nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2021‒02‒01
fifty-one papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. Commuting in Europe: An Inter-regional Analysis on its Determinants and Spatial Effects By Chiara Castelli; Angela Parenti
  2. Why have house prices risen so much more than rents in superstar cities? By Christian A. L. Hilber; Andreas Mense
  3. Breaking Ties: Regression Discontinuity Design Meets Market Design By Atila Abdulkadiroglu; Joshua D. Angrist; Yusuke Narita; Parag Pathak
  4. Supply Shock Versus Demand Shock: The Local Effects of New Housing in Low-Income Areas By Brian Asquith; Evan Mast; Davin Reed
  5. Assessing House Prices in Canada By Michal Andrle; Miroslav Plašil
  6. Warding Off Development: Local Control, Housing Supply, and NIMBYs By Evan Mast
  7. Forward to the Past: Short-Term Effects of the Rent Freeze in Berlin By Anja M. Hahn; Konstantin A. Kholodilin; Sofie R. Waltl
  8. Who Benefits From Attending Effective Schools? Examining Heterogeneity in High School Impacts By C. Kirabo Jackson; Shanette C. Porter; John Q. Easton; Sebastián Kiguel
  9. Absorptive Capacity, Knowledge Spillovers and Incentive Contracts By Luis Aguiar; Philippe Gagnepain
  10. The Fragmented United States of America: The impact of scattered lock-down policies on country-wide infections By Jacek Rothert; Ryan Brady; Michael Insler
  11. Automotive regions in transition: preparing for connected and automated vehicles By Michaela Trippl; Simon Baumgartinger-Seiringer; Elena Goracinova; David A. Wolfe
  12. Reconsidering structural conditions: Institutional infrastructure for innovation-based industrial path renewal By Simon Baumgartinger-Seiringer; Lea Fuenfschilling; Johan Miörner; Michaela Trippl
  13. The micropolitics of speculative green urbanism at Forest City, Iskandar Malaysia By Koh, Sin Yee; Zhao, Yimin; Shin, Hyun Bang
  14. Dynamics of immigrant resentment in Europe By Salomon, Katja
  15. Highway Expansion and Urban Sprawl in the Jakarta Metropolitan Area By Andhika Putra Pratama; Muhammad Halley Yudhistira
  16. Effects of Macroprudential Policy: Evidence from Over 6,000 Estimates By Juliana Dutra Araujo; Manasa Patnam; Adina Popescu; Fabian Valencia; Weijia Yao
  17. Exploring the Changes of Commuting Patterns, Commuting Flows, and Travel-to-work Behaviour in the Jakarta Metropolitan Area from 2014 to 2019: A Comparative Analysis of Two Cross-sectional Commuting Surveys By Yusuf Sofiyandi; Atiqah Amanda Siregar
  18. The Unusual Composition of Demand during the Pandemic By Aditya Aladangady; Daniel I. Garcia
  19. Trade and geography By Redding, Stephen
  20. The Impact of Introducing a Low Traffic Neighbourhood on Street Crime, in Waltham Forest, London By Goodman, Anna; Aldred, Rachel
  21. Cameroon - Can School Grants and Teacher Incentives be Used to Increase School Access and Improve Quality? By World Bank
  22. On the Existence of an Equilibrium in Models of Local Public Good Use by Cities to Attract the Creative Class By Batabyal, Amitrajeet; Beladi, Hamid
  23. Personnel Management and School Productivity: Evidence from India By Renata Lemos; Karthik Muralidharan; Daniela Scur
  24. Rent Price Control – Yet Another Great Equalizer of Economic Inequalities?: Evidence from a Century of Historical Data By Konstantin A. Kholodilin; Sebastian Kohl
  25. People, places and politics: the challenge of 'levelling up' the UK By Henry Overman
  26. The Overlooked Insights from Correlation Structures in Economic Geography By Matias Nehuen Iglesias; ;
  27. Succeeding at home and abroad -- Accounting for the international spillovers of cities' SDG actions By Rebecka Ericsdotter Engstrom; David Collste; Sarah E. Cornell; Francis X Johnson; Henrik Carlsen; Fernando Jaramillo; Goran Finnveden; Georgia Destouni; Mark Howells; Nina Weitz; Viveka Palm; Francesco Fuso-Nerini
  28. Financialisation and rental housing: A case study of Berlin By Davies, Clementine
  29. Computing decomposable multigroup indexes of segregation By Mora, Ricardo; Guinea-Martin, Daniel
  30. School’s Out: Experimental Evidence on Limiting Learning Loss Using “Low-Tech” in a Pandemic By Noam Angrist; Peter Bergman; Moitshepi Matsheng
  31. Lost Opportunities: Work during High School, Establishment Closures and the Impact on Career By Müller, Dagmar
  32. Migration and Informal Insurance By Costas Meghir; Ahmed Mushfiq Mobarak; Ahmed Corina Mommaerts; Ahmed Melanie Morten
  33. Kicking You When You're Already Down: The Multipronged Impact of Austerity on Crime By Corrado Giulietti; Brendon McConnell
  34. The Globalization of Refugee Flows By Xavier Devictor; Quy-Toan Do; Andrei A. Levchenko
  35. Towards robust and speculation-reduction real estate pricing models based on a data-driven strategy By Vladimir Vargas-Calder\'on; Jorge E. Camargo
  36. Prep School for Poor Kids: The Long-Run Impacts of Head Start on Human Capital and Economic Self-Sufficiency By Martha J. Bailey; Brenden D. Timpe; Shuqiao Sun
  37. The potential for industrial activity among EU regions: An empirical analysis at the NUTS2 level By Gornig, Martin; Werwatz, Axel
  38. State and Local Efforts to Strengthen Workforce System Governance and Planning Under WIOA By Samina Sattar; Brittany English; Caleb van Docto
  39. Fiscal Position of Immigrants in Europe: A Quantile Regression Approach By Joxhe, Majlinda; Scaramozzino, Pasquale; Zanaj, Skerdilajda
  40. Can technology improve the classroom experience in primary education? An African experiment on a worldwide program By Joana Cardim; Teresa Molina-Millán; Pedro C. Vicente
  41. In brief...Pupil exclusion in academy schools By Stephen Machin; Matteo Sandi
  42. Long-term effects of female teacher on her pupils' smoking behaviour later in life By Eiji Yamamura
  43. Immigrants and the U.S. Wage Distribution By Vasil I. Yasenov
  44. Political Competition and Economic Performance: Evidence from Indonesia By Jahen F. Rezki
  45. In brief...Swings and silicon roundabouts: does cluster policy work? By Max Nathan
  46. Predicting Residential Property Value in Catonsville, Maryland: A Comparison of Multiple Regression Techniques By Lee Whieldon; Huthaifa Ashqar
  47. Coming out of the woods. Do local support services influence the propensity to report sexual violence? By Denti, Daria; Iammarino, Simona
  48. The Economic Incentives of Cultural Transmission: Spatial Evidence from Naming Patterns across France By Yann Algan; Clément Malgouyres; Thierry Mayer; Mathias Thoenig
  49. The Circular City and the Building Sector By Gianfranco Franz
  50. The potential local and regional impacts of COVID-19 in New Zealand: with a focus on tourism By Laëtitia, Leroy de Morel; Glen, Wittwer; Christina, Leung; Dion, Gämperle
  51. Are UK immigrants selected on education, skills, health and social networks? By Renee Luthra; Lucinda Platt

  1. By: Chiara Castelli (Università degli Studi di Brescia); Angela Parenti (Università degli Studi di Pisa)
    Abstract: Commuting shapes countless everyday-lives around the world, with dynamics varying from city to regional and cross regional level. Taking as reference the free-movement EU-28 area (plus Switzerland and Norway), the analysis considers a total sample of 195 NUTS2 regions over the decade 2007-2017 to depict regional cross-border dynamics, thus including the impacts of the 2008 financial crisis. The tested presence of spatial interactions among regions leads to the adoption of the Spatial Durbin Model in a panel context, thus including fixed effects in order to eliminate any time influence on variables as well as any regional idiosyncrasy (i.e. cultural, institutional etc.). The outcoming analysis highlights the potentiality of temporary contracts in preserving jobs during crisis, as they offer a flexible tool for employment adjustments. Moreover, the regional specialization in the knowledge sector is found to be an important attractor of external workers as well as a relatively effective retaining factor of the domestic labour force. But there are also other factors affecting mobility. For instance, the perceived commuting distance significantly depends on the time needed to reach the corresponding workplace and this study finds that the more diffused is the transportation system (in terms of highways’ density) the higher the commuting outflow. A similar impact is found with respect to housing costs, that is the cheaper is the relative house price of the region of residence with respect to the surrounding territories, the more travel-to-work becomes an attractive option, even in its extend of long-distance commute. Finally, a last strong push factor of mobility is found in the lack job opportunities, here expressed as the unemployment rate differential for each single territory with respect to its surroundings. Indeed, the higher the lack of job opportunities in the domestic market with respect to its neighbours, the higher the share of workers that will try to seek their fortune crossing the regional border.
    Keywords: Cross-border Commuting Outflows, Regional Economics, Panel Analysis, Fixed Effects, Spatial Econometrics
    JEL: C51 C54 C55 J21 J61 J62 R11 R12
    Date: 2020–11
  2. By: Christian A. L. Hilber; Andreas Mense
    Abstract: In most countries - particularly in supply constrained superstar cities - house prices have risen much more strongly than rents over the last two decades. We provide an explanation that does not rely on falling interest rates, changing credit conditions, unrealistic expectations, rising inequality, or global investor demand. Our model distinguishes between short- and long-run supply constraints and assumes housing demand shocks exhibit serial correlation. Employing panel data for England, our instrumental variable-fixed effect estimates suggest that in Greater London labor demand shocks in conjunction with supply constraints explain two-thirds of the 153% increase in the price-to-rent ratio between 1997 and 2018.
    Keywords: house prices, housing rents, price-to-rent ratio, price and rent dynamics, housing supply, land use regulation
    JEL: G12 R11 R21 R31 R52
    Date: 2021–01
  3. By: Atila Abdulkadiroglu; Joshua D. Angrist; Yusuke Narita; Parag Pathak
    Abstract: Many schools in large urban districts have more applicants than seats. Centralized school assignment algorithms ration seats at over-subscribed schools using randomly assigned lottery numbers, non-lottery tie-breakers like test scores, or both. The New York City public high school match illustrates the latter, using test scores and other criteria to rank applicants at ``screened'' schools, combined with lottery tie-breaking at unscreened ``lottery'' schools. We show how to identify causal effects of school attendance in such settings. Our approach generalizes regression discontinuity methods to allow for multiple treatments and multiple running variables, some of which are randomly assigned. The key to this generalization is a local propensity score that quantifies the school assignment probabilities induced by lottery and non-lottery tie-breakers. The local propensity score is applied in an empirical assessment of the predictive value of New York City's school report cards. Schools that receive a high grade indeed improve SAT math scores and increase graduation rates, though by much less than OLS estimates suggest. Selection bias in OLS estimates is egregious for screened schools.
    Date: 2020–12
  4. By: Brian Asquith (W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research); Evan Mast (W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research); Davin Reed (Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia)
    Abstract: We study the local effects of new market-rate housing in low-income areas using microdata on large apartment buildings, rents, and migration. New buildings decrease nearby rents by 5 to 7 percent relative to locations slightly farther away or developed later, and they increase in-migration from low-income areas. Results are driven by a large supply effect—we show that new buildings absorb many high-income households—that overwhelms any offsetting endogenous amenity effect. The latter may be small because most new buildings go into already-changing areas. Contrary to common concerns, new buildings slow local rent increases rather than initiate or accelerate them.
    Keywords: housing supply, housing affordability, gentrification, amenities
    JEL: R21 R23 R31
    Date: 2019–12
  5. By: Michal Andrle; Miroslav Plašil
    Abstract: This paper assesses house prices in 11 Canadian Census Metropolitan Areas (CMA) using the borrowing-capacity and the net-present-value approaches. The results indicate that by the end of 2018, house prices in most metropolitan areas are aligned with macroeconomic fundamentals. However, in Hamilton, Toronto, and Vancouver house prices have increased beyond the values implied by the fundamentals.
    Keywords: Housing prices;Mortgages;Personal income;Housing;Inflation;WP,interest rate,price,mortgage rate,income
    Date: 2019–11–15
  6. By: Evan Mast (W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research)
    Abstract: Local control of land-use regulation creates a not-in-my-backyard (NIMBY) problem that can suppress housing construction, contributing to rising prices and potentially slowing economic growth. I study how increased local control affects housing production by exploiting a common electoral reform—changing from “at-large” to “ward” elections for town council. These reforms, which are not typically motivated by housing markets, shrink each representative’s constituency from the entire town to one ward. Difference-in-differences estimates show that this decentralization decreases housing units permitted by 24 percent, with 47 percent and 12 percent effects on multi- and single-family units. The effect on multifamily is larger in high-homeownership towns.
    Keywords: Housing supply, land-use regulation, NIMBYism
    JEL: R31 R38 H77
    Date: 2020–07
  7. By: Anja M. Hahn (Vienna University of Economics and Business); Konstantin A. Kholodilin (DIW Berlin & NRU HSE St. Petersburg); Sofie R. Waltl (Vienna University of Economics and Business & Luxembourg Institute of Socio-Economic Research (LISER))
    Abstract: In 2020, Berlin enacted a rigorous rent-control policy: the “Mietendeckel” (rent freeze), aiming to stop rapidly growing rental prices. We evaluate this newly enacted but old-fashionably designed policy by analyzing its immediate supply-side effects. Using a rich pool of rent advertisements reporting asking rents and comprehensive dwelling characteristics, we perform hedonic-style Difference-in-Difference analyses comparing trajectories of dwellings inside and outside the policy’s scope. We find no immediate effect upon announcement of the policy. Yet advertised rents drop significantly upon the policy’s enactment. Additionally, we document a substitution effect affecting the rental markets of Berlin’s (unregulated) satellite city Potsdam and adjacent smaller municipalities. On top, the supplemental quantity analyses reveal a stark reduction of the number of advertised rental units hampering a successful housing search for newcomers, (young) first-time renters and tenants aiming for a different housing opportunity.
    Keywords: First-Generation Rent Control, Rent Freeze, Urban Policy, Rent Price, Supply Disruptions, Berlin
    JEL: C14 C43 O18
    Date: 2020–12
  8. By: C. Kirabo Jackson; Shanette C. Porter; John Q. Easton; Sebastián Kiguel
    Abstract: We estimate the longer-run effects of attending an effective high school (one that improves a combination of test scores, survey measures of socio-emotional development and behaviours in 9th-grade) for students who are more versus less educationally advantaged (i.e., likely to attain more years of education based on 8th-grade characteristics). All students benefit from attending effective schools. However, the least advantaged students experience the largest improvements in high-school graduation, college-going, and school-based arrests. These patterns are driven by the least advantaged students benefiting the most from school impacts on the non-test-score dimensions of school quality. However, while there is considerable overlap in the effectiveness of schools attended by more and less advantaged students, it is the most advantaged students that are most likely to attend highly effective schools. These patterns underscore the importance of quality schools, and the non-test score components of quality schools, for improving the longer-run outcomes for less advantaged students.
    JEL: H0 I20 J0
    Date: 2020–12
  9. By: Luis Aguiar (UZH - University of Zürich [Zürich]); Philippe Gagnepain (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: We attempt to identify and measure potential knowledge spillovers in the French urban transport sector, which is strongly regulated and where a few large corporations are in charge of operating several urban networks simultaneously. We build and estimate a structural cost model where the service is regulated by a local government and is provided by a single operator. Knowledge spillovers are directly linked to the know-how of a specific corporation, but they also depend on the incentive power of the regulatory contract which shapes the effort of the local managers. Exerting an effort in a specific network allows a cost reduction in this network, but it also benefit other networks that are members of the same corporation. Our model provides us with estimates of the operators' absorptive capacity, which is their in-house knowledge power in order to optimally benefit from spillovers. We find that diversity of knowledge across operators of a same corporation improves absorptive capacity and increases the flow of spillovers. Simulation exercises provide evidence of significant reductions in total operating cost following the enlargement of industrial groups.
    Keywords: Knowledge spillovers,Absorptive capacity,Cost incentives,Effort,Diversity of knowledge,Public transport
    Date: 2021–01
  10. By: Jacek Rothert (United States Naval Academy); Ryan Brady (United States Naval Academy); Michael Insler (United States Naval Academy)
    Abstract: Fragmented by policies, united by outcomes: This is the picture of the United States that emerges from our analysis of the spatial diffusion of Covid-19 and the scattered lock-down policies introduced by individual states to contain it. We first use spatial econometric techniques to document direct and indirect spillovers of new infections across county and state lines, as well as the impact of individual states’ lock-down policies on infections in neighboring states. We find consistent statistical evidence that new cases diffuse across county lines, holding county level factors constant, and that the diffusion across counties was affected by the closure policies of adjacent states. Spatial impulse response functions reveal that the diffusion across counties is persistent for up to ten days after an increase in adjacent counties. We then develop a spatial version of the epidemiological SIR model where new infections arise from interactions between infected people in one state and susceptible people in the same or in neighboring states. We incorporate lock-down policies into our model and calibrate the model to match both the cumulative and the new infections across the 48 contiguous U.S. states and DC. Our results suggest that, had the states with the less restrictive social distancing measures tightened them by one level, the cumulative infections in other states would be about 5% smaller. In our spatial SIR model, the spatial containment policies such as border closures have a bigger impact on flattening the infection curve in the short-run than on the cumulative infections in the long-run.
    Date: 2020–08
  11. By: Michaela Trippl; Simon Baumgartinger-Seiringer; Elena Goracinova; David A. Wolfe
    Abstract: The advent of ‘connected and automated vehicles’ (C/AV) is posing substantial transformation challenges on traditional automotive regions across the world. This paper seeks to examine both conceptually and empirically how automotive regions reconfigure their industrial and support structures to promote new path development in the C/AV field. Drawing on recent conceptual advances at the intersection of evolutionary economic geography and innovation system studies, we develop an analytical framework that casts light on how regional preconditions provide platforms for asset modification that underpin different routes of transformation. We distinguish between a reorientation route and an upgrading route. The framework is applied to a comparative analysis of industrial path development and system reconfiguration towards C/AV in two automotive regions, namely Ontario (Canada) and the Austrian automotive triangle.
    Keywords: regional restructuring, new path development, asset modification, innovation system reconfiguration, connected and automated vehicles
    JEL: O33 R11 R58
    Date: 2020
  12. By: Simon Baumgartinger-Seiringer; Lea Fuenfschilling; Johan Miörner; Michaela Trippl
    Abstract: This paper aims to develop a more elaborated understanding of innovation-based renewal of industries from a structural perspective. Current perspectives offer rather simplistic views on the role of structural conditions in regional industrial renewal process. In order to overcome this limitation, we draw on the concept of ‘institutional infrastructure’ to examine the ensemble of structural elements for industrial path development in regional contexts. The institutional infrastructure and its conditions, i.e. its elaboration and coherence, are seen as important factors for industrial change. To illustrate this approach, we investigate renewal processes in two traditional automotive regions in Austria and Sweden.
    Keywords: Path renewal, institutional infrastructure, structures, elaboration, coherence
    JEL: O33 R11 R58
    Date: 2020
  13. By: Koh, Sin Yee; Zhao, Yimin; Shin, Hyun Bang
    Abstract: There is an established urban studies literature on the discursive politics of green urbanism, especially with regards to eco-cities and (mega) greenfield developments. However, less attention has been paid to the micropolitics of cross-border transplantation of green urbanism ideas and practices, especially within Asia. This paper examines the case of Forest City, a mainland Chinese developer-led mega greenfield project in the Iskandar Malaysia special economic corridor, to be built on four reclaimed islands. Based on observations, in-depths interviews with local stakeholders and document analysis, we analyse the different ways in which green urbanism has been used by the local state and the developer as an apparatus for speculative city-making. On the one hand, the state seeks to position Iskandar Malaysia as greener than its global competitors through the development of a homegrown "low carbon society" green accreditation system. On the other hand, the (selectively) "green and smart" Forest city consolidates the developer's corporate brand image and marketing aesthetics at the cost of local residents' living environment. Attention to such entangled micropolitics of speculative green urbanism contextualises different stakeholders' rationales and practices and contributes to critical reflections on the entanglement of green urbanism and speculative urbanisation.
    Keywords: green urbanism; speculative urbanization; property development; micropolitcs; Iskandar Malaysia; global China; IC3/100155
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2021–01–01
  14. By: Salomon, Katja
    Abstract: A test of social explanations of immigrant resentment - contact, threatened responses, grievances, social disintegration, political persuasion, socialization contexts - across 30 European countries between the years 2002-2016 (N=308.430) provides the background for a comprehensive discussion of how these mechanisms interact and connect to migration patterns. Most susceptible to resentment are those (1) lacking opportunities or (2) easy to persuade. (1) Socioeconomic status, place of residency, grievances, social disintegration, immigrant presence, birth cohort interact to provide/inhibit opportunities for social, economic participation (for natives and migrants) leading to less/greater resentment. (2) Threatened responses are concerns over potential consequences of certain kinds of immigration and are linked to individual characteristics that increase exposure and susceptibility to party cueing, policy signaling and media bias. At the contextual-level, these processes are self-mitigating: Affluent, high-immigration countries more easily sustain tolerance for the same reasons they attract immigrants (opportunities) but are more prone to threatened responses since these are provoked by immigration characteristics overrepresented in affluent countries. While this dynamic is reversed in less advantaged countries, it is also vulnerable to disruption explaining higher resentment in certain countries. Self-mitigating shapes resentment in urban areas as well, but urbanization disrupts regional dynamics, leaving rural Europe especially susceptible to resentment.
    Keywords: immigration attitudes,contact,threat,deprivation,disorder,party cues,geopolitical threat
    Date: 2020
  15. By: Andhika Putra Pratama (Institute for Economic and Social Research, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Indonesia (LPEM FEB UI)); Muhammad Halley Yudhistira (Institute for Economic and Social Research, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Indonesia (LPEM FEB UI))
    Abstract: Transport development has been widely recognized as one of the major drivers in shaping urban forms. While recent literature has documented the urban-land use effect of transport networks between cities, little is known about the effect within cities. Using the Global Human Layer Settlement (GHSL) data provided by European Commission Joint-Project, this paper aims to find any causation between highway expansion and urban sprawl within the Jakarta Metropolitan Area, one of the most urbanized areas in the developing countries. Employing historical transport infrastructures as instruments, the result shows that areas experiencing the most improvement in highways access are converging slower than those with small improvement. This paper adds a piece of enticing evidence for urban economics literature that highway expansion may not always lead to a sprawling development of urban areas, but it can hamper its growth into a more compact urban form. Our results also confirm the existence of transport-led urban expansion in the JMA over the last three decades.
    Keywords: urban development — urban expansion — urban sprawl — transport access
    JEL: O18 P25 R14
    Date: 2020
  16. By: Juliana Dutra Araujo; Manasa Patnam; Adina Popescu; Fabian Valencia; Weijia Yao
    Abstract: This paper builds a novel database on the effects of macroprudential policy drawing from 58 empirical studies, comprising over 6,000 results on a wide range of instruments and outcome variables. It encompasses information on statistical significance, standardized magnitudes, and other characteristics of the estimates. Using meta-analysis techniques, the paper estimates average effects to find i) statistically significant effects on credit, but with considerable heterogeneity across instruments; ii) weaker and more imprecise effects on house prices; iii) quantitatively stronger effects in emerging markets and among studies using micro-level data; and iii) statistically significant evidence of leakages and spillovers. Other findings include relatively stronger impacts for tightening than loosening actions and negative effects on economic activity in the near term.
    Keywords: Macroprudential policy;Macroprudential policy instruments;Credit;Consumer credit;Housing prices;WP,standard error
    Date: 2020–05–22
  17. By: Yusuf Sofiyandi (Institute for Economic and Social Research, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Indonesia (LPEM FEB UI)); Atiqah Amanda Siregar (Institute for Economic and Social Research, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Indonesia (LPEM FEB UI))
    Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to provide and to compare a detailed statistical overview of commuting patterns, spatial commuting flows, and travel-to-work behavior of workers who work and live reside within the Jakarta Metropolitan Area (JMA). The descriptive analysis is based on the results of two cross-sectional JMA Commuting Surveys, which conducted by the Indonesia Central Statistics Agency (BPS) in 2014 and 2019. By comparing the results of two surveys, we find that the commuting indicators have been decreased, except for the travel cost. The average commuting distance and the commuting time decrease by 5,16 percent and 11,6 percent, respectively. Meanwhile, the average travel cost rises by 21,6 percent. Among 169 possible origin-destination sets, a commute route from Depok to South Jakarta has been consistently become the largest commuting flows during the last five years. Respondents who live in Jakarta subregions and commute by private vehicles tend to have a lower willingness to shift to public transport than those from other cities. In terms of the use of non-privately owned vehicles, most of the commuter respondents switch from non-dedicated lane buses to the online-ride hailing services as the travel reliability of certain public transport services within the JMA has been reduced during the period of 2014-2019. Our findings also emphasize the important role of online-ride hailing services in providing better opportunities, particularly for female commuters, to access job locations.
    Keywords: commuting — transport mode — travel to work — travel behaviour — Jakarta metropolitan area
    JEL: R40 R41 R49
    Date: 2020
  18. By: Aditya Aladangady; Daniel I. Garcia
    Abstract: In most recessions, household spending on goods—particularly durables—and housing tends to fall sharply and remain weak for many quarters. In contrast, services spending has generally responded little to business cycles. This time, however, the opposite has occurred, as shown in Figure 1.
    Date: 2021–01–14
  19. By: Redding, Stephen
    Abstract: This paper reviews recent research on geography and trade. One of the key empirical findings over the last decade has been the role of geography in shaping the distributional consequences of trade. One of the major theoretical advances has been the development of quantitative spatial models that incorporate both exogenous first-nature geography (natural endowments) and endogenous secondnature geography (the location choices of economic agents relative to one another) as determinants of the distribution of economic activity across space. These models are sufficiently rich to capture firstorder features of the data, such as gravity equations for flows of goods and people. Yet they remain sufficiently tractable as to permit an analytical characterization of the properties of the general equilibrium and facilitate counterfactuals for realistic policy interventions. We distinguish between models of regions or systems of cities (where goods trade and migration take center stage) and models of the internal structure of cities (where commuting becomes relevant). We review some of key empirical predictions of both sets of theories and show that they have been remarkably successful in rationalizing the empirical findings from reduced-form research. Looking ahead, the combination of recent theoretical advances and novel geo-coded data on economic interactions at a fine spatial scale promises many interesting avenues for further research, including discriminating between alternative mechanisms for agglomeration, understanding the implications of new technologies for the organization of work, and assessing the causes, consequences and potential policy implications of spatial sorting.
    JEL: F10 J40 R10 R40
    Date: 2020–09
  20. By: Goodman, Anna; Aldred, Rachel
    Abstract: Using police data, 2012-2019, we examine the impact on street crime of introducing low traffic neighbourhoods in Waltham Forest, London. Overall, the introduction of a low traffic neighbourhood was associated with a 10% decrease in total street crime (95% confidence interval 7% to 13%), and this effect increased with a longer duration since implementation (18% decrease after 3 years). An even larger reduction was observed for violence and sexual offences, the most serious subcategory of crime. The only subcategory of crime that increased significantly was bicycle theft, plausibly largely reflecting increased cycling levels. There was no indication of displacement of any crime subcategory into adjacent areas.
    Date: 2021–01–13
  21. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Education - Education Finance Education - Education For All Education - Effective Schools and Teachers
    Date: 2019–02
  22. By: Batabyal, Amitrajeet; Beladi, Hamid
    Abstract: We analyze a stylized model of competition between two cities that use a local public good (LPG) to attract members of the creative class. The creative class consists of artists and engineers and we study the behavior of a representative artist and an engineer. The level of the LPG in each city is determined by majority voting of the two representative creative class members. If both representative members choose to live in the same city then the LPG provision is the average of the preferred quantities of the two members. In this setting, we perform three tasks. First, we ascertain the preferred quantity of the LPG for the representative artist and the engineer. Second, assuming that the representative artist and the engineer accurately predict the outcome of living in a particular city, we describe a scenario in which there is no equilibrium in our model. Finally, we show that if the representative artist and the engineer treat the LPG provision levels in each city as exogenous then an equilibrium does exist in the model.
    Keywords: Artist, Creative Class, Engineer, Equilibrium, Local Public Good
    JEL: H40 R11
    Date: 2021–01–03
  23. By: Renata Lemos; Karthik Muralidharan; Daniela Scur
    Abstract: This paper uses new data to study school management and productivity in India. We report four main results. First, management quality in public schools is low, and ~2σ below high-income countries with comparable data. Second, private schools have higher management quality, driven by much stronger people management. Third, people management quality is correlated with both independent measures of teaching practice, as well as school productivity measured by student value added. Fourth, private school teacher pay is positively correlated with teacher effectiveness, and better-managed private schools are more likely to retain more effective teachers. Neither pattern is seen in public schools.
    JEL: I25 M5 O1
    Date: 2021–01
  24. By: Konstantin A. Kholodilin; Sebastian Kohl
    Abstract: The long-run U-shaped patterns of economic inequality are standardly explained by basic economic trends (Piketty’s r>g), taxation policies, or “great levelers,” like catastrophes. This paper argues that housing policy, in particular rent control, is a neglected explanatory factor in understanding overall inequality. We hypothesize that rent control could decrease overall housing wealth, lower incomes of generally richer landlords, and increase disposable incomes of generally poorer tenants. Using original long-run data for up to 16 countries (1900-2016), we show that rent controls lowered wealth-to-income ratios, top income shares, Gini-coefficients, rent increases, and rental expenditure. A counterfactual analysis using micro-data from the Luxembourg Income Study shows that rent controls could reduce rental expenditure of mostly lower-income tenants and rental incomes of mostly higher-income landlords. Overall, rent controls must be strict in order to have tangible effects and, historically, only strict rent controls have significantly reduced inequalities. The paper argues that housing policies should generally receive more attention in understanding economic inequalities.
    Keywords: economic inequality, stratification, rent control
    JEL: D31 E64 R38
    Date: 2021
  25. By: Henry Overman
    Abstract: As has been much discussed since the election, economic performance varies widely among the towns, cities and regions of the UK. Henry Overman argues that policies to address these spatial disparities should be judged on whether they improve individual opportunities, not whether they narrow the gaps between different parts of the country.
    Keywords: spatial disparities, skills, cities, left-behind places, 2019 General Election
    Date: 2020–03
  26. By: Matias Nehuen Iglesias; ;
    Abstract: Measures of cooccurrence computed from cross sectional data are used to rationalize connections among economic activities. In this work we show the grounds for unifying a multiplicity of similarity techniques applied in the literature and we precise the identification of cooccurrence to actual coexistence in space, when one side of the cross section are small administrative areas. All the similarity techniques studied here are akin to a correlation structure computed from spatial intensity, also known as locational correlation. We argue that these correlations offer objective tools to detect spatial patterns. Indeed we show that when applied to data of employment by industry and county in United States (from 2002-7) the communities of networks derived from locational correlations detect spatial patterns long acknowledged in economic geography. By addressing critical open issues on the interpretation of cooccurrence indices, this work o↵ers technical guides for their exploitation in Economic Geography studies.
    Keywords: Economic geography, co-location, spatial analysis, areal data, point data, correlation structures, distribution of economic activities
    Date: 2021–01
  27. By: Rebecka Ericsdotter Engstrom; David Collste; Sarah E. Cornell; Francis X Johnson; Henrik Carlsen; Fernando Jaramillo; Goran Finnveden; Georgia Destouni; Mark Howells; Nina Weitz; Viveka Palm; Francesco Fuso-Nerini
    Abstract: Local SDG action is imperative to reach the 2030 Agenda, but different strategies for progressing on one SDG locally may cause different 'spillovers' on the same and other SDGs beyond local and national borders. We call for research efforts to empower local authorities to 'account globally' when acting locally.
    Date: 2020–12
  28. By: Davies, Clementine
    Abstract: This paper seeks to understand the extent financialisation has had an impact on the rental housing market in Berlin. Specifically, it focuses on the financialisation of non-financial rental housing companies. The financial statements of five large, publicly listed, commercial rental housing companies in Berlin are examined for three operationalisations of financialisation: as a means of accumulation, as a mode of corporate governance, and as the prioritisation of short-term perspectives. Findings show no trends of firms increasingly relying on financial instruments for profit but did show increased shareholder orientation and short termism. Implications for the supply, price and quality of rental housing in Berlin are discussed.
    Keywords: financialisation,homeownership,firm ownership structure,rental housing,rental market,Berlin
    JEL: G3 G32 L2 N2 R21 R31
    Date: 2021
  29. By: Mora, Ricardo; Guinea-Martin, Daniel
    Abstract: There are seven multigroup segregation indexes that are decomposable:the mutual information index, and two versions of the symmetric Atkinson, the relative diversity, and Theil's H indexes. In this article we present the Stata command dseg for obtaining all of them. It contributes to the stock of segregation commands in Stata by (1) implementing in a single call the decomposition of multigroup indexes into a between and a within term; (2) providing the weights and local indexes employed in the computation of the within term; (3) facilitating the deployment of the decomposability properties of the four indexes in complex scenarios that demand tailor-made solutions; and (4) leveraging sample data with bootstrapping and approximate randomization tests. We analyze 2017 census data of American public schools to illustrate the use of dseg. The subject topic is school racial segregation.
    Keywords: Segregation; Schools; Sampling; Theil'S H; Relative Diversity; Race; Mutual Information; Multigroup; Decomposability; Atkinson
    Date: 2021–01–27
  30. By: Noam Angrist; Peter Bergman; Moitshepi Matsheng
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic closed schools at one point for over 1.6 billion children, with potentially long-term consequences. This paper provides some of the first experimental evidence on strategies to minimize the fallout of the pandemic on learning. We evaluate two low-technology interventions to substitute schooling during this period: SMS text messages and direct phone calls. We conduct a rapid trial in Botswana to inform real-time policy responses, collecting data in multiple waves. We find that phone calls and SMS messages result in cost-effective learning gains of 0.12 standard deviations. We cross-randomize targeted instruction, customizing instruction to a child’s learning level using data collected during the trial. We find evidence that targeted instruction can be more effective than non-targeted instruction, especially for SMS messages which have no effect on their own if they are not targeted. Learning gains are robust to a variety of tests, such as randomized problems of the same proficiency and measures of effort on the test. Parents update their beliefs about their child’s learning in tandem with progress and they feel greater self-efficacy to support their child’s learning. The “low-tech” interventions tested have immediate policy relevance and could have long-run implications for the role of technology and parents as substitutes or complements to the traditional education system.
    JEL: I10 I20 I24 I25
    Date: 2020–12
  31. By: Müller, Dagmar (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: Relying on Swedish linked employer-employee data over a 30-year period, I study the importance of work during high school for graduates’ school-to-work transition and labor market outcomes. I show that employer links established through work during school provide students with an important job-search channel, accounting for 30 percent of direct transitions into regular employment. I use the fact that some graduates are deprived of this channel due to establishment closures just prior to graduation and labor market entry. I compare classmates from the same vocational high school tracks to identify the effects of the closures and show that the closure of a previous in-school establishment leads to an immediate and sizable negative effect on employment after graduation. The lost employer connections have also persistent, but diminishing negative effects on employment and earnings for up to 10 years. Parts of the negative effect are driven by the loss of employers links that offer job opportunities in industries related to graduates’ specialization in vocational school. I find evidence supporting that students who lose such relevant links shift towards jobs in less- relevant industries.
    Keywords: Social contacts; Young workers; Labor market entry; Establishment closures
    JEL: J01 J64
    Date: 2021–01–25
  32. By: Costas Meghir (Cowles Foundation, Yale University, NBER, IZA, CEPR, and Institute for Fiscal Studies); Ahmed Mushfiq Mobarak (Cowles Foundation, Yale University); Ahmed Corina Mommaerts (University of Wisconsin – Madison); Ahmed Melanie Morten (Stanford University and NBER)
    Abstract: We document that an experimental intervention o?ering transport subsidies for poor rural households to migrate seasonally in Bangladesh improved risk sharing. A theoretical model of endogenous migration and risk sharing shows that the e?ect of subsidizing migration depends on the underlying economic environment. If migration is risky, a temporary subsidy can induce an improvement in risk sharing and enable pro?table migration. We estimate the model and ?nd that the migration experiment increased welfare by 12.9%. Counterfactual analysis suggests that a permanent, rather than temporary, decline in migration costs in the same environment would result in a reduction in risk sharing.
    Keywords: Informal Insurance, Migration, Bangladesh, RCT
    JEL: D12 D91 D52 O12 R23
    Date: 2019–07
  33. By: Corrado Giulietti; Brendon McConnell
    Abstract: The UK Welfare Reform Act (2012) imposed a series of welfare cuts, which disproportionately impacted ex-ante poorer areas. In this paper we consider the impact of these austerity measures on two different but complementary elements of crime - the crime rate and the less-studied concentration of crime - over the period 2011-2015 in England and Wales, and document four new facts. First, areas more exposed to the welfare reforms experience increased levels of crime, an effect driven by a rise in violent crime. Second, crime becomes more concentrated within an area due to the welfare reforms, both violent and property crime. Third, it is ex-ante more deprived neighborhoods that bear the brunt of the crime increases over this period. Fourth, we find no evidence that the welfare reforms increased recidivism, hence the changes in crime we find are likely driven by new criminals. Combining these results, we document unambiguous evidence of a negative spillover of the welfare reforms at the heart of the UK government's austerity program on social welfare, which reinforced the direct inequality-enhancing effect of this program. More deprived districts are more exposed to the welfare reforms, and it is these districts that then experience the further negative consequences of the reforms via increased crime. Our findings underscore the importance of considering both multiple dimensions of crime as well as considering different levels of spatial aggregation of crime data. Given that it is violent crime that responds to the (economically-based) welfare cuts, our work also highlights the need to develop better economic models of non-rational crime.
    Date: 2020–12
  34. By: Xavier Devictor; Quy-Toan Do; Andrei A. Levchenko
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the spatial distribution of refugees over 1987-2017 and establishes several stylized facts about refugees today compared with past decades. Refugees still predominantly reside in developing countries neighboring their country of origin. However, compared to past decades, refugees today (i) travel longer distances, (ii) are less likely to seek protection in a neighboring country, (iii) are less geographically concentrated, and (iv) are more likely to reside in a high-income OECD country. The findings bring new evidence to the debate on refugee responsibility-sharing.
    JEL: F22 F55 J15
    Date: 2021–01
  35. By: Vladimir Vargas-Calder\'on; Jorge E. Camargo
    Abstract: In many countries, real estate appraisal is based on conventional methods that rely on appraisers' abilities to collect data, interpret it and model the price of a real estate property. With the increasing use of real estate online platforms and the large amount of information found therein, there exists the possibility of overcoming many drawbacks of conventional pricing models such as subjectivity, cost, unfairness, among others. In this paper we propose a data-driven real estate pricing model based on machine learning methods to estimate prices reducing human bias. We test the model with 178,865 flats listings from Bogot\'a, collected from 2016 to 2020. Results show that the proposed state-of-the-art model is robust and accurate in estimating real estate prices. This case study serves as an incentive for local governments from developing countries to discuss and build real estate pricing models based on large data sets that increases fairness for all the real estate market stakeholders and reduces price speculation.
    Date: 2020–11
  36. By: Martha J. Bailey; Brenden D. Timpe; Shuqiao Sun
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the long-run effects of Head Start using large-scale, restricted 2000-2018 Census-ACS data linked to the SSA’s Numident file, which contains exact date and county of birth. Using the county rollout of Head Start between 1965 and 1980 and age-eligibility cutoffs for school entry, we find that Head Start generated large increases in adult human capital and economic self-sufficiency, including a 0.65-year increase in schooling, a 2.7-percent increase in high-school completion, an 8.5-percent increase in college enrollment, and a 39-percent increase in college completion. These estimates imply sizable, long-term returns to public investments in large-scale preschool programs.
    JEL: I2 I24 J6
    Date: 2020–12
  37. By: Gornig, Martin; Werwatz, Axel
    Abstract: In the last decade, many parts of the world experienced severe increases in agricultural land prices. This price surge, however, did not take place evenly in space and time. To better understand the spatial and temporal behavior of land prices, we employ a price diffusion model that combines features of market integration models and spatial econometric models. An application of this model to farmland prices in Germany shows that prices on a county-level are cointegrated. Apart from convergence towards a long-run equilibrium, we find that price transmission also proceeds through short-term adjustments caused by neighboring regions.
    Keywords: Agricultural land markets,price diffusion,spatial dependence,ripple effect
    JEL: Q24 C23
    Date: 2019
  38. By: Samina Sattar; Brittany English; Caleb van Docto
    Abstract: This report focuses on implementation of key changes to governance of the workforce system and how state and local workforce boards engage in planning across the core programs.
    Keywords: WIOA, Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, workforce development, labor, employment, workforce boards, state, local, regional, planning, WIOA state plan, partnerships, adult education, vocational rehabilitation
  39. By: Joxhe, Majlinda; Scaramozzino, Pasquale; Zanaj, Skerdilajda
    Abstract: This paper compares the net fiscal position (NFP) of immigrants versus natives using data from the European Survey on Living Conditions (EU-SILC) for the period 2007-2015. By employing a quantile regression approach, we find that European and non-European migrants have a different fiscal position from natives only on the extreme tails of the NFP distribution. Non-EU migrants contribute more than natives in the top quantile of the NFP, whereas they are more fiscally depend in the bottom quantile. We also examine the relationship between our calculated migrants' fiscal position and the fiscal perception of European citizens versus migrants as measured in European Social Survey (ESS) data. The negative perception in some European countries may be entirely driven by the fiscal position of migrants in the lowest quantile. Our results highlight the critical need to better understand the fiscal contribution of migrants in the destination countries for a fair and constructive migration policy
    Keywords: fiscal position,immigration,quantile regression,European countries
    JEL: H53 I30 F22
    Date: 2021
  40. By: Joana Cardim; Teresa Molina-Millán; Pedro C. Vicente
    Abstract: Primary school coverage has been increasing in most developing countries. Yet, it has not been accompanied by significant improvements in learning indicators. We implemented a randomized experiment in Angola around the introduction of ProFuturo, a worldwide educational program. The program includes a Computer-assisted Learning (CAL) software directed at improving the regular classroom experience. One year after the program started, we find higher familiarity with technology. Teachers miss fewer days of classes and implement better teaching practices. Students become more interested in learning and pro-social. Finally, the program improves students’ test scores in the most popular subject in the CAL platform.
    Keywords: Primary education, computer-assisted learning, CAL, field experiment, RCT, Africa, Angola
    JEL: O12 I21
    Date: 2021
  41. By: Stephen Machin; Matteo Sandi
    Abstract: Schools in England that became academies before 2010 typically began to exclude significant numbers of their more disruptive pupils. Research by Stephen Machin and Matteo Sandi suggests that this was the result of the strict disciplinary approach that the schools adopted rather than a strategic effort to improve their educational results.
    Keywords: academies, discipline, exclusion
    JEL: I20 I21 I28
    Date: 2020–03
  42. By: Eiji Yamamura
    Abstract: In Japan, teacher and student is randomly matched in the first year of elementary school. Under the quasi-natural experimental setting, we examine how learning in female teacher homeroom class in the elementary school influence pupils' smoking behavior after they become adult. We found that pupils are unlikely to smoke later in life if they belonged to female teacher homeroom class in pupil's first year of school.
    Date: 2021–01
  43. By: Vasil I. Yasenov (Stanford University, Immigration Policy Lab)
    Abstract: A large body of literature estimates the relative wage impacts of immigration on low- and high-skill natives, but it is unclear how these effects map onto changes of the wage distribution. I document the movement of foreign-born workers in the U.S. wage distribution, showing that, since 1980, they have become increasingly overrepresented in the bottom. Downgrading of education and experience obtained abroad partially drives this pattern. I then undertake two empirical approaches to deepen our understanding of the way foreign-born workers shape the wage structure. First, I estimate a standard theoretical model featuring constant elasticity of substitution technology and skill types stratified across wage deciles. Second, I estimate reduced-form quantile treatment effects by constructing a ceteris paribus counterfactual wage distribution with lower immigration levels. Both analyses uncover a similar monotone pattern: a one percentage point increase in the share of foreign-born leads to a 0.2–0.3 (0.2–0.4) percent wage decrease (increase) in the bottom (top) decile and asserts no significant pressure in the middle. When analyzing the drivers of this pattern, I find suggestive evidence for a novel mechanism through which local labor markets absorb foreign-born workers: occupational differentiation of immigrants relative to natives.
    Keywords: immigration, local labor markets, wage structure, counterfactual distribution, quantile treatment effects
    JEL: C21 J15 J21 J31 R23
    Date: 2020–01
  44. By: Jahen F. Rezki (Department of Economics, Universitas Indonesia and LPEM-FEBUI)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the impact of political competition on district government performance in Indonesia. This study uses a new database that covers 427 districts in Indonesia, from 2000 to 2013. Political competition is measured using the Herfindahl Hirschman Concentration Index for the district parliament election. This variable is potentially endogenous, because political competition is likely to be non-random and correlated with unobservable variables. To solve this problem, I use the lag of the average political competition within the same province and the political competition from the 1955 general election, as instrumental variables for political competition. The degree of political competition has been found to boost real Regional Gross Domestic Product (RGDP) per capita and RGDP growth by 3.24% and 1.11%, respectively . This study also find that stiffer political competition is associated with higher public spending (e.g. infrastructure spending) and pro-business policies.
    Keywords: Political Competition — Regional Government — Indonesia — Economic Performance
    JEL: D78 H71 H72 O1
    Date: 2020
  45. By: Max Nathan
    Abstract: Despite scepticism among researchers, policies to promote geographical clusters of firms in the same sector remain popular. Max Nathan evaluates a flagship programme set up a decade ago to accelerate the growth of Tech City in East London. While the cluster has increased in size and density, the outcomes for firm performance are - at best - mixed. That raises some bigger questions for future cluster policies.
    Keywords: cities, clusters, technology, economic development, synthetic controls
    JEL: L53 L86 O31 R30 R50
    Date: 2020–03
  46. By: Lee Whieldon; Huthaifa Ashqar
    Abstract: Predicting Residential Property Value in Catonsville, Maryland: A Comparison of Multiple Regression Techniques
    Date: 2020–12
  47. By: Denti, Daria; Iammarino, Simona
    Abstract: Sexual crimes against women are severely underreported to the police, allowing for impunity of perpetrators. Observers suggest that a stimulus towards reporting the crime comes from nearby support services for victims of sexual offences -like refuges and advisors. Still, the evidence about the effects of nearby support on the reporting of sexual crimes remains scattered and mainly qualitative. This paper provides quantitative evidence on this effect, by exploiting the uneven geography of local support services which resulted in the UK after the introduction of the austerity program. Findings highlight a positive net effect of the provision of local support services on the victims’ propensity to report. The positive effect holds also in the aftermath of a space-neutral high-impact media campaign empowering women to report sexual violence. This evidence relates to relevant policy implication, given that in some countries the austerity-driven cuts to public budgets have reduced and dispersed the local availability of support services, making digital support and/or helpline the only available options in many places.
    Keywords: women; gender violence; austerity; policy evaluation; synthetic control
    JEL: H75 I12 I18 J16 J78
    Date: 2021–01–01
  48. By: Yann Algan (Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Paris, CEPR - Center for Economic Policy Research - CEPR); Clément Malgouyres (PSE - Paris School of Economics - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, PJSE - Paris Jourdan Sciences Economiques - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement, IPP - Institut des politiques publiques); Thierry Mayer (Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Paris, CEPR - Center for Economic Policy Research - CEPR, CEPII - Centre d'Etudes Prospectives et d'Informations Internationales - Centre d'analyse stratégique); Mathias Thoenig (UNIL - Université de Lausanne, CEPR - Center for Economic Policy Research - CEPR)
    Abstract: This paper studies how economic incentives influence cultural transmission, using a crucial expression of cultural identity: Child naming decisions. Our focus is on Arabic versus Non-Arabic names given in France over the 2003-2007 period. Our model of cultural transmission features three determinants: (i) vertical (parental) cultural transmission culture; (ii) horizontal (neighborhood) influence; (iii) information on the economic penalty associated with Arabic names. We find that economic incentives largely influence naming choices: Would the parental expectation on the economic penalty be zero, the annual number of babies born with an Arabic name would be more than 50 percent larger.
    Keywords: Cultural Economics,Cultural Transmission,First Names,Social Interactions
    Date: 2021–01
  49. By: Gianfranco Franz (University of Ferrara)
    Abstract: The essay deals with the issue of urban circularity understood as a subset of the Circular Economy paradigm, highlighting potential and limits of an emerging new model spreading on a global scale. The critical reasoning starts from a very recent production of institutional documents and the still reduced scientific production around and over this topic to propose an unorthodox interpretation on the relationship between circularity and city. The building industry is considered as a key sector to promote and improve circularity in cities and some experimental case studies are presented as a proof of the relevant potentials. The essay attempts a synthetic revision of the state of the art in Italy.
    Keywords: Circular Economy, Circular City, Sustainability, Building Industry
    JEL: Q01 Q26 Q28 R11 R14 Z10 Z11
    Date: 2020–12
  50. By: Laëtitia, Leroy de Morel (New Zealand Institute of Economic Research); Glen, Wittwer (CoPS); Christina, Leung (New Zealand Institute of Economic Research); Dion, Gämperle (New Zealand Institute of Economic Research)
    Abstract: We use our CGE model to assess the potential impacts of COVID-19 on the New Zealand economy and its regions. Our regional CGE model is used to run three scenarios (phases) based on the different alert levels (1-4) imposed by the New Zealand Government. For each phase, we mostly focus on restrictions applied to the entry and movements of people as well as on labour and capital temporarily rendered idle due to the isolation and social distancing measures. We do not explicitly model any fiscal response to showcase the base against which fiscal policies can be assessed.
    Keywords: CGE modelling; COVID-19; Tourism: New Zealand economy
    JEL: C68 Z30
    Date: 2020–08–13
  51. By: Renee Luthra (University of Essex); Lucinda Platt (London School of Economics)
    Abstract: It is assumed that not only will more highly educated migrants do better in the receiving country labour market, but also that those who are relatively more educated compared to their compatriots, that is who are ‘selected’, will bring additional forms of human and social capital associated with economic success. Given the lack of information on these traits in most datasets, this assumption has not yet been comprehensively tested. Combining information on usually unobserved labour market relevant skills and characteristics with measures of educational selection and labour market outcomes of the foreign born in the UK, we do not find that educational selection is systematically associated with better cognitive or non-cognitive skills, health or social network composition. For more elite migration streams, educational selectivity is negatively associated with skills. As a result, higher selection does not translate into better labour market outcomes net of education. We argue that while higher bars to migration may increase the absolute skill level of migrants, it may also exclude those with (usually unobserved) favourable labour market characteristics who lack social and financial capital, reinforcing transnational class reproduction rather than selecting for the brightest and the best.
    Keywords: selectivity, immigration, migrant heterogeneity, labour market, employment wages, gender
    Date: 2021–01

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