Our model features heterogeneous regions, which interact through goods trade and labor markets, as well as within-location, across-plant heterogeneity in productivity, wages, and employment. Counterfactual exercises show that while knowledge sharing through plant-level networks amplifies the aggregate effects of local productivity shocks, it widens economic disparities between individual workers and regions in the economy.
    JEL: C51 C68 E23 E24 L23 O4 R12 R13 R3
    Date: 2021–07
  14. By: Yedavalli, Pavan; Burak Onat, Emin; Peng, Xi; Sengupta, Raja; Waddell, Paul; Bulusu, Vishwanath; Xue, Min
    Abstract: Over the past several years, Urban Air Mobility (UAM) has galvanized enthusiasm from investors and researchers, marrying expertise in aircraft design, transportation, logistics, artificial intelligence, battery chemistry, and broader policymaking. However, two significant questions remain unexplored: (1) What is the value of UAM in a region’s transportation network?, and (2) How can UAM be effectively deployed to realize and maximize this value to all stakeholders, including riders and local economies? To adequately understand the value proposition of UAM for metropolitan areas, we develop a holistic multi-modal toolchain, SimUAM, to model and simulate UAM and its impacts on travel behavior. This toolchain has several components: (1) MANTA: A fast, high-fidelity regional-scale traffic microsimulator, (2) VertiSim: A granular, discrete-event vertiport and pedestrian, (3) 퐹퐸3 : A high-fidelity, trajectory-based aerial microsimulation. SimUAM, rooted in granular, GPU-based microsimulation, models millions of trips and their exact movements in the street network and in the air, producing interpretable and actionable performance metrics for UAM designs and deployments. The modularity, extensibility, and speed of the platform will allow for rapid scenario planning and sensitivity analysis, effectively acting as a detailed performance assessment tool. As a result, stakeholders in UAM can understand the impacts of critical infrastructure, and subsequently define policies, requirements, and investments needed to support UAM as a viable transportation mode.
    Keywords: Engineering
    Date: 2021–08–01
  15. By: Seltzer, Andrew (Royal Holloway, University of London); Wadsworth, Jonathan (Royal Holloway, University of London)
    Abstract: This paper examines the consequences of the commuter transport revolution on working class labour markets in 1930s London. The ability to commute alleviated urban crowding and increased workers’ choice of potential employers. Using GIS-based data constructed from the New Survey of London Life and Labour, we examine the extent of commuting and estimate the earnings returns to commuting. We obtain a lower-bound estimate of two percent increase in earnings per kilometer travelled. We also show that commuting was an important contributor to improving quality of life in the early-twentieth century.
    Keywords: public transportation, New Survey of London Life and Labour, GIS, earnings
    JEL: N94 J39 N34
    Date: 2021–08
  16. By: Lovelace, Robin; Tennekes, Martijn; Carlino, Dustin
    Abstract: Zones are the building blocks of urban analysis. Fields ranging from demographics to transport planning routinely use zones — spatially contiguous areal units that break-up continuous space into discrete chunks — as the foundation for diverse analysis techniques. Key methods such as origin-destination analysis and choropleth mapping rely on zones with appropriate sizes, shapes and coverage. However, existing zoning systems are sub-optimal in many urban analysis contexts, for three main reasons: 1) available administrative zoning systems are often based on somewhat arbitrary factors; 2) evidence-based zoning systems are often highly variable in size and shape, reducing their utility for inter-city comparison; and 3) official zoning systems are non-existent, not publicly available, or are too coarse, hindering urban analysis in many places, especially in low income nations. To tackle these three key issues we developed a flexible, open and scalable solution: the ClockBoard zoning system. ClockBoard consists of 12 segments divided by concentric rings of increasing distance, creating a consistent visual frame of reference for cities that is reminiscent of a clock and a dartboard. This paper outlines the design, potential uses and merits of the ClockBoard zoning system and discusses future avenues for research and development of new zoning systems based on the experience.
    Date: 2021–08–12
  17. By: Liu, Jing (University of Texas at Austin); Hayes, Michael S. (Rutgers University); Gershenson, Seth (American University)
    Abstract: We use novel data on disciplinary referrals, including those that do not lead to suspensions, to better understand the origins of racial disparities in exclusionary discipline. We find significant differences between Black and white students in both referral rates and the rate at which referrals convert to suspensions. An infraction fixed-effects research design that compares the disciplinary outcomes of white and non-white students who were involved in the same multi-student incident identifies systematic racial biases in sentencing decisions. On both the intensive and extensive margins, minoritized students receive harsher sentences than their white co-conspirators. This result is driven by high school infractions and applies to all infraction types. Reducing racial disparities in exclusionary discipline will require addressing underlying gaps in disciplinary referrals and the systematic biases that appear in the adjudication process.
    Keywords: exclusionary discipline, intentional discrimination, office referrals
    JEL: I2 J7
    Date: 2021–07
  18. By: Südekum, Jens
    Abstract: Place-based policies had a bad reputation for decades, if they received any attention at all. This has recently changed, for two reasons. First, many countries have experienced political backlashes from rising spatial economic disparities. Populist movements received the highest support in economically backward regions, which had been hit by severe local shocks. By trying to foster spatial economic cohesion, regional policies have become an attempt to insure against those political trends and to save liberal democracies altogether. Second, recent theoretical and empirical research has challenged the leading paradigm of spatial equilibrium analysis, according to which place-based policies are an inefficient interference into the market-based resource allocation. In this paper, I review those arguments and how their balance has changed over time. I argue that the demand for place-based policies is likely to increase in the future, as new digital technologies might reinforce urban-rural divides. But even if the general case for place-based policies now seems to be more widely accepted, the question remains what exactly should be done and which type of programs generate the highest return. Digging through the vast evaluation literature, I try to derive some robust lessons how to conduct place-based policies in practise.
    Date: 2021
  19. By: Herszenhut, Daniel; Pereira, Rafael H. M.; da Silva Portugal, Licinio; de Sousa Oliveira, Matheus Henrique
    Abstract: Transport equity analyses are often informed by accessibility estimates based solely on travel time impedance, ignoring other elements that might hinder access to activities, such as the monetary cost of a trip. This paper examines how and to what extent simultaneously incorporating both time and monetary costs into accessibility measures may impact transport equity assessment. We calculate job accessibility by transit in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using cumulative opportunity measures under distinct combinations of temporal and monetary thresholds, and compare how inequality levels vary across different scenarios. We find that the most common research practice of disregarding monetary costs tends to overestimate accessibility levels. However, stricter monetary constraints do not necessarily result in less equitable scenarios. How accessibility inequality is affected by monetary costs is highly dependent on what combinations of temporal and monetary cut-offs are considered in the analysis. In the case of Rio, opting for lower monetary thresholds when looking at shorter trips leads to inequality levels lower than those found in the no monetary threshold scenario, but results in higher inequality levels when allowing for longer trips. We find that the impact of monetary costs on transport equity analyses depend on a complex interaction between fare policies, the spatial organisation and operational characteristics of transit systems, and the spatial co-distribution of jobs and residential locations. The paper thus highlights that conclusions and policy recommendations derived from transport equity analyses can be affected in non-intuitive ways by the interplay between temporal and monetary constraints. Future research should investigate how different combinations of travel time and monetary costs thresholds affect equity analyses in different contexts.
    Date: 2021–07–14
  20. By: Angela L. Duckworth; Tim Kautz; Amy Defnet; Emma Satlof-Bedrick; Sean Talamas; Benjamin Lira; Laurence Steinberg
    Abstract: What is the social, emotional, and academic impact of attending school remotely rather than in person?
    Keywords: adolescence, adolescents, at-risk students, correlational analysis, COVID-19, effect size, factor analysis, lockdown, mental health, peer interaction/friendship, psychology, remote schooling, stress/coping, survey research
  21. By: Klaus Bogenberger; Philipp Blum; Florian Dandl; Lisa-Sophie Hamm; Allister Loder; Patrick Malcom; Martin Margreiter; Natalie Sautter
    Abstract: The MobilityCoin is a new, all-encompassing currency for the management of the multimodal urban transportation system. MobilityCoins includes and replaces various existing transport policy instruments while also incentivizing a shift to more sustainable modes as well as empowering the public to vote for infrastructure measures.
    Date: 2021–07
  22. By: Crescenzi, Riccardo; De Filippis, Fabrizio; Giua, Mara; Vaquero Pineiro, Cristina
    Abstract: Can Geographical Indications (GIs) promote local economic development in rural areas? This paper explores the impact of GIs that identify and endorse agri-food products which are strictly embedded within the territory from which they originate. Examining Italian wine protected by GIs through an innovative dataset and by means of propensity score matching and difference-in-differences models make it possible to compare the local economic development trajectories of rural municipalities afforded GIs with the correspondent dynamics of a counterfactual group of similar municipalities without GI status since 1951. Rural municipalities with GIs experience population growth and economic reorganization towards non-farming sectors, which frequently involve higher value-added activities.
    Keywords: geographical Indications;; rural development; EU policies; local development; propensity score matching; difference in differences; 639633-MASSIVE-ERC-2014-STG); H2020 project BATModel; Taylor & Francis deal
    JEL: O18 Q18 R10
    Date: 2021–07–29
  23. By: Rüttenauer, Tobias; Best, Henning
    Abstract: The topic of environmental inequality, in general describing the unequal distribution of environmental pollution across different social groups, has received increasing attention in Germany and other European countries during the past decade. Though research points towards a disadvantage of minorities in Europe, conclusions regarding the extent of this disadvantage vary across studies. In this contribution, we thus examine whether the extent of environmental inequality depends on the measure of pollution and the spatial scale. We connect spatially aggregated data of the 2011 German census to geographical information of industrial facilities and pollution estimates of German-wide diffusion models. We then use spatial regression models to identify the disadvantage of foreign minorities across these measures. Furthermore, we perform geographically weighted regressions to scrutinize the role of the spatial scale and location. We find that the pollution minority gap is stronger for estimates based on industrial facilities than it is for general pollution models, though there is a consistent disadvantage of minorities within municipalities. Furthermore, we demonstrate that there is strong heterogeneity in the association between the share of foreign minorities and air pollution according to the spatial scale and location of the research area.
    Date: 2021–08–11
  24. By: Jacques-François Thisse; Matthew Turner; Philip Ushchev
    Abstract: How do people arrange themselves when they are free to choose work and residence locations, when commuting is costly, and when increasing returns may affect production? We consider this problem when the location set is discrete and households have heterogenous preferences over workplace-residence pairs. We provide a general characterization of equilibrium throughout the parameter space. The introduction of preference heterogeneity into an otherwise conventional urban model fundamentally changes equilibrium behavior. Multiple equilibria are pervasive although stable equilibria need not exist. Stronger increasing returns to scale need not concentrate economic activity and lower commuting costs need not disperse it. The qualitative behavior of the model as returns to scale increase accords with changes in the patterns of urbanization observed in the Western world between the pre-industrial period and the present.
    JEL: R0
    Date: 2021–07
  25. By: Erik Hurst; Yona Rubinstein; Kazuatsu Shimizu
    Abstract: Why did the Black-White wage gap converge from 1960 to 1980 and why has it stagnated since? To answer this question, we introduce a unified model that integrates notions of both taste-based and statistical discrimination into a task-based model of occupational sorting. At the heart of our framework is the idea that discrimination varies by the task requirement of each job. We use this framework to identify and quantify the role of trends in race-specific factors and changing task prices in explaining the evolution of the Black-White wage gap since 1960. In doing so, we highlight a new task measure - Contact tasks – which measures the extent to which individuals interact with others as part of their job. We provide evidence that changes in the racial gap in Contact tasks serves as a good proxy for changes in taste-based discrimination over time. We find that taste-based discrimination has fallen and racial skill gaps have narrowed over the last sixty years in the United States. However, since the 1980s, the effect of declining racial skill gaps and discrimination on the Black-White wage gap were offset by the increasing returns to Abstract tasks which, on average, favored White workers relative to Black workers.
    JEL: J24 J7
    Date: 2021–07
  26. By: Huiwen Gong; Robert Hassink; Cassandra Wang
    Abstract: The question of how regions can remain competitive and resilient in times of uncertainty is a central concern for economic geographers. To date, two key concepts— strategic coupling and regional economic resilience—have been used separately to study regional economic dynamics in times of uncertainty. Through a careful examination of the industrial chain chief model in Zhejiang Province, this paper argues that both concepts are essential and should be combined in a coherent manner to better explore the topic of interest. Moreover, it is pointed out that the existing conceptualization of the two concepts suffers from some limitations and a reconceptualization of the two key concepts is needed if economic geographers are to make policy recommendations to local policy-makers.
    Keywords: Regional resilience; strategic coupling; Zhejiang, China; value chains; policy
    Date: 2021
  27. By: Eckersley, Peter; Kern, Kristine; Haupt, Wolfgang; Müller, Hannah
    Abstract: This report is a product of the ExTrass project, which is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research to help medium-sized and large cities in Germany to prepare for the increased frequency of extreme weather events, particularly heavy rainfall and heatwaves. The project examines the drivers and barriers for urban climate adaptation and mitigation, with a particular focus on three case study cities: Potsdam, Remscheid and Würzburg. Amongst other things, the project team evaluates the efficacy of urban greening initiatives, works towards climate-sensitive urban planning, contributes data on city climate, educates the population on risks and improves contingency plans. It also provides a platform for knowledge exchange to help cities learn from each other. Cities are responsible for about 70% of global greenhouse gas emissions and are also particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Extreme weather events can result in significant damage to property and pose major risks to urban populations. Yet, municipalities are not able to manage these risks alone: in order to understand how they are seeking to combat change we need to examine the contexts within which they operate and their relationships with other key actors. This report focuses on the multi-level nature of the German state, with a particular focus on the role of the Bundesländer regional governments. It shows how the climate and energy priorities of individual states are largely shaped by their political and economic interests, and result in them adopting different approaches to working with municipalities. It shows that although Germany relies overwhelmingly on interdependent, vertical relationships between tiers of government to coordinate and implement climate policy, states that do not have a historical reliance on fossil fuel resources, and/or in which the Green Party form part of the governing coalition, have provided more resources and support to municipal governments to act on the issue.
    Date: 2021
  28. By: Peter Arcidiacono; Karthik Muralidharan; Eun-young Shim; John D. Singleton
    Abstract: In this paper, we use a unique two-stage experiment that randomized access to school vouchers across both markets and students in rural India to estimate the revealed preference value of school choice. In the first step of the research design, we develop an empirical model of school choice subject to liquidity and credit constraints that is estimated using data from only the control markets. Based on this exercise, we estimate that the voucher generated welfare gains exceeding four times the average private school's annual tuition on average to the students induced into private schooling. The second step of the research design will validate the estimated welfare impacts by comparing model predictions for a simulated voucher program in control markets with the data from the treatment group. The results in this paper are based on the first step (using only control data) and this draft serves as a pre-commitment to the model estimates and predictions before examining the experimental data.
    JEL: D12 H42 I21 I28 O15
    Date: 2021–07
  29. By: Acemoglu, Daron (MIT); Pekkarinen, Tuomas (VATT, Helsinki); Salvanes, Kjell G. (Norwegian School of Economics); Sarvimäki, Matti (Aalto University)
    Abstract: Upon assuming power for the first time in 1935, the Norwegian Labour Party delivered on its promise for a major schooling reform. The reform raised minimum instruction time in less developed rural areas and boosted the resources available to rural schools, reducing class size and increasing teacher salaries. We document that cohorts more intensively affected by the reform significantly increased their education and experienced higher labor income. Our main result is that the schooling reform also substantially increased support for the Norwegian Labour Party in subsequent elections. This additional support persisted for several decades and was pivotal in maintaining support for the social democratic coalition in Norway. These results are not driven by the direct impact of education and are not explained by higher turnout, or greater attention or resources from the Labour Party targeted towards the municipalities most affected by the reform. Rather, our evidence suggests that cohorts that benefited from the schooling reform, and their parents, rewarded the party for delivering a major reform that was beneficial to them.
    Keywords: education, human capital, schooling reform, labor, voting, social democracy
    JEL: P16 I28 J26
    Date: 2021–07
  30. By: Michael L. Anderson; Lucas W. Davis
    Abstract: Previous studies of the effect of ridesharing on traffic fatalities have yielded inconsistent, often contradictory conclusions. In this paper we revisit this question using proprietary data from Uber measuring monthly rideshare activity at the Census tract level. Most previous studies are based on publicly-available information about Uber entry dates into US cities, but we show that an indicator variable for whether Uber is available is a poor measure of rideshare activity — for example, it explains less than 3% of the tract-level variation in ridesharing, reflecting the enormous amount of variation both within and across cities. Using entry we find inconsistent and statistically insignificant estimates. However, when we use the more detailed proprietary data, we find a robust negative impact of ridesharing on traffic fatalities. Impacts concentrate during nights and weekends and are robust across a range of alternative specifications. Overall, our results imply that ridesharing has decreased US alcohol-related traffic fatalities by 6.1% and reduced total US traffic fatalities by 4.0%. Based on conventional estimates of the value of statistical life the annual life-saving benefits range from $2.3 to $5.4 billion. Back-of-the-envelope calculations suggest that these benefits may be of similar magnitude to producer surplus captured by Uber shareholders or consumer surplus captured by Uber riders.
    JEL: I12 I18 R41 R49
    Date: 2021–07
  31. By: Faber, Marius (University of Basel); Sarto, Andrés (NYU Stern); Tabellini, Marco (Harvard Business School)
    Abstract: Migration has long been considered one of the key mechanisms through which labor markets adjust to economic shocks. In this paper, we analyze the migration response of American workers to two of the most important shocks that hit US manufacturing since the late 1990s – Chinese import competition and the introduction of industrial robots. Exploiting plausibly exogenous variation in exposure across US local labor markets over time, we show that robots caused a sizable reduction in population size, while Chinese imports did not. We rationalize these results in two steps. First, we provide evidence that negative employment spillovers outside manufacturing, caused by robots but not by Chinese imports, are an important mechanism for the different migration responses triggered by the two shocks. Next, we present a model where workers are geographically mobile and compete with either machines or foreign labor in the completion of tasks. The model highlights that two key dimensions along which the shocks differ – the cost savings they provide and the degree of complementarity between directly and indirectly exposed industries – can explain their disparate employment effects outside manufacturing and, in turn, the differential migration response.
    Keywords: migration, employment, technology, trade
    JEL: J21 J23 J61
    Date: 2021–07
  32. By: Jesse Chandler; Jacob Hartog; Erin Lipman; Jonathan Gellar
    Abstract: Education policymakers view transparency and accountability as critical to the success of schools.
    Keywords: accountability, Bayesian statistics, data interpretation, data use, educational indicators, user satisfaction (information), school statistics, graphs
  33. By: Hashibul Hassan (Department of Economics, Monash University, Australia); Asad Islam (Centre for Development Economics and Sustainability (CDES) and Department of Economics, Monash University); Abu Siddique (Economics Group, Technical University of Munich); Liang Choon Wang (Department of Economics, Monash University, Australia)
    Abstract: Prolonged school closures due to political unrests, teacher strikes, natural disasters, and public health crises can be detrimental to student learning in developing countries. Using a randomized controlled experiment in 200 Bangladeshi villages, we evaluate the impact of over-the-phone mentoring and homeschooling support delivered by volunteers on the learning outcomes of primary school children during school closures caused by the coronavirus pandemic. The telementoring program improved the learning outcomes of treated children by 0.75 SD and increased homeschooling involvement of treated mothers by 0.64 SD. The impacts on learning are driven primarily by the direct mentoring of children and to some extent also by the increased homeschooling involvement of mothers. Academically weaker children and households from relatively lower socioeconomic backgrounds benefitted the most from telementoring. These findings suggest that learning crises in low-resource settings can be addressed by simple and very low-cost technology solutions.
    Keywords: Telementoring, homeschooling, school closure, primary education, randomized experiment, rural areas.
    JEL: C93 I21 I24 P46
    Date: 2021–08
  34. By: Roberto Bonfatti; Giovanni Facchini; Alexander Tarasov; Gian Luca Tedeschi; Cecilia Testa
    Abstract: This paper studies the role played by politics in shaping the Italian railway network, and its impact on long-run growth patterns. Examining a large state-planned railway expansion that took place during the second half of the 19th century in a recently unified country, we first study how both national and local political processes shaped the planned railway construction. Exploiting close elections, we show that a state-funded railway line is more likely to be planned for construction where the local representative is aligned with the government. Furthermore, the actual path followed by the railways was shaped by local pork-barreling, with towns supporting winning candidates more likely to see a railway crossing their territory. Finally, we explore the long-run effects of the network expansion on economic development. Employing population and economic censuses for the entire 20th century, we show that politics at a critical juncture played a key role in explaining the long-run evolution of local economies.
    Keywords: infrastructural development, political economy
    JEL: N01 N73 D72
    Date: 2021
  35. By: Christoph Albert; Albrecht Glitz; Joan Llull
    Abstract: In this paper, we show that the wage assimilation of immigrants is the result of the intricate interplay between individual skill accumulation and dynamic equilibrium effects in the labor market. When immigrants and natives are imperfect substitutes, increasing immigrant inflows widen the wage gap between them. Using a simple production function framework, we show that this labor market competition channel can explain about one quarter of the large increase in the average immigrant-native wage gap in the United States between the 1960s and 1990s arrival cohorts. Once competition effects and compositional changes in education and region of origin are accounted for, we find that the unobservable skills of newly arriving immigrants increased over time rather than decreased as traditionally argued in the literature. We corroborate this finding by documenting closely matching patterns for immigrants’ English language profficiency.
    Keywords: immigrant assimilation, labor market competition, cohort sizes, imperfect substitution, general and specific skills
    JEL: J21 J22 J31 J61
    Date: 2021
  36. By: Anjali Adukia; Alex Eble; Emileigh Harrison; Hakizumwami Birali Runesha; Teodora Szasz
    Abstract: Books shape how children learn about society and social norms, in part through the representation of different characters. To better understand the messages children encounter in books, we introduce new artificial intelligence methods for systematically converting images into data. We apply these image tools, along with established text analysis methods, to measure the representation of race, gender, and age in children’s books commonly found in US schools and homes over the last century. We find that more characters with darker skin color appear over time, but "mainstream" award-winning books, which are twice as likely to be checked out from libraries, persistently depict more lighter-skinned characters even after conditioning on perceived race. Across all books, children are depicted with lighter skin than adults. Over time, females are increasingly present but are more represented in images than in text, suggesting greater symbolic inclusion in pictures than substantive inclusion in stories. Relative to their growing share of the US population, Black and Latinx people are underrepresented in the mainstream collection; males, particularly White males, are persistently overrepresented. Our data provide a view into the "black box" of education through children’s books in US schools and homes, highlighting what has changed and what has endured.
    JEL: I21 I24 J15 J16 Z1
    Date: 2021–08
  37. By: Mark Ezzo; Gretchen Kirby; Jonathan McCay
    Abstract: This brief summarizes the experience and findings from the work of five local grantees in Colorado that launched innovations to build a qualified early childhood workforce in the state.
    Keywords: early care and education, early childhood workforce, workforce innovation
  38. By: Morris Davis; Jesse M. Gregory
    Abstract: In many recent location choice models, households randomly vary with respect to their utility of living in a location. We demonstrate that the distribution generating this randomness is fundamentally not identifiable from location choice data and as a result the optimal allocation as chosen by a social planner is not identified. We propose an algorithm for setting the distribution generating the random utility across locations that implies a planner will optimally choose no redistribution in the absence of externalities or equity motives between different groups of people. Our algorithm preserves a planner's motives to redistribute due to equity considerations between different types of people and efficiency in production, the focus of many recent studies.
    JEL: H0 R38
    Date: 2021–07
  39. By: Hans Fehr; Maurice Hofmann; George Kudrna
    Abstract: This paper studies the role of pensions and income taxes in determining homeownership and household wealth. It provides a cross-country analysis, using tax and pension policy designs in Germany, the US and Australia. These developed nations have similar incomes per capita but very different homeownership rates, with the US and Australia having much higher homeownership compared to Germany. The question is to what extent the observed differences in homeownership are induced by national tax and transfer policies. To that end, we develop a stochastic, overlapping generations (OLG) model with tenure choice. The model is calibrated to Germany featuring German statutory public pension and dual income tax systems, and then applied to study the effects of alternative income tax and pension policy structures. Our simulation results indicate that the US and Australian policy designs have a dramatic impact on homeownership, explaining more than half of the observed differentials. We also show significant macroeconomic effects due to differences in tax and pension policies.
    Keywords: housing demand, social security, income taxation, stochastic general equilibrium
    JEL: R21 H55 H31 H24 C68
    Date: 2021
  40. By: Tadao Hoshino; Takahide Yanagi
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate a treatment effect model in which individuals interact in a social network and they may not comply with the assigned treatments. We introduce a new concept of exposure mapping, which summarizes spillover effects into a fixed dimensional statistic of instrumental variables, and we call this mapping the instrumental exposure mapping (IEM). We investigate identification conditions for the intention-to-treat effect and the average causal effect for compliers, while explicitly considering the possibility of misspecification of IEM. Based on our identification results, we develop nonparametric estimation procedures for the treatment parameters. Their asymptotic properties, including consistency and asymptotic normality, are investigated using an approximate neighborhood interference framework by Leung (2021). For an empirical illustration of our proposed method, we revisit Paluck et al.'s (2016) experimental data on the anti-conflict intervention school program.
    Date: 2021–08
  41. By: Regional Educational Laboratory Mid‑Atlantic
    Abstract: Most schools moved to fully or partially remote instruction during the COVID-19 pandemic, and educators have had to consider how to promote and maintain student engagement in this new environment.
    Keywords: engagement, student engagement, remote learning, remote instruction, K-12 education, COVID, learning loss, hybrid learning
  42. By: Nathan Mix; Elizabeth Clary; Cay Bradley
    Abstract: This brief describes grantees’ experiences engaging youth in Youth At-Risk of Homelessness (YARH) interventions, including the methods they used to engage youth in services.
    Keywords: abuse, neglect, adoption & foster care, youth services, child welfare, foster care, homelessness, housing, runaway & homeless youth, youth
  43. By: Droste, Nils (Lund University); Lienhoop, Nele; Hansjürgens, Bernd
    Abstract: This paper analyses participatory budgeting in multilevel governance settings. The Institutional Development and Analysis framework is applied to evaluate two Ecuadorian municipal case studies. Here, participatory budgeting piloted bottom-up institutions to include citizens’ preferences in the allocation of local government expenditures. To formalize and up-scale these local innovations, participatory budgeting became a requirement for all government levels under the 2008 constitution. Higher government level requirements for planning subsequently introduced conflicting demands on decentral budgetary processes and led to partial re-centralization of municipal investment planning. The study thus exemplifies difficulties of i) vertical policy coordination in multilevel participatory budgeting and ii) integrating long-term planning in yearly participatory budgeting investment decisions. These problems need to be resolved to facilitate legitimate and effective participatory budgeting in multilevel governments.
    Date: 2021–08–07
  44. By: Vlados, Charis (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics); Koutroukis, Theodore (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics); Chatzinikolaou, Dimos (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics); Demertzis, Michail (Democritus University of Thrace, School of Law)
    Abstract: This chapter aims to conceptualize the general framework of policies to support entrepreneurship and competitiveness by indicating a move from a dispersive comprehension of competitiveness towards an integrated micro-meso-macro perspective, by taking as a case study the European South. First, it presents theoretical contributions to entrepreneurship policies, which mostly suggest that intervention can be effective in a fragmentary and relatively incoherent way. Then, it counter-proposes the “competitiveness web” approach, which gives an integrated policy framework for the competitive strengthening and evolution of a socioeconomic system. In the framework of competitiveness web, we analyze and propose a micro-meso level policy via the Institutes of Local Development and Innovation (ILDI), which is a policy for empowering the local and regional business ecosystems through the enhancement of business innovation. Finally, by using the competitiveness web filter, we propose the structuration of a mechanism that could identify the level at which the socioeconomic entities in different spatial levels can articulate their policies for entrepreneurship enhancement in the micro-meso-macro integrated approach.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship Enhancement Policies; Competitiveness Web; Institutes of Local Development and Innovation (ILDI); Macro-Meso-Micro Analysis; European South; Socioeconomic Development
    JEL: L26 L53
    Date: 2021–08–24
  45. By: Alice Henriques Volz; Jeffrey P. Thompson
    Abstract: Most research measuring disparities in wealth by race relies on data that exclude resources that are disproportionately important to low-wealth and non-white families, namely defined benefit (DB) pensions and Social Security. This paper finds that once these resources are included, disparities in wealth between white families and Black and Hispanic families are substantially smaller and that they are not rising over time. The powerful equalizing roles of DB pensions and Social Security highlighted here are further motivation for maintaining their fiscal health. This paper also presents results on the wealth of Asian families—typically excluded from most research due to limited sample sizes. Including Asian families is important, however, because they are a rapidly growing segment of the population and they have become the highest-wealth racial group in the United States.
    Keywords: inequality; race; Social Security; pensions; saving; wealth
    JEL: D14 D31 D63 E21 G51 H55 H75 I31 J15 J18 J32
    Date: 2021–08–16
  46. By: Jorge Luis García; James J. Heckman; Victor Ronda
    Abstract: This paper demonstrates multiple beneficial impacts of a program promoting intergenerational mobility for disadvantaged African-American children and their children. The program improves outcomes of the first-generation treatment group across the life cycle, which translates into better family environments for the second generation leading to positive intergenerational gains. There are long-lasting beneficial program effects on cognition through age 54, contradicting claims of fadeout that have dominated popular discussions of early childhood programs. Children of the first-generation treatment group have higher levels of education and employment, lower levels of criminal activity, and better health than children of the first-generation control group.
    JEL: C93 H43 I28 J13
    Date: 2021–07
  47. By: Hande Inanc; Megan Caruso
    Abstract: In the first half of 2020, when many businesses shut down in response to COVID, youth unemployment rates peaked.
    Keywords: COVID-19, youth unemployment
  48. By: Regional Educational Laboratory Mid‑Atlantic
    Abstract: Transitioning to school is just one of many milestones to celebrate and prepare for in a child’s life. Children may need support when they enter kindergarten and first grade, because difficulty adjusting to these new environments can put them at academic risk.
    Keywords: rel, mid-atlantic, fact sheet, supporting, school transitions, young learners, considerations, covid 19, beyond
  49. By: Killian Foubert; Ilse Ruyssen (-)
    Abstract: Terrorism is a global phenomenon with devastating consequences for the individuals involved and society in general. The adverse impacts of terrorist attacks may act as a driver for migration, both within and across borders. Yet, empirical evidence on the causal impact of terrorism on migration is scarce. The contribution of our paper is twofold. First, we construct various indicators of terrorist activity at a fine level of spatial and temporal granularity, which allow to fairly accurately identify individuals' exposure to terrorist threat. Second, we use these geo- localized indicators to empirically analyse the role played by terrorist attacks in shaping intentions to migrate either internally or internationally. Specifically, we use a multilevel approach combining these indicators with individual survey data on migration intentions in and from 133 countries, spanning the period 2007-2015. Our results indicate that terrorist attacks spur both internal and international migration intentions, though the effect is stronger for the latter. International migration intentions are, however, not necessarily responsive to the frequency of terrorist attacks, but rather to the intensity of these attacks, measured as the number of fatalities and wounded. In addition, the impact on migration intentions is heterogeneous, varying with both individual and country characteristics
    Keywords: Migration intentions, Terrorism, International migration
    JEL: F22 O15 D74 C23
    Date: 2021–08
  50. By: Qin, Fei; Mickiewicz, Tomasz; Estrin, Saul
    Abstract: Conceptualising early-stage new venture informal investors as co-entrepreneurs whose actions are socially embedded, we examine the role of social influence and how it interplays with entrepreneurial experience at the individual level leading to informal investment. We extend theories of social homophily and social influence to argue that informal investment decisions are influenced by shared experience and entrepreneurism in peer groups. We test our hypotheses with a multi-level model using first a large cross-country dataset and next in depth within a country. Our analysis reveals that both individual entrepreneurship experience and peer group-embedded experience significantly influence the likelihood that an individual becomes an early-stage investor. Furthermore, these social effects substitute for the lack of individual entrepreneurial experience.
    Keywords: informal investors; entrepreneurial experience; social homophily; peer influence; entrepreneurship capital; global entrepreneurship monitor (GEM); angel investors; Springer deal
    JEL: J1 F3 G3 R14 J01
    Date: 2021–08–03
  51. By: Meglioli, Francesco; Gauci, Stephanie
    Abstract: In this paper we present a new approach to analyse the interconnectedness between a macro-level network and a local-level network. Our methodology is developed on the Diebold and Yilmaz connectedness measure and it considers the presence of entities within a global network which can influence other entities within their own local network but are not relevant enough to influence the entities which do not belong to the same local network. This methodology is then applied to the Maltese domestic investment funds sector and we find that a high-level correlation between the domestic funds can transmit higher spillovers to the local stock exchange index and to the government bond secondary market prices. Moreover, a high correlation among the Maltese domestic investment funds can increase their vulnerability to shocks stemming from financial indices, and therefore, investment funds may potentially become a shock transmission channel. JEL Classification: C32, C58, G10, G23
    Keywords: contagion, herding behaviour, interconnectedness, investment funds, Network model, systemic risk
    Date: 2021–08
  52. By: Nallari, Anupama; Poorthuis, Ate
    Abstract: ‘Village’ as a metaphor, propelled by mobilizing nostalgia for the ‘rural’ as counter to urban fragmentation, has been used across nations to engender a sense of place and community in urban spaces. In Singapore, the narrative of kampung (Malay for village), rooted in restorative nostalgia, has been used repeatedly to foster living in harmony. However, it remains unclear in what ways ‘kampung’ and related social policies resonate with current citizens. The main objective of this research is to generate a grounded, interpretive lens on the term kampung to better understand its meaning and relevance in the context of urban living. A mixed methods approach comprising discourse analysis, in-depth interviews and Q-methodology was used to engage a diverse group of residents in generating grounded perspectives around the construct. We show ‘kampung’ is a heterogenous concept that can be understood through five analytically distinct perspectives wherein race, place, neighbouring, and personal agency vis-à-vis the role of government are recurring themes. The findings lend a social constructivist perspective to wider geographical debates around the urban/rural dichotomy and outline some possibilities for ‘kampung’ under present conditions.
    Date: 2021–08–02
  53. By: Shahram Heydari; Garyfallos Konstantinoudis; Abdul Wahid Behsoodi
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has been influencing travel behaviour in many urban areas around the world since the beginning of 2020. As a consequence, bike-sharing schemes have been affected partly due to the change in travel demand and behaviour as well as a shift from public transit. This study estimates the varying effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the London bike-sharing system (Santander Cycles) over the period March-December 2020. We employed a Bayesian second-order random walk time-series model to account for temporal correlation in the data. We compared the observed number of cycle hires and hire time with their respective counterfactuals (what would have been if the pandemic had not happened) to estimate the magnitude of the change caused by the pandemic. The results indicated that following a reduction in cycle hires in March and April 2020, the demand rebounded from May 2020, remaining in the expected range of what would have been if the pandemic had not occurred. This could indicate the resiliency of Santander Cycles. With respect to hire time, an important increase occurred in April, May, and June 2020, indicating that bikes were hired for longer trips, perhaps partly due to a shift from public transit.
    Date: 2021–07
  54. By: Muckenhuber, Mattias; Rehm, Miriam; Schnetzer, Matthias
    Abstract: We investigate how previous generations of migrants and their children integrated into Austrian society, as measured by their wealth ownership. Using data from the Household Finance and Consumption Survey (HFCS), we document a positive average migrant wealth gap between migrant and native households. However, the raw gap is almost negligible for second generation migrant households, whereas it rises across the unconditional net wealth distribution for first generation migrant households and peaks at more than e140,000 around the 75th percentile. Decomposing the partial effects of a set of covariates using RIF regressions suggests that the lack of inheritances and the presence of children have the highest explanatory power for the migrant wealth gap of first generation migrant household. For second generation migrant households, inheritances have the highest impact, but they contribute negatively towards the explanation of the migrant wealth gap. In general, the covariates in our analysis can explain only a small part of the migrant wealth gap. Given the similarity of native and second generation migrant households, we cannot reject the hypothesis that migrants in the past integrated into Austrian society by acquiring comparable wealth levels.
    Keywords: Migration,Wealth Distribution,Wealth Gap,Unconditional Quantile Regression
    JEL: C31 D31 F22 G51 J15 J61
    Date: 2021
  55. By: David Mann; Kathleen Feeney; Todd Honeycutt; Marlena Luhr
    Abstract: Way2Work Maryland offered an innovative package of services to high school students with disabilities that emphasized work-based learning experiences. This report presents evidence on Way2Work Maryland’s impacts up to two years after students enrolled.
    Keywords: Way2Work Maryland, youth with disabilities, program evaluation, vocational rehabilitation, pre-employment transition services
  56. By: Sichko, Christopher
    Abstract: Migration is among the most basic adaptation methods to inhospitable environments and has large economic consequences for both migrants and the broader economy. To estimate the impact of the worst drought in U.S. history on migration, I match 1940 census data with county-level drought conditions. I find that drought substantially increased migration rates for individuals with a 12th grade education or higher but had little impact on migration rates for people with less education. This differential migration response to drought by education was most pronounced in counties with larger economic downturns during the Great Depression, consistent with the hypothesis that individual liquidity constraints limited migration for people with lower human capital. In terms of where migrants went, I show that the majority of migrants in the late 1930s relocated to rural destinations. In fact, migrants from drought counties were less likely to relocate to cities compared to similar migrants from non-drought counties. These findings detail the impact of widespread drought for Depression-era migration and document the central role of individual human capital in the uptake of migration from climate shocks.
    Date: 2021–08–09
  57. By: Michal Bauer; Jana Cahlíková; Julie Chytilová; Gérard Roland; Tomas Zelinsky
    Abstract: This paper provides experimental evidence showing that members of a majority group systematically shift punishment on innocent members of an ethnic minority. We develop a new incentivized task, the Punishing the Scapegoat Game, to measure how injustice affecting a member of one’s own group shapes punishment of an unrelated bystander (“a scapegoat”). We manipulate the ethnic identity of the scapegoats and study interactions between the majority group and the Roma minority in Slovakia. We find that when no harm is done, there is no evidence of discrimination against the ethnic minority. In contrast, when a member of one’s own group is harmed, the punishment ”passed” on innocent individuals more than doubles when they are from the minority, as compared to when they are from the dominant group. These results illuminate how individualized tensions can be transformed into a group conflict, dragging minorities into conflicts in a way that is completely unrelated to their behavior.
    JEL: C93 D74 D91 J15
    Date: 2021–08
  58. By: Hara, Hiromi (Japan Women's University); Rodríguez-Planas, Núria (Queens College, CUNY)
    Abstract: We explore whether a 1990 Japanese educational reform that eliminated gender-segregated and gender-stereotyped industrial arts and home economics classes in junior high schools led to behavioral changes among these students some two decades later when they were married and in their early forties. Using a Regression Discontinuity (RD) design and Japanese time-use data from 2016, we find that the reform had a direct impact on Japanese women's attachment to the labor force, which seems to have changed the distribution of gender roles within the household, as we observe both a direct effect of the reform on women spending more time in traditionally male tasks during the weekend and an indirect effect on their husbands, who spend more time in traditionally female tasks. We present suggestive evidence that women's stronger attachment to the labor force may have been driven by changes in beliefs regarding men' and women's gender roles. As for men, the reform only had a direct impact on their weekend home production if they were younger than their wives and had small children. In such relationships, the reform also had the indirect effect of reducing their wives' time spent in weekend home production without increasing their labor-market attachment. Interestingly, the reform increased fertility only when it decreased wives' childcare. Otherwise, the reform delayed fertility.
    Keywords: junior high school, coeducation of industrial arts and home economics, gender gaps, time-use data, employment and labor income, and fertility
    JEL: J22 J24 I2
    Date: 2021–07
  59. By: Gyetvai, Attila (Banco de Portugal); Zhu, Maria (Syracuse University)
    Abstract: Which former coworkers help displaced workers find jobs? We answer this question by studying occupational similarity in job finding networks. Using matched employer-employee data from Hungary, this paper relates the unemployment duration of displaced workers to the employment rate of their former coworker networks. We find that while coworkers from all occupations are helpful in job finding, there is significant heterogeneity in effects by occupation skill-level. For workers in low-skill jobs, coworkers who worked in the same narrow occupation as the displaced worker are the most useful network contacts. For workers in high-skill jobs, coworkers from different occupations are the most useful network contacts.
    Keywords: networks, job search, former coworkers, unemployment duration, skill heterogeneity
    JEL: J64 D85 J24
    Date: 2021–07
  60. By: Patrick M. Kline; Evan K. Rose; Christopher R. Walters
    Abstract: We study the results of a massive nationwide correspondence experiment sending more than 83,000 fictitious applications with randomized characteristics to geographically dispersed jobs posted by 108 of the largest U.S. employers. Distinctively Black names reduce the probability of employer contact by 2.1 percentage points relative to distinctively white names. The magnitude of this racial gap in contact rates differs substantially across firms, exhibiting a between-company standard deviation of 1.9 percentage points. Despite an insignificant average gap in contact rates between male and female applicants, we find a between-company standard deviation in gender contact gaps of 2.7 percentage points, revealing that some firms favor male applicants while others favor women. Company-specific racial contact gaps are temporally and spatially persistent, and negatively correlated with firm profitability, federal contractor status, and a measure of recruiting centralization. Discrimination exhibits little geographical dispersion, but two digit industry explains roughly half of the cross-firm variation in both racial and gender contact gaps. Contact gaps are highly concentrated in particular companies, with firms in the top quintile of racial discrimination responsible for nearly half of lost contacts to Black applicants in the experiment. Controlling false discovery rates to the 5% level, 23 individual companies are found to discriminate against Black applicants. Our findings establish that systemic illegal discrimination is concentrated among a select set of large employers, many of which can be identified with high confidence using large scale inference methods.
    JEL: C11 C9 C93 J7 J71 J78 K31 K42
    Date: 2021–07
  61. By: OECD
    Abstract: This report reviews changes in today’s urban mobility landscape and the potential of Mobility as a Service (MaaS) to improve travel in cities. It assesses essential governance and regulatory challenges that stakeholders must address to create a healthy ecosystem for Mobility as a Service which aligns with societal objectives and delivers clear benefits to people.
    Date: 2021–07–06
  62. By: Bertrand Garbinti (CREST - Centre de Recherche en Économie et Statistique - ENSAI - Ecole Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Analyse de l'Information [Bruz] - X - École polytechnique - ENSAE Paris - École Nationale de la Statistique et de l'Administration Économique - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Frédérique Savignac (Banque de france - Banque de France)
    Abstract: We estimate the intergenerational correlation in homeownership status between two generations for cohorts covering the 20th century. First, we find higher intergenerational correlation in France compared to previous results obtained for the U.K. for similar cohorts. Second, the intergenerational correlation is increasing across cohorts, with a relatively stable probability of being a homeowner for children of homeowners over time, and a decreasing probability for children whose parents were not homeowners. Third, the effect of parents' tenure status is persistent over the children's life cycle. Fourth, when isolating two subpopulations based on the receipt of intergenerational transfers, we find significant intergenerational correlation in tenure status for children who did not receive any gift or inheritance, as well as for children who received intergenerational transfers, suggesting that other factors such as intergenerational income correlation or the transmission of preferences might also explain this intergenerational correlation.
    Keywords: housing,intergenerational wealth mobility,cohorts G51,J62,R21
    Date: 2021–07–29
  63. By: Kappes, Heather Barry; Fasolo, Barbara; Han, Wenjie; Barnes, Jessica; Ter Meer, Janna
    Abstract: Students' low confidence, particularly in numerical topics, is thought to be a barrier to keeping them engaged with education. We studied the effects on confidence of exposure to a peer's work of varying quality (very good or bad) and neatness (messy or neat). Previous research underpinned our hypothesis that a peer's bad-quality work—which students rarely see—might boost student confidence more than very good work. We also predicted that a peer's very good work—which students are often shown—might be less discouraging if it were messy, suggesting it required effort and struggle. However, in experiments with university students and low-educated adults, these hypotheses were not supported, and all participants decreased in confidence after seeing any peer work. The failure to find support for these hypotheses can inform future research into social comparison effects on self-confidence in numerical topics. These results also have practical implications for teachers and managers who are expected to provide examples of peer work.
    Keywords: confidence; learning; social comparison; peer comparison; self-concept of ability; numeracy
    JEL: J50
    Date: 2020–04–01
  64. By: Gill Wyness (UCL Centre for Education Policy and Equalising Opportunities, University College London)
    Abstract: The Covid-19 pandemic and resulting disruption to schooling led to the Government cancelling GCSE and A level exams in 2020 and 2021, with 2022's exams also likely to be disrupted. The cancellation of GCSEs, in particular, has renewed debate around the value of high-stakes testing, and prompted some politicians, practitioners and commentators to call for their permanent abolition. The main objections to GCSE exams typically centre around two issues: 1) that high-stakes testing of this nature leads to narrowing of the curriculum with teachers having to "teach to the test" rather than provide a holistic learning experience, and 2) that high-stakes testing creates excessive stress for teenagers. Former Prime Minister John Major recently called for the abolition of GCSEs for these reasons, stating that "I have come to dislike these examinations due to the degree of stress and strain they impose upon students. Without the examinations, it would surely be possible to offer pupils a wider syllabus, providing a more rounded education."
    Keywords: assessment; age 16; high-stakes testing; examinations; wellbeing; coursework
    Date: 2021–08
  65. By: Oeindrila Dube; Sendhil Mullainathan; Devin G. Pope
    Abstract: Many government services are provided at the state level such as unemployment insurance, Medicaid, and SNAP. Given the lack of competition, a natural worry is that customer support provided by states for these services is less than adequate. While there are many different measures of how a state can support beneficiaries, we focus on just one in this short and applied report: the ability to get a live representative on the phone to help with an application question. To do this, we take a “mystery shopping” approach and make 2,000 phone calls to state government offices. We find substantial heterogeneity in the availability of live phone representatives across states and types of service (UI, Medicaid, etc.). For example, live representatives in New Jersey and Georgia were reached less than 20% of the time while representatives in New Hampshire and Wisconsin were reached more than 80% of the time. We hope that this report provides a simple example for how academics, investigative reporters, and watch groups can help states be more accountable for their customer support systems.
    JEL: H0 I38
    Date: 2021–07
  66. By: Anuradha Singh
    Abstract: Rapid rise in income inequality in India is a serious concern. While the emphasis is on inclusive growth, it seems difficult to tackle the problem without looking at the intricacies of the problem. The Social Mobility Index is an important tool that focuses on bringing long-term equality by identifying priority policy areas in the country. The PCA technique is employed in computation of the index. Overall, the Union Territory of Delhi ranks first, with the highest social mobility and the least social mobility is in Chhattisgarh. In addition, health and education access, quality and equity are key priority areas that can help improve social mobility in India. Thus, we conclude that human capital is of great importance in promoting social mobility and development in the present times.
    Date: 2021–08

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