nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2021‒01‒11
sixty-six papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. The Calculation of Regional Index of Dwelling Prices in Croatia By Tamara Sli?kovi?; Tomislav Sekur
  2. Misallocation in the Public Sector? Cross-Country Evidence from Two Million Primary Schools By Torsten Figueiredo Walter
  3. House Prices and Macroprudential Policies: Evidence from City-level Data in India By Bhupal Singh
  4. Uncertainty and Predictability of Real Housing Returns in the United Kingdom: A Regional Analysis By Afees A. Salisu; Rangan Gupta; Ahamuefula E. Ogbonna; Mark E. Wohar
  5. Do Fiscal Restraints Harm Test Scores? Evidence from Italy By Caterina Pavese; Enrico Rubolino
  6. Measuring Gentrification with Getis-Ord Statistics and Its Effect on Housing Prices in Neighboring Areas: The Case of Stockholm By Ismail, Muhammad; Warsame, Abukar; Wilhelmsson, Mats
  7. Judge Peer Effects in the Courthouse By Eren, Ozkan; Mocan, Naci
  8. Building Social Cohesion in Ethnically Mixed Schools: An Intervention on Perspective Taking By Sule Alan; Ceren Baysan; Mert Gumren; Elif Kubilay
  9. Identity and Learning: a study on the effect of student-teacher gender matching on learning outcomes By Bhattacharya, Sukanta; Dasgupta, Aparajita; Mandal, Kumarjit; Mukherjee, Anirban
  10. On the Mechanisms of Ability Peer Effects By de Gendre, Alexandra; Salamanca, Nicolás
  11. Evaluating the Benefits of a Streamlined Refinance Program By Kristopher S. Gerardi; Lara Loewenstein; Paul S. Willen
  12. LOCATION DETERMINANTS OF ECOINNOVATIVE FIRMS IN FRANCE By Eva Coll-Martinez; Malia Kedjar; Patricia Renou-Maissant
  13. The Effect of Movida on Residential Property Prices: An Example from Turin. By Ottoz, Elisabetta; Pavese, Piermassimo; Sella, Lisa
  14. The on-demand bus routing problem: A large neighborhood search heuristic for a dial-a-ride problem with bus station assignment By MELIS, Lissa; SÖRENSEN, Kenneth
  15. Optimal Road Network and the Gains from Intranational Trade By Dias, Lucas; Haddad, Eduardo; Maggi, Andrés
  16. Violence-Induced Migration and Peer Effects in Academic Performance By María Padilla-Romo; Cecilia Peluffo
  17. A demand-responsive feeder service with mandatory and optional, clustered bus-stops By MONTENEGRO, Bryan David Galarza; SÖRENSEN, Kenneth; VANSTEENWEGEN, Pieter
  18. Covid-19 school shutdowns: What will they do to our children's education? By Andrew Eyles; Steve Gibbons; Piero Montebruno
  19. Immigration Policy and the Rise of Self-Employment among Mexican Immigrants By Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Lofstrom, Magnus; Wang, Chunbei
  20. The Effect of Occupational Licensing Stringency on the Teacher Quality Distribution By Bradley Larsen; Ziao Ju; Adam Kapor; Chuan Yu
  21. Teacher Accountability and Pay-for-Performance Schemes in (Semi-) Urban Indonesia By Marcello Perez-Alvarez; Jan Priebe; Dewi Susanti
  22. Cities in a world of diminishing transport costs By Tomoya Mori; Minoru Osawa
  23. City of Walbrzych: Technical Assistance for Mitigating the Social and Economic Challenges of The City By Maciej Borsa; Aleksandra Jadach-Sepiolo; Bert Provan
  24. The Children of HOPE VI Demolitions: National Evidence on Labor Market Outcomes By John C. Haltiwanger; Mark J. Kutzbach; Giordano Palloni; Henry O. Pollakowski; Matthew Staiger; Daniel H. Weinberg
  25. The Effect of Computer-Assisted Learning on Students' Long-Term Development By Nicola Bianchi; Yi Lu; Hong Song
  26. What determines the supply of housing for the elderly, and how is it related to the spread of Covid-19 and future demographic changes? By Kulander, Maria; Wilhelmsson, Mats
  27. Estimating Preferences for Neighborhood Amenities Under Imperfect Information By Fernando V. Ferreira; Maisy Wong
  28. What are favouring conditions for the implementation of innovative projects in Community-Led Local Development (CLLD) approaches? By Pollermann, Kim; Fynn, Lynn-Livia; Schwarze, Stefan
  29. Tax and Own Revenues of Large Cities in the Republic of Croatia By Domagoj Karacic; David Krmpotic; Marija Iles
  30. Territorial Development in Argentina By World Bank
  31. Scars of youth non-employment and labour market conditions By Giulia Martina Tanzi
  32. Empirical Monte Carlo evidence on estimation of Timing-of-Events models By Lombardi, Stefano; van den Berg, Gerard J.; Vikström, Johan
  33. The Brokerage Roles of City-Regions in Global Corporate Networks By Sigler, Thomas; Neal, Zachary; Martinus, Kirsten
  34. Rewarding Allegiance : Political Alignment and Fiscal Outcomes in Local Government By Brunnschweiler, Christa N.; Obeng, Samuel Kwabena
  35. Proximity Can Induce Diverse Friendships: A Large Randomized Classroom Experiment By Julia M. Rohrer; Tamás Keller; Felix Elwert
  36. Homelessness and Housing First: A guide to good practice By LSE Housing and Communities
  37. Correlation in State and Local Tax Changes By Scott R. Baker; Pawel Janas; Lorenz Kueng
  38. Non-Manipulable House Exchange under (Minimum) Equilibrium Prices By Andersson , Tommy; Ehlers , Lars; Svensson , Lars-Gunnar
  39. Solving the joint order batching and picker routing problem, as a clustered vehicle routing problem By AERTS, Babiche; CORNELISSENS, Trijntje; SÖRENSEN, Kenneth
  40. A Review of Integrated Urban Planning Tools for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation By Global Platform for Sustainable Cities
  41. First Time Around: Local Conditions and Multi-dimensional Integration of Refugees By Cevat Giray Aksoy; Panu Poutvaara; Felicitas Schikora
  42. Is it expensive to be poor? Public transport in Sweden By Anders Bondemark; Henrik Andersson; Anders Wretstrand; Karin Brundell-Freij
  43. Handbook for Gender-Inclusive Urban Planning and Design By Horacio Terraza; Maria Beatriz Orlando; Carina Lakovits; Vanessa Lopes Janik; Anna Kalashyan
  44. Competitive Location Problems: Balanced Facility Location and the One-Round Manhattan Voronoi Game By Thomas Byrne; S\'andor P. Fekete; J\"org Kalcsics; Linda Kleist
  45. Interregional contact and national identity By Bagues, Manuel; Roth, Christopher
  46. Equitable Congestion Pricing By Cohen D’Agostino, Mollie; Pellaton, Paige; White, Brittany
  47. Seasonality, Academic Calendar and School Drop-outs in Developing Countries By Seiro Ito; Abu S. Shonchoy
  48. Stay-at-Home Orders in a Fiscal Union By Mario J. Crucini; Oscar O'Flaherty
  49. A Comparison of Statistical and Machine Learning Algorithms for Predicting Rents in the San Francisco Bay Area By Paul Waddell; Arezoo Besharati-Zadeh
  50. Digital Data for Transport in Dar es Salaam By World Bank
  51. Assessing the impact of macroprudential measures: The case of the LTV limit in Lithuania By Tomas Reichenbachas
  52. A Theory of Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of School Quality By Yusuke Narita
  53. The Effects of a Green Nudge on Municipal Solid Waste: Evidence from a Clear Bag Policy By Akbulut-Yuksel, Mevlude; Boulatoff, Catherine
  54. Temporal assortment of cooperators in the spatial prisoner's dilemma By Tim Johnson; Oleg Smirnov
  55. Research Brief: Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Freight Patterns in Southern California By Jaller, Miguel; Harvey, John; Rivera, Daniel; Kim, Changmo
  56. Tackling Homelessness: Case Studies By LSE Housing and Communities
  57. Location Matters By Gabriel Lara Ibarra; Vibhuti Mendiratta
  58. Pandemic Impact on Migrants, Immigrants and Reverse Migrants in India. Implications for Immediate Policy Interventions By Pazhanisamy, R.
  59. Local Industry Influence on Commercialization of University Research by University Startups By KANG Byeongwoo; MOTOHASHI Kazuyuki
  60. Improving education outcomes for students who have experienced trauma and/or adversity By Manolya Tanyu; Elizabeth Spier; Scott Pulizzi; Mariah Rooney; Isobel Sorenson; Jessica Fernandez
  61. The Landscape of Early Childhood Education in Bangladesh By Saurav Dev Bhatta; Tashmina Rahman; Md. Naibur Rahman; Uttam Sharma; Lindsay Adams
  62. House Prices, Mortgage Debt Dynamics and Economic Fluctuations in France: A Semi-Structural Approach By Bove Guillaume; Dees Stéphane; Thubin Camille
  63. The economic effect of the 2015 Refugee Crisis in Sweden: Jobs, Crimes, Prices and Voter turnout By Uddfeldt, Arvid
  64. Economic corridors in Southeast Asia: Analytical framework, development Impacts, and policy By Hal Hill; Jayant Menon
  65. Local externalities in labor markets: congestion and information flow among peers By Berniell, Lucila; de la Mata, Dolores; Juncosa, Federico
  66. Labor market integration of low-educated refugees By Dahlberg, Matz; Egebark, Johan; Vikman, Ulrika; Özcan, Gülay

  1. By: Tamara Sli?kovi? (Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Zagreb); Tomislav Sekur (Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Zagreb)
    Abstract: In the existing literature in the field of housing economics, great attention has been paid to modeling housing prices. Residential property prices are generally very important indicator as they may indicate developments in the local economy. Moreover, many existing research have proven that there is a strong interdependence of the movement of housing prices with economic developments. Therefore, different market participants (home owners, potential buyers, lessors, tenants etc.), as well as subjects from broader economic environment (banks, local government, researchers etc.) are interested in trends on housing market, and in particular in housing prices. For that reason, constant improvement of housing prices statistics is very important for all mentioned entities.In Croatia, the issue of housing prices has become topical in the last 15 years due to the turbulent developments in the domestic housing market. Generally, the indicator which is most available to the general public is average price which is published by real estate agencies and advertisers. Such indicator fails to reflect real prices movements since it encompasses the difference in quality of the offered/sold housing units on the market. The more reliable indicator would be one that is ?cleared? form the impact that qualitative characteristics of the housing unit have on its price. The most commonly used method for constructing such price indicators is hedonic approach. Hedonic indices provide information about real change in the price between two points of time. The methodology of calculation hedonic housing price index in Croatia has advanced significantly over the last 12 years. In this research we use hedonic model approach to calculate the index of dwelling prices for Croatia, as well as for four regions (The City of Zagreb, Middle and South Adriatic, Istria and North Adriatic and the region Other). The variables which are included in the model are price of the dwelling, location, floor area, number of rooms, the construction year and time of sale. Two different indices based on asked and realized prices are calculated within this research. The comparison between calculated indices shows that there are large price differences between geographically different Croatian dwelling markets.Acknowledgment: This work has been supported by the Croatian Science Foundation under the project no. 6785.
    Keywords: Housing Price Index, Dwelling, Hedonic Estimation, Multiple Regression Analysis, Croatian Housing Market
    JEL: R21 R31 O18
  2. By: Torsten Figueiredo Walter
    Abstract: This paper examines how the allocation of teachers across public primary schools differs between countries and the extent to which this can explain differences in educational outcomes. First, I build a new global school-level data set that comprises nearly two million schools representing public primary education in 91 countries. I document that pupil-teacher ratios (PTRs) in developed countries are low on aggregate and vary little between schools. In contrast, in developing countries aggregate PTRs are high and differences in PTRs between schools are large. Even at the local level, within second-tier administrative units, differences in PTRs between schools are substantial. While PTRs are higher in rural areas, PTR differences between schools within both urban and rural areas are much larger than differences in average PTRs between urban and rural areas. High PTRs are typically found in areas with low levels of wealth and adult literacy, and poor school infrastructure. Second, I build a model of education production to assess if complementarities between teachers, school infrastructure and household inputs can rationalize the prevailing inequalities in the relative number of teachers within developing countries. Simulations suggest that more equal teacher allocations could in fact increase, rather than decrease, aggregate learning in many poor countries. Obtaining equivalent gains through reductions in aggregate PTRs, while holding relative PTRs between schools fixed, on the other hand, would require large teacher workforce increases.
    Keywords: Development, Education, Inequality, Misallocation, State Capacity
    JEL: I25 H52 O15
    Date: 2020–06
  3. By: Bhupal Singh
    Abstract: This paper examines the efficacy of macroprudential policies in addressing housing prices in a developing country while underscoring the importance of fundamental factors. The estimated models using city-level data for India suggest a strong influence of fundamental factors in driving housing prices. There is compelling evidence of the effectiveness of macroprudential tools viz., Loan-to-value (LTV) ratio, risk weights, and provisioning requirements, in influencing housing price movements. A granular analysis suggests an even stronger impact on housing prices of a change in the regulatory LTV ratio for large-sized vis-à-vis small-sized mortgages, which buttresses their potency in fighting house price speculations. A tightening of the risk weights on the housing assets of banks causes significant downward pressure on house prices. Similarly, regulatory changes in standard asset provisioning on housing loans also influence house prices.
    Date: 2020–12–18
  4. By: Afees A. Salisu (Centre for Econometric & Allied Research, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria); Rangan Gupta (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002, South Africa); Ahamuefula E. Ogbonna (Centre for Econometric & Allied Research, University of Ibadan; Department of Statistics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria); Mark E. Wohar (College of Business Administration, University of Nebraska at Omaha, 6708 Pine Street, Omaha, NE 68182, USA)
    Abstract: The predictability of uncertainty for real housing returns in the United Kingdom is examined using regional data covering twelve (12) regions namely East Midlands, East of England, London, North East, North West, Northern Ireland, Scotland, South East, South West, Wales, West Midlands, Yorkshire and the Humber. We utilize both housing policy uncertainty (HPU) and economic policy uncertainty (EPU) data while we render analyses for three data samples - full sample and two sub-samples covering the periods before and after the emergence of global financial crisis (GFC). Relying on a predictive model that accounts for the salient characteristics of the data, we find a negative relationship between HPU and real housing returns, on the average, regardless of the region analysed. Also, the model that accounts for HPU outperforms the benchmark model that ignores it while controlling for relevant covariates further improves the forecast performance. Additional analyses involving the EPU measure depict lower predictive contents for house price movements relative to the HPU measure and therefore using sector-specific uncertainty measure is crucial for more precise forecasts of real housing returns.
    Keywords: Real Housing Returns, Economic Policy Uncertainty, United Kingdom, Predictability, Forecast Evaluation
    JEL: C32 C53 R31
    Date: 2021–01
  5. By: Caterina Pavese (Department of Economics, University Of Venice Cà Foscari); Enrico Rubolino (HEC Lausanne)
    Abstract: Most countries discipline their public budget through a set of fiscal rules aiming at limiting public debt accumulation. Yet, apart from the direct effect on public finance outcomes, there is limited evidence on whether these policies affect broader socio-economic outcomes. This paper provides regression discontinuity estimates of fiscal rules-induced school spending drops on test scores of Italian students. We show that school spending per-pupil is around 102 euros lower in municipalities subject to fiscal restraints. Using longitudinal data on pupils’ attainment in national test at the beginning and the end of primary school, we find that spending differences lead to a gap in standardized test score gains of nearly 12 percent of a standard deviation. The impact is particularly strong for lower socio-economic groups. We find that both the lack of several basic instructional tools and limited investments in school facilities explain most of the observed achievement gap. Our results reveal how fiscal restraints can create “unintended” consequences for younger generations and exacerbate cross-generation inequalities when governments need to reduce public spending.
    Keywords: School spending, test scores, fiscal rules, regression discontinuity design
    JEL: I22 I24 H52 H75
    Date: 2021
  6. By: Ismail, Muhammad (Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, Royal Institute of Technology); Warsame, Abukar (Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, Royal Institute of Technology); Wilhelmsson, Mats (Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: The study aims to measure the occurrence of gentrification and relate gentrification with housing values. For this purpose, we have used Getis-Ord statistics to identify and quantify gentrification in different residential areas in a case study about Stockholm, Sweden. Gentrification will be measured in two dimensions, namely income and population. We analyse the change in these dimensions between 2007 and 2013. In step two, this measure is included in a traditional hedonic pricing model where the intention is to explain housing prices. Prices for 2014-1015 will be used in the hedonic price model. The results indicate that the parameter estimate is statistically significant, suggesting that gentrification contributes to housing values near gentrified neighbourhoods. This possible spillover effect of house prices due to gentrification by income and population was similar in both the hedonic price and treatment effect models. According to our hedonic price model, proximity to the gentrified area increases housing value around 6-8%. The effect of the spillover effect on price distribution seems to be consistent and stable in gentrified areas.
    Keywords: Gentrification; Getis-Ord statistics; Housing prices
    JEL: R21 R30 Z13
    Date: 2020–12–28
  7. By: Eren, Ozkan (University of California, Riverside); Mocan, Naci (Louisiana State University)
    Abstract: Although there exists a large literature analyzing whether an individual's peers have an impact on that individual's own behavior and subsequent outcomes, there is paucity of research on whether peers influence a person's decisions and judgments regarding a third party. We investigate whether consequential decisions made by judges are impacted by the gender composition of these judges' peer group. We utilize the universe of decisions on juvenile defendants in each courthouse in Louisiana between 1998 and 2012. Leveraging random assignment of cases to judges, and variations in judge peer composition generated by elections, retirements, deaths and resignations, we show that an increase in the proportion of female peers in the courthouse causes a rise in individual judges' propensity to incarcerate, and an increase in the assigned sentence length. This effect is fully driven by female judges. We also demonstrate that the impact of proportion of female peers is not a proxy for other peer characteristics such as race and age. Further analysis suggests that this behavior of female judges is unlikely to be a reflection of an effort to conform to evolving norms of judicial stringency, measured by peers' harshness in sentencing, but that it is due to the sheer exposure to female colleagues.
    Keywords: peers, judicial, harshness, leniency, sentencing, judge, critical mass, juveniles, crime, court
    JEL: D9 K4
    Date: 2020–12
  8. By: Sule Alan; Ceren Baysan; Mert Gumren; Elif Kubilay
    Abstract: We evaluate the impact of an educational program that aims to build social cohesion in ethnically mixed schools by developing perspective-taking ability in children. The program is implemented in a high-stakes context where the ethnic composition in schools has changed due to a massive influx of refugee children. We measure a comprehensive set of outcomes that characterize a cohesive school environment, including peer violence incidents, the prevalence of inter-ethnic social ties, and prosocial behavior. Using randomized variation in program implementation, we find that the program significantly lowers peer violence and victimization on school grounds. The program also reduces the likelihood of social exclusion and increases inter-ethnic social ties in the classroom. We find that the program significantly improves prosocial behavior, measured by incentivized tasks: treated students exhibit significantly higher trust, reciprocity, and altruism toward each other as well as toward anonymous out-school peers. We show that this enhanced prosociality is welfare improving from the ex-post payoff perspective. We investigate multiple channels that could explain the results, including ethnic bias, impulsivity, empathetic concern, behavioral norms, and perspective-taking. Children’s increased effort to take others’ perspectives emerges as the most robust mechanism to explain our results.
    Keywords: social cohesion, social exclusion, ethnic segregation, perspective taking
    JEL: I24 I28 C93
    Date: 2020
  9. By: Bhattacharya, Sukanta; Dasgupta, Aparajita; Mandal, Kumarjit; Mukherjee, Anirban
    Abstract: In this paper we examine whether students' and teachers' identity play any role in the learning outcome of students. Specifically, we ask if a student benefits by learning from a teacher of her same gender. Unlike the existing literature which explains such interaction through role model effect or Pygmalion effect, we explain such interaction in terms of gender based sorting behaviour across private and public schools. Our results are driven by two critical differences between male and female individuals. For male and female teachers, the difference comes from their differential transaction costs of traveling to schools at remote locations. For students, the difference between male and female members comes from the differential returns to education accrued to their parents; for girl students, a lower fraction of the return comes to their parental families as they start living with their husband's family after their marriages. These factors create a sorting pattern which makes the female teachers and students of the highest quality attend private schools in urban location. This creates a positive gender matching effect only for urban, private schools. We find support for our theoretical predictions when we test them using Young Lives Survey (YLS) data collected from Andhra Pradesh.
    Keywords: Teacher-student matching,Gender identity,Education,Gender norms,India
    JEL: I20 J16
    Date: 2020
  10. By: de Gendre, Alexandra (Maastricht University); Salamanca, Nicolás (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research)
    Abstract: Studying with higher ability peers increases student performance, yet we have little idea why. We exploit random assignment of students to classrooms and find positive peer effects on test scores. With rich data on nineteen potential mechanisms, we then estimate how effects on attitudes, parents, and teachers could drive these results. Higher-achieving peers reduce student effort, increase student university aspirations, increase parental time investments and parental strictness, and have precise null effects elsewhere. None of these mechanisms, however, explain our peer effect on test scores. Our results highlight promising avenues for understanding ability peer effects.
    Keywords: random assignment, standardized test, parental investments, school inputs, mediation analysis
    JEL: I23 I26 D13
    Date: 2020–12
  11. By: Kristopher S. Gerardi; Lara Loewenstein; Paul S. Willen
    Abstract: Mortgage borrowers who have experienced employment disruptions as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic are unable to refinance their loans to take advantage of historically low market rates. In this article, we analyze the effects of a streamlined refinance (“refi”) program for government-insured loans that would allow borrowers to refinance without needing to document employment or income. In addition, we consider a cash-out component that would allow borrowers to extract some of the substantial housing equity that many have accumulated in recent years.
    Keywords: refinancing; mortgage market; GSEs
    Date: 2020–12–28
  12. By: Eva Coll-Martinez (Sciences Po, Toulose); Malia Kedjar (Normandie University); Patricia Renou-Maissant (EconomiX, CNRS, University of Paris Nanterre))
    Abstract: This paper analyses the location determinants of eco-innovative firms in France. The analysis is based on a dataset obtained after merging firm-level microdata on the location of new firms from DIANE Mercantil Register (Bureau van Dijk) and patents information from the OECD REGPAT (2018) database for the period 2003 and 2013. This paper departs from previous contributions on the location determinants of eco-innovation in three main ways. First, it analyses the effects of the regional technological knowledge base and its composition focusing on environmental-based innovations. Second, it introduces spatial econometrics techniques to capture any potential spatial spillovers arising from the location of eco-innovative firms. And third, it focuses on the French case which is of special interest in view of the relevance of regional eco-innovation policies. Main results show that unrelated knowledge variety for environmental technologies and the political support in terms of investments for the protection of the environment are the main factors explaining the location of eco-innovative firms. Indeed, by applying spatial econometrics we found that there is a clear spatial dependence on the creation. However, our results also show that the impact of the knowledge composition is quite local. These results may have many implications for French departments’ environmental performance and sustainable growth.
    Keywords: eco-innovative firms’ entry, industrial location, knowledge spillovers, environmental technologies, France
    JEL: L
    Date: 2020
  13. By: Ottoz, Elisabetta; Pavese, Piermassimo; Sella, Lisa (University of Turin)
    Abstract: Hedonic regression technique has often been used to study the effect of road, railway and airport noise on property prices. However European cities are experiencing a particular type of noise pollution originated by nighttime recreational activities mainly located in the city centers, the so called “Movida†, which hasn’t been properly investigated yet. The aim of the paper is to examine the effect of recreational noise on residential property prices. We used an original highly detailed housing transactions dataset from the City of Turin covering the period 2017 to 2018 and built an indicator of recreational noise based on the proximity of dwellings to the night recreational activities. The results obtained employing hedonic modelling show that the adverse environment for an apartment located in a “Movida†district will result in a lower market value as compared to an apartment with similar characteristics, except for recreational noise. This occurs because potential buyers reduce their demand, as they discount present value of the costs of annoyance, loss of tranquility and health effects due to sleep deprivation.
    Date: 2020–12
  14. By: MELIS, Lissa; SÖRENSEN, Kenneth
    Abstract: We introduce a novel optimization problem to support the planning and routing of ondemand buses in an urban context. We call this problem the on-demand bus routing problem. Given are a fl eet of identical buses with fixed capacity, a set of bus stations and travel times between them, and a set of transportation requests. Each transportation request consists of a set of potential departure and a set of potential arrival bus stations, as well as a time window, i.e., an earliest departure time and a latest arrival time. The aim of the on-demand bus routing problem is to (1) assign each passenger to a departure and arrival bus station and (2) develop a set of bus routes to fulfill each request in time while minimizing the total travel time of all users. We present the on-demand bus routing problem, as well as a straightforward large neighborhood search heuristic to solve it. The results found by the heuristic for the on-demand bus system are compared to those of a simulated traditional public bus system with fixed lines and timetables. A thorough analysis of the comparison demonstrates that total user ride times can be significantly lower in an on-demand public bus system and shows that an on-demand bus system works best with a large number of small buses.
    Keywords: Transportation, Routing, Public transport, Metaheuristic
    Date: 2020–10
  15. By: Dias, Lucas (Departamento de Economia, Universidade de São Paulo); Haddad, Eduardo (Departamento de Economia, Universidade de São Paulo); Maggi, Andrés (Harvard University)
    Abstract: This paper assesses the efficiency of the Brazilian road network using data on road speeds and distances and a spatial general equilibrium model with costly trade. We find that Brazil would gain 0.31% of welfare if better organize its road network for intranational trade and that the most populated regions are relatively oversupplied of transport infrastructure compared with the remote and poor areas. We further find long lasting effects of the highways’ project designed to integrate Brasília with the rest of the country in the 1960s. Regions connected by the so-called Radial Highways are currently oversupplied of transport infrastructure.
    Keywords: Optimal Road Network; Intranational Trade
    JEL: F10 O18 R40
    Date: 2021–01–06
  16. By: María Padilla-Romo (Department of Economics, University of Tennessee); Cecilia Peluffo (Department of Economics, University of Florida)
    Abstract: We document that local violence generates spillover e ects beyond areas where violence takes place, via out-migration from violence-a ected areas and peer exposure to violence. We study out-migration due to drug-tracking-related violence in Mexico between 2006 and 2013. We use violence-induced student migration as an exogenous source of variation in peer exposure to violence to estimate its e ects on student academic performance in relatively safe areas. Our results show that municipalities that face more violence experience higher rates of student out-migration. In receiving schools in areas not directly a ected by violence, adding a new peer who was exposed to local violence to a class of 20 students decreases incumbents' academic performance by 1.2 percent of a standard deviation. Negative e ects are more pronounced among girls and high-achieving students.
    Keywords: Local violence; out-migration; in-migration; peer effects
    JEL: I24 I25 O15
    Date: 2020–12
  17. By: MONTENEGRO, Bryan David Galarza; SÖRENSEN, Kenneth; VANSTEENWEGEN, Pieter
    Abstract: With the rise of smart cities in the near future, it will be possible to collect relevant data from passengers in order to improve the quality of transport services. In this paper, a mathematical model and algorithm are developed to plan the trips of the buses in a demand-responsive feeder service. A feeder service transports passengers from a lowdemand area, like a sub-urban area, to a transportation hub, like a city center. The feeder service modeled in this paper considers two sets of bus stops: mandatory stops and optional stops. Mandatory stops are always visited by a bus, while optional stops are only visited when a client nearby makes a request for transportation. Passengers are assigned to a bus stop within walking distance. This in turn, gives the service both exibility through the changing timetables and routes of the buses and some predictability due to the mandatory stops. To optimize the performance of the service, mathematical modeling techniques to improve the model's runtime are developed. It is concluded that a combination of column generation and the separation of sub-tour elimination constraints decreases the computing time of small and midsize instances significantly.
    Keywords: Flexible bus services, On-demand transportation, Feeder service, Demandresponsive transportation, Combinatorial optimization, Column generation
    Date: 2020–11
  18. By: Andrew Eyles; Steve Gibbons; Piero Montebruno
    Abstract: Evidence from unexpected temporary school closures and reduced instruction time suggests school closures will reduce educational achievement, both in the short and long term. Children from disadvantaged backgrounds are likely to be affected more than others by school closures, with fewer family resources and less access to online learning resources to offset lost instruction time. In England, the total cost of the resources lost in each week of state school closure is more than £1 billion. Educational deficits from time lost to school shutdowns can be made up with additional hours of teaching when schools reopen, though schools might need to put back more hours than were lost and it may not be feasible to do this within the traditional school year. Compensating lost instruction time through additional resources, without additional hours, is likely to be even more expensive.
    Keywords: schools, school closures, covid-19, education,disadvantaged children
    Date: 2020–05
  19. By: Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina (University of California, Merced); Lofstrom, Magnus (Public Policy Institute of California); Wang, Chunbei (University of Oklahoma)
    Abstract: Over the past two decades, the U.S. has seen a drastic growth in self-employment among Mexican immigrants, the largest immigrant population in the country. This is an interesting yet puzzling trend, in stark contrast to the stagnated growth of self-employment among other disadvantaged minority groups such as blacks and even a significant decline among whites. Little is known of what drives that growth. We propose that the expansion of interior immigration enforcement, a characteristic of the U.S. immigration policy during that time span, might have contributed to this unique trend by pushing Mexican immigrants into self-employment as an alternative livelihood. Exploiting temporal and geographic variation in immigration enforcement measures from 2005 to 2017, we show that tougher enforcement has been responsible for 10 to 20 percent of the rise in Mexican self-employment. The impact mainly concentrates among likely undocumented immigrants. It is mainly driven by police-based enforcement measures responsible for most deportations, as opposed to employment-based enforcement. Our results suggest that apprehension fear, instead of lack of employment opportunities, is the main push factor.
    Keywords: state and local immigration enforcement, undocumented immigrants, Mexican immigrants, self-employment, United States
    JEL: J15 J23 K37
    Date: 2020–12
  20. By: Bradley Larsen; Ziao Ju; Adam Kapor; Chuan Yu
    Abstract: Concerned about the low academic ability of public school teachers, in the 1990s and 2000s, some states increased licensing stringency to weed out low-quality candidates, while others decreased restrictions to attract high-quality candidates. We offer a theoretical model justifying both reactions. Using data from 1991–2007 on licensing requirements and teacher quality—as measured by the selectivity of teachers’ undergraduate institutions—we find that stricter licensing requirements, especially those emphasizing academic coursework, increase the left tail of the quality distribution for secondary school teachers without significantly decreasing quality for high-minority or high-poverty districts.
    JEL: I2 J2 J4 J5 K2 K31 L5 L8
    Date: 2020–12
  21. By: Marcello Perez-Alvarez; Jan Priebe; Dewi Susanti
    Keywords: Education - Education Reform and Management Education - Effective Schools and Teachers
    Date: 2020–01
  22. By: Tomoya Mori; Minoru Osawa
    Abstract: Economic activities favor mutual geographical proximity and concentrate spatially to form cities. In a world of diminishing transport costs, however, the advantage of physical proximity is fading, and the role of cities in the economy may be declining. To provide insights into the long-run evolution of cities, we analyzed Japan's census data over the 1970--2015 period. We found that fewer and larger cities thrived at the national scale, suggesting an eventual mono-centric economy with a single megacity; simultaneously, each larger city flattened out at the local scale, suggesting an eventual extinction of cities. We interpret this multi-scale phenomenon as an instance of pattern formation by self-organization, which is widely studied in mathematics and biology. However, cities' dynamics are distinct from mathematical or biological mechanisms because they are governed by economic interactions mediated by transport costs between locations. Our results call for the synthesis of knowledge in mathematics, biology, and economics to open the door for a general pattern formation theory that is applicable to socioeconomic phenomena.
    Date: 2020–12
  23. By: Maciej Borsa; Aleksandra Jadach-Sepiolo; Bert Provan
    Abstract: This report addresses options for city renewal in the medium sized, but shrinking, Polish city of Walbrzych. It provides an overview of the impact of the rapid closure of the mining industry in the mid-1990s, in terms of high unemployment, family poverty, and the transfer of legacy buildings and housing in very poor condition. A range of EU and Polish investment programmes over the last 20 years have brought new industries and urban development, particularly through the creation of a Special Economic Zone. The report reviews current initiatives taking place in Walbrzych and explores these in the context of good practice and options from 25 EU cities, mainly of a similar size and with similar types of problem. A set of four virtual workshops over four days were held involving 9 cities and URBACT domain experts to explore in more detail the experience of Walbrzych and compare it to the problems and solutions in those other cities and networks. These workshops and discussions are described and analysed. The report concludes with an overview of possible next steps for Walbrzych. There are also five detailed case studies which present actions taken in five additional cities, complementing the detailed work in the workshops. The project was funded by the European Investment Bank and the report and the case studies are attached in the format required by the funder. ** Find out more about the project on our website: arch/Walbrzych/default.asp
    Keywords: Cities, City Size, Depressed Areas, Urban Development, Slums, Urbanism, Poland
    JEL: R11
    Date: 2020–07
  24. By: John C. Haltiwanger; Mark J. Kutzbach; Giordano Palloni; Henry O. Pollakowski; Matthew Staiger; Daniel H. Weinberg
    Abstract: We combine national administrative data on earnings and participation in subsidized housing to study how the demolition of 160 public housing projects—funded by the HOPE VI program—affected the adult labor market outcomes for 18,500 children. Our empirical strategy compares children exposed to the program to children drawn from thousands of non-demolished projects, adjusting for observable differences using a flexible estimator that combines features of matching and regression. We find that children who resided in HOPE VI projects earn 14% more at age 26 relative to children in comparable non-HOPE VI projects. These earnings gains are strongest for demolitions in large cities, particularly in neighborhoods with higher pre-demolition poverty rates and lower pre-demolition job accessibility. There is no evidence that the labor market gains are driven by improvements in household or neighborhood environments that promote human capital development in children. Rather, subsequent improvements in job accessibility represent a likely pathway for the results.
    Date: 2020–11
  25. By: Nicola Bianchi; Yi Lu; Hong Song
    Abstract: In this paper, we examine the effect of computer-assisted learning on students’ long-term development. We explore the implementation of the “largest ed-tech intervention in the world to date,” which connected China’s best teachers to more than 100 million rural students through satellite internet. We find evidence that exposure to the program improved students’ academic achievement, labor performance, and computer usage. We observe these effects up to ten years after program implementation. These findings indicate that education technology can have long-lasting positive effects on a variety of outcomes and can be effective in reducing the rural–urban education gap.
    JEL: I24 I26 I28 O15 O38
    Date: 2020–12
  26. By: Kulander, Maria (University of Gävle, Sweden); Wilhelmsson, Mats (Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: As in many other countries, the population in Sweden is getting older. It means that the number of older people in society increases in absolute numbers and relative terms. Consequently, this will mean that the need for elderly housing will increase and the cost of these investments will be high. The following study aims to quantitatively analyse the spatial distribution of the number and size of housing for the elderly in Sweden over 2013-2018. The number of elderly housing per capita is not evenly distributed, and a large part of the explanation is, of course, that the number of older people is not evenly distributed between municipalities. Nevertheless, we can also state that the municipality's income level and tax base, as well as the geographical size and degree of urbanisation, play a role. If the municipality has a surplus or deficit in the supply of special housing for the elderly, it has no correlation with the distribution of Covid-19 cases or with the forecast number of older people in the future.
    Keywords: Elderly; Housing stock; Covid-19; Demographic
    JEL: J11 R23 R31
    Date: 2020–12–28
  27. By: Fernando V. Ferreira; Maisy Wong
    Abstract: This paper presents a new framework to estimate preferences for neighborhoods in the presence of individual imperfect information about every amenity in each neighborhood. We estimate the model with data from a new neighborhood choice program that provided information about market rents and same-school network, and collected neighborhood rankings for the same individual before and after receiving information. We find that switchers - who change rankings after the information intervention - increase network shares by 1.46 percentage points and decrease rents by $430. This variation from the panel data of individual rankings is critical to produce a latent quality index that addresses biases arising from imperfect information. Estimates from the neighborhood sorting model reveal a strong negative marginal utility of rents, and a positive marginal willingness to pay of $123 per month to live in a neighborhood with a larger network. Finally, information also influenced residential choices after graduation.
    JEL: C1 J60 R0
    Date: 2020–12
  28. By: Pollermann, Kim; Fynn, Lynn-Livia; Schwarze, Stefan
    Abstract: Fostering innovation-driven regional development has become a major priority for public policy. Thus innovation is a crucial issue in Rural Development Programmes (RDP) to overcome challenges like economic development and demographic change. One part of RDP funded by the European Union, which explicitly addresses innovation, is LEADER: a bottom-up-oriented, participatory approach which relies on cooperation between local actors in the sense of a Community-led local development (CLLD). Stakeholders of different institutions and origins come together in a Local Action Group (LAG) to decide on the projects to be financed. Previous research provides evidence that rural communities are innovative when they have the necessary space and power to act. There is, however, little knowledge about the factors, which are crucial for the power to act, and about the policy framework that provides the necessary space in CLLD-context. The aim of the paper is hence to identify factors, which influence the implementation of innovative projects. Our analysis builds on surveys among LAG-managers, LAG-members and beneficiaries in 115 LEADER areas in four federal states in Germany (Hesse, Lower-Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein). Since the explanatory is a dummy variable we used logit models for the analysis. Overall, 56% of the beneficiaries classified their own project as innovative. There are, however, large differences between the different federal states. Our econometric results suggest that origin of the project idea and the type of beneficiary significantly influence the likelihood of innovation. The expectation that heterogeneity fosters innovative ideas is not supported by our analyses.Fostering innovation-driven regional development has become a major priority for public policy. Thus innovation is a crucial issue in Rural Development Programmes (RDP) to overcome challenges like economic development and demographic change. One part of RDP funded by the European Union, which explicitly addresses innovation, is LEADER: a bottom-up-oriented, participatory approach which relies on cooperation between local actors in the sense of a Community-led local development (CLLD). Stakeholders of different institutions and origins come together in a Local Action Group (LAG) to decide on the projects to be financed. Previous research provides evidence that rural communities are innovative when they have the necessary space and power to act. There is, however, little knowledge about the factors, which are crucial for the power to act, and about the policy framework that provides the necessary space in CLLD-context. The aim of the paper is hence to identify factors, which influence the implementation of innovative projects. Our analysis builds on surveys among LAG-managers, LAG-members and beneficiaries in 115 LEADER areas in four federal states in Germany (Hesse, Lower-Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein). Since the explanatory is a dummy variable we used logit models for the analysis. Overall, 56% of the beneficiaries classified their own project as innovative. There are, however, large differences between the different federal states. Our econometric results suggest that origin of the project idea and the type of beneficiary significantly influence the likelihood of innovation. The expectation that heterogeneity fosters innovative ideas is not supported by our analyses.
    Keywords: Innovation,Rural development,LEADER,evaluation
    JEL: R1
    Date: 2021
  29. By: Domagoj Karacic (Faculty of Economics, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek); David Krmpotic (Department of Finance and Procurement, City of Osijek); Marija Iles (Faculty of Economics, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek)
    Abstract: The budget revenues of cities in the last few years have not been constant and are largely dependent on a number of factors such as: uncertain trends in the local and world economy, uneven criteria for urban development and numerous perennial legislative changes. A lot of legal changes have been made in the Republic of Croatia relating to budget planning and defining the sources of financing of cities, moreover, the Personal Income Tax Act has been amended six times in the period from 2014 to 2019, and the Act on the Financing of Local and Regional Self-Government Units has been amended several times, with a new law on local taxes being introduced in 2018. The reasons for numerous legal changes are twofold and partially stem from the adjustment to the relief of the Croatian economy, and partially from the state's efforts to further relieve the tax burden on labour and income taxation. These changes reflected on, and significantly affected, the fiscal capacity of the revenues of large cities. Recommendations are aimed at greater fiscal autonomy of large cities and are aimed at further implementation of fiscal decentralization, especially in the area related to tax revenues.
    Keywords: Large cities, tax revenues, own revenue, fiscal capacity
  30. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Governance - Local Government Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Spatial and Local Economic Development Urban Development - National Urban Development Policies & Strategies Urban Development - Regional Urban Development Public Sector Development - Public Sector Economics
    Date: 2020
  31. By: Giulia Martina Tanzi (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: In this paper I analyse whether non-employment periods at the initial stages of an individual’s career may increase workers’ propensity to experience non-employment also in subsequent years. The study is based on data on young individuals in Italy. The paper uses an instrumental variables approach to separate the effect of early non-employment from any residual unobserved heterogeneity. The results provide strong evidence of negative effects induced by early non-employment, but the size of these effects depends on individual and regional labour market characteristics. The negative repercussions of early non-employment are smaller during economic downturns or in regions with high unemployment rates.
    Keywords: non-employment, labor market conditions, instrumental variables
    JEL: J64 C26 C34
    Date: 2020–12
  32. By: Lombardi, Stefano (VATT); van den Berg, Gerard J. (University of Groningen); Vikström, Johan (IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy)
    Abstract: This paper builds on the Empirical Monte Carlo simulation approach developed by Huber et al. (2013) to study the estimation of Timing-of-Events (ToE) models. We exploit rich Swedish data of unemployed job-seekers with information on participation in a training program to simulate placebo treatment durations. We first use these simulations to examine which covariates are key confounders to be included inselection models. The joint inclusion of specific short-term employment history indicators (notably, the share of time spent in employment), together with baseline socio-economic characteristics, regional and inflow timing information,is important to deal with selection bias. Next, we omit subsets of explanatory variables and estimate ToE models with discrete distributions for the ensuing systematic unobserved heterogeneity. In many cases the ToE approach provides accurate effect estimates, especially if time-varying variation in the unemployment rate of the local labor market is taken into account. However, assuming too many or too few support points for unobserved heterogeneity may lead to large biases. Information criteria, in particular those penalizing parameter abundance, are useful to select the number of support points.
    Keywords: duration analysis; unemployment; propensity score; matching; training; employment
    JEL: C14 C15 C41 J64
    Date: 2020–12–29
  33. By: Sigler, Thomas; Neal, Zachary; Martinus, Kirsten
    Abstract: Brokerage is an increasingly relevant function of city-regions within diverse economic network structures. In this paper, we identify cities whose brokerage roles are defined by their network positionality within the global corporate network using linkages between headquarters and subsidiary locations. Applying Gould and Fernandez’s framework of five potential brokerage types, we supplement understandings of brokerage as a network position by unpacking the diversity of forms brokerage assumes as a process. City-regions are conferred economic advantage through their brokerage roles that close structural holes in inter-urban firm networks resulting from a range of domestic and international brokerage roles.
    Date: 2020–12–14
  34. By: Brunnschweiler, Christa N. (University of East Anglia); Obeng, Samuel Kwabena (University of East Anglia)
    Abstract: We examine how local governments' political alignment with central government affects subnational fiscal outcomes. In theory, alignment could be rewarded with more intergovernmental transfers, or swing voters in unaligned constituencies could be targeted instead. We analyze data from Ghana, which has a complex decentralized system: District Chief Executives (DCEs) are centrally-appointed local administrators loyal to the ruling party, while district MPs may belong to another party. A formula for transfer distribution aims to limit the ifluence of party politics. Using a new dataset for 1994-2014 and a regression discontinuity design, we find that despite this system, districts with aligned MP and DCE receive more transfers, have higher district expenditure, and more internally generated funds. Results are strongest for a subsample of constant districts over the period, suggesting that municipal fragmentation has weakened political alignment effects. We also show strong electoral cycle effects, and find a crowd-in effect for Ghanaian districts. JEL codes: H7 ; D72 ; H87 ; O55
    Keywords: fiscal federalism ; political alignment ; ypaper effect ; Ghana ; regression discontinuity
    Date: 2020
  35. By: Julia M. Rohrer (Department of Psychology, University of Leipzig & International Max Planck Research School on the Life Course (LIFE), Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin); Tamás Keller (Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies. 1097 Budapest, Tóth Kálmán utca 4. and Department of Economics, Corvinus University of Budapest. 1093 Budapest Fõvám tér 8. Computational Social Science - Research Center for Educational and Network Studies, Centre for Social Sciences. 1097 Budapest, Tóth Kálmán utca 4. and Evolutionary Systems Research Group, Centre for Ecological Research); Felix Elwert (Department of Sociology & Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, University of Wisconsin-Madison)
    Abstract: Can outside interventions foster socio-culturally diverse friendships? We executed a large field experiment that randomized the seating charts of 182 primary-school classrooms (N=2,996 students) for the duration of one semester. We found that being seated next to each other increased the probability of a mutual friendship from 15% to 22% on average. Furthermore, induced proximity increased the latent propensity toward friendship equally for all students, regardless of students’ dyadic similarity with respect to educational achievement, gender, and ethnicity. However, the probability of a manifest friendship increased more among similar than among dissimilar students. Our findings demonstrate that a scalable light-touch intervention can affect face-to-face networks and foster diverse friendships in groups that already know each other, but they also highlight that transgressing boundaries defined by ethnicity and gender remains an uphill battle.
    Keywords: Friendship formation, Social networks, Diversity, Homophily, Randomized field experiment, Deskmates
    JEL: C93 I21 I24 J18 Z13
    Date: 2020–12
  36. By: LSE Housing and Communities
    Abstract: This report explores the homelessness context in the UK, its causes, and the government's approach to tackling homelessness. It also provides evidence of successes and failures of three government funded Housing First pilot schemes, as well as good practice examples from homelessness charities and organisations following Housing First principles.
    Keywords: homelessness, housing first, policy,
    Date: 2020–09
  37. By: Scott R. Baker (Northwestern University, Kellogg School of Management, Department of Finance); Pawel Janas (Kellogg School of Management - Department of Finance); Lorenz Kueng (University of Lugano - Faculty of Economics; Swiss Finance Institute; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER); Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR); Northwestern University - Kellogg School of Management)
    Abstract: We develop a comprehensive dataset of state and local taxes from 2000-2015 that includes personal income taxes, property taxes, corporate income taxes, sales taxes, estate taxes and excise taxes. We illustrate how state and local taxes have changed over time, in response to business cycles, and to what extent different taxes co-move within a state or locality. Across states and local jurisdictions, large differences in the mix of taxes are observed, and these differences have tended to become more pronounced over time. Moreover, we note that different types of taxes tend to co-move within a state or local jurisdiction, highlighting the importance for researches to take into account the entirety of the tax system, rather than just a single tax type, when examining household or firm responses to state and local tax changes. At both a state and local level, increases in tax rates of all types tend to increase tax revenue but worsen business conditions and employment.
    Keywords: Local taxes, state taxes, income tax, corporate income tax, sales tax, property tax
    JEL: H20 H71 H72 H77
    Date: 2020–08
  38. By: Andersson , Tommy (Department of Economics, Lund University); Ehlers , Lars (Département de sciences économiques, Université de Montréal); Svensson , Lars-Gunnar (Department of Economics, Lund University)
    Abstract: We consider a market with indivisible objects, called houses, and money. On this market, each house is initially owned (or rented) by some agent and each agent demands precisely one house. The problem is to identify the complete set of direct allocation mechanisms that can be used to reallocate the houses among the agents. The focus is on price mechanisms, i.e., mappings of preference profiles to price equilibria, that are strategy-proof and satisfy an individual rationality condition. We prove that the only mechanism that satisfies these conditions is a price mechanism with a minimal equilibrium price vector. The result is not true in full preference domain. Instead, we identify a smaller domain, that contains almost all profiles, where the result holds.
    Keywords: Public housing; existing tenants; equilibrium; minimum equilibrium prices; domain
    JEL: C71 C78 D71 D78
    Date: 2020–12–15
  39. By: AERTS, Babiche; CORNELISSENS, Trijntje; SÖRENSEN, Kenneth
    Abstract: ?The Joint Order Batching and Picker Routing Problem (JOBPRP) is a very promising approach to minimize the order picking travel distance in a picker-to-parts warehouse environment. We show that this JOBPRP can be modelled as a clustered vehicle routing problem (CluVRP) by replacing vehicles by batches, clusters by orders and customers by pick locations. To solve this cluster-based model of the JOBPRP,we implement a two-level Variable Neighborhood Search (2level-VNS) meta-heuristic as used earlier for the CluVRP, and study which adaptations are required to perform e ciently in a warehouse environment. Additionally, we test if the Hausdor? distance used for the CluVRP can serve as a valid clustering criterion for order batching. We implement the Hausdor? distance in two di?erent ways in our batching heuristic, and compare the performance with the cumulative minimal aisles visited-criterion, known as a well-performing batching metric in rectangular warehouses with parallel aisles. Finally, we show that the CluVRP model solved by the 2level-VNS approach performs well compared to state-of-the-art algorithms for the OBP in single-block warehouses. Only a multi-start VNS approach published recently obtains slightly be?er solutions. Concerning the Hausdor? distance, we must conclude that in most experiments the minimum-aisles criterion retains a be?er ?t in this warehouse context.
    Date: 2020–04
  40. By: Global Platform for Sustainable Cities
    Keywords: Environment - Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases Environment - Environment and Energy Efficiency Urban Development - City Development Strategies Urban Development - National Urban Development Policies & Strategies Urban Development - Urban Economic Development Urban Development - Urban Environment
    Date: 2020–02
  41. By: Cevat Giray Aksoy; Panu Poutvaara; Felicitas Schikora
    Abstract: We study the causal effect of local labor market conditions and attitudes towards immigrants at the time of arrival on refugees’ multi-dimensional integration outcomes (economic, linguistic, navigational, political, psychological, and social). Using a unique dataset on refugees, we leverage a centralized allocation policy in Germany where refugees were exogenously assigned to live in specific counties. We find that high initial local unemployment negatively affects refugees’ economic and social integration: they are less likely to be in education or employment and they earn less. We also show that favorable attitudes towards immigrants promote refugees’ economic and social integration. The results suggest that attitudes toward immigrants are as important as local unemployment rates in shaping refugees’ integration outcomes. Using a machine learning classifier algorithm, we find that our results are driven by older people and those with secondary or tertiary education. Our findings highlight the importance of both initial economic and social conditions for facilitating refugee integration, and have implications for the design of centralized allocation policies.
    Keywords: International migration, refugees, integration, allocation policy
    JEL: F22 J15 J24
    Date: 2020
  42. By: Anders Bondemark (Lund University [Lund]); Henrik Andersson (TSE - Toulouse School of Economics - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Anders Wretstrand (Lund University [Lund]); Karin Brundell-Freij (Lund University [Lund])
    Abstract: One of the reasons to subsidise public transport is to improve the mobility of low-income groups by providing affordable public transport; however, the literature describes a situation whereby those with a low income are unable to afford the cheapest tickets per trip, i.e. travelcards, as they usually require a considerable up-front cost. In this study, we use a large dataset from the Swedish National Travel Survey to investigate whether, and if so how, income explains monthly travelcard possession among individuals for whom this would have been the least expensive option. We find a robust positive relationship between income and travelcard possession among low-income earners, indicating that those with a low income pay more to use public transport than more affluent individuals. As the accessibility of low-income groups is an important motivation for public transport subsidies, the findings from this study have important policy implications.
    Keywords: Fares,Public transport,Income,Liquidity constraints
    Date: 2020–10
  43. By: Horacio Terraza; Maria Beatriz Orlando; Carina Lakovits; Vanessa Lopes Janik; Anna Kalashyan
    Keywords: Gender - Gender and Urban Development Urban Development - City Development Strategies Urban Development - National Urban Development Policies & Strategies Urban Development - Urban Economic Development Social Development - Social Inclusion & Institutions
    Date: 2020–02
  44. By: Thomas Byrne; S\'andor P. Fekete; J\"org Kalcsics; Linda Kleist
    Abstract: We study competitive location problems in a continuous setting, in which facilities have to be placed in a rectangular domain $R$ of normalized dimensions of $1$ and $\rho\geq 1$, and distances are measured according to the Manhattan metric. We show that the family of 'balanced' facility configurations (in which the Voronoi cells of individual facilities are equalized with respect to a number of geometric properties) is considerably richer in this metric than for Euclidean distances. Our main result considers the 'One-Round Voronoi Game' with Manhattan distances, in which first player White and then player Black each place $n$ points in $R$; each player scores the area for which one of its facilities is closer than the facilities of the opponent. We give a tight characterization: White has a winning strategy if and only if $\rho\geq n$; for all other cases, we present a winning strategy for Black.
    Date: 2020–11
  45. By: Bagues, Manuel (University of Warwick, J-Pal, CEPR, IZA); Roth, Christopher (University of Warwick, briq, CESifo, CAGE, CEPR)
    Abstract: We study the long-run effects of contact with individuals from other regions on beliefs, preferences and national identity. We combine a natural experiment, the random assignment of male conscripts to different locations throughout Spain, with tailored survey data. Being randomly assigned to complete military service outside of one’s region of residence fosters contact with conscripts from other regions, and increases sympathy towards people from the region of service, measured several decades later. We also observe an increase in identification with Spain for individuals originating from regions with peripheral nationalism. Our evidence suggests that intergroup exposure in early adulthood can have long-lasting effects on individual preferences and national identity.
    Keywords: Interregional Contact ; Intergroup Exposure ; Beliefs ; Preference Formation ; Identity JEL codes: R23 ; D91 ; Z1
    Date: 2020
  46. By: Cohen D’Agostino, Mollie; Pellaton, Paige; White, Brittany
    Abstract: Congestion pricing can be an equitable policy strategy. This project consisted of a review of case studies of existing and planned congestion pricing strategies in North America (Vancouver, Seattle, and New York) and elsewhere (Singapore, London, Stockholm, and Gothenberg). The analysis shows that the most equitable congestion pricing systems include 1) a meaningful community-engagement processes to help policymakers identify equitable priorities; 2) pricing structures that strike a balance between efficiency and equity, while encouraging multi-modal travel; 3) clear plans for investing CP revenues to equalize the costs and benefits of congestion relief; and lastly, 4) a comprehensive data reporting plan to ensure equity goals are achieved. This project was developed to support the San Francisco County Transportation Authority in its efforts to conduct the Downtown Congestion Project.
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, Congestion pricing, social equity, travel demand, planning methods, performance measurement, policy analysis, case studies
    Date: 2020–12–01
  47. By: Seiro Ito (Institute of Developing Economies); Abu S. Shonchoy (Department of Economics, Florida International University)
    Abstract: Rural families face tradeoffs when deciding whether to keep children in school or have them work in the ï¬ eld. School calendars can magnify this tradeoff by not accommodating agricultural harvesting cycles within the schedule. We show this misalignment has a signiï¬ cant and sizable effect on school continuation. In Bangladesh, a rise in seasonal labor demand due to the Aman paddy harvesting typically coincides with the yearly ï¬ nal examination of schools. Employing the lunar calendar variation of Ramadan school holidays as a natural experiment framework — that forced schools to re-schedule ï¬ nal examinations to a pre-harvest season in 1999 — and comparing it with a typical year of 2002, we ï¬ nd that annual exams overlapping with major local harvesting period inflate the school dropout by 6.5 to 8.4 percentage points between the agricultural and non-agricultural households. Age-speciï¬ c cohort analysis using a nationally representative household survey also supports this evidence. Exploiting state-level academic calendar variation, we executed a similar analysis for India and found supporting evidence to validate our ï¬ ndings. Our paper suggests the careful design of school calendars in developing countries by adequately addressing local seasonality.
    Keywords: enrollment, child labor, seasonal labor-demand, school calendar, ramadan, drop-out
    Date: 2020–12
  48. By: Mario J. Crucini; Oscar O'Flaherty
    Abstract: State and local governments throughout the United States attempted to mitigate the spread of Covid-19 using stay-at-home orders to limit social interactions and mobility. We study the economic impact of these orders and their optimal implementation in a fiscal union. Using an event study framework, we find that stay-at-home orders caused a 4 percentage point decrease in consumer spending and hours worked. These estimates suggest a $10 billion decrease in spending and $15 billion in lost earnings. We then develop an economic SIR model with multiple locations to study the optimal implementation of stay-at-home orders. From a national welfare perspective, the model suggests that it is optimal for locations with higher infection rates to set stricter mitigation policies. This occurs as a common, national policy is too restrictive for the economies of mildly infected areas and causes greater declines in consumption and hours worked than are optimal.
    JEL: E3 E47 E62 H12 H23 H7
    Date: 2020–12
  49. By: Paul Waddell; Arezoo Besharati-Zadeh
    Abstract: Urban transportation and land use models have used theory and statistical modeling methods to develop model systems that are useful in planning applications. Machine learning methods have been considered too 'black box', lacking interpretability, and their use has been limited within the land use and transportation modeling literature. We present a use case in which predictive accuracy is of primary importance, and compare the use of random forest regression to multiple regression using ordinary least squares, to predict rents per square foot in the San Francisco Bay Area using a large volume of rental listings scraped from the Craigslist website. We find that we are able to obtain useful predictions from both models using almost exclusively local accessibility variables, though the predictive accuracy of the random forest model is substantially higher.
    Date: 2020–11
  50. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Transport - Transport Economics Policy & Planning Transport - Roads & Highways Transport - Railways Transport Information and Communication Technologies - ICT Applications Information and Communication Technologies - Information Technology Urban Development - Transport in Urban Areas
    Date: 2020
  51. By: Tomas Reichenbachas (Bank of Lithuania)
    Abstract: In this paper, we adopt a dual micro-and-macro simulation strategy to assess the impact of introducing (or changing) the LTV limit. Due to the nature of borrower-based macroprudential measures, to assess this impact we need to use borrower-level micro data. Tightening (or loosening) the LTV limit increases the share of borrowers constrained by the policy measure in question; thus, the overall impact depends on initial market conditions. We find that the introduction of an LTV limit of 85 % in 2011 had a modest short-term impact on economic activity because the new regulatory limit was non-binding for most borrowers at the time. We estimate that if the LTV limit would not have been introduced, the household loan portfolio would have grown on average 1.5 percentage points faster per year (over 2012-2014). This would have led to a 0.5 percentage point higher housing price growth and a 0.2 percentage point higher real GDP growth. When the macroprudential LTV limit is binding for a significant portion of borrowers, lowering the LTV limit at current market conditions has a much more pronounced effect. We show that if the LTV limit had been implemented at the end of 2004, it would have substantially helped in tempering the credit and housing boom, albeit at the cost of lowering economic growth.
    Keywords: Financial stability, Macroprudential policy, Borrower-based macroprudential policy instruments, LTV limit
    JEL: C32 C53 E58 G28
    Date: 2020–12–02
  52. By: Yusuke Narita (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: Many centralized school admissions systems use lotteries to ration limited seats at oversubscribed schools. The resulting random assignment is used by empirical researchers to identify the effects of schools on outcomes like test scores. I first find that the two most popular empirical research designs may not successfully extract a random assignment of applicants to schools. When do the research designs overcome this problem? I show the following main results for a class of data-generating mechanisms containing those used in practice: The “first-choice” research design extracts a random assignment under a mechanism if the mechanism is strategy-proof for schools. In contrast, the other “qualification instrument” research design does not necessarily extract a random assignment under any mechanism. The former research design is therefore more compelling than the latter. Many applications of the two research designs need some implicit assumption, such as large-sample approximately random assignment, to justify their empirical strategy.
    Keywords: market design, natural experiment, school effectiveness
    JEL: C93 D47 I24
    Date: 2020–12
  53. By: Akbulut-Yuksel, Mevlude (Dalhousie University); Boulatoff, Catherine (Dalhousie University)
    Abstract: We explore the power of behavioral economic insights to influence the level of households' recycling and Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) by examining the effectiveness of a green nudge, the adoption of a Clear Bag Policy that was implemented in 2015 in a mid-size urban municipality in Canada. Using a Regression Discontinuity (RD) Design on universe administrative data, our analysis shows that this green nudge promoted recycling, and reduced both refuse and total MSW. While recycling increased by 15 percent, total MSW decreased by 27 percent overall between August 2015 and July 2017. Our results also demonstrate heterogeneity in response to a Clear Bag Policy across neighborhoods with varying socioeconomic indicators. Our findings suggest that green nudges can serve as effective policy instruments in devising future environment policies.
    Keywords: environmental policy, green nudge, Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), regression discontinuity design, ArcGIS
    JEL: D12 D91 H23
    Date: 2020–12
  54. By: Tim Johnson; Oleg Smirnov
    Abstract: We study a spatial, one-shot prisoner's dilemma (PD) model in which selection operates on both an organism's behavioral strategy (cooperate or defect) and its choice of when to implement that strategy across a set of discrete time slots. Cooperators evolve to fixation regularly in the model when we add time slots to lattices and small-world networks, and their portion of the population grows, albeit slowly, when organisms interact in a scale-free network. This selection for cooperators occurs across a wide variety of time slots and it does so even when a crucial condition for the evolution of cooperation on graphs is violated--namely, when the ratio of benefits to costs in the PD does not exceed the number of spatially-adjacent organisms.
    Date: 2020–11
  55. By: Jaller, Miguel; Harvey, John; Rivera, Daniel; Kim, Changmo
    Abstract: Factors such as the economic recession, the rise of the on-demand economy, changes in the regulatory environment, population growth and urbanization have affected the distribution of goods. One example is the shift in the location of warehouses and distribution facilities away from consumer markets. This shift or logistics sprawl brings about unintended consequences such as increased vehicle miles traveled and concentration of freight activity in specific, usually disadvantaged, communities. In California, especially in Southern California, previous research showed an increase in the concentration of these facilities at longer distances from their primary delivery locations. Additional research also showed that while the trend exists in the region, it has not continued at the same pace in the last decade, or it may have even reversed. The 2008-2009 recession and the growth of e-commerce activity are two of the main factors that potentially explain this phenomenon. These changes are relevant for freight planning because they do not only affect the location of the facilities, but also traffic generation and potential changes in vehicles used. For example, smaller facilities closer to customer may use smaller vehicles distributing smaller shipments at higher frequencies; or, the redistribution of the freight activity and supply chain configurations. This research brief summarizes findings from the project which used the California Department of Transportation Weigh-in-Motion data from stations located in Southern California from January 2003 to December 2015 to validate some of these assumptions.
    Keywords: Engineering, e-commerce, logistic sprawl, WIM data
    Date: 2020–12–01
  56. By: LSE Housing and Communities
    Abstract: This report documents 17 case studies of homelessness provision and support in the United Kingdom. Promoting shared learning amongst the providers of homelessness support can improve the capacity and delivery of homelessness initiatives. LSE Housing's research has demonstrated the complex and multi-faceted nature of homelessness and the need for varied approaches and services to tackle it. The core aim of this report is to foster greater knowledge exchange and sharing of good practice, to help more people access a stable, secure, safe place to call home.
    Keywords: homelessness, housing first, case studies,
    Date: 2020–06
  57. By: Gabriel Lara Ibarra; Vibhuti Mendiratta
    Keywords: Poverty Reduction - Access of Poor to Social Services Poverty Reduction - Employment and Shared Growth Poverty Reduction - Inequality Poverty Reduction - Services & Transfers to Poor Urban Development - Urban Services to the Poor
    Date: 2020–01
  58. By: Pazhanisamy, R.
    Abstract: The present Covid -19 pandemic has taken away many millions of lives across the countries and negatively affect the lifestyles of crores of households and the migrant populations are the immediate victims of such disaster. This policy brief trace and reveals the extent of migrants population in India and discover the lock down caused socio economic impact of covid-19 and highlight the gap where the state intervention is immediately warranted.
    Keywords: Migration,Immigration,Impact of Pandemic,Covid-19 and Migration,Reverse Migration,labor issues
    JEL: J21 J58 J68 J61 J82 O15
    Date: 2020
  59. By: KANG Byeongwoo; MOTOHASHI Kazuyuki
    Abstract: This study investigates how regional conditions affect university startups using data from Japan. We use the list of university startups compiled by METI, covering more than 2,000 firms, linked with JPO patent information. The study found that technical field of patents obtained by university startups are influenced by local industry characteristics. In addition, in terms of commercialization of university patents, commercialization by university startups is more locally proximate, as compared to cases realized through university industry collaborations. Our results provide implications that regional conditions must be considered when setting academic entrepreneurship policies.
    Date: 2020–11
  60. By: Manolya Tanyu; Elizabeth Spier; Scott Pulizzi; Mariah Rooney; Isobel Sorenson; Jessica Fernandez
    Abstract: All children experience some level of stress in their lives. If stress is persistent and accumulative, it may have detrimental effects on the social, emotional, and physical well-being of the individual child and long-term economic and health impacts on our societies. Understanding the causes, effects, and mitigating and exacerbating factors of adversity and trauma is critical to promote practices and policies for better lives. The purpose of this working paper is to help education policymakers and education leaders and practitioners know how to better support students who have experienced adversity and/or trauma and build their resilience.In this working paper we synthesise the best available evidence for the causes and effects of adversity and/or trauma in children, specify the factors that exacerbate poor educational experiences and outcomes as well as mitigating factors that support resilience, and draw together evidence on effective practices in education systems to improve supports and outcomes for students who have experienced trauma and/or adversity. We also feature five case studies of these effective practices. We conclude with considerations for education stakeholders. This includes, strengthening linkages between schools and services and supports in other sectors; using learner-centred pedagogies for social and emotional learning (SEL) and resilience building; prioritising teacher training and support to understand and respond to adversity and trauma of learners and to promote their own well-being; employing frameworks, such as multi-tiered approaches, to identify and meet the needs of learners; and using technical assistance centres and networks to share evidence-based practices and provide guidance to education stakeholders about how to meet the specific needs of sub-populations of students. Together, these approaches should provide better learning experiences for all learners, especially for those who have experienced adversity and/or trauma.
    Date: 2020–12–18
  61. By: Saurav Dev Bhatta; Tashmina Rahman; Md. Naibur Rahman; Uttam Sharma; Lindsay Adams
    Keywords: Education - Access & Equity in Basic Education Education - Early Childhood Development Education - Education Reform and Management Education - Effective Schools and Teachers
    Date: 2020–02
  62. By: Bove Guillaume; Dees Stéphane; Thubin Camille
    Abstract: We develop a model of house prices and household indebtedness and include it in the Banque de France's semi-structural macroeconomic model in order to analyse the implications of mortgage debt dynamics on economic fluctuations and financial stability in France. Our results show that accounting for household financial vulnerability in the distribution of loans is key to prevent large credit and house price fluctuations from reinforcing each other in the long term. Moreover, our model shows that measures constraining the indebtedness of households (regarding the maturity of loans or borrower-based caps) helps reducing short- to medium-term financial instability dynamics.
    Keywords: Semi-structural Models, House Prices, Mortgage Debt
    JEL: E51 E47 C51
    Date: 2020
  63. By: Uddfeldt, Arvid
    Abstract: The civil war in Syria has culminated in a massive refugee crisis in neighboring and European countries. Millions of refugees made their way to Europe between 2014 and 2015, with more than 160 000 arriving in Sweden alone. Little is known about the impact of this influx on voting behavior, criminality rates, labor markets, and local price levels. By using data on the Swedish municipalities, the analysis estimates the short-run consequences of the refugee inflow. The results are found through a dynamic difference-in-difference estimator, which compare municipalities in Sweden who received relatively many refugees (treated) compared to those hosting relatively few refugees (control). The quasi-randomized allocation process of refugees in combination with a very high variation among the different municipalities refugee-intake creates stable conditions for reliable estimations through the difference-indifference approach. Regarding the labor market, the findings suggest that the treated groups hosting many refugees face higher unemployment rates and simultaneously lower wage levels. Additionally, the result indicates that the municipalities hosting more refugees face higher crimes committed per capita, particularly regarding assault- and fraud-related crimes. Furthermore, the results stress that the treated group meet higher vote shares in the subsequent national election in favor of the right-wing parties and decreasing support for the center-right, center-left, and left-wing parties. Surprisingly, the vote share of the antiimmigration party SD does not correlate with refugee-influx.
    Date: 2021–01–04
  64. By: Hal Hill; Jayant Menon
    Abstract: Economic corridors have gained popularity as a potentially important instrument in the development and transformation of low and middle income economies. But why have some countries had more success with them than others? What role does governance, institutions, finance and policy frameworks play in determining their success? How can we measure their impacts? We try and answer these questions by looking closely at, and drawing lessons from, two case studies of successful corridors in Asia, Malaysia and Thailand. A key conclusion is that economic corridors are more likely to succeed with greater domestic spillovers when the physical and policy infrastructure are conducive.
    Keywords: Economic corridors, economic geography, Southeast Asia
    JEL: O53 R11 R58
    Date: 2020
  65. By: Berniell, Lucila; de la Mata, Dolores; Juncosa, Federico
    Abstract: We explore local externalities in labor markets, exploiting the random assignment of a large-scale internship program in Argentina. Examining the probability of registered employment in the 12 months after the program, we find that applicants are affected by two opposing external effects: those whose closest applicant received the internship have an employment rate 1.8 percentage points higher than the neighbors of non-beneficiary applicants, while those who face the top decile of program saturation in their neighborhood show an employment rate 2.98 percentage points lower than those in the first decile.
    Keywords: Banca de desarrollo, Desarrollo, Desempleo, Economía, Educación, Habilidades y destrezas, Investigación socioeconómica, Jóvenes, Políticas públicas, Sector académico,
    Date: 2020
  66. By: Dahlberg, Matz (IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy); Egebark, Johan (Arbetsförmedlingen (Swedish PES)); Vikman, Ulrika (IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy); Özcan, Gülay (Arbetsförmedlingen (Swedish PES))
    Abstract: This paper evaluates an ambitious and newly designed program for increased integration in Sweden. The purpose of the program is to help newly arrived, low-educated refugees into employment. The program includes four main components: (1) intensive initial language training,(2)work practice under close supervision, (3) job search assistance, and (4) extended cooperation between the local public sector and firms. An important feature of the program is that the demand side of the labor market, represented by the largest real estate company in Gothenburg, is involved in designing the program. Our evaluation is based on a randomized controlled trial, where potential participants in one of the first waves were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. The paper presents results from the first two years after randomization. Using inference based on Fisher's exact test, we show that the program has positive effects on employment: around 30 % of the individuals in the treatment group are employed each month during the first year following the end of the program, compared to an average of approximately 15 % in the control group.
    Keywords: Refugee immigration; Integration; Randomized experiment; Labor market program
    JEL: C93 J08 J15 J23 J61
    Date: 2020–11–30

This nep-ure issue is ©2021 by Steve Ross. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.