nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2021‒07‒26
seventy papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. Efficiency and Equity Impacts of Urban Transportation Policies with Equilibrium Sorting By Panle Jia Barwick; Shanjun Li; Andrew R. Waxman; Jing Wu; Tianli Xia
  2. Teacher Compensation and Structural Inequality: Evidence from Centralized Teacher School Choice in Perú By Matteo Bobba; Tim Ederer; Gianmarco León-Ciliotta; Christopher A. Neilson; Marco Nieddu
  3. Racial Differences in Mortgage Refinancing, Distress, and Housing Wealth Accumulation during COVID-19 By Kristopher S. Gerardi; Lauren Lambie-Hanson; Paul S. Willen
  4. Handbook of Real Estate and Macroeconomics: An Introduction By Charles Leung
  5. Micro-Geographic Property Price and Rent Indices By Gabriel Ahlfeldt; Stephan Heblich; Tobias Seidel
  6. Training Teachers for Diversity Awareness: Impact on School Attendance of Refugee Children By Tumen, Semih; Vlassopoulos, Michael; Wahba, Jackline
  7. Do Creative Industries Generate Multiplier Effects? Evidence from UK Cities, 1997-2018 By Gutierrez-Posada, Diana; Kitsos, Tasos; Nathan, Max; Nuccio, Massimiliano
  8. Are Rents Excessive in the Central City?: A Geospatial Analysis By Scott W. Hegerty
  9. The Housing Stock, Housing Prices, and User Costs: The Roles of Location, Structure and Unobserved Quality By Jonathan Halket; Lars Nesheim; Florian Oswald
  10. On the Road (Again): Commuting and Local Employment Elasticities in Germany By Oliver Krebs; Michael Pflüger
  11. Participatory Governance Institutions for Social Housing in the Philippines: Do Local Housing Boards Matter? By Ballesteros, Marife M.; Ancheta, Jenica A.
  12. Age at Arrival and Residential Integration By Cristina Bratu; Matz Dahlberg; Madhinee Valeyatheepillay
  13. The early development of new establishments: An evaluation of the role of spatial selection and agglomeration By Javier Changoluisa
  14. The Effect of School Voucher Spending on Initial Earnings By Correa, Juan A.; Parro, Francisco; Sánchez, Rafael
  15. Migrant Inventors as Agents of Technological Change By Andrea MORRISON; Ernest MIGUELEZ
  16. Teacher Licensing, Teacher Supply, and Student Achievement: Nationwide Implementation of edTPA By Bobby Chung; Jian Zou
  17. Time Varying Risk in U.S. Housing Sector and Real Estate Investment Trusts Equity Return By Masud Alam
  18. Social Mobility in Germany By Majed Dodin; Sebastian Findeisen; Lukas Henkel; Dominik Sachs; Paul Schüle
  19. Migration and Labor Market Integration in Europe By Dorn, David; Zweimüller, Josef
  20. Closing the income-achievement gap? Experimental evidence from high-dosage tutoring in Dutch primary education By de Ree, Joppe; Maggioni, Mario A.; Paulle, Bowen; Rossignoli, Domenico; Ruijs, Nienke; Walentek, Dawid
  21. The school year 2020-2021 in Spain during the pandemic By TRUJILLO SÁEZ Fernando
  22. Intergenerational Mobility After Expanding Educational Opportunities: A Quasi Experiment By Francisco Meneses
  23. Development Orbit of Central Cities in Vietnam By Ly Dai Hung
  24. Modelling Clusters From The Ground Up: A Web Data Approach By Stich, Christoph; Tranos, Emmanouil; Nathan, Max
  25. Body-Worn Cameras and Adjudication of Citizen Complaints of Police Misconduct By Suat Çubukçu; Nusret M. Sahin; Erdal Tekin; Volkan Topalli
  26. Estimating crime in place: Moving beyond residence location By Cernat, Alexandru; Buil-Gil, David; brunton-smith, ian; Pina-Sánchez, Jose; Murrià-Sangenís, Marta
  27. From Court to Classroom: Deportation Proceedings and Reading and Math Achievement for Elementary Students from 1998 to 2016 By Kirksey, J. Jacob
  28. Truncation strategies in housing markets By Yajing Chen; Zhenhua Jiao; Chenfeng Zhang
  29. Regional inequality in Russia: Anatomy of convergence By Gluschenko, Konstantin
  30. Covid-19 Pandemic Impacts on Essential Transit Riders: Findings from a U.S. Survey By He, Qian; Rowangould, Dana; Karner, Alex; Palm, Matthew; LaRue, Seth
  31. Constrained School Choice under the Immediate Acceptance Mechanism: An Experimental QRE Analysis By Jorge Alcalde-Unzu; Flip Klijn; Marc Vorsatz
  32. Are Shelters in Place?: Mapping the Distribution of Transit Amenities via a Bus-Stop Census of San Francisco By Moran, Marcel E.
  33. Does Educational Mismatch Affect Emigration Behaviour? By Wanner, Philippe; Pecoraro, Marco; Tani, Massimiliano
  34. Creeping disaster along the U.S. coastline: Understanding exposure to sea level rise and hurri-canes through historical development By Braswell, Anna; Leyk, Stefan; Connor, Dylan; Uhl, Johannes
  35. Does lowering the bar help? Results from a natural experiment in high-stakes testing in Dutch primary education By Jacobs, Madelon; van der Velden, Rolf; van Vugt, Lynn
  36. Looking for a Star: Evaluating the Effect of the Cohesion Policy on Regional Well-Being By Albanese, Giuseppe; Carrieri, Vincenzo; Speziali, Maria Maddalena
  37. Innovation in the public services at the local and regional level By Irena Dokic; Ivana Rasic; Suncana Slijepcevic
  38. Compulsory Class Attendance versus Autonomy By Goulas, Sofoklis; Griselda, Silvia; Megalokonomou, Rigissa
  39. Access to and Demand for Online School Education during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Japan By Hideo Akabayashi; Shimpei Taguchi; Mirka Zvedelikova
  40. Scale analysis for on-demand ridepooling systems and comparison with public transport By Andres Fielbaum; Alejandro Tirachini; Javier Alonso-Mora
  41. The Dynastic Benefits of Early Childhood Education By Jorge Luis García; Frederik H. Bennhoff; Duncan Ermini Leaf; James J. Heckman
  42. Trading patterns within and between regions: a network analysis By Matthew Smith; Yasaman Sarabi
  43. Role of Subjective Perceptions and Migration Culture in the Formation of Migration Intentions: Evidence from a Rural Village in the Philippines By Tabuga, Aubrey D.
  44. School Health Programs: Education, Health, and Welfare Dependency of Young Adults By Abrahamsen, Signe A.; Ginja, Rita; Riise, Julie
  45. Voting under Threat: Evidence from the 2020 French local elections By Elsa Leromain; Gonzague Vannoorenberghe
  46. Deteriorated Sleep Quality Does Not Explain the Negative Impact of Smartphone Use on Academic Performance By Amez, Simon; Vujic, Suncica; Abrath, Margo; Baert, Stijn
  47. The Lasting Effects of Early Childhood Education on Promoting the Skills and Social Mobility of Disadvantaged African Americans By Jorge Luis Garcia; James J. Heckman; Victor Ronda
  48. "Ecological Fiscal Transfers and State-level Budgetary Spending in India: Analyzing the Flypaper Effects" By Amandeep Kaur; Ranjan Kumar Mohanty; Lekha S. Chakraborty; Divy Rangan
  49. Exports “brother-boost†: the trade-creation and skill-upgrading effect of Venezuelan forced migration on Colombian manufacturing firms By Carlo Lombardo; Leonardo Peñaloza-Pacheco
  50. Horizon-K Farsightedness in Criminal Networks By Herings, P. Jean-Jacques; Mauleon, Ana; Vannetelbosch, Vincent
  51. Philippine Local Government Public Expenditure Review: A Survey of National Government Local Government Support Programs By Maddawin, Ricxie B.; Diokno-Sicat, Charlotte Justine; Castillo, Angel Faye G.
  52. Asylum Migration, Borders and Terrorism in a Structural Gravity Model By Federico Carril-Caccia; Jordi Paniagua; Rafael Francisco Requena
  53. Circular economy and eco-innovation in Italian industrial clusters. Best practices from Prato textile cluster By Francesca Mazzoni
  54. Modal Shifts in California from 2012-2017: Investigating Changes in Biking, Walking, and Transit from the 2012 CHTS and 2017 NHTS By Pike, Susan; Handy, Susan
  55. Racism and trust in Europe By Bonick, Matthew
  56. Innovation-Driven Entrepreneurship By Tristan L. Botelho; Daniel Fehder; Yael Hochberg
  57. How Do Immigrants Promote Exports? By Gianluca Orefice; Hillel Rapoport; Gianluca Santoni
  58. Resistance to Institutions and Cultural Distance: Brigandage in Post-Unification Italy By Giampaolo Lecce; Laura Ogliari; Tommaso Orlando
  59. The Fiscal Architecture of Subnational Governments in Federal Nepal By Khim Lal Devkota
  60. Technology Review and Roadmap for Inventorying Complete Streets for Integration into Pavement Asset Management Systems By Gadsby, April; Tsai, Yichang James; Harvey, John
  61. Geographic Spillover Effects of Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMPs) By Daniel Guth; Shiyu Zhang
  62. Who benefits from job training programmes?: Evidence from a high-dosage programme in Brazil By Daniel Da Mata; Rodrigo C. Oliveira; Diana Silva
  63. Entrepot: Hubs, Scale, and Trade Costs By Sharat Ganapati; Woan Foong Wong; Oren Ziv
  64. Measuring the Efficiency of a Local Cultural Policy: the Toulouse Salons (1885-1939) By Léa Saint-Raymond
  65. New Hedonic Quality Adjustment Method using Sparse Estimation By Sahoko Furuta; Yudai Hatayama; Atsushi Kawakami; Yusuke Oh
  66. Externalities of extreme natural disasters on local tax capacity By Jhorland Ayala-Garcia; Sandy Dall'Erba; William C. Ridley
  67. Possible Effects of China's Belt and Road Initiative on Philippine Trade and Investments By Paderon, Marissa M.; Ang, Ricardo B. III
  68. Long-term effects of the Inca Road By Ana Paula Franco; Sebastian Galiani; Pablo Lavado
  69. The China-Central Asia-West Asia Economic Corridor of the Belt and Road Initiative's Economic Impact on Kazakhstan By Çınar, Müge
  70. Innovation configurations in sport clusters: The role of interorganizational citizenship and social capital By Anna Gerke; Davide Luzzini; Carlos Mena

  1. By: Panle Jia Barwick; Shanjun Li; Andrew R. Waxman; Jing Wu; Tianli Xia
    Abstract: We estimate an equilibrium model of residential sorting with endogenous traffic congestion to evaluate the efficiency and equity impacts of urban transportation policies. Leveraging fine-scale data on household travel diaries and housing transactions with home and work locations in Beijing, we jointly estimate travel mode and residential location decisions. The estimation highlights the importance of incorporating work commute in housing decisions and features preference heterogeneity for the ease of work commute by gender. Counterfactual simulations show that while different policies can attain the same level of congestion reduction, their impacts on residential sorting and social welfare are drastically different. First, a driving restriction intensifies income-stratified urban structure where high-income households live closer to subway and work. Distance-based congestion pricing reduces the spatial separation between residence and workplace across income levels, while subway expansion does the opposite. Second, residential sorting strengthens the effectiveness of congestion pricing in improving traffic conditions but undermines that of the driving restriction and subway expansion. Third, the driving restriction is welfare reducing as it leads to large distortions on travel choices. Congestion pricing improves welfare but is regressive, highlighting the need to recycle revenue to address the associated equity concern. Finally, congestion pricing and subway expansion when combined deliver the largest congestion relief and efficiency gain and at the same time achieve self-financing, with revenue from congestion pricing fully covering the cost of subway expansion.
    JEL: H23 R3 R41 R48 R51
    Date: 2021–07
  2. By: Matteo Bobba; Tim Ederer; Gianmarco León-Ciliotta; Christopher A. Neilson; Marco Nieddu
    Abstract: This paper studies how increasing teacher compensation at hard-to-staff schools can reduce inequality in access to qualified teachers. Leveraging an unconditional change in the teacher compensation structure in Peru, we first show causal evidence that increasing salaries at less desirable locations attracts better quality applicants and improves student test scores. We then estimate a model of teacher preferences over local amenities, school characteristics, and wages using geocoded job postings and rich application data from the nationwide centralized teacher assignment system. Our estimated model suggests that the current policy is both inefficient and not large enough to effectively undo the inequality of initial conditions that hard-to-staff schools and their communities face. Counterfactual analyses that incorporate equilibrium sorting effects characterize alternative wage schedules and quantify the cost of reducing structural inequality in the allocation of teacher talent across schools.
    Keywords: Inequality, teacher school choice, teacher wages, matching with contracts
    JEL: J31 J45 I21 C93 O15
    Date: 2021–07
  3. By: Kristopher S. Gerardi; Lauren Lambie-Hanson; Paul S. Willen
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic was characterized by both high refinancing volumes and high rates of mortgage nonpayment. Refinancing activity differed significantly across racial and ethnic groups, and we show that the benefits from the lower interest rate environment were not shared equally. Compared to white borrowers, Black and Hispanic mortgage borrowers experienced higher rates of nonpayment, which reflected both a greater transition into nonpayment status for Black and Hispanic borrowers and a lower likelihood of resuming payments. However, strong house price appreciation in recent years, particularly in 2020, means that foreclosure risk is lower for past-due borrowers as compared to the 2007–10 period. In addition, borrowers in nonpayment have significantly higher credit scores now than in the 2007–10 period, in part thanks to the widespread availability of forbearance for federally backed mortgages.
    Keywords: mortgage refinancing; mortgage repayment; home equity; racial inequality
    JEL: G21 G51 E52 J15
    Date: 2021–06–22
  4. By: Charles Leung (City University of Hong Kong)
    Abstract: This paper provides some background for the book, Handbook of Real Estate and Macroeconomics. It gives an overview of different chapters and how various themes and ideas can be connected. Directions for future research are also discussed.
    Keywords: housing, macroeconomics, real estate, urban and regional economics
    JEL: E00 G00 R00
    Date: 2021–07–07
  5. By: Gabriel Ahlfeldt; Stephan Heblich; Tobias Seidel
    Abstract: We develop a programming algorithm that predicts a balanced-panel mix-adjusted house price index for arbitrary spatial units from repeated cross-sections of geocoded micro data. The algorithm combines parametric and non-parametric estimation techniques to provide a tight local fit where the underlying micro data are abundant and reliable extrapolations where data are sparse. To illustrate the functionality, we generate a panel of German property prices and rents that is unprecedented in its spatial coverage and detail. This novel data set uncovers a battery of stylized facts that motivate further research, e.g. on the density bias of price-to-rent ratios in levels and trends, within and between cities. Our method lends itself to the creation of comparable neighborhood-level qualified rent indices (Mietspiegel) across Germany.
    Keywords: index, real estate, price, property, rent
    JEL: R10
    Date: 2021
  6. By: Tumen, Semih (Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey); Vlassopoulos, Michael (University of Southampton); Wahba, Jackline (University of Southampton)
    Abstract: Despite efforts to integrate refugee children into host country education systems, their low school attachment remains a major policy challenge. Teachers play a key role in keeping students attached to school, yet classroom diversity poses difficulties for teachers who are not always adequately prepared to address the needs of minority students. Using administrative data and a regression discontinuity approach, we evaluate whether a teacher training program—designed to raise awareness of primary and secondary school teachers in Turkey—is effective in reducing absenteeism of refugee students. We find that the program almost halves the absenteeism gap between native and refugee students and its effect persists into the next academic year, albeit fading out in size. We argue that the most likely channel through which the effects of the program operate is a school-wide mentorship role acquired by trained teachers, which has broad impact on raising diversity awareness within schools.
    Keywords: teacher training, refugees, absenteeism, diversity
    JEL: I21 I28 J15
    Date: 2021–07
  7. By: Gutierrez-Posada, Diana; Kitsos, Tasos; Nathan, Max (UCL); Nuccio, Massimiliano
    Abstract: The creative industries have received much attention from economic geographers and others, both for their propensity to co-locate in urban settings and their potential to drive urban economic development. However, evidence on the latter is surprisingly sparse. In this paper we explore the long-term, causal impacts of the creative industries on surrounding urban economies. Adapting Moretti’s local multipliers framework, we build a new 20-year panel of UK cities, using fixed effects and a historic instrument to identify effects on non-creative firms and employment. We find that each creative job generates at least 1.9 non-tradable jobs between 1998 and 2018: this is associated with creative business services employees’ local spending, rather than visitors to urban amenities such as galleries and museums. We do not find the same effects for workplaces, and find no causal evidence for spillovers from creative activity to other tradable sectors, findings consistent with descriptive evidence on the increasing concentration of creative industries in a small number of cities. Given the small numbers of creative jobs in most cities, however, the overall effect size of the creative multiplier is small, and shapes only a small part of non-tradable urban employment change. Overall, our results suggest creative economy-led policies for cities can have positive – albeit partial – local economic impacts.
    Date: 2021–07–11
  8. By: Scott W. Hegerty
    Abstract: In many U.S. central cities, property values are relatively low, while rents are closer to those in better-off neighborhoods. This gap can lead to relatively large profits for landlords, and has been referred to as "exploitaton" for renters. While much of this gap might be explained by risk, factors such as income and race might play important roles as well. This study calculates Census tract-level measures of the rent-to-property-value (RPV) ratio for 30 large cities and their surrounding metropolitan areas. After examining the spatial distribution of this ratio and relationships with other socioeconomic variables for Milwaukee and three other cities, Z-scores and quantiles are used to identify "extreme" RPV values nationwide. "Rust Belt" cities such as Detroit, Cleveland, and Milwaukee are shown to have higher median and 95% values than do West Coast cities such as Seattle and San Francisco. A spatial lag regression estimation shows that, controlling for income, property values, and vacancy rates, racial characteristics often have the "opposite" signs from what might be expected and that there is little evidence of purely race-based "exploitation" of renters. A significantly negative coefficient for the percentage of Black residents, for example, might suggest that the RPV ratio is lower in a given tract, all else equal. While this study shows where RPV values are highest within as well as between cities, further investigation might uncover the drivers of these spatial differences more fully.
    Date: 2021–07
  9. By: Jonathan Halket (Institute for Fiscal Studies and cemmap and Essex); Lars Nesheim (Institute for Fiscal Studies and cemmap and UCL); Florian Oswald (Institute for Fiscal Studies and cemmap and Sciences Po)
    Abstract: Which housing characteristics are important for understanding homeownership rates? How are housing characteristics priced in the rental and owner-occupied markets? And what can the answers to the previous questions tell us about economic theories of homeownership? Using the English Housing Survey, we estimate a selection model of the allocation of properties to the owner-occupied and rental sectors. Structural characteristics and unobserved quality are important for selection. Location is not. Accounting for selection is important for estimates of rent-to-price ratios and can explain some puzzling correlations between rent-to-price ratios and homeownership rates. These patterns are consistent with, among others, hypotheses of contracting frictions in the rental market likely related to housing maintenance. Download the appendix
    Date: 2020–02–03
  10. By: Oliver Krebs; Michael Pflüger
    Abstract: This paper develops a quantitative spatial general equilibrium model for the German economy to address two issues. First, we explore the role of commuting for local labor markets and their capacity to absorb productivity shocks. Second, we address the role of housing markets for quantitative analyses. Germany is an exciting laboratory because commuting across local labor markets is pervasive, unique data are available, and because Germany’s high degree of trade openness poses a thrilling counterpoint to the United States. Our key findings for German counties are that the employment and resident elasticities associated with local productivity shocks are much above unity, yet disparate (the former larger than the latter), very heterogeneous, and only poorly predicted by simple labor market statistics. Allowing the supply of land/housing to be price elastic increases the elasticities and reinforces our conclusions. The regional heterogeneity of the land/housing shares in Germany turns out to be inessential for our findings, the level of the land/housing share plays an important role, however. We perform a plethora of robustness checks which allow us to gain perspective on extant findings for the United States.
    Keywords: quantitative spatial analysis, commuting, migration, employment and resident elasticities
    JEL: F12 F14 R13 R23
    Date: 2021
  11. By: Ballesteros, Marife M.; Ancheta, Jenica A.
    Abstract: This study documents the application of participatory governance for social housing in the Philippines through the local housing boards (LHBs), which are seen to have a crucial role in the adoption of inclusive social housing programs and policies. It shows that local government units (LGUs) vary in their implementation of the LHBs. For instance, the LHBs that serve only as clearinghouses for the eviction and demolition activities of some LGUs have a limited role as an institution for participatory governance. On the other hand, social housing policies and projects that cater to the poor are evident among LGUs with functioning LHBs.
    Keywords: land use, social housing, participatory governance, local housing board
    Date: 2021
  12. By: Cristina Bratu; Matz Dahlberg; Madhinee Valeyatheepillay
    Abstract: We study residential integration patterns in adulthood for children of refugees who arrive in Sweden before the age of 16. Using geo-coded information on the residential location of each individual in Sweden, we take a novel, data-driven approach in defining neighborhoods and construct individualized k-nearest neighborhoods, for k = 100 or k = 1000. Exploiting a siblings design, we find that, at age 30, refugee children arriving later live in neighborhoods with lower shares of natives, high-educated individuals, and high-income earners, and higher share of welfare receivers, regardless of the level of k. We also provide evidence that refugee children arriving later experience worse labor market outcomes in terms of earnings, lower educational outcomes and likelihood to marry Swedish-born partners at age 30 as compared to children arriving earlier to the host country. Using a decomposition analysis, we show that the mean effects of age at arrival on neighborhood integration are only partly explained by economic integration, educational integration and intermarriage. Our findings indicate that a large part of the estimated mean age at arrival effects remains unaccounted for, particularly for k = 100, which suggests a role for Swedish housing policies, housing discrimination and taste-based preferences in fully explaining the effects of age at arrival.
    Keywords: refugees, residential integration, age at arrival
    JEL: R23 J15 J12 J01
    Date: 2021
  13. By: Javier Changoluisa (ESAI Business School, Universidad Espiritu Santo, Guayaquil, Ecuador)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the early development of new establishments evaluating the role of spatial selection and agglomeration. The analysis shows a clear and strong selection of more productive new establishments into larger regions, regardless of the foundation type. While at the end of the time-period analyzed new establishments located in larger regions still show higher productivity levels as compared to those located in smaller regions, the role of an agglomeration is very distinct depending on the foundation type. Spin-offs in larger regions tend to keep the higher productivity level shown in the first time period, but start-ups suffer negative agglomeration effects over time.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, agglomeration, firm selection, productivity
    JEL: L26 L25 R30 R12
    Date: 2021–07–22
  14. By: Correa, Juan A. (Universidad Andres Bello); Parro, Francisco (Universidad Adolfo Ibañez); Sánchez, Rafael (Universidad Diego Portales)
    Abstract: We quantify the effect of school voucher spending on initial earnings. We use administrative data on the monetary resources received by schools from a targeted voucher program implemented in Chile. We merge this dataset with education and labor market administrative records for the universe of students enrolled in the Chilean education system. We find that an increase of US$100 in the yearly expenditure of voucher resources per student raises initial earnings by 2.3%. However, we find that the positive effect of voucher spending only holds for private voucher schools that operate in local education markets with low enrollment concentration.
    Keywords: school vouchers, education spending, earnings
    JEL: H52 I22 I26 I28
    Date: 2021–07
  15. By: Andrea MORRISON; Ernest MIGUELEZ
    Abstract: How do regions enter new and distant technological fields? Who is triggering this process? This work addresses these compelling research questions by investigating the role of migrant inventors in the process of technological diversification. Immigrant inventors can indeed act as carriers of knowledge across borders and influence the direction of technological change. We test these latter propositions by using an original dataset of immigrant inventors in the context of European regions during the period 2003-2011. Our findings show that: immigrant inventors generate positive local knowledge spillovers; they help their host regions to develop new technological specialisations; they trigger a process of unrelated diversification. Their contribution comes via two main mechanisms: immigrant inventors use their own personal knowledge (knowledge creation); they import knowledge from their home country to the host region (knowledge transfer). Their impact is maximised when their knowledge is not recombined with the local one (in mixed teams of inventors), but it is reused (in teams made by only migrant inventors). Our work contributes to the existing literature of regional diversification by providing fresh evidence of unrelated diversification for European regions and by identifying important agents of structural change. It also contributes to the literature of migration and innovation by adding fresh evidence on European regions and by unveiling some of the mechanisms of immigrants’ knowledge transmission.
    Keywords: patents, migration, technological diversification, relatedness, Europe
    JEL: O30 F20 F60
    Date: 2021
  16. By: Bobby Chung (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign); Jian Zou (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
    Abstract: The educative Teacher Performance Assessment (edTPA) - a performance-based examination for prospective PreK-12 teachers to guarantee teaching readiness - has gained popularity in recent years. This research offers the first causal evidence about the effects of this nationwide initiative on teacher supply and student outcomes of new teachers. We leverage the quasi-experimental setting of different adoption timing by states and analyze multiple data sources containing a national sample of prospective teachers and students of new teachers in the US. We find that the new license requirement reduced the number of graduates from teacher preparation programs by 14%. The negative effect is stronger for non-white prospective teachers at less-selective universities. Contrary to the policy intention, we find evidence that edTPA has adverse effects on student learning.
    Keywords: occupational licensing, education policy
    JEL: I28 J20 J44 K31 L51
    Date: 2021–07
  17. By: Masud Alam
    Abstract: This study examines how housing sector volatilities affect real estate investment trust (REIT) equity return in the United States. I argue that unexpected changes in housing variables can be a source of aggregate housing risk, and the first principal component extracted from the volatilities of U.S. housing variables can predict the expected REIT equity returns. I propose and construct a factor-based housing risk index as an additional factor in asset price models that uses the time-varying conditional volatility of housing variables within the U.S. housing sector. The findings show that the proposed housing risk index is economically and theoretically consistent with the risk-return relationship of the conditional Intertemporal Capital Asset Pricing Model (ICAPM) of Merton (1973), which predicts an average maximum of 5.6 percent of risk premium in REIT equity return. In subsample analyses, the positive relationship is not affected by sample periods' choice but shows higher housing risk beta values for the 2009-18 sample period. The relationship remains significant after controlling for VIX, Fama-French three factors, and a broad set of macroeconomic and financial variables. Moreover, the proposed housing beta also accurately forecasts U.S. macroeconomic and financial conditions.
    Date: 2021–07
  18. By: Majed Dodin (University of Mannheim); Sebastian Findeisen (University of Konstanz); Lukas Henkel (European Central Bank); Dominik Sachs (LMU Munich); Paul Schüle (ifo Munich and LMU Munich)
    Abstract: We characterize intergenerational social mobility in Germany using census data on the educational attainment of 526,000 children and their parents’ earnings. Our measure of educational attainment is the A-Level degree, a requirement for access to university and the most important qualification in the German education sys-tem. On average, a 10 percentile increase in the parental income rank is associated with a 5.2 percentage point increase in the probability to obtain an A-Level. This parental income gradient has not changed for the birth cohorts from 1980 to 1996, despite a large-scale policy of expanding upper secondary education in Germany. At the regional level, there exists substantial variation in mobility estimates. Place effects, rather than sorting of households into different regions, seem to account for most of these geographical differences. Mobile regions are, among other as-pects, characterized by high school quality and enhanced possibilities to obtain an A-Level degree on vocational schools.
    Keywords: Intergenerational Mobility, Educational Attainment, Local Labor Markets
    JEL: I24 J62 R23
    Date: 2021–07–10
  19. By: Dorn, David (University of Zurich); Zweimüller, Josef (University of Zurich)
    Abstract: The European labor market allows for the border-free mobility of workers across 31 countries that cover most of the continent's population. However, rates of migration across European countries remain considerably lower than interstate migration in the United States, and spatial variation in terms of unemployment or income levels is larger. We document patterns of migration in Europe, which include a sizable migration from east to west in the last twenty years. An analysis of worker-level microdata provides some evidence for an international convergence in wage rates, and for modest static gains from migration. We conclude by discussing obstacles to migration that reduce the potential for further labor market integration in Europe.
    Keywords: labor migration, wages, Europe, European Union single market
    JEL: F22 F53 J31 J61
    Date: 2021–07
  20. By: de Ree, Joppe; Maggioni, Mario A.; Paulle, Bowen; Rossignoli, Domenico; Ruijs, Nienke; Walentek, Dawid
    Abstract: We present experimental evidence on a high-dosage tutoring (HDT) program implemented in three primary schools in a low-income neighborhood in the Netherlands. We document treatment effects of 0.28 national population standard deviations in math achievement scores (p<0.01) after one school year. These treatment effects are sizable and can account for roughly 40% of the math achievement gap between low-income and high-income students in the Netherlands. As most of the evidence on intensive tutoring programs draws on research from low-income settings in the US, our findings show that (i.) HDT programs can be successfully built from the ground up and exported to different institutional settings while maintaining meaningful effect sizes, and, (ii.) existing income-achievement gaps can be substantially reduced with practical and scalable interventions like HDT.
    Date: 2021–07–14
  21. By: TRUJILLO SÁEZ Fernando
    Abstract: This technical report describes the educational response to COVID-19 in Spain during the 2020-2021 academic year, a Spanish version of the research results is included in the annex. The study focused on compulsory education and it was designed as a qualitative research with a sample of 34 participants, including school leaders, teachers, families and students from different types of schools and regions in Spain. The main conclusions describe an uncertain start of the school year, but gradually, the choice of face-to-face teaching as the main instruction mode revealed successful in general terms. However, some problems appeared concerning students with special needs, relevant changes in teaching methodology and about the use of blended learning in Secondary Education, which is considered to have been quite problematic or even unsuccessful. On the positive side, a deep revision of the curriculum by schools and teachers, and the reduced ratio of students per teacher to keep interpersonal distance, may have compensated the difficulties during this academic year. This report also includes a Spanish version of the research results in its annex.
    Keywords: Covid-19 education, primary education, secondary education, special education, inclusive education, digital education, hybrid education
    Date: 2021–06
  22. By: Francisco Meneses (Duke University)
    Abstract: Intergenerational mobility has been linked to both the quality of neighborhoods and the quality of schools and schooling. Understanding the incremental value of investments in either domain is difficult because in many settings, including the U.S., school choices are coupled with neighborhood geography. I take advantage of student access to new subway lines built in Santiago, Chile, to measure the impact of education independent from neighborhood quality using a quasi-experimental design. In Santiago with an established open enrolments school system, the new subway lines substantially reduced transportation costs and increased access to educational opportunities among lower income students. With student level test score data linked with data on parent’s education and demographics, I use a Difference-In-Difference (DID) approach to shows that treated students increased their intergenerational income mobility, with students’ future income ranking increasing on average by 2 percental points above that of their parents, or a 5% of wage increase. Moreover, the paper finds that this is driven by changes in the field of higher education study, not improved test scores or graduation from higher education.
    Keywords: Intergenerational mobility, quasi experiment, education, school choice, policy impact
    JEL: I24 J6 D64
    Date: 2021–07
  23. By: Ly Dai Hung (Vietnam Institute of Economics, Hanoi, Vietnam)
    Abstract: The paper analyzes the development path and economic performance of central cities group in comparision with the whole economy and within group. These cities have a higher living standard than the country average, but within group, there exists a diversification of economic-social-environmenttal development along with a convergence of institutional quality. Thus, the paper suggests that the central cities can transform from the stage of attracting external resource to the stage of creating spill-over development to other provinces. Moreover, the diversification of economic-social-environmental development needs also to be reflected on the public policy in the future.
    Keywords: Economic Development,Central Cities,Public Policy
    Date: 2020–05
  24. By: Stich, Christoph; Tranos, Emmanouil; Nathan, Max (UCL)
    Abstract: This paper proposes a new methodological framework to identify economic clusters over space and time. We employ a unique open source dataset of geolocated and archived business webpages and interrogate them using Natural Language Processing to build bottom-up classi- fications of economic activities. We validate our method on an iconic UK tech cluster – Shoreditch, East London. We benchmark our results against existing case studies and admin- istrative data, replicating the main features of the cluster and providing fresh insights. As well as overcoming limitations in conventional industrial classification, our method addresses some of the spatial and temporal limitations of the clustering literature.
    Date: 2021–05–02
  25. By: Suat Çubukçu; Nusret M. Sahin; Erdal Tekin; Volkan Topalli
    Abstract: Police body-worn cameras (BWCs) have been the subject of much research on how the technology’s enhanced documentation of police/citizen interactions impact police behavior. Less attention has been paid to how BWC recordings affect the adjudication of citizen complaints against the police. We employ citizen complaint data from the Chicago Police Department and Civilian Office of Police Accountability filed between 2012-2020 to determine the extent to which BWC footage enhances the efficacy of evidence used to formulate a conclusion of responsibility, and whether bias against complainants based on race would subsequently be reduced. Accordingly, we exploit the staggered deployment of BWCs across 22 Chicago police districts over time to estimate the effect of BWCs on these outcomes. Our findings indicate that BWCs led to a significant decrease in the dismissal of investigations due to insufficient evidence ("not sustained") as well as a significant increase in disciplinary actions against police officers ("sustained" outcomes”) with sufficient evidence to sanction their misconduct. We further find that disparities in complaints across racial groups for the “unsustained” category fade away with the implementation of BWCs.
    JEL: K4 K42
    Date: 2021–07
  26. By: Cernat, Alexandru; Buil-Gil, David (University of Manchester); brunton-smith, ian; Pina-Sánchez, Jose (University of Leeds); Murrià-Sangenís, Marta
    Abstract: We assess if asking victims about the places where crimes happen leads to estimates of ‘crime in place’ with better measurement properties. We analyse data from the Barcelona Victimization Survey (2015 to 2020) aggregated in 73 neighbourhoods using longitudinal quasi-simplex models and criterion validity to estimate the quality of four types of survey-based measures of crime. The distribution of survey-based offence location estimates, as opposed to victim residence estimates, is highly similar to police-recorded crime statistics, and there is little trade off in terms of the reliability and validity of offence location and victim residence measures. Estimates of crimes reported to the police show a better validity, but their reliability is lower and capture fewer crimes.
    Date: 2021–07–15
  27. By: Kirksey, J. Jacob (University of California, Santa Barbara)
    Abstract: With rising numbers of deportations over the last two decades, there has been a particular concern among educators and researchers that immigrant-origin students and their peers are experiencing educational consequences due to increased stress, anxiety, and fear of the unknown. This study examined the relationship between immigration enforcement and student achievement in counties across the U.S. This study used data from two nationally representative samples of kindergarteners, The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Kindergarten Classes of 1998-99 and 2010, and the number of deportations ordered from each immigration court provided by the Transactional Records Access Clearinghouse. When combining the ten years of data, the overall analytic sample is n=114,990 child by year observations, with deportations varying in 79 counties from 1998-2016. Employing a cross-sectional, longitudinal design, a student, school, and year fixed effects model was employed to examine the association between deportations and achievement in elementary grades, exploiting variation of deportations between counties and across years. The results of the analyses indicated that increases in deportations coincided with declines in Latinx student achievement in math. Differences emerged based on student-level characteristics and across presidential administrations. Policy implications are discussed.
    Date: 2021–07–19
  28. By: Yajing Chen; Zhenhua Jiao; Chenfeng Zhang
    Abstract: This paper considers truncation strategies in housing markets. First, we characterize the top trading cycles rule in housing markets by the following two groups of axioms: individual rationality, Pareto efficiency, truncation-invariance; individual rationality, endowments-swapping-proofness, truncation-invariance. The new characterizations refine Ma (1994), Fujinaka and Wakayama (2018), and Chen and Zhao (2021) simultaneously, because truncation-invariance is weaker than both strategy-proofness and rank monotonicity. Second, we show that the characterization result of the current paper can no longer be obtained by further weakening truncation-invariance to truncation-proofness.
    Date: 2021–06
  29. By: Gluschenko, Konstantin
    Abstract: During the last 15–20 years, inequality between Russian regions in terms of real personal incomes per capita was decreasing. This paper aims at revealing the “anatomy” of this phenomenon. To do so, time series of every regional income per capita is tested for catching-up with the national income per capita. Nonlinear asymptotically subsiding trends model the processes of convergence. The data cover 2002–2018 with a monthly frequency. Real incomes are estimated by adjusting nominal incomes to regional price levels. The results obtained suggest that 54.4% of the Russian regions exhibit convergence, and 20.3% of regions retain (approximately) stable income gap. At the same time, there is a significant proportion of deterministically diverging regions, equaling 22.8%. Random walks are detected in two regions only.
    Keywords: Russian regions, real income, catching-up, nonlinear trend
    JEL: C32 I31 O18 R11
    Date: 2021–07–13
  30. By: He, Qian; Rowangould, Dana; Karner, Alex; Palm, Matthew; LaRue, Seth
    Abstract: The Covid-19 pandemic has decimated public transit service across the United States and caused significant decreases in ridership. Adapting to the pandemic has been more challenging for some transit riders than for others. Little is known about the reasons for pandemic-era mode shifts and the impacts of pandemic-related transit reductions on riders’ day-to-day lives. Using a national survey of U.S. transit riders (n=500), this study examines changes in transit use since the pandemic began, the reasons for transit reductions, and the effects of reduced transit use and transit service on transit riders’ ability to meet their travel needs. The Covid-19 pandemic has exacerbated existing transportation burdens for essential transit riders, pointing to shortcomings inherent in current transit financing policy. We close with recommendations for strengthening the transit service for these groups in the long term as we recover from the pandemic.
    Date: 2021–07–17
  31. By: Jorge Alcalde-Unzu; Flip Klijn; Marc Vorsatz
    Abstract: The theoretical literature on public school choice proposes centralized mechanisms that assign children to schools on the basis of parents' preferences and the priorities children have for different schools. The related experimental literature analyzes in detail how various mechanisms fare in terms of welfare and stability of the resulting matchings, yet often provides only aggregate statistics of the individual behavior that leads to these outcomes (i.e., the degree to which subjects tell the truth in the induced simultaneous move game). In this paper, we show that the quantal response equilibrium adequately describes individual behavior and the resulting matching in a laboratory experiment on the (constrained) immediate acceptance mechanism. Specifically, the comparative statics of the quantal response equilibrium capture the directional changes of subject behavior and the prevalence of the different stable matchings when cardinal payoffs (i.e., relative preference intensities) are modified in the experiment.
    Keywords: laboratory experiment, school choice, immediate acceptance mechanism, Boston mechanism, quantal response equilibrium
    JEL: C78 C91 C92 D78 I20
    Date: 2021–07
  32. By: Moran, Marcel E.
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences
    Date: 2021–07–01
  33. By: Wanner, Philippe (University of Geneva); Pecoraro, Marco (University of Neuchatel); Tani, Massimiliano (University of New South Wales)
    Abstract: This paper uses linked Swiss administrative and survey data to examine the relationship between educational mismatch in the labour market and emigration decisions, carrying out the analysis for both Swiss native and previous immigrant workers. In turn, migrants' decisions separate returning home from onward migration to a third country. We find that undereducation is positively associated with the probability of emigration and return to the country of origin. In contrast, the reverse relationship is found between overeducation and emigration, especially among non-European immigrant workers. According to the predictions of the traditional model of migration, based on self-selection, migrants returning home are positively selected relative to migrants emigrating to other countries. We also find that immigrants from a country outside the EU27/EFTA have little incentive to return home and generally accept jobs for which they are mismatched in Switzerland. These results highlight the relevance to understand emigration behaviours in relation to the type of migrant that is most integrated, and productive, in the Swiss market, hence enabling better migration and domestic labour market policy design.
    Keywords: emigration, return migration, onward migration, wages, occupation, educational mismatch
    JEL: J15 J24 J61 O15
    Date: 2021–07
  34. By: Braswell, Anna; Leyk, Stefan; Connor, Dylan; Uhl, Johannes
    Abstract: Current estimates of U.S. property at risk of coastal hazards and sea level rise (SLR) are stag-gering, evaluated at over a trillion U.S. dollars. Despite being enormous in the aggregate, po-tential losses due to SLR depend on mitigation, adaptation, and exposure and are highly uneven in their distribution across coastal cities. We provide the first analysis of how changes in expo-sure (how and when) have unfolded over more than a century of coastal urban development in the United States. We do so by leveraging new historical settlement layers from the Historical Settlement Data Compilation for the U.S. (HISDAC-US) to examine building patterns within and between the SLR zones of the conterminous United States since the early twentieth century. Our analysis reveals that SLR zones developed faster and continue to have higher structure density than non-coastal, urban and inland areas, patterns which are particularly prominent in locations affected by hurricanes. However, density levels in historically less-developed coastal areas are now quickly converging on early-settled SLR zones, many of which have reached building saturation. These “saturation effects” suggest that adaptation polices targeting existing buildings and developed areas are likely to grow in importance relative to the protection of previously undeveloped land.
    Date: 2021–07–01
  35. By: Jacobs, Madelon (ROA / Education and transition to work, RS: GSBE other - not theme-related research); van der Velden, Rolf (RS: GSBE Theme Learning and Work, ROA / Education and transition to work); van Vugt, Lynn (RS: GSBE Theme Learning and Work, ROA / Education and transition to work)
    Abstract: In many countries, high-stakes tests play an important role in the allocation of pupils to prestigious tracks or schools in secondary education or students to prestigious programs or colleges in tertiary education. It is not clear what would happen if the standards for these tests were systematically raised or lowered. Would that affect the subsequent educational career? This paper exploits a unique natural experiment in the Netherlands using the market entrance of two new suppliers of high-stakes tests in primary education. In the first year of introduction, these new tests were not yet properly calibrated: For one test the standards were too low, while for the other test they were too high, compared to the standards of the traditional test that continued to be the main supplier. We use high-quality register data and a within-schools-across-cohorts design to model the short- and long-term outcomes (i.e., change in teacher advice and actual track three years later) for the students that were affected by the new tests. We find evidence for short-term effects, but no evidence for long-term effects. This implies that the Dutch educational system is sufficiently flexible to allocate pupils to the appropriate track, even if a high-stakes test advice does not recommend the right track. At the same time, it also implies that lowering the bar is not a simple way to increase the share of students going to prestigious tracks.
    JEL: J24
    Date: 2021–06–21
  36. By: Albanese, Giuseppe (Bank of Italy); Carrieri, Vincenzo (Magna Graecia University); Speziali, Maria Maddalena (Magna Graecia University)
    Abstract: This paper presents new evidence on the last concluded wave (2007-2013) of the EU cohesion policy. We depart from the broadly used GDP-growth approach and evaluate the impact of EU Structural Funds (SFs) on a battery of regional well-being indicators including economic, educational, health, and demographic outcomes. We exploit the SFs assignment rule to construct a fuzzy RDD. Our results reveal an overall null effect of the policy. We further identify how regional (i) quality of government (ii) human capital and (iii) urbanization impact the policy's effectiveness. We conclude that these characteristics affect the relationship between SFs and economic outcomes only.
    Keywords: regional well-being, cohesion policy, Fuzzy RDD
    JEL: C21 H51 H52 I31 R11
    Date: 2021–06
  37. By: Irena Dokic (Euro ekspertiza j.d.o.o.); Ivana Rasic (The Institute of Economics, Zagreb); Suncana Slijepcevic (The Institute of Economics, Zagreb)
    Abstract: Awareness of the importance of innovation in the public sector is increasing. It should create added public value to the citizens and the society. Public sector innovation is a challenge, but it is also increasingly recognized as a solution to growing budgetary pressures. The paper explores the implementation of innovation in public services at the local level in Croatia. Most of the research conducted so far explores the role of the private sector in the implementation of innovation in the public sector. The objective of this paper is to analyse results of a survey that has been conducted on a sample of representatives of local and regional government in Croatia (big cities and counties) and representatives of local action groups (LAGs) and local/regional development agencies (LRDAs) to examine the ability of Croatian local and regional public sector to innovate and identify the barriers that may hinder the process of introduction and implementation of this innovation. It, thus, explores the main barriers for the implementation of innovative activities at the local level from the perspective of different local actors. The results show that three factors that hinder the process of introducing innovation into the Croatian public sector are competence-related obstacles, bureaucratic barriers, and funding difficulties.
    Keywords: innovations, public sector, post-transition, local and regional government
    JEL: H83 H75 O3
    Date: 2021–02
  38. By: Goulas, Sofoklis (Stanford University); Griselda, Silvia (University of Melbourne); Megalokonomou, Rigissa (University of Queensland)
    Abstract: Understanding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on education requires a solid grasp of the impact of student autonomy on learning. In this paper, we estimate the effect of an increased autonomy policy for higher-performing students on short- and longer-term school outcomes. We exploit an institutional setting with high demand for autonomy in randomly formed classrooms. Identification comes from a natural experiment that allowed higher-achieving students to miss 30 percent more classes without penalty. Using a difference-in-difference-in-differences approach, we find that allowing higher-achieving students to skip class more often improves their performance in high-stakes subjects and increases their university admission outcomes. Higher-achieving students in more academically diverse classrooms exerted more autonomy when allowed to.
    Keywords: COVID-19, learning autonomy, school attendance, returns to education, natural experiment
    JEL: I26
    Date: 2021–07
  39. By: Hideo Akabayashi (Faculty of Economics, Keio University); Shimpei Taguchi (Graduate School of Economics, Keio University); Mirka Zvedelikova (Graduate School of Economics, Keio University)
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has forced schools around the world to close, and Japanese schools were no exception. While many previous studies have identified an inequality in the access to online school education based on family background, few studies have simultaneously examined the access to online education both at school and outside school, and no study has examined parents' views about online school education, an important demand side factor. Using a panel dataset collected in May and December 2020, we examine the determinants of at-school and outside-school online experience. We observe that children in private schools and those from high-income households received more online education at school, and children from high-income households and those with a highly educated parent experienced more online education outside school. Further, we find that a greater increase of COVID-19 between May and December was associated with increased access to online education outside the school, especially for children in private schools and those with a highly educated parent, while we do not observe this trend in at-school online education. We also find that household income and parent's high educational level are also associated with higher demand for at-school online education, while mothers being employed in regular contracts and fathers in non-regular contracts decreased this demand in the short term.
    Keywords: Online education, COVID-19, Family background, Parental work, Japan
    JEL: I24 I28 J81
    Date: 2021–07–05
  40. By: Andres Fielbaum; Alejandro Tirachini; Javier Alonso-Mora
    Abstract: On-demand ridepooling (ODRP) can become a powerful alternative to reduce congestion and emissions, if it attracts private car users rather than from public transport. Therefore, it is crucial to identify the strategic phenomena that determine when ODRP systems can run efficiently, and understand when they could be integrated into a public transport network. In this paper, we analyze the performance of an ODRP system operated in a zone covered by a single public transport line. The fleet of low-capacity vehicles is endogenously adapted to the demand. Considering both users' and operators' costs, we identify two sources of scale economies: when demand grows, the average cost is reduced due to an equivalent of the Mohring Effect (that is present in public transport), and due to matching the users in more compatible groups when they are assigned to the vehicles, which we call Better-matching Effect. A counter-balance force, called Flex-route Effect, is observed when the vehicle loads increase and users face longer detours. We find a specific demand range in which this last effect dominates the others, imposing diseconomies of scale when only users' costs are considered. Such a phenomenon is not observed in public transport systems based on fixed routes. However, when considering both users' and operators' costs, scale economies prevail. We compare the ODRP results against public transport, for a feeder line and a circular line with homogeneous demand. We show that ODRP is more competitive when users share a common destination (the feeder line) and when the demand is low, although scale effects suggest that ODRP can also play a role when the demand is high. Relaxing door-to-door vehicle requirements to allow short walks, is shown to be crucial for ODRP to become a viable alternative for both human-driven and automated vehicles, if the ODRP must serve all requests.
    Date: 2021–05
  41. By: Jorge Luis García; Frederik H. Bennhoff; Duncan Ermini Leaf; James J. Heckman
    Abstract: This paper monetizes the life-cycle intragenerational and intergenerational benefits of the Perry Preschool Project, a pioneering high-quality early childhood education program implemented before Head Start that targeted disadvantaged African-Americans and was evaluated by a randomized trial. It has the longest follow-up of any experimentally evaluated early childhood education program. We follow participants into late midlife as well as their children into adulthood. Impacts on the original participants and their children generate substantial benefits. Access to life-cycle data enables us to evaluate the accuracy of widely used schemes to forecast life-cycle benefits from early-life test scores, which we find wanting.
    JEL: C93 H43 I28 J13
    Date: 2021–07
  42. By: Matthew Smith; Yasaman Sarabi
    Abstract: This study examines patterns of regionalisation in the International Trade Network (ITN). This study makes use of Gould Fernandez brokerage to examine the roles countries play in the ITN linking different regional partitions. An examination of three ITNs is provided for three networks with varying levels of technological content, representing trade in high tech, medium tech, and low-tech goods. Simulated network data, based on an advanced network model controlling for degree centralisation and clustering patterns, is compared to the observed data to examine whether the roles countries play within and between regions are result of centralisation and clustering patterns. The findings indicate that the roles countries play between and within regions is a result of centralisation and clustering patterns; indicating a need to examine the presence of hubs when investigating regionalisation and globalisation patterns in the modern global economy.
    Date: 2021–07
  43. By: Tabuga, Aubrey D.
    Abstract: This paper analyzes intention formation as an important part of migration decisionmaking process among prospective migrants. Bringing out the nuances and examining factors that facilitate premigration decisionmaking process may be useful in designing efforts to anticipate or even influence migration flows. Using primary data, this study analyzes the role of individuals’ perceptions of their households’ wellbeing and the prevailing political and economic environment in their area. The results show that their migration intentions are nuanced. While some respondents formed more decisive intentions to migrate, others indicated weak desire to seek opportunities abroad in the future. This study finds that having a more decisive migration plan is correlated with age, being male, having prior migration experience, existing household migration culture, and low level of satisfaction with the welfare of one’s household.
    Keywords: migration, international migration, migration decision, migration survey
    Date: 2020
  44. By: Abrahamsen, Signe A. (University of Bergen); Ginja, Rita (University of Bergen); Riise, Julie (University of Bergen)
    Abstract: This paper provides new evidence that preventive health care services delivered at schools and provided at a relatively low cost have positive and lasting impacts. We use variation from a 1999-reform in Norway that induced substantial differences in the availability of health professionals across municipalities and cohorts. In municipalities with one fewer school nurse per 1,000 school-age children before the reform there was an increase in the availability of nurses of 35% from the pre- to the post-reform period, attributed to the policy change. The reform reduced teenage pregnancies and increased college attendance for girls. It also reduced the take-up of welfare benefits by ages 26 and 30 and increased the planned use of primary and specialist health care services at ages 25-35, without impacts on emergency room admissions. The reform also improved the health of newborns of affected new mothers and reduced the likelihood of miscarriages.
    Keywords: school health services, teenage pregnancy, welfare dependency, utilization of health services, health status
    JEL: H75 I10 I12 I28 I30 I38
    Date: 2021–07
  45. By: Elsa Leromain (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES)); Gonzague Vannoorenberghe (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES))
    Abstract: We study how Covid-related risk affected participation across the French territory in the March 2020 local elections. We document that participation went down disproportionately in towns exposed to higher Covid-19 risk. Towns that lean towards the far-right saw a stronger drop in turnout, in particular in the vicinity of clusters. We argue that these patterns are partly a result of risk perceptions, and not only of political considerations. We use data on the drop in cinema admissions in early March 2020 and show that these went down more around infection clusters, especially in areas with substantial vote for the far-right. Taken together, our findings suggest that the fear of Covid-19 may have been on average more prevalent among far-right voters, contributing to a drop in their electoral participation.
    Keywords: Electoral turnout, Local elections, Covid-19, Far-right
    JEL: D74
    Date: 2021–07–08
  46. By: Amez, Simon (Ghent University); Vujic, Suncica (University of Antwerp); Abrath, Margo (University of Antwerp); Baert, Stijn (Ghent University)
    Abstract: University students' smartphone use has recently been shown to negatively affect their academic performance. Surprisingly, research testing the empirical validity of potential mechanisms underlying this relationship is very limited. In particular, indirect effects of negative health consequences due to heavy smartphone use have never been investigated. To fill this gap, we investigate, for the first time, whether deteriorated sleep quality drives the negative impact on academic performance. To this end, we examine longitudinal data on 1,635 students at two major Belgian universities. Based on a combination of a random effects approach and seemingly unrelated regression, we find no statistically significant mediating effect of sleep quality in the relationship between smartphone use and academic performance.
    Keywords: smartphone use, academic performance, sleep quality, mediation analysis
    JEL: I21 I23 J24
    Date: 2021–07
  47. By: Jorge Luis Garcia (Clemson University); James J. Heckman (The University of Chicago); Victor Ronda (Aarhus University)
    Abstract: This paper demonstrates multiple beneficial impacts of a program promoting intergenerational mobility for disadvantaged African-American children and their children. The program improves outcomes of the first-generation treatment group across the life cycle, which translates into better family environments for the second generation leading to positive intergenerational gains. There are long-lasting beneficial program effects on cognition through age 54, contradicting claims of fadeout that have dominated popular discussions of early childhood programs. Children of the first-generation treatment group have higher levels of education and employment, lower levels of criminal activity, and better health than children of the first-generation control group.
    Keywords: intergenerational mobility, racial inequality, social mobility
    JEL: J13 I28 C93 H43
    Date: 2021–07
  48. By: Amandeep Kaur; Ranjan Kumar Mohanty; Lekha S. Chakraborty; Divy Rangan
    Abstract: Using panel data models, we analyze the flypaper effects--whether intergovernmental fiscal transfers or states' own income determine expenditure commitments--on ecological fiscal spending in India. The econometric results show that the unconditional fiscal transfers, rather than the states' own income, determine ecological expenditure in the forestry sector at subnational levels in India. The results hold when the models are controlled for ecological outcomes and demographic variables.
    Keywords: Intergovernmental Transfers; Flypaper Effect; Public Expenditures; Forestry Sector
    JEL: E6 H5 H7 Q5
    Date: 2021–07
  49. By: Carlo Lombardo (CEDLAS-IIE-FCE-UNLP); Leonardo Peñaloza-Pacheco (CEDLAS-IIE-FCE-UNLP and Cornell University)
    Abstract: This paper studies the impact of a massive skilled labor supply shock on Colombian manufacturing firms’ exports, the Venezuelan exodus. We exploit crosssectional and time variability of Venezuelan forced migrants’ settlements in Colombian sub-national areas through an enclave instrumental variables approach to account for the selection of immigrants’ location. Using yearly customs data from 2013 to 2019, we find that the Venezuelan migration improved Colombian manufacturing firms’ export performance, particularly to high-income countries of the OECD located in North America and low-income countries. This effect was stronger for firms that exported less prior to the exodus (2012). Furthermore, using a detailed yearly panel of manufacturing firms from 2013 to 2019 we identify the potential labor market driving mechanism of the trade-creation effect: immigrants lowered exporting firms’ blue-collar wages, and allowed them to upgrade their labor force skill composition, namely firms were able to hire workers more compatible with exports to developed destinations.
    JEL: F22 F16 F14 J61 J31
    Date: 2021–07
  50. By: Herings, P. Jean-Jacques (RS: GSBE Theme Data-Driven Decision-Making, RS: GSBE Theme Conflict & Cooperation, Microeconomics & Public Economics); Mauleon, Ana; Vannetelbosch, Vincent
    Abstract: We study the criminal networks that will emerge in the long run when criminals are neither myopic nor completely farsighted but have some limited degree of farsightedness. We adopt the horizon-K farsighted set of Herings, Mauleon and Vannetelbosch (2019) to answer this question. We find that in criminal networks with n criminals, the set consisting of the complete network is a horizon-K farsighted set whenever the degree of farsightedness of the criminals is larger than or equal to (n 1). Moreover, the complete network is the unique horizon-(n 1) farsighted set. Hence, the predictions obtained in case of completely farsighted criminals still hold when criminals are much less farsighted.
    JEL: A14 C70 D20
    Date: 2021–05–04
  51. By: Maddawin, Ricxie B.; Diokno-Sicat, Charlotte Justine; Castillo, Angel Faye G.
    Abstract: Philippine local governments were given increased autonomy, revenue-raising and expenditure responsibilities under the Local Government Code of 1991 (LGC). At the same time, the LGC instituted the intergovernmental fiscal transfer called the internal revenue allotment (IRA) to help to help local governments fulfill their mandates recognizing fiscal imbalance in devolved functions. Apart from this, national government provides additional assistance to local governments through programs lodged in different agencies that are meant for devolved infrastructure services. This study examines these national government programs, evolution and expenditure trends and surveys the literature of assessments of these programs. <p>In the past decade, the three programs that received the largest budgetary allocations, are the Department of Public Works and Highways’ Local Infrastructure Program, Department of Agriculture’s Farm to Market Road programs and the Department of the Interior and Local Government’s Financial Subsidy to Local Government Units (LGUs). <p>These national government programs have almost 100% budget utilization rates compared to lower utilization rates of local development funds (which are the primary source of infrastructure investments of LGUs). This, combined with the evidence of low uptake of assistance programs by poorer LGUs, offer two clear considerations for policymakers in strengthening local government oversight especially if the assistance programs will be discontinued. First, ensure that local governments will spend on infrastructure, i.e. at the very least spend the mandated local development fund. Infrastructure spending has the largest impact on incomes and in jumpstarting the economy and the path to growth would be arduous if this slows down as a result of insufficient local government investments absent national government programs. Second, if policymakers decide to maintain a more targeted assistance program, its objective, criteria and monitoring and evaluating plan should be clear. It should be complementary and aligned with the assistance programs of the Seal of Good Local Governance and Community-Based Monitoring System Laws to be efficient in the use of public funds. The goal moving in recovering from COVID coupled with the implementation of the Mandanas ruling is how to protect the vulnerable with social safety nets but also ensure that local governments contribute to economic recovery, of which infrastructure spending brings the largest multiplier effect. <p> Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from date of posting. Email
    Keywords: institutions, governance, Subnational government, Mandanas ruling, local government infrastructure programs
    Date: 2020
  52. By: Federico Carril-Caccia (Department of Spanish and International Economics, University of Granada, Granada (Spain).); Jordi Paniagua (Dep. Applied Economics II, University of Valencia, Avda. dels Tarongers s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain).); Rafael Francisco Requena (Dep. Applied Economics II, University of Valencia, Avda. dels Tarongers s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain).)
    Abstract: In this paper we examine the impact of terrorism attacks on asylum-related migration flows. So far, the literature that examines the “push factors” such as terrorism explaining forced migration has omitted the fact that the vast majority of people forced to flee, tend to do it somewhere else within the country. The novel feature of our research is the estimation of a structural gravity equation that includes both international migration and internally displaced persons, a theoretically-consistent framework that allows us to identify country-specific variables like terror attacks. For that purpose, we use the information on the number of asylum applications, the number of internally displaced persons, and the number of terrorist attacks in each country for a sample of 119 origin developing countries and 141 destination countries over 2009-2018. The empirical results reveal several interesting and policy-relevant traits. Firstly, the number of forced migration abroad is still minimal compared to internally displaced persons, but globalization forces are pushing up the ratio. Secondly, terror violence has a positive and significant effect on asylum migration flows relative to the number of internally displaced persons. Thirdly, omitting internally displaced people biases downward the effect of terrorism on asylum applications. Fourthly, we observe regional heterogeneity in the effect of terrorism on asylum migration flows; in Latin America, terrorist attacks have a much larger impact on the number of asylum applications relative to internally displaced persons than in Asia or Africa.
    Keywords: Asylum migration; forced migration; internally displaced persons; structural gravity; terrorism
    Date: 2021–07
  53. By: Francesca Mazzoni (University of Ferrara [Ferrara])
    Abstract: The transition of Italian industrial clusters towards more circular and sustainable models of production could lead to substantial environmental, economic and societal benefits. The aim of this paper is to analyse which specific types of eco-innovations could lead to the implementation of circular economy in industrial clusters. The paper intends to do so not only performing a theoretical analysis but also exploring the case study of the Prato textile industrial cluster that, through the introduction of different circular and symbiotic measures has been able to significantly reduce its environmental impact and at the same time thrive and succeed.
    Keywords: circular economy,eco-innovation,industrial symbiosis,industrial clusters
    Date: 2020–09–30
  54. By: Pike, Susan; Handy, Susan
    Abstract: This study evaluates changes in travel mode shares in California over the period from 2012, when the California Household Travel Survey (CHTS) was most recently completed, to 2017, the most recent implementation of National Household Travel Survey (NHTS). Initial review of the data suggests decreases in biking and walking over this time period. This study explores the factors contributing to this change, namely are these apparent changes the artifact of methodological differences between the analysis of the two surveys, or do they reflect real changes in the travel behavior of Californians? The piece also explores external factors, or changes over time that may contribute to mode share changes, such as demographic shifts or system-wide shocks such as the Great Recession. There are many differences in the preparation of the data used in the analysis across the two surveys; for example, the variables included in weighting are not the same for the CHTS and the NHTS. These differences are not found to have an impact on the outcomes of interest; however, they do suggest the need for more coordination among the NHTS and the CHTS to better enable comparative studies. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, Travel mode shares, Changes in walking and biking, California mode shares, NHTS, CHTS, Survey methods
    Date: 2021–07–01
  55. By: Bonick, Matthew
    Abstract: I study the impact of racism on trust in Europe. To operationalize trust and racism, I use individual level responses from the European Social and World Value Surveys. The results of the multivariate analysis indicate, individuals who possess a self-reported racist attitude are less likely to be trusting. To address the issue of causality, I examine second generation immigrants. When analyzing immigrants and using the level of racism of their origin country as a proxy for individual racial attitudes, I find, racism continues to predict lower levels of trust. These results provide evidence racism has a negative, significant, and causal impact on generalized trust. Additionally, the paper supports the notion that racism could have negative economic consequences via the erosion of social capital.
    Keywords: Racism,Trust,Culture
    JEL: O1 Z1
    Date: 2021
  56. By: Tristan L. Botelho; Daniel Fehder; Yael Hochberg
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship is thought to be a key driver of economic growth. While there are myriad forms of entrepreneurship, ranging from self-employment to small and medium size enterprises to technology- and innovation-driven startups, recent research provides evidence that the relationship between entrepreneurship and economic growth is driven not by overall quantity of new firm entry, but rather by a small subset of high-growth startups that are primarily categorized as innovation-driven. This paper provides a survey of the growing literature on the economics of such innovation-driven entrepreneurship. We begin by distinguishing between the various forms of entrepreneurship, which are often confounded in both theory and empirical work. We lay out the current state of knowledge, and describe the challenges faced by researchers in the field, particularly around measurement, data and identification. We conclude with an overview of the major open questions and directions for future research in the area.
    JEL: O0 O3
    Date: 2021–07
  57. By: Gianluca Orefice; Hillel Rapoport; Gianluca Santoni
    Abstract: How does immigration affect export performance? To answer this question, we propose a unified empirical framework allowing to disentangle various mechanisms put forth in previous literature. These include the role of networks in reducing bilateral transaction costs as well as productivity shifts arising from migration-induced knowledge diffusion and increased workforce diversity. While we find evidence supporting all three channels (at both the intensive and the extensive margins of trade), our framework allows to gauge their relative importance. We then focus on diversity and find stronger results in sectors characterized by more complex production processes and more intense teamwork cooperation. This is consistent with theories linking the distribution of skills to the comparative advantage of nations. The results are robust to using a theoretically grounded IV approach combining three variations on the shift share methodology.
    Keywords: International Trade;Birthplace Diversity;Migration;Productivity
    JEL: F14 F16 F22 O47
    Date: 2021–06
  58. By: Giampaolo Lecce (Groningen University); Laura Ogliari (University of Milan); Tommaso Orlando (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: What determines the rejection of exogenously imposed institutions? To address this question, we exploit the transplantation of institutions that occurred when southern Italy was annexed to Piedmont, during the Italian unification process of the 1860s. We assemble a novel dataset on episodes of brigandage, a form of violent uprising against the unitary government, and on pre-unification social and economic characteristics of southern Italian municipalities. We find that the intensity of institutional rejection is ceteris paribus lower in and close to settlements of Piedmontese origin. We argue that geographical distance from these communities is a proxy for cultural distance from the Piedmontese rulers. Thus, our results suggest that cultural proximity to the ‘donor’ reduces institutional rejection by ‘recipient’ communities in the context of institutional transplantations. We rule out alternative mechanisms proposed by the economic literature, provide suggestive evidence of cultural persistence and diffusion in our context, and discuss two possible culture-based interpretations of our results: a clash between local values and the content of the new institutions, and social identification with the Piedmontese rulers.
    Keywords: Institutions, Culture, Institutional Transplantations, Cultural Diffusion
    JEL: N43 D74 P16 Z10
    Date: 2021–04–14
  59. By: Khim Lal Devkota (Member of Parliament, Nepal, and Research Affiliate, International Center for Public Policy, Georgia State University, USA)
    Abstract: The formation of the three tiers of government represents a novel experiment in Nepal’s federal journey since the adoption of the new constitution in 2015. State power in the former unitary system, both rights and responsibilities, has been divided across federal, provincial and local tiers of government, with a mix of exclusive and concurrent powers for each. In matters within their jurisdiction, subnational governments can formulate laws on financial rights, set their own budgets, make decisions, devise plans and policies, implement those plans, levy taxes, and collect revenues. In the roughly three years since devolution went into effect, a few problems and uncertainties have cropped up, particularly in the exercise of power. Subnational governments complain that the center has not been very cooperative when it comes to the formulation of laws, allocation of resources, transfer of the institutional set-up, etc. However, there have been some achievements in the implementation of federalism. Institutional structures have formed at the subnational government levels, they have begun staffing, and their fiscal situations are gradually strengthening. Improvements have been made in almost all areas, including social, human development, economic, infrastructure and administrative sectors. A sense of positive competition has been created between different local and provincial governments. However, a continuing point of tension in Nepal’s federal devolution is shape of the fiscal architecture supporting the new rights and responsibilities of subnational governments. The constitution provides many functional responsibilities to provinces but only limited revenue rights. This structure conflicts with the “finance follows function” principle of effective decentralization, suggesting that initiatives are needed to review the fiscal space of the provincial level. The purpose of this paper is to analyze existing institutional structures and details of subnational government finance (“fiscal architecture”) in Nepal, primarily at the provincial level, and identify recommendations for improvement.
    Date: 2021–07–01
  60. By: Gadsby, April; Tsai, Yichang James; Harvey, John
    Abstract: Complete Streets provide mobility for all modes of transportation including active transportation. Complete Streets are being implemented in the US and transportation agencies must maintain these assets, which requires bringing them into asset management systems. Many gaps exist to include Complete Streets in asset management, and there is no comprehensive plan for filling those gaps. This project developed a road map to fill those gaps. To create this roadmap, the study completed the following tasks: 1) develop and refine a survey 2) perform national and in-depth surveys, 3) synthesize survey outcomes, 4) identify current statuses, challenges, and needs, and 5) develop a roadmap for Complete Streets asset management. All 50 state Department of Transportations participated in the national survey while Caltrans, Georgia DOT, and the Atlanta and Washoe County Metropolitan Planning Organizations contributed to the in-depth survey. This repot synthesizes the outcomes of the surveys and literature review. The survey results showed that many agencies have some Complete Streets guidance (39/50), but far less have a dedicated liaison or office (15/40), and only seven agencies have Complete Streets performance measures. The three primary challenges are: 1) inadequate funding related to organizational structure 2) the need for a rating system, and 3) the need for improved data accessibility, collection methods, and management techniques. The proposed roadmap includes asset management development and improved data collection and analysis pathways. The roadmap is intended to be used as a starting point for the incorporation of Complete Streets into asset management. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Engineering, Complete Streets, Asset Management, Implementation, Challenges/Needs, Roadmap
    Date: 2021–07–01
  61. By: Daniel Guth; Shiyu Zhang
    Abstract: Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMPs) seek to potentially reduce opioid misuse by restricting the sale of opioids in a state. We examine discontinuities along state borders, where one side may have a PDMP and the other side may not. We find that electronic PDMP implementation, whereby doctors and pharmacists can observe a patient's opioid purchase history, reduces a state's opioid sales but increases opioid sales in neighboring counties on the other side of the state border. We also find systematic differences in opioid sales and mortality between border counties and interior counties. These differences decrease when neighboring states both have ePDMPs, which is consistent with the hypothesis that individuals cross state lines to purchase opioids. Our work highlights the importance of understanding the opioid market as connected across counties or states, as we show that states are affected by the opioid policies of their neighbors.
    Date: 2021–07
  62. By: Daniel Da Mata; Rodrigo C. Oliveira; Diana Silva
    Abstract: Using admission lotteries and registry data linking labour market outcomes, we study the effect of a vocational training programme focused on disadvantaged individuals in Brazil. The intensive programme is an 18-month classroom training coupled with a 6-month on-the-job training provided by government-sponsored training centres. When assessing the impacts on 15,000 winners and 200,000 non-winners who graduated in different business cycle moments, we show that female students fare better than their male counterparts.
    Keywords: Training, Employment, Entrepreneurship
    Date: 2021
  63. By: Sharat Ganapati; Woan Foong Wong; Oren Ziv
    Abstract: Entrepôts are hubs that facilitate trade between multiple origins and destinations. We study these entrepôts, the network they form, and their impact on international trade. We document that the trade network is a hub-and-spoke system, where 80% of trade is shipped indirectly—nearly all via entrepôts. We estimate indirect-shipping consistent trade costs using a model where shipments can be sent indirectly through an endogenous transport network and develop a geography-based instrument to estimate economies of scale in shipping. Counterfactual infrastructure improvements at entrepôts have on average ten times the global welfare impact of improvements at non-entrepôts.
    JEL: F10 F12 F14
    Date: 2021–07
  64. By: Léa Saint-Raymond (ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres)
    Abstract: In 1885, some artists from Toulouse gathered together and decided to pursue a "cultural policy" ahead of its time, by organizing an annual exhibition in their city: the Union artistique de Toulouse. In 1905, other painters, sculptors, furniture makers and architects went even further in this regionalist and southern affirmation: they organized a second exhibition in Toulouse, the Salon des artistes méridionaux, which is still active today. Based on a comprehensive dataset of 24,646 artworks exhibited in Toulouse at the Union artistique and the Salon des artistes méridionaux, and using hedonic regression analysis, this paper aims at measuring the effectiveness and scope of this local cultural policy, from 1885 through 1939.
    Date: 2021
  65. By: Sahoko Furuta (Bank of Japan); Yudai Hatayama (Bank of Japan); Atsushi Kawakami (Bank of Japan); Yusuke Oh (Bank of Japan)
    Abstract: In the application of the hedonic quality adjustment method to the price index, multicollinearity and the omitted variable bias arise as practical issues. This study proposes the new hedonic quality adjustment method using esparse estimation f in order to overcome these problems. The new method deals with these problems by ensuring two properties: the egrouped effect f that gives robustness for multicollinearity and the eoracle property f that provides the appropriate variable selection and asymptotically unbiased estimators. We conduct an empirical analysis applying the new method to the producer price index of passenger cars in Japan. In comparison with the conventional standard estimation method, the new method brings the following benefits: 1) a significant increase in the number of variables in the regression model; 2) an improvement in the fit of the regression model to actual prices; and 3) reduced overestimation of the product quality improvements due to the omitted variable bias. These results suggest the possible improvement in the accuracy of the price index while enhancing the usefulness of the hedonic quality adjustment method.
    Keywords: Price Index; Quality Adjustment; Hedonic Regression Model; Multicollinearity; Omitted Variable Bias; Sparse Estimation; Adaptive Elastic Net
    JEL: C43 E31 C52
    Date: 2021–07–13
  66. By: Jhorland Ayala-Garcia; Sandy Dall'Erba; William C. Ridley
    Abstract: This paper studies the impact of extreme weather events on the local tax revenue across Colombian municipalities. We follow a two-step approach to evaluate to what extent a municipality's tax revenue depends on natural disasters taking place both locally and in its trade partners. In the first step, we estimate a gravity model of bilateral trade and construct a trade flow matrix allowing us to measure the strength of the economic relationships between cities. To do so, we build a novel dataset describing the inter-city trade flows for road transported goods in Colombia for the period 2015–2019. In the second step, we use spatial models to estimate the externalities of extreme weather events. Our results reveal that natural disasters in the destination cities increase the tax revenue in the origin city. We provide evidence of the capacity of trade to mitigate the negative effects of natural disasters. **** RESUMEN: Este artículo estudia el impacto de los eventos climáticos extremos en los ingresos fiscales locales en los municipios colombianos. Seguimos un enfoque de dos pasos para evaluar en qué medida los ingresos fiscales de un municipio dependen de los desastres naturales que ocurren tanto a nivel local como en sus socios comerciales. En el primer paso, estimamos un modelo gravitacional de comercio bilateral y construimos una matriz de flujo comercial que nos permite medir la fuerza de las relaciones económicas entre ciudades. Para hacerlo, creamos una nueva base de datos que describe los flujos comerciales entre ciudades de bienes transportados por carretera en Colombia para el período 2015-2019. En el segundo paso, utilizamos modelos espaciales para estimar las externalidades de los fenómenos meteorológicos extremos. Nuestros resultados revelan que los desastres naturales en las ciudades de destino aumentan los ingresos fiscales en la ciudad de origen. Este documento aporta evidencia de la capacidad del comercio para mitigar los efectos negativos de los desastres naturales.
    Keywords: Tax revenue, natural disasters, gravity, externalities, ingresos fiscales, desastres naturales, modelo gravitacional, externalidades
    JEL: H0 H71 Q54
    Date: 2021–07
  67. By: Paderon, Marissa M.; Ang, Ricardo B. III
    Abstract: China’s "One Belt, One Road" (OBOR) initiative aims to foster connectivity and cooperation among 65 nations. Together, these countries account for about 60 percent of the world’s total population and 30 percent of the world’s gross domestic product. OBOR, also called the "21st Century Maritime Silk Road", has two main channels that will then connect each other to Europe. These are the land-based Silk Road Economic Belt (One Belt), which connects Xi’an, China, to Rotterdam, Netherlands, and the sea-based Maritime Silk Road (One Road), which connects Venice, Italy, to Fuzhou, China, through the Suez Canal and the Indian Ocean. For countries that have officially signed to participate in OBOR and are located on these channels, the proposed priority areas for cooperation include infrastructure development and connectivity, policy dialogues, unimpeded trade, financial support, and people-to-people exchanges. Using a vector autoregression model, this paper estimates the likely effects of OBOR on Philippine trade and investments.
    Keywords: China, connectivity, 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, One Belt, One Road, trade and investments
    Date: 2020
  68. By: Ana Paula Franco; Sebastian Galiani; Pablo Lavado
    Abstract: The Inca Empire was the last of a long series of highly developed cultures in pre-colonial South America. It stretched across parts of the current territories of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and the whole of Peru. The Inca Road was its 30,000-kilometer-long transportation system. The aim of this study is to identify its long-term impact on current development in Peru. Our results show that the long-run effect of the Inca Road includes increases in wages and educational attainment, a reduction of child malnutrition and an increase in children’s mathematics test scores. We also find that these effects are around 20% greater for women and explore the mechanisms that may account for this pattern.
    JEL: O1
    Date: 2021–07
  69. By: Çınar, Müge
    Abstract: In September 2013, Chinese President Xi Jinping introduced an ambiguous, geoeconomic & geostrategic concept, “One Belt One Road,” during his visit to Kazakhstan. This global infrastructural development strategy was later defined as the Belt and Road initiative, which is an umbrella for the concepts of the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road. the Belt and Road Initiative set out to accomplish more advanced transport connections and better economic integration of the member countries. it also aims for interconnection in finance, policies, and infrastructure. Kazakhstan, whose energy and transport infrastructure China has already invested in prior to the BRI, is essential for the SREB, the land-based section of the BRI since it occupies a crucial geostrategic position in the region. Kazakhstan, apart from its great landmass in Euroasia that makes it a linchpin for transport and trade links on the continent, holds large energy reserves. Moreover, it is the strongest economy in the region. Thus, “China considers Kazakhstan crucial for transit, a source of energy, and as a stable neighbour of its unstable Xinjiang province”. This article, It is aimed to analyze the importance of the China-Central Asia-West Asia Economic Corridor of the Belt and Road Initiative's Economic Impact on Kazakhstan.
    Date: 2021–01–08
  70. By: Anna Gerke (Audencia Recherche - Audencia Business School); Davide Luzzini; Carlos Mena
    Date: 2021–09

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