nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2021‒04‒05
47 papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. Transit-Induced Gentrification and Displacement: The State of the Debate By Delmelle, Elizabeth C.
  2. Kindergarten Proximity and the Housing Market Price in Italy By Angela Stefania Bergantino; Antonella Biscione; Annunziata de Felice; Francesco Porcelli; Riccardo Zagaria
  3. The role of non-local linkages for innovation By Ron Boschma;
  4. Setting TNC Policies to Increase Sustainability By Fuller, Sam; Kunz, Tatjana; Brown, Austin L.; D'Agostino, Mollie C.
  5. Sorting it Out: The Effects of Charter Expansion on Teacher and Student Composition at Traditional Public Schools By Sorensen, Lucy; Holt, Stephen B
  6. Diversity in Schools: Immigrants and the Educational Performance of U.S. Born Students By David N. Figlio; Paola Giuliano; Riccardo Marchingiglio; Umut Özek; Paola Sapienza
  7. Unravelling urban advantages - A meta-analysis of agglomeration economies By Stuart Donovan; Thomas de Graaff; Henri de Groot; Carl Koopmans
  8. Urban productivity and affordable rental housing supply in Australian cities and regions By Gurran, Nicole; Hulse, Kath; Dodson, Jago; Pill, Madeleine; Dowling, Robyn; reynolds, margaret; Maalsen, Sophia
  9. Understanding user acceptance of air taxis - Empirical insights following a flight in virtual reality By Janotta, Frederica; Hogreve, Jens
  10. Land Use and Fiscal Competition By Thiess Büttner
  11. Shared mobility and MaaS: Regulatory challenges of urban mobility By Yves Crozet; Georgina Santos; Jean Coldefy
  12. Socio-economic status and mobility during the COVID-19 pandemic: An analysis of large Latin American urban areas By J. Daniel Aromí; M. Paula Bonel; Julián Cristiá; Martín Llada
  13. Simulation modeling of epidemic risk in supermarkets: Investigating the impact of social distancing and checkout zone design By Tomasz Antczak; Bartosz Skorupa; Mikolaj Szurlej; Rafal Weron; Jacek Zabawa
  14. Industrialization and Urbanization in Nineteenth Century America By Jeremy Atack; Robert A. Margo; Paul Rhode
  15. Old Boys' Clubs and Upward Mobility Among the Educational Elite By Valerie Michelman; Joseph Price; Seth D. Zimmerman
  16. The spatial dimension of productivity in Italian co-operatives By OECD
  17. Local economic development: theoretical perspectives By Caterina Ferrario
  18. Housing Supply in the Presence of Informality By Guedes, Ricardo; Iachan, Felipe; Sant'Anna, Marcelo
  19. Immigration and Inter-Regional Job Mobility: Evidence from Syrian Refugees in Turkey By Yusuf Emre Akgündüz; Altan Aldan; Yusuf Kenan Bagir
  20. Spatial-SIR with Network Structure and Behavior: Lockdown Rules and the Lucas Critique By Alberto Bisin; Andrea Moro
  21. Real Exchange Rates and the Earnings of Immigrants By Christian Dustmann; Hyejin Ku; Tanya Surovtseva
  22. Welfare Effects of Property Taxation By Max Löffler; Sebastian Siegloch
  23. Managers' Productivity and Recruitment in the Public Sector: The Case of School Principals By Muñoz, Pablo; Prem, Mounu
  24. Trends in intergenerational home ownership and wealth transmission By Jo Blanden; Andrew Eyles; Stephen Machin
  25. Ease vs. noise: long-run changes in the value of transport (dis)amenities By Ahlfeldt, Gabriel M.; Nitsch, Volker; Wendland, Nicolai
  26. Are Electric Vehicle Subsidies Becoming More Impactful Over Time? By Tamara Sheldon; Rubal Dua; Omar Al Harbi
  27. What kind of global city? Circulating policies for ‘slum’ upgrading in the making of world-class Buenos Aires By Bertelli, Lucrecia
  28. Differences in work conditions between natives and immigrants: preferences vs. outside employment opportunities By Eva Moreno Galbis
  29. The Mortgage Piggy Bank: Building Wealth through Amortization By Asaf Bernstein; Peter Koudijs
  30. The Usual Suspects: Offender Origin, Media Reporting and Natives' Attitudes Towards Immigration By Sekou Keita; Thomas Renault; Jérôme Valette
  31. Reducing Parent-School Information Gaps and Improving Education Outcomes: Evidence from High-Frequency Text Messages By Samuel Berlinski; Matias Busso; Taryn Dinkelman; Claudia Martínez A.
  32. Towards a servitization of innovation networks: from traditional innovation networks to public service innovation networks for social innovation By Benoît Desmarchelier; Faridah Djellal; Faïz Gallouj
  33. Immigrants’ Economic Performance and Selective Outmigration: Diverging Predictions from Survey and Administrative Data By Charles Bellemare; Natalia Kyui; Guy Lacroix
  34. Why Existing Regulatory Frameworks Fail in the Short-term Rental Market: Exploring the Role of Regulatory Fractures By Tedds, Lindsay M.; Cameron, Anna; Khanal, Mukesh; Crisan, Daria
  35. Branch Expansion versus Digital Banking: The Dynamics of Growth and Inequality in a Spatial Equilibrium Model By Yan Ji; Songyuan Teng; Robert Townsend
  36. Disability support and accessibility in ordinary schools in South Africa By Nicola Deghaye
  37. Intergenerational transmission of lockdown consequences: Prognosis of the longer-run persistence of COVID-19 in Latin America By Guido Neidhöfer; Nora Lustig; Mariano Tommasi
  38. Monetary Policy and the Racial Unemployment Rates in the US By Hamza Bennani
  39. Real and Private-Value Assets By William N. Goetzmann; Christophe Spaenjers; Stijn Van Nieuwerburgh
  40. Forced Migration, Staying Minorities, and New Societies: Evidence from Post-War Czechoslovakia By Jakub Grossmann; Štĕpán Jurajda; Felix Roesel
  41. Equity-oriented Criteria for Project Prioritization in Regional Transportation Planning By Krapp, Agustina; Barajas, Jesus; Wennink, Audrey
  42. Collaborating for social innovation in public services: inside the black box of public service innovation networks for social innovation (PSINSIs) By Benoît Desmarchelier; Faridah Djellal; Faïz Gallouj
  43. Absent Landlords in Agriculture -- A Statistical Analysis By Siraj G. Bawa; Scott Callahan
  44. A Bigger House at the Cost of an Empty Fridge? The Effect of Households' Indebtedness on Their Consumption: Micro-Evidence Using Belgian HFCS Data By Philip Du Caju; Guillaume Périlleux; François Rycx; Ilan Tojerow
  45. Urban food markets and the COVID-19 lockdown in India By Narayanan, Sudha; Saha, Shree
  46. Strategic interactions in the provision of public infrastructures: Evidence from Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (EMCCA) countries By Mimboe, Bernard
  47. Unequal Jury Representation and Its Consequences By Shamena Anwar; Patrick Bayer; Randi Hjalmarsson

  1. By: Delmelle, Elizabeth C.
    Abstract: Investments in new transportation infrastructure hold the potential to transform the urban socioeconomic landscape by reshaping accessibility and by encouraging new developments around these investments. This chapter outlines the theoretical arguments for why and how transport, specifically rail transit, is expected to impact the socioeconomic composition of neighborhoods and reviews the relevant empirical literature on the subject. Neighborhood socioeconomic change, including gentrification, can be viewed as the product of shifts in residential sorting of residents reacting to the placement of a new (transit) amenity which may place increased demand for living in a particular area. This demand may place an upward pressure on nearby housing values and rents, affecting the socioeconomic composition of those willing and able to afford these price premiums, thus spurring or accelerating gentrification. Rising land values may also lead to the disproportionate exit of lower-income residents unable to keep up with elevated rents or property taxes. To date, the empirical evidence on the link between transport investments and gentrification has mixed findings, very often underscoring the importance of local context in directing a neighborhood’s path. Research has overwhelmingly centered on aggregate neighborhood changes, but several studies have recently emerged that center on individual movements that give rise to these neighborhood-scale outcomes.
    Date: 2021–03–24
  2. By: Angela Stefania Bergantino (Department of Economics, Management and Business Law, University of Bari Aldo Moro); Antonella Biscione (Department of Bioeconomic Strategies in the European Union and in the Balkans CESPIC, Catholic University Our Lady of Good Counsel); Annunziata de Felice (Department of Law, University of Bari Aldo Moro); Francesco Porcelli (Department of Law, University of Bari Aldo Moro); Riccardo Zagaria (Italian National Institute of Social Security)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of kindergarten proximity on housing market prices in the eleven major Italian Municipalities over the period 2004-2017. For this purpose, we employ a hedonic property price model. We also differentiate the impact of kindergarten proximity on houses' market price between state and non-state premises. The findings highlight that (i) the level of housing price depends on kindergarten proximity; (ii) some quality school characteristics played a crucial role and (iii) the distinction between public and non-state kindergartens shows that the vicinity of the latter generates a more significant capitalization effect.
    Keywords: house value, kindergarten, neighborhood, capitalization
    JEL: I22 R3
    Date: 2021–03
  3. By: Ron Boschma;
    Abstract: Non-local linkages are considered to be crucial for innovation in regions because they provide access to new knowledge and ideas. This helps places to avoid or overcome lock-in situations. The cluster literature has focused on gatekeepers that may diffuse non-local knowledge to cluster firms. In the global city literature, this gatekeeping role is taken up by multinational enterprises and knowledge-intensive-business-services. However, little attention has yet been focused on the nature of these non-local linkages. Not all non-linkages matter for the capacity of a region to innovate. What matters in particular is the extent to which types of knowledge that flow through non-local linkages are complementary to the local knowledge base. What matters is not being connected to other regions per se, but being linked to regions that give access to complementary capabilities. Also inflows of external agents are crucial for regional innovation, especially for more radical innovations.
    Keywords: non-local linkages, geography of innovation, relatedness, global innovation networks, complementary inter-regional linkages
    JEL: O25 O38 R11
    Date: 2021–03
  4. By: Fuller, Sam; Kunz, Tatjana; Brown, Austin L.; D'Agostino, Mollie C.
    Abstract: Cities and states across the U.S. are assessing fees or taxes on transportation network company (TNC) platforms, such as Uber and Lyft. The goals of these policies include traffic and emissions mitigation, as well as revenue generation, among other objectives. This research aims to assess the goals and effectiveness of these fees in achieving some of these policy objectives, primarily congestion and emissions mitigation. The analysis addresses a core difficulty in comparing TNC fees—some fees are assessed per mile and others per trip. The researchers compared 21 fees implemented by state and local governments across the United States and apply a methodology to compare these diverse fees and taxes based on a hypothetical ride informed by Uber’s fare calculator, as well as other sources. The findings show that when adjusted for comparison, the highest fees, by a wide margin, are assessed in downtown New York City and Chicago (during peak hours). A key policy implication of this research is that most fees or taxes are not large enough to affect enough travelers' choices to hail a TNC, and most do not differentiate between solo and pooled/shared rides. Only San Francisco, Chicago, New York City, and New Jersey differentiate between solo and shared rides, which is likely to influence travelers in choosing to share a ride. This is problematic given that increasing passengers per vehicle mile traveled is an essential strategy in managing congestion and reducing emissions associated with all vehicle travel, including TNCs. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Business, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Pooling, Transportation Network Companies, Sustainability, Emissions, Congestion
    Date: 2021–03–01
  5. By: Sorensen, Lucy; Holt, Stephen B (University at Albany, SUNY)
    Abstract: Since their introduction in the 1990s, charter schools have grown from a small-scale experiment to a ubiquitous feature of the public education landscape. The current study uses the legislative removal of a cap on the maximum number of charters in North Carolina as a natural experiment to assess the impacts of charter school growth on teacher quality and student composition in traditional public schools (TPS) at different levels of local market penetration. Using an instrumental variable difference-in-differences approach to account for endogenous charter demand, we find that intensive local charter entry reduces the inflow of new teachers at nearby TPS, leading to a more experienced and credentialed teaching workforce on average. However, we find that the entry of charters serving predominantly White students leads to reductions in average teacher experience, effectiveness, and credentials at nearby TPS. Overall these findings suggest that the composition of the teacher workforce in TPS will continue to change as charter schools further expand, and that the spillover effects of future charter expansion will vary by the types of students served by charters.
    Date: 2021–03–02
  6. By: David N. Figlio; Paola Giuliano; Riccardo Marchingiglio; Umut Özek; Paola Sapienza
    Abstract: We study the effect of exposure to immigrants on the educational outcomes of US-born students, using a unique dataset combining population-level birth and school records from Florida. This research question is complicated by substantial school selection of US-born students, especially among White and comparatively affluent students, in response to the presence of immigrant students in the school. We propose a new identification strategy to partial out the unobserved non-random selection into schools, and find that the presence of immigrant students has a positive effect on the academic achievement of US-born students, especially for students from disadvantaged backgrounds. Moreover, the presence of immigrants does not affect negatively the performance of affluent US-born students, who typically show a higher academic achievement compared to immigrant students. We provide suggestive evidence on potential channels.
    JEL: I21 I24 J15
    Date: 2021–03
  7. By: Stuart Donovan (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam); Thomas de Graaff (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam); Henri de Groot (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam); Carl Koopmans (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam)
    Abstract: A large body of literature considers the productive advantages of cities, or “agglomeration economies†. Most empirical studies report positive agglomeration economies, although large variation exists in the magnitude of estimates. We use a meta-analysis to explore this variation, drawing on 6,684 estimates from 295 studies that cover 54 countries and span six decades. Using rich data and robust methods, we unify and extend earlier reviews. For our preferred combination of study attributes, we find agglomeration elasticities are likely to lie in the range 2.7–6.4%. Our findings confirm the controls enabled by detailed data give rise to smaller estimates. We also document several trends, with overall estimates rising from 1980–2000 and then falling. Estimates for manufacturing sectors, in contrast, fell for the entire six decades covered by our data. We speculate on possible causes of these trends, such as urban congestion, technological shocks, freight costs, and regulatory settings.
    Keywords: agglomeration, meta-analysis, urbanisation, cities, productivity
    JEL: R12 C11 R11
    Date: 2021–03–29
  8. By: Gurran, Nicole; Hulse, Kath; Dodson, Jago; Pill, Madeleine; Dowling, Robyn; reynolds, margaret; Maalsen, Sophia
    Abstract: This study examined relationships between urban productivity and affordable rental housing, focusing particularly on the location and availability of affordable rental housing relative to employment and labour markets in Australia’s capital cities and satellite cities.
    Date: 2021–03–25
  9. By: Janotta, Frederica; Hogreve, Jens
    Abstract: In the face of continuing urbanization and population growth, cities are seeking to implement safer, more efficient and more sustainable transport modes to cope with the increasing strain on urban traffic. So-called "electrical vertical take-off and landing" (eVTOL) aircrafts, in the context of passenger transportation often referred to as "air taxis", offer a potential solution to these challenges. However, next to technological, legal and infrastructural barriers, the acceptance of this radically new technology by potential users and society in general are among the key challenges. A central prerequisite for the successful uptake of UAM services will be the careful consideration of trust, perceived safety and user experience. This study aims to identify the relevant factors influencing individual acceptance of Urban Air Mobility services using a virtual reality (VR) simulation, which allowed participants to experience a flight in an air taxi from a passenger’s perspective.
    Date: 2021–03–18
  10. By: Thiess Büttner
    Abstract: This paper explores the effects of fiscal competition on local land use. A theoretical analysis considers the tradeoff faced by a local government deciding about the amount of land made available for commercial or residential uses, when its expansion has adverse effects on the quality of life. The analysis shows that, in an environment with mobile tax bases, jurisdictions are subject to fiscal incentives to expand this land use. Fiscal redistribution through equalization grants, however, reduces these incentives. Based on the theoretical analysis, the effect of fiscal competition on commercial and residential land use is investigated empirically using a large dataset of German municipalities. In order to identify differences in the exposure to fiscal competition, I exploit institutional characteristics of the system of fiscal equalization to which these municipalities are subjected. This enables me to provide causal evidence using a regression discontinuity analysis. The results show that commercial and residential land use is expanded 2-3 times faster and agricultural land use declines more rapidly in municipalities exposed to fiscal competition.
    Keywords: land use policy, natural amenities, urban sprawl, fiscal competition, fiscal equalization, regression discontinuity analysis
    JEL: H71 R14 R52 Q26
    Date: 2021
  11. By: Yves Crozet (LAET - Laboratoire Aménagement Économie Transports - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - ENTPE - École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IEP Lyon - Sciences Po Lyon - Institut d'études politiques de Lyon - Université de Lyon); Georgina Santos (Cardiff University); Jean Coldefy (ATEC ITS France)
    Abstract: Urban mobility is a daily challenge. People are increasingly faced with significant time and money costs to access their workplaces and other urban amenities (school, shopping, leisure activities, etc.). The external costs of road transport (i.e. accidents, congestion, noise, air pollution, and CO2 emissions) are an important area of concern. The Paris Agreement (United Nations, 2015) commits all signatories to reducing CO2 emissions with the aim of keeping the global temperature rise this century below 2°C above pre-industrial levels. Efforts are being made at national, state/provincial and local government levels. The road transport sector, which is responsible for 19% of total GHG emissions in Europe, will play an especially important role in this respect. The external costs of road transport have been scrutinised and measured for decades, and the idea of encouraging car drivers to switch to public transport has also been embedded in local transport policies across countries for a long time. Although some progress has been made, the missing piece in the puzzle has typically been linked to the disutility of changing mode, foregoing the convenience that the private car brings, and the financial problems linked to public transport provision in areas of dispersed and low demand. An answer to these problems may come via the concept of Mobility as a Service (MaaS), which today is gaining momentum in a number of countries.
    Keywords: Mobility as a Service,Urban mobility,Transport policies,Reducing CO2
    Date: 2019–09
  12. By: J. Daniel Aromí; M. Paula Bonel; Julián Cristiá; Martín Llada
    Abstract: This study analyzes mobility patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic for 8 large Latin American urban areas. Indicators of mobility by socio-economic status are generated combining georeferenced mobile phone information with granular census data. Higher socio-economic status is consistently associated with more intense reductions in mobility. According to estimated lasso models, an indicator of government restrictions provides the best parsimonious description of these heterogeneous responses. These estimations point to oticeable similarities in the patterns observed across the urban regions. This evidence is consistent with asymmetries in the feasibility of working from home and in the ability to smooth consumption under temporary income shocks.
    Keywords: mobility, COVID-19, socioeconomic status
    JEL: I1 R2 R4
    Date: 2020–11
  13. By: Tomasz Antczak; Bartosz Skorupa; Mikolaj Szurlej; Rafal Weron; Jacek Zabawa
    Abstract: We build an agent-based model for evaluating the spatial and functional design of supermarket checkout zones and the effectiveness of safety regulations related to distancing that have been introduced after the COVID-19 outbreak. The model is implemented in the NetLogo simulation platform and calibrated to actual point of sale data from one of major European retail chains. It enables realistic modeling of the checkout operations as well as of the airborne diffusion of SARS-CoV-2 particles. We find that opening checkouts in a specific order can reduce epidemic risk, but only under low and moderate traffic conditions. Hence, redesigning supermarket layouts to increase distances between the queues can reduce risk only if the number of open checkouts is sufficient to serve customers during peak hours.
    Keywords: Agent-based model; Indoor infection spreading; Checkout zone architecture; Decision support; COVID-19; NetLogo
    JEL: C15 C63 L81
    Date: 2021–03–29
  14. By: Jeremy Atack; Robert A. Margo; Paul Rhode
    Abstract: During the nineteenth century the United States urbanized – the share of the population living in urban areas increased – and industrialized – the share of the labor force in manufacturing increased. Our survey of the literature and analyses of census data suggests that a key reason was the development of a nationwide transportation system, especially the railroad. Coupled with changes in manufacturing technology and organizational form, the “transportation revolution” increased demand for manufacturing labor in urban locations. Labor supply responded and because of agglomeration economies, population density and the size and number of urban places increased. Although our focus is on the US experience, a causal role for transportation is likely for other economies that experienced historical industrialization and urbanization.
    JEL: N61 N91
    Date: 2021–03
  15. By: Valerie Michelman; Joseph Price; Seth D. Zimmerman
    Abstract: This paper studies how exclusive social groups shape upward mobility, and whether interactions between low- and high-status peers can integrate the top rungs of the economic and social ladder. Our setting is Harvard in the 1920s and 1930s, where new groups of students arriving on campus encountered a social system centered on exclusive old boys' clubs. We combine archival and Census records of students' college lives and long-run careers with a room-randomization design based on a scaled residential integration policy. We first show that high-status students from prestigious private high schools perform worse academically than other students, but are much more likely to join exclusive campus clubs. The club membership premium is large: members earn 32% more than other students, and are more likely to work in finance and join country clubs, both characteristic of the era's elite. The membership premium persists after conditioning on high school, legacy status, and even family. Random assignment to high-status peers raises the rates at which students join exclusive social groups on campus, but overall effects are driven entirely by large gains for private school students. In the long run, a shift from the 25th percentile of residential peer group status to the 75th percentile raises the rate at which private school students work in finance by 41% and their membership in adult social clubs by 26%. We conclude that social interactions among the educational elite mediate access to top positions in the economy and society, but may not provide a path to these positions for underrepresented groups. Differences in academic and career outcomes by high school type persist through at least the class of 1990, suggesting that this causal channel remains relevant at contemporary elite universities.
    JEL: I24 I26 J24
    Date: 2021–03
  16. By: OECD
    Abstract: This report explores the spatial dimension of productivity in the co-operatives of Italy, a country where they make up a relatively large share of total national employment. Co-operatives play a countercyclical role in job creation during crises. In a post-pandemic world, they could make a major contribution to steering the economy towards inclusiveness and sustainability. Productivity growth ensures that co-operatives can achieve both economic and social goals in the future. This report applies a place-based approach to investigate the issue of productivity in co-operatives, given their many interdependencies with local communities. Novel evidence points to the local factors that are linked with the concentration and productivity of co-operatives across regions, sectors and firm size classes in Italy. A comparison with other Italian firms as well as with Spanish co-operatives and other Spanish firms serves to illustrate how productivity performance varies across space and firm types. This report constitutes an empirical test for the analytical approach developed by the OECD Spatial Productivity Lab.
    Keywords: cooperatives, Italy, productivity, regional economics, social economy, Spain
    JEL: D24 E24 J54 L31 O32 O35 P13 Q13 R12
    Date: 2021–03–30
  17. By: Caterina Ferrario
    Abstract: Economic growth and wellbeing are often considered issues to be addressed by central government action and policies. However, economic downturns in a context of globalisation have shown how localities are differently exposed to macroeconomic fluctuations due to differences in local endowments and local assets. Therefore, policies for local economic development become a critical issue in order to foster an inclusive, consistent and widespread process of economic growth. This paper focuses on local economic development under a theoretical perspective. That is, it presents an overview of the main theoretical streams that have investigated this issue, with the purpose of proposing a classification of policies and programmes that favour local economic development.
    Keywords: local economic development; urban and regional growth theories
    JEL: O1 O11 O18
    Date: 2021–03–22
  18. By: Guedes, Ricardo; Iachan, Felipe; Sant'Anna, Marcelo (Fundação Getulio Vargas)
    Abstract: We study housing supply in markets where informal housing is common. Using a combination of census and satellite data, we estimate housing supply for more than 90 metropolitan areas in Brazil. We find that widespread informal housing increases the housing supply elasticity, partially offsetting the downward pressure of geographical constraints. Our empirical approach is guided by a monocentric city model that includes informal housing. Our identification strategy relies on the use of two novel instruments, combining demographic data and public land ownership. We use the supply elasticity estimates to forecast the response of future housing prices to natural population growth.
    Date: 2021–03–23
  19. By: Yusuf Emre Akgündüz (Sabanci University); Altan Aldan (Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey); Yusuf Kenan Bagir (Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey)
    Abstract: We analyze the relationship between large-scale refugee inflows and the inter-regional job mobility of natives. Using a sudden inflow of Syrian refugees into Turkey, we identify the province level impact of hosting refugees on inward and outward job mobility of provinces using administrative social security data. We find that after the arrival of Syrian refugees, net job mobility towards hosting provinces declined. The negative effect is driven by a decline in inward mobility rather than an increase in outward mobility. A percentage point increase in Syrian to native population ratio decreases job mobility to a province by 2%. We find no corresponding effect on total internal migration, suggesting that the effect on job movers in the private sector can differ from the effect on the population at large.
    Date: 2021–02–20
  20. By: Alberto Bisin; Andrea Moro
    Abstract: We introduce a model of the diffusion of an epidemic with demographically heterogeneous agents interacting socially on a spatially structured network. Contagion-risk averse agents respond behaviorally to the diffusion of the infections by limiting their social interactions. Firms also respond by allowing employees to work remotely, depending on their productivity. The spatial structure induces local herd immunities along socio-demographic dimensions, which significantly affect the dynamics of infections. We study several non-pharmaceutical interventions; e.g., i) lockdown rules, which set thresholds on the spread of the infection for the closing and reopening of economic activities; and ii) selective lockdowns, which restrict social interactions by location (in the network) and by the demographic characteristics of the agents. Substantiating a "Lucas critique" argument, we assess the cost of naive discretionary policies ignoring agents and firms' behavioral responses.
    Date: 2021–03
  21. By: Christian Dustmann (University College London, Department of Economics and CReAM); Hyejin Ku (University College London, Department of Economics and CReAM); Tanya Surovtseva (Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Department of Economics and Business and CReAM)
    Abstract: Higher price levels in the destination relative to the origin increase the effective real wages of immigrants, thereby affecting immigrants’ reservation and entry wages as well as their subsequent career trajectories. Based on micro-level longitudinal administrative data from Germany and exploiting within-country and across-cohort variations in the real exchange rate (RER) between Germany and countries that newly joined the European Union in the 2000s, we find that immigrants arriving with high RERs initially settle for lower paying jobs than comparable immigrants arriving with low RERs. In subsequent periods, however, wages of high RER arrivals catch up to that of their low RER counterparts, convergence achieved primarily through changes to better paying occupations and firms. Our findings thus point to the persistent regional price differences as one possible reason for immigrants’ downgrading, with implications for immigrants’ career profiles and the assessment of labor market impacts of immigration.
    Keywords: real exchange rate, reservation wage, immigrant downgrading, earnings assimilation
    JEL: J24 J31 J61 O15 O24
    Date: 2021–03
  22. By: Max Löffler; Sebastian Siegloch
    Abstract: We analyze the welfare implications of property taxation. Using a sufficient statistics approach, we show that the tax incidence depends on how housing prices, labor and other types of incomes as well as public services respond to property tax changes. Empirically, we exploit the German institutional setting with 5,200 municipal tax reforms for identification. We find that higher taxes are fully passed on to rental prices after three years. The pass-through is lower when housing supply is inelastic. Combining reduced form estimates with our theoretical framework, we simulate the welfare effects of property taxes and show that they are regressive.
    Keywords: property taxation, welfare, tax incidence, local labor markets, rental housing
    JEL: H22 H41 H71 R13 R31 R38
    Date: 2021
  23. By: Muñoz, Pablo; Prem, Mounu
    Abstract: We study whether differences in management can explain variation in productivity and how more effective managers can be recruited in absence of high-powered incentives. To investigate this, we first extend the canonical teacher value-added model to account for school principals, and we document substantial variation in their ability to improve students' learning. Teachers' survey responses and quasi-experimental designs based on changes in school management validate our measure of principal effectiveness. Then, we leverage the timing of adoption of a civil service reform and show that despite having relatively rigid wages, public schools were able to attract more effective managers after increasing the competitiveness and transparency of their personnel selection process.
    Date: 2021–03–22
  24. By: Jo Blanden; Andrew Eyles; Stephen Machin
    Abstract: Prior research on trends in intergenerational mobility in economic status has focused chiefly on income and earnings. There is hardly any research on trends in intergenerational wealth transmission, at least in part because of the rarity of cross-generational data with wealth measures good enough for a cross-time analysis to be undertaken. In the intergenerational setting, housing tenure data is more widely available than good data on total wealth. This paper uses cross-time changes in intergenerational associations in home ownership to generate evidence on trends in intergenerational wealth mobility. Both home ownership and the value of main residence are shown to be strongly associated with wealth accumulation. The strength of the intergenerational link in home ownership in the UK has grown over time and, as parental home ownership displays a strong relationship with an individual's future wealth, this can be informative about trends in intergenerational wealth transmission. Taken together, the results indicate that intergenerational wealth transmission has strengthened over time in Britain.
    Keywords: Housing, intergenerational mobility, wealth, cohorts
    JEL: R31 J11 D31 J62
    Date: 2021–04
  25. By: Ahlfeldt, Gabriel M.; Nitsch, Volker; Wendland, Nicolai
    Abstract: For a complete cost-benefit analysis of durable infrastructures, it is important to understand how the value of non-market goods such as transit time and environmental quality changes as incomes rise in the long-run. We use difference-in-differences and spatial differencing to estimate the land price capitalization effects of metro rail in Berlin, Germany today and a century ago. Over this period, the negative implicit hedonic price of rail noise tripled. Our results imply income elasticities of the value of noise reduction and transport access of 2.2 and 1.4, substantially exceeding cross-sectional contingent valuation estimates.
    Keywords: accessibility; spatial differencing; noise; difference-in-differences; income elasticity; land price
    JEL: R12 R14 R41 N73 N74
    Date: 2019–11–01
  26. By: Tamara Sheldon; Rubal Dua; Omar Al Harbi (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: Various subsidies for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) have been implemented worldwide at the federal, state and regional levels. These subsidies aim to promote PEV adoption to help reduce both local air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions (Hardman 2019). In the United States (U.S.), the federal government began subsidizing PEVs in 2010.
    Keywords: Fleet fuel economy, Plug-in electric vehicles, Subsidies
    Date: 2021–03–22
  27. By: Bertelli, Lucrecia
    Abstract: Buenos Aires, under the city administration of Horacio Rodríguez Larreta, has recently implemented an ambitious social and territorial integration project in Villa 31 and other low-income settlements within the city. The mayor and his team have circulated the project in prestigious universities and urban forums while talking about Buenos Aires as ‘a global city’. When discussing the design of this integration initiative, the mayor referred to London’s Borough Market, New York’s High Line and Medellín’s Parque Biblioteca. This paper examines the role of policy circulation on the change in discourse and practice towards low-income settlements in Buenos Aires, as well as its relation to the making of a world-class city. I argue that: (a) policy change has been the result of a complex assemblage of artifacts and individuals that mobilise successes, a process that is increasingly South-South; (b) the city government drew its inspiration from urban policies adopted by other cities, not only for the urbanisation project itself, but for approaches to internationalise the initiative; (c) Buenos Aires is using this project as an opportunity to world itself as an integrated city. By doing so, this research adds value to the policy mobility scholarship, since Latin American cities are not only worlding themselves through mega urban developments but also through the circulation of singular ‘world-class’ imaginaries.
    Keywords: assemblage urbanism; Buenos Aires; low-income settlements; policy mobility; Villa 31; worlding
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2021–03–09
  28. By: Eva Moreno Galbis (AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Immigrants are disproportionately employed in agriculture and construction, sectors with relatively high injury rates. What pushes immigrants to accept riskier and more strenuous work conditions? We propose a circular model and show that differences in average work conditions borne by natives and immigrants are driven by both preferences and unearned income. Using French data we find that, in line with the model's predictions, (i) rigid wages are associated with a larger immigrant-native gap in work conditions; (ii) high unearned income individuals benefit on average from better work conditions; (iii) for immigrants and natives with high unearned income, differences in demographic characteristics explain part of the immigrant-native gap in work conditions. In contrast, the gap largely persists among low unearned income people even once we have imposed identical demographic composition among them. This suggests that there must be other factors that influence preferences over work conditions and that are missing in our empirical analysis.
    Keywords: immigrants,work conditions,outside employment opportunities,preferences,composition effects
    Date: 2020–11
  29. By: Asaf Bernstein; Peter Koudijs
    Abstract: Mortgage amortization schedules are illiquid savings plans comparable in size to pension programs; however, little is known about their effects on wealth accumulation. Using individual administrative data and plausibly exogenous variation in the timing of home purchase (ex. childbirth-driven) around a 2013 Dutch reform, we find a near one-for-one rise in net worth for each dollar of amortization. Households leave other savings and liabilities unchanged, and instead increase labor supply and reduce consumption. Effects hold even for regular savers and older households. This has important macroprudential implications and suggests homeownership financed via amortizing mortgages is instrumental for household wealth building.
    JEL: D14 D15 E21 E6 G21 G4 G5 G51 J2 R3
    Date: 2021–03
  30. By: Sekou Keita (IAB - Institute for Employment Research); Thomas Renault (UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Jérôme Valette (UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Immigration and crime are two first-order issues that are often considered jointly in people's minds. This paper analyzes how media reporting policies on crime impact natives' attitudes towards immigration. We depart from most studies by investigating the content of crime-related articles instead of their coverage. Specifically, we use a radical change in local media reporting on crime in Germany as a natural experiment. This unique framework allows us to estimate whether systematically disclosing the places of origin of criminals affects natives' attitudes towards immigration. We combine individual survey data collected between January 2014 and December 2018 from the German SocioEconomic Panel with data from more than 545,000 crime-related articles in German newspapers and data on their diffusion across the country. Our results indicate that systematically mentioning the origins of criminals, especially when offenders are natives, significantly reduces natives' concerns about immigration.
    Keywords: Immigration,Crime,Media Bias
    Date: 2021–03
  31. By: Samuel Berlinski; Matias Busso; Taryn Dinkelman; Claudia Martínez A.
    Abstract: Grade retention and early dropout are two of the biggest challenges facing education systems in middle-income countries today, representing waste in school resources. We investigate whether reducing parent-school information gaps can improve outcomes that are early-warning signals for grade retention and dropout. We conducted an experiment in low-income schools in Chile to test the effects and behavioral changes triggered by a program that sends attendance, grade, and classroom behavior information to parents via weekly and monthly text messages. Our 18-month intervention raised average math GPA by 0.09 of a standard deviation and increased the share of students satisfying attendance requirements for grade promotion by 4.5 percentage points. Treatment effects were larger for students at higher risk of later grade retention and dropout. We find some evidence of positive classroom spillovers. Leveraging existing school inputs to implement a light-touch, cost-effective information intervention can improve education outcomes in lower-income settings.
    JEL: D8 I25 N36
    Date: 2021–03
  32. By: Benoît Desmarchelier (Université de Lille Faculté des Sciences économiques et sociales); Faridah Djellal (Université de Lille Faculté des Sciences économiques et sociales); Faïz Gallouj (Université de Lille Faculté des Sciences économiques et sociales)
    Abstract: This article is dedicated to a consideration of the tertiarization of innovation networks. While the concept of traditional innovation network has been the object of an extensive literature, new expressions of the innovation network appear in a service economy: in particular Public Private Innovation Networks in Services, Market Service Innovation Networks, Public Service Innovation Networks and Public Service Innovation Networks for Social Innovation. They reflect the rise of market and non-market services and of the public-private relationship in collaborative innovation. Based on a literature survey, this article investigates these different expressions of innovation networks and sheds light on the different roles played by public services in each of them.
    Keywords: public services,market services,innovation,networks
    Date: 2019–11–04
  33. By: Charles Bellemare; Natalia Kyui; Guy Lacroix
    Abstract: We show that survey and administrative data-based estimates of a panel data model of earnings, employment, and outmigration yield very different qualitative and quantitative predictions. Survey-based estimates substantially overpredict outmigration, in particular for lower performing immigrants. Consequently, employment and earnings of immigrants who remain in the country are overpredicted relative to model predictions from administrative data. Importantly, estimates from both data sources find opposite self-selection mechanisms into outmigration. Differences hold despite using the same cohort, survey period, and observable characteristics. Differences in predictions are driven by difficulties of properly separating non-random sample attrition from selective outmigration in survey data.
    Keywords: Sample Attrition,Outmigration,Measurement Errors,Employment and Earnings,
    JEL: C33 J31 J15 J61
    Date: 2021–03–24
  34. By: Tedds, Lindsay M.; Cameron, Anna; Khanal, Mukesh; Crisan, Daria
    Abstract: Over the past decade, home-sharing has evolved from fringe activity to encompass a booming short-term rental (STR) market of global scale. This rise has not been without criticism, as Airbnb and other STR platforms have been charged with exacerbating over-tourism, gentrification, and housing issues and engaging in anti-competitive behaviour. On the other hand, the STR market has produced benefits, sparking new activity in local economies and innovation in the travel accommodation sector. In this paper, we explore the nature, evolution, and impact of platform-mediated home-sharing to arrive at a sophisticated conceptualization of the STR market and its complications. We then use this understanding to demonstrate the ways in which existing regulatory approaches—built upon traditional ideas of market composition and dynamics—are inadequate for managing the novel STR market. In particular, we argue that attempts at regulation have been hindered in three ways: first, by a lack of attention to the diversity and complexity of the STR market; second, by a failure to conceive of STR markets as three-sided and involving the active participation of platforms; and third, by a tendency to characterize various forms of market activity as regulatory violations, when the concept of regulatory fractures—instances in which new modes of activity do not map well onto existing frameworks, disrupting regulatory effectiveness—is more apt. Ultimately, we contend that the effective management of the STR market hinges on the ability policymakers to both reconceive of the STR market and the activity that plays out within it, as well as re-imagine and innovate beyond traditional regulatory approaches. We conclude by considering ways in which regulators might begin to do so, including through a discussion of the potential of co-regulatory approaches.
    Keywords: Short-term Rental, Market Failure, Regulatory Fracture, Market Participation, Innovative Disruption, Competition, Community Impact
    JEL: H79 R19
    Date: 2021–03–18
  35. By: Yan Ji; Songyuan Teng; Robert Townsend
    Abstract: We develop a heterogeneous-agent model with local spatial markets to study the relationships among bank expansion, growth, and inequality. In the model, households choose their occupations, consumption, and holdings of loans and portfolio assets that vary by liquidity. Banks choose the locations of new branches, which affect the financial frictions facing households across regions. We calibrate the model using a geographic information system to evaluate the rapid bank expansion in Thailand between 1986-1996. The model quantifies the sources of growth and inequality over time and across space and the potential role of digital banking in substantially reducing regional heterogeneity.
    JEL: C54 E23 E44 F43 O11 O16 R11 R13
    Date: 2021–03
  36. By: Nicola Deghaye (Research on Socio-Economic Policy (ReSEP), Department of Economics, Stellenbosch University)
    Abstract: Increased access to education among children with disabilities requires increased enrolment of children with disabilities in ordinary schools, the provision of disability support, more accessible school environments and re-training of teachers. There is however little available data on these aspects of disability support or accessibility in South Africa. This hinders accountability for policy implementation and makes budgeting for inclusion difficult. This paper aims to close this gap through multivariate analysis of the School Monitoring Survey 2017, supplemented by analysis of a follow-up qualitative study. The results are compared against the 2011 survey to illustrate progress in implementation. Further, the 2017 survey is compared against the Screening, Identification, Assessment and Support policy 2014 and against promising indicators of school- and teacher-level inputs and processes to identify key measurement gaps. The analysis shows substantially more schools have established school-based support teams, and more of these teams received support from the district, in 2017 than in 2011. A much larger proportion of schools has wheelchair-accessible toilets in 2017. Educators who have been trained in identifying/supporting learners experiencing learning barriers and/or have formal qualifications in special needs education are more likely to be confident in addressing learning barriers. However, many of the current training programmes do not cover curriculum or assessment differentiation. Unfortunately, less than half our schools are confident in their ability to screen learners for visual, hearing or learning difficulties. The results also suggest that educators have a poor understanding of the screening process. The poor ability to screen learners means many learners with less obvious disabilities are unlikely to be identified in schools. As a result, many learners with disabilities/experiencing barriers to learning are unlikely to receive the support they need to participate fully in learning. Inter-provincial inequalities in disability support in ordinary schools are marked. Further data is needed on the accessibility of learning materials and attitudinal barriers in ordinary schools, and the support provided by special schools. The provision of disability support must be measured alongside disability enrolment in the future to allow analysis of unmet need.
    Keywords: disability, inclusion, learners with disabilities, learner support, schools, basic education, inclusive education, South Africa, teacher training
    JEL: I21 I24 I28 J14
    Date: 2021
  37. By: Guido Neidhöfer (ZEW); Nora Lustig (Tulane University); Mariano Tommasi (Universidad de San Andres)
    Abstract: The shock on human capital caused by COVID-19 is likely to have long lasting consequences, especially for children of low-educated families. Applying a counterfactual exercise we project the effects of school closures and other lockdown policies on the intergenerational persistence of education in 17 Latin American countries. First, we retrieve detailed information on school lockdowns and on the policies enacted to support education from home in each country. Then, we use this information to estimate the potential impact of the pandemic on schooling, high school completion, and intergenerational associations. In addition, we account for educational disruptions related to household income shocks. Our findings show that, despite that mitigation policies were able to partly reduce instructional losses in some countries, the educational attainment of the most vulnerable could be seriously affected. In particular, the likelihood of children from low educated families to attain a secondary schooling degree could fall substantially.
    Keywords: COVID-19, Lockdowns, Human capital, School closures, Intergenerational persistence, Education, Inequality, Latin America
    JEL: I24 I38 J62
    Date: 2021–03
  38. By: Hamza Bennani
    Abstract: This paper analyses the effects of monetary policy on labor market responses of different racial groups in the US from 1970-2013. Employing a narrative approach to identify monetary policy shocks and local projections, we find that monetary policy has a significant impact on White's unemployment rate. Empirical evidence indicates that an accommodative monetary shock affects positively and significantly White workers, while the effect on African-American workers is more uncertain and not significant for the Hispanic workers. These results are robust when considering unconventional monetary policy measures in the specification and when exploring the impact of monetary policy on different genders and age groups. Finally, we highlight that these results are mainly driven by a \enquote{recession effect}, whereby as a result of occupational, segregation minorities do not benefit from the Federal Reserve's accommodative monetary policy during recessions. Our findings suggest that monetary policy is ineffective in reducing the unemployment gap among minorities in the US, and that the Fed should specifically target the African-American unemployment rate in its reaction function. Finally, structural policies that aim to improve the skills of minorities and the fight against racial discrimination in the labor market, in particular during recessions, are also likely to mitigate the racial unemployment gap.
    Keywords: minorities; monetary policy; employment.
    JEL: E52 E58
    Date: 2021
  39. By: William N. Goetzmann; Christophe Spaenjers; Stijn Van Nieuwerburgh
    Abstract: Real and private-value assets—defined here as the sum of real estate, infrastructure, collectibles, and non-corporate business equity—is an investment class worth an estimated $85 trillion in the U.S. alone. Furthermore, private values can affect pricing in many other financial markets, such as that for sustainable investments. This paper introduces the research on real assets and private values that can be found in this special issue. It also reviews recent advances—and suggests new research directions—on a number of topics in the real assets space that we believe to be particularly important and exciting.
    JEL: E01 G0 R0 Z11
    Date: 2021–03
  40. By: Jakub Grossmann; Štĕpán Jurajda; Felix Roesel
    Abstract: How do staying minorities that evade ethnic cleansing integrate into re-settled communities? After World War Two, three million ethnic Germans were expelled from Czechoslovakia’s Sudetenland, but some were allowed to stay, many of them left-leaning anti-fascists. We study quasi-experimental local variation in the number of anti-fascist Germans staying in post-war Czechoslovakia and find a long-lasting footprint: Communist party support, party cell frequencies, far-left values, and social policies are stronger today where anti-fascist Germans stayed in larger numbers. Our findings also suggest that political identity supplanted German ethnic identity among stayers who faced new local ethnic majorities.
    Keywords: forced migration, displacement, ethnic cleansing, stayers, minorities, identity, integration, Communist party, Czechoslovakia, Sudetenland
    JEL: J15 F22 D72 D74 N34
    Date: 2021
  41. By: Krapp, Agustina; Barajas, Jesus; Wennink, Audrey
    Abstract: Transportation inequities, consequences of decades of auto-oriented planning alongside discriminatory land-use and transportation planning and policy decisions resulting from structural racism, severely impact opportunities for people of color and other marginalized populations. While a growing body of work has examined inequities with respect to long-range transportation planning, less research examines how equity is incorporated in short-term planning processes via the Transportation Improvement Program. This research reviewed how the metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) that serve the 40 largest US urbanized areas used equity-based criteria for transportation project prioritization in regional planning. Just over half deployed at least one equity criterion for allocating transportation funds, which fell into one of six categories with varying degrees of complexity and potential for impact. While most MPOs included equity in their prioritization criteria, the methods could be improved to better align with more complete definitions of transportation equity, focusing on how targeted groups are defined, more comprehensive methods for equity evaluation, and an increase in the weight that equity is given in prioritization. MPOs and other agencies implementing transportation projects should adopt a justice-oriented framework for project prioritization that ensures that projects first affirmatively remedy historical inequities and work with affected communities to adopt appropriate and meaningful solutions
    Date: 2021–03–22
  42. By: Benoît Desmarchelier (Université de Lille Faculté des Sciences économiques et sociales); Faridah Djellal (Université de Lille Faculté des Sciences économiques et sociales); Faïz Gallouj (Université de Lille Faculté des Sciences économiques et sociales)
    Abstract: This paper is given over to "Public Service Innovation Networks for Social Innovation" (PSINSIs), a multi-agent structural arrangement set up for the collaborative production of social innovation in public services. It begins by putting forward an analytical framework that makes it possible-from both the morphological and the functional points of view-to distinguish PSINSIs from other expressions of the innovation network concept. Then, using a rich set of empirical material collected within the Co-VAL European research project and consisting of 24 in-depth PSINSIs case studies undertaken in five European countries, it attempts to enter the black box of PSINSIs in order to better understand both the nature of social innovation at work and the modes of formation and functioning of these networks.
    Keywords: innovation networks,public services,social innovation
    Date: 2021–01–21
  43. By: Siraj G. Bawa; Scott Callahan
    Abstract: The majority of rented farmland is owned by landlords who do not operate farms, and a subset of these landlords, known as absent landlords, do not reside in the local farming area. This raises important questions about their effects on the economic health of the U.S. farm sector. Absent landlords have the potential to alter observed outcomes in agricultural real estate markets, rural employment markets, and engagement in conservation practices, given that the incentives they face may differ from operating or local nonoperator landlords. This study looks at the association between landlord absenteeism and multiple measures of long-term economic and agricultural health for the 25 most important agricultural States by cash receipts. We find that a greater prevalence of absent landlords is associated with lower rental rates and land values at the State level, and there is no association with recent changes in rents or land values. Also, while we find mixed results with respect to investments in soil quality, we do find evidence that the prevalence of absent landlords is associated with declining local employment rates. This study is designed to foster a broad discussion and form a starting point for subsequent statistical analyses to uncover the causal effects that absent landlords have on long-term economic health of agricultural production.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management, Land Economics/Use
    Date: 2021–03–09
  44. By: Philip Du Caju (National Bank of Belgium, Brussels, Belgium); Guillaume Périlleux (Université libre de Bruxelles (SBS-EM : CEB and ECARES), Brussels, Belgium); François Rycx (Université libre de Bruxelles (SBS-EM : CEB and DULBEA), IRES, humanOrg, GLO & IZA, Brussels, Belgium); Ilan Tojerow (Université libre de Bruxelles (SBS-EM : CEB and DULBEA) & IZA, Brussels, Belgium)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the potentially non-linear relation between households' indebtedness and their consumption between 2010 and 2014 in Belgium, using panel data from the two waves of the Household Finance and Consumption Survey. Unlike previous studies, we find a negative effect of households' indebtedness on their consumption, even in the absence of negative shock on their assets. Our findings suggest that, without such a shock, it is the day-to-day sustainability of the debt, rather than its overall sustainability, that leads households to reduce their consumption. We perform as well a threshold analysis, whose results suggest that households should not have a debt-service-to-income ratio greater than 30%. The effect appears to be robust to various specifications, to result from a trade-off between housing and consumption, and to be more prevalent among more fragile households.
    Keywords: Households, Indebtedness, Consumption, Debt-Service-to-Income, Non-linear Heterogeneous Effects
    JEL: D12 D14 E21
    Date: 2021–03–16
  45. By: Narayanan, Sudha; Saha, Shree
    Abstract: On March 24, 2020, the Government of India announced a 21-day national lockdown that has since been extended to May 31, 2020. The lockdown left urban food markets in disarray with severe supply bottlenecks and restrictions on doing business. At a time when food prices in India were declining consistently, supply disruptions consequent to the lockdown have reversed the trend on average. Based on an analysis of publicly available data on wholesale and retail prices for 22 commodities from 114 Centers, we find that prices have increased since the lockdown, as of August 1, 2020. There is significant diversity across commodities and geographies that mask aggregate figures. Average price increases were to the tune of over 6% for several pulses, over 3.5% for most edible oils, 15% for potato 28% for tomato in the four weeks post-lockdown compared to prices during the four weeks preceding the lockdown. Price of meat and fish too have registered large increases. Price wedge between retail and wholesale prices increased as did spatial dispersion, both signifying friction in supply chains. We find that smaller cities have seen a much higher increase in prices with some seeing a rise in retail food prices by as much as 20%. Three rounds of surveys, conducted between April and July, of food retailers in 14 Indian cities reveal serious operational challenges. These include, among others, transport and labor shortages, police harassment and social discrimination. At the same time, several innovative arrangements and adaptations have evolved as well suggesting resilience. The paper reviews these aspects and outlines some lessons for food policy in emerging economies.
    Date: 2020–09–01
  46. By: Mimboe, Bernard
    Abstract: Using a spatial autoregressive model, this paper highlights the issue of strategic interactions in the provision of public inputs, which is an important dimension of territorial competition within a developing economic integration area. The results of the estimations, carried out using the maximum likelihood method in panel data, show that the countries of the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (EMCCA) are developing strategic behaviours in the supply of public inputs, particularly in the public infrastructure sector. Consequently, EMCCA countries need to be aware of the existence of this phenomenon in order to improve their public input supply strategies, and also to improve their positioning on the international market for the location of economic activities.
    Keywords: EMCCA, public infrastructure, strategic interactions, territorial competition
    JEL: H41 H54 H77
    Date: 2021–03–10
  47. By: Shamena Anwar; Patrick Bayer; Randi Hjalmarsson
    Abstract: We analyze the extent and consequences of unequal representation on juries in Harris County, Texas. We first document that residents from predominantly white and high-income neighborhoods are substantially over-represented on juries. Using quasi-random variation in those called for jury duty each day, we next establish that Black defendants are more likely to be convicted and receive longer sentences from juries with more residents from these over-represented neighborhoods. We estimate that equal representation would reduce Black defendants’ median sentence length by 50 percent and the probability of receiving a life sentence by 67 percent. Straightforward remedies could mitigate this severe bias.
    JEL: J15 K4
    Date: 2021–03

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