nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2020‒12‒14
forty-five papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. Pricing vehicle emissions and congestion using a dynamic traffic network simulator By André de Palma; Shaghayegh Vosough; Robin Lindsey
  2. Regional and Sectorial Impacts of the Covid-19 Crisis: Evidence from Electronic Payments By Susana Peralta; Joao Pereira dos Santos; Bruno Carvalho
  3. Own Motivation, Peer Motivation, and Educational Success By Jan Bietenbeck
  4. Regional Income Disparities, Distributional Convergence, and Spatial Effects: Evidence from Indonesia By Gunawan, Anang; Mendez, Carlos; Santos-Marquez, Felipe
  5. Identifying locations for new bike-sharing stations in Glasgow: an analysis of spatial equity and demand factors By Beairsto, Jeneva; Tian, Yufan; Zheng, Linyu; Zhao, Qunshan; Hong, Jinhyun
  6. Atypical combination of technologies in regional co-inventor networks By Milad Abbasiharofteh; Dieter F. Kogler; Balazs Lengyel; ;
  7. Stuck At Home? The Drag of Homeownership on Earnings After Job Separation By Eva de Francisco; Joaquin Garcia-Cabo; Tyler Powell
  8. Cars and Space Consumption: Rethinking the Regulation of Urban Mobility By Yves Crozet
  9. Social Assimilation and Labor Market Outcomes of Migrants in China By Cai, Shu; Zimmermann, Klaus F.
  10. Understanding the response to high-stakes incentives in primary education By Bach, Maximilian; Fischer, Mira
  11. Skilled Scalable Services: The New Urban Bias in Economic Growth By Fabian Eckert; Sharat Ganapati; Conor Walsh
  12. Reallocation of Road and Street Space in Oslo: Measures for Zero Growth in Urban Traffic By Aud Tennøy; Oddrun Helen Hagen
  13. Social learning along international migrant networks By Yuan Tian; Maria Esther Caballero; Brian K. Kovak
  14. The Impact of Introducing a Low Traffic Neighbourhood on Fire Service Emergency Response Times, in Waltham Forest, London By Goodman, Anna; Laverty, Anthony; Aldred, Rachel
  15. The franchise, policing, and race: Evidence from arrests data and the Voting Rights Act By Giovanni Facchini; Brian Knight; Cecilia Testa
  16. First Time Around: Local Conditions and Multi-dimensional Integration of Refugees By Cevat Giray Aksoy; Panu Poutvaara; Felicitas Schikora
  17. Demographic change and regional labour markets By Böhm, Michael; Gregory, Terry; Qendrai, Pamela; Siegel, Christian
  18. Climate Change Risk and the Costs of Mortgage Credit By Duc Duy Nguyen; Steven Ongena; Shusen Qi; Vathunyoo Sila
  19. Congestion Control in Singapore By Walter Theseira
  20. The Curse of Geography? Railways and Growth in Spain 1877-1930 By Guillermo Esteban-Oliver
  21. Empowering Migrants: Impacts of a Migrant's Amnesty on Crime Reports By Ibanez, Ana Maria; Rozo, Sandra V.; Bahar, Dany
  22. The lived experience of COVID-19: housing and household resilience By Huang, Donna; Horne, Ralph; Willand, Nicola; Dorignon, Louise; Middha, Bhavna
  23. Demographic Change and Regional Labour Markets By Böhm, Michael Johannes; Gregory, Terry; Qendrai, Pamela; Siegel, Christian
  24. Birth in Hard Times When You Belong To Minorities By Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica; Nguyen, The Linh Bao
  25. Eliciting demand for title deeds: lab-in-the-field evidence from urban Tanzania By Manara, Martina; Regan, Tanner
  26. Fixed Rate versus Adjustable Rate Mortgages: Evidence from Euro Area Banks By Ugo Albertazzi; Fulvia Fringuellotti; Steven Ongena
  27. Immigration and Violent Crime: Evidence from the Colombia-Venezuela Border By Brian Knight; Ana Tribin
  28. The effects of body-worn cameras on police efficiency: A study of local police agencies in the US. By Alda, Erik
  29. State of the art overview on automatic railway timetable generation and optimization By Reisch, Julian
  30. The Effect of Free Senior High School Policy on the Lives of Parents and Wards in Ghana By Matey, Juabin
  31. Achieving World-Class Education in Adverse Socioeconomic Conditions By Andre Loureiro; Louisee Cruz
  32. Artificial partisan advantage in redistricting By Eguia, Jon
  33. The Impact of Cluster Diversity on Economic Performance in U.S. Metropolitan Statistical Areas By Jing Chen
  34. Congestion in Latin American Cities: Innovative Approaches for a Critical Issue By Juan Pablo Bocarejo
  35. "On the impact of European Union Cohesion Policy on regional support for the European project" By Enrique López-Bazo
  36. Pricing and Efficient Public Transport Supply in a Mobility as a Service Context By Daniel Hörcher; Daniel Graham
  37. Emotions in Online Content Diffusion By Yifan Yu; Shan Huang; Yuchen Liu; Yong Tan
  38. Assessing the use of transaction and location based insights derived from Automatic Teller Machines (ATMs) as near real time sensing systems of economic shocks By Dharani Dhar Burra; Sriganesh Lokanathan
  39. Mass shootings and Infant Health in the United States By Rakesh Banerjee; Tushar Bharati
  40. The Impact of HOV and HOT Lanes on Congestion in the United States By Robert Poole
  41. Social Disadvantage and Children's Nutritional Status in Rural-Urban Migrant Households By Lin, Carl; van der Meulen Rodgers, Yana
  42. Special economic zones in Southern Africa: white elephants or latent drivers of growth and employment?: The case of Zambia and South Africa By Mwanda Phiri; Shimukunku Manchishi
  43. Measure Twice, Cut Once. Entrepreneurial Ecosystem Metrics By Jip Leendertse; Mirella T. Schrijvers; Erik Stam; ;
  44. National or Local? The Demand for News in Italy during Covid-19 By Stefano Castriota; Marco Delmastro; Mirco Tonin
  45. Towards a Model of Urban Evolution Part III: Variation, Selection, Retention By Silver, Daniel; Fox, Mark; Adler, Patrick

  1. By: André de Palma; Shaghayegh Vosough; Robin Lindsey (Université de Cergy-Pontoise, THEMA)
    Abstract: Road traffic is a major contributor to air pollution which is a serious problem in many large cities. Experience in London, Milan, and Stockholm indicates that road pricing can be useful in reducing vehicle emissions as well as congestion. This study uses the dynamic traffic network simulator METROPOLIS to investigate the effectiveness of tolls to target emissions and congestion externalities on a stylized urban road network during a morning commuting period. The concentration and spatial distribution of four pollutants are calculated using a Gaussian dispersion model that accounts for wind speed and direction. Single and double cordon tolls are evaluated, as well as flat tolls that do not change during the simulation period and step tolls that change at half-hourly intervals. The presence of emission externalities raises optimal toll levels, and substantially increases the welfare gains from tolling although the advantage of step tolls over flat tolls is lower than if congestion is the only externality. The individual welfaredistributional effects of tolling vary strongly with residential and workplace locations relative to the cordon, and also differ for the windward and leeward sides of the city.
    Keywords: congestion, dynamic traffic simulation, emissions, pollution dispersion, tolls
    JEL: H2 R41 Q53
    Date: 2020
  2. By: Susana Peralta; Joao Pereira dos Santos; Bruno Carvalho
    Abstract: This paper uses novel and comprehensive data on electronic payments and cash withdrawals in Portugal to study the impact of the first wave of Covid-19 until August 2020. We employ a difference-in-differences event study with monthly data, by municipality and sector, between 2018 and 2020. We identify a massive causal impact of the lockdown on overall purchases. The year-on-year growth rate decreased by 16, 37, and 28 percentage points, respectively, between March and May. The impact is less severe subsequently, but in August it is still below pre-pandemic levels. We show that the crisis is concentrated on more central and more urban municipalities. The sign and magnitude of the impact varies considerably across sectors. We identify two effects that explain the crisis in different regions: the weight of each sector on the local economy, or composition effect, and the relative contraction rates of sectors in main cities vis-a-vis the overall country, or behavioral effect. We show that the two effects concur in the result that the crisis is stronger in main cities.
    Keywords: Covid-19; urban areas; sectorial impacts; Portugal; transaction data
    JEL: D12 E21 R10
    Date: 2020–12
  3. By: Jan Bietenbeck
    Abstract: I study how motivation shapes own and peers’ educational success. Using data from Project STAR, I find that academic motivation in early elementary school, as measured by a standardized psychological test, predicts contemporaneous and future test scores, high school GPA, and college-test taking over and above cognitive skills. Exploiting random assignment of students to classes, I find that exposure to motivated classmates causally affects contemporaneous reading achievement, a peer effect that operates over and above spillovers from classmates’ past achieve-ment and socio-demographic composition. However, peer motivation does not affect longer-term educational success, likely because it does not change own motivation.
    Keywords: motivation, personality, peer effects, Project STAR
    JEL: I21 J13 J24
    Date: 2020
  4. By: Gunawan, Anang; Mendez, Carlos; Santos-Marquez, Felipe
    Abstract: Using a novel dataset constructed for this study, the spatio temporal dynamics of income per capita across 34 provinces and 514 districts in Indonesia over the 2010-2017 period are analyzed. First, an exploratory spatial analysis suggests that spatial autocorrelation is only significant at the district level, and it appears to be robust from 2013 to 2017. Consequently, at this level, a spatial filtering model is used for decomposing income into a spatially independent component and a spatial residual. Next, through the lens of a distributional convergence framework, it was found that the spatially independent component shows less intra-mobility than the original income variable. When analyzing beta and sigma convergence, strong converging patterns are found for filtered variables and the speed is higher for the filtered data. Thus, it is argued that neighbor effects have played a significant role in slowing the pace of income convergence at the district level. In terms of provinces, beta convergence is reported and the distributional convergence framework suggests the formation of at least three clubs with high intra-distribution mobility for the upper end of the distribution. The article is concluded by relating these findings to some plausible policy interventions.
    Keywords: Convergence, Getis filter, Nonparametric distribution, Indonesia
    JEL: R10 R11 R15
    Date: 2019–11–24
  5. By: Beairsto, Jeneva; Tian, Yufan; Zheng, Linyu; Zhao, Qunshan; Hong, Jinhyun
    Abstract: Worldwide bike-sharing systems are growing in popularity as an alternative, environmentally friendly mode of transportation. As cities seek to further develop bike-sharing programs, it is important to consider how systems should expand to simultaneously address existing inequalities in accessibility, and best serve demand. In this paper, we determine ideal locations for future bike-sharing stations in Glasgow, Scotland, by integrating demand modelling with accessibility considerations. We began by analyzing the spatio-temporal trends of bike-sharing usage, and assessed the spatial equity of access to stations in Glasgow. To identify important determinants of bike-sharing demand, we ran an ordinary least squares regression model using bike sharing trip data from Nextbike Glasgow. We then quantifiably measured the level of spatial accessibility to stations by applying the two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) methodology and ran a GIS weighted overlay analysis using the significant determinants of station demand. Lastly, we combined the demand and accessibility results to determine where new stations should be located using a maximum covering location problem (MCLP) that maximized the population served. Our results show that distance from transit stations, distance from downtown, employment rates, and nearby cycling lanes are significant factors affecting station-level demand. Furthermore, levels of spatial access were found to be highest primarily in the centre and eastern neighbourhood of Glasgow. These findings aided in determining areas to prioritize for future station locations, and our methodology can easily be applied to other bike-share programs with adjustments according to varying aims for system expansion.
    Date: 2020–11–24
  6. By: Milad Abbasiharofteh; Dieter F. Kogler; Balazs Lengyel; ;
    Abstract: Novel combinations of technologies are generated from existing knowledge embedded in collaborative work. Albeit inventors tend to develop specialized skills and participate in specialized work, it is their collaboration with peers with varied experience that facilitates the production of radical novelty. While this is of key importance, we lack full understanding on how the evolution of inventor collaborations is related to the nature of technological combination. In this paper, we analyse how the role of technological specialization and variety in evolving co-inventor networks is related to the creation of ‘atypical’ inventions in European NUTS2 regions. By analysing the community structure of co-inventor networks in each region, we find that the share of atypical patents is growing where co-inventor communities are strongly specialized in certain technologies and these communities are also bridged by collaborations. Evidence suggests that linking communities of dissimilar technological profiles favours atypical knowledge production the most. Our work implies that to produce radical innovative outcomes, regions must support knowledge production in specialized inventor communities and sponsor the bridging of collaborations to induce diversity.
    Keywords: patents, novelty, network communities, technological similarity, network of places
    JEL: F23 D85
    Date: 2020–11
  7. By: Eva de Francisco; Joaquin Garcia-Cabo; Tyler Powell
    Abstract: This note takes a novel approach to study the question of whether housing ownership has negative effects on workers' mobility. While most of the literature has focused on studying differential migration rates between owners and renters, commonly known as "house-lock", we analyze this question from the perspective of differences in earnings.
    Date: 2020–11–12
  8. By: Yves Crozet (University of Lyon)
    Abstract: This paper discusses the importance of reducing the space consumption of car traffic as opposed to simply reducing individuals’ travel time. It highlights the role of app-based mobility services in reducing urban congestion from a spatial perspective and the importance of shifting the focus from mobility to accessibility as a way of reducing excessive traffic, meeting sustainability objectives and improving livability.
    Date: 2020–10–23
  9. By: Cai, Shu; Zimmermann, Klaus F.
    Abstract: Previous research has found identity to be relevant for international migration, but has neglected internal mobility as in the case of the Great Chinese Migration. However, the context of the identities of migrants and their adaption in the migration process is likely to be quite different. The gap is closed by examining social assimilation and the effect on the labor market outcomes of migrants in China, the country with the largest record of internal mobility. Using instrumental variable estimation, the study finds that identifying as local residents significantly increase migrants' hourly wages and reduce hours worked, although their monthly earnings remained barely changed. Further findings suggest that migrants with strong local identity are more likely to use local networks in job search, and to obtain jobs with higher average wages and lower average hours worked per day.
    Keywords: Social assimilation,identity,labor market,migration
    JEL: J22 J31 J61 Z13
    Date: 2020
  10. By: Bach, Maximilian; Fischer, Mira
    Abstract: This paper studies responses to high-stakes incentives arising from early ability tracking. We use three complementary research designs exploiting differences in school track admission rules at the end of primary school in Germany's early ability tracking system. Our results show that the need to perform well to qualify for a better track raises students' math, reading, listening, and orthography skills in grade 4, the final grade before students are sorted into tracks. Evidence from selfreported behavior suggests that these effects are driven by greater study effort but not parental responses. However, we also observe that stronger incentives decrease student well-being and intrinsic motivation to study.
    Keywords: Student Effort,Tracking,Incentives
    JEL: I20 I28 I29
    Date: 2020
  11. By: Fabian Eckert; Sharat Ganapati; Conor Walsh
    Abstract: Since 1980, economic growth in the U.S. has been fastest in its largest cities. We show that a group of skill- and information-intensive service industries are responsible for all of this new urban bias in recent growth. We then propose a simple explanation centered around the interaction of three factors: the disproportionate reliance of these services on information and communication technology (ICT), the precipitous price decline for ICT capital since 1980, and the preexisting comparative advantage of cities in skilled services. Quantitatively, our mechanism accounts for most of the urban biased growth of the U.S. economy in recent decades.
    Keywords: urban growth, high-skill services, technological change
    JEL: J31 O33 R11 R12
    Date: 2020
  12. By: Aud Tennøy; Oddrun Helen Hagen
    Abstract: This paper discusses Norway’s zero-growth objective for passenger car traffic. It focuses on Oslo’s experience with removing parking space, improving walking and cycling conditions and reducing road capacity on main motorways. The paper highlights the effectiveness of reallocating road and street space to achieving more sustainable uses, reducing car-dependency and lowering traffic volumes.
    Date: 2020–10–23
  13. By: Yuan Tian; Maria Esther Caballero; Brian K. Kovak
    Abstract: We document the transmission of social distancing practices from the United States to Mexico along migrant networks during the early 2020 Covid-19 pandemic. Using data on pre-existing migrant connections between Mexican and U.S. locations and mobile-phone tracking data revealing social distancing behavior, we find larger declines in mobility in Mexican regions whose emigrants live in U.S. locations with stronger social distancing practices. We rule out confounding pre-trends and use a variety of controls and an instrumental variables strategy based on U.S. stay-at-home orders to rule out the potential influence of disease transmission and migrant sorting between similar locations. Given this evidence, we conclude that our findings represent the effect of information transmission between Mexican migrants living in the U.S. and residents of their home locations in Mexico. Our results demonstrate the importance of personal connections when policymakers seek to change fundamental social behaviors.
    Keywords: Social Learning, Migration, Mexico-U.S., Network, COVID-19
    Date: 2020
  14. By: Goodman, Anna; Laverty, Anthony; Aldred, Rachel
    Abstract: There is sometimes concern that low traffic neighbourhoods slow emergency vehicles. We test this using London Fire Brigade data (2012-2020) in Waltham Forest, where from 2015 low traffic neighbourhoods have been implemented. We find no evidence that response times were affected inside low traffic neighbourhoods, and some evidence that they improved on boundary roads. However, while the proportion of delays was unchanged, the reasons given for delays initially showed some shift from ‘no specific delay cause identified’ to ‘traffic calming measures’. Our findings indicate that low traffic neighbourhoods do not adversely affect emergency response times, although while LTNs are novel this perception may exist among some crews.
    Date: 2020–11–26
  15. By: Giovanni Facchini; Brian Knight; Cecilia Testa
    Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship between the franchise and law enforcement practices using evidence from the Voting Rights Act (VRA) of 1965. We find that, following the VRA, black arrest rates fell in counties that were both covered by the legislation and had a large number of newly enfranchised black voters. We uncover no corresponding patterns for white arrest rates. The reduction in black arrest rates is driven by less serious offenses, for which police might have more enforcement discretion. Importantly, our results are driven by arrests carried out by sheriffs - who are always elected. While there are no corresponding changes for municipal police chiefs in aggregate, we do find similar patterns in covered counties with elected rather than appointed chiefs. We also show that our findings cannot be rationalized by alternative explanations, such as differences in collective bargaining, changes in the underlying propensity to commit crimes, responses to changes in policing practices, and changes in the suppression of civil right protests. Taken together, these results document that voting rights, when combined with elected, rather than appointed, chief law enforcement officers, can lead to improved treatment of minority groups by police.
    Keywords: Voting Rights Act, black arrest rates, black voters, elected sheriffs, arrests data, franchise, policing, minority groups
    Date: 2020
  16. By: Cevat Giray Aksoy (King’s College London); Panu Poutvaara (University of Munich and Ifo); Felicitas Schikora (Freie Universität Berlin and DIW Berlin)
    Abstract: We study the causal effect of local labor market conditions and attitudes towards immigrants at the time of arrival on refugees’ multi-dimensional integration outcomes (economic, linguistic, navigational, political, psychological, and social). Using a unique dataset on refugees, we leverage a centralized allocation policy in Germany where refugees were exogenously assigned to live in specific counties. We find that high initial local unemployment negatively affects refugees’ economic and social integration: they are less likely to be in education or employment and they earn less. We also show that favorable attitudes towards immigrants promote refugees’ economic and social integration. The results suggest that attitudes toward immigrants are as important as local unemployment rates in shaping refugees’ integration outcomes. Using a machine learning classifier algorithm, we find that our results are driven by older people and those with secondary or tertiary education. Our findings highlight the importance of both initial economic and social conditions for facilitating refugee integration, and have implications for the design of centralized allocation policies.
    Keywords: International migration, refugees, integration, allocation policy
    JEL: F22 J15 J24
    Date: 2020–12
  17. By: Böhm, Michael; Gregory, Terry; Qendrai, Pamela; Siegel, Christian
    Abstract: Like many other countries, Germany has experienced rapid population and workforce ageing, yet with substantial variation across regions. In this paper we first use this spatial variation between 1975 and 2014 to estimate quasi- causal supply effects of ageing on regional labour market outcomes, drawing on the identification strategy of Böhm and Siegel (2020). We find in our panel of German labour market regions that workforce mean age has considerable negative effects on the wage returns to age. We also obtain suggestive evidence that relative employment rates of older workers decline when mean age rises. A decomposition of the heterogeneous regional trends using our estimates shows that ageing of rural regions is mainly driven by supply (reflecting local population dynamics) whereas urban ageing is driven by demand (reflecting responses to economic conditions). We discuss the differential implications of these drivers for regional policy.
    Keywords: ageing,demographic change,regional differences,wage returns to age
    JEL: J11 J31 R23
    Date: 2020
  18. By: Duc Duy Nguyen (King's College London); Steven Ongena (Bank of ItalyUniversity of Zurich - Department of Banking and Finance; Swiss Finance Institute; KU Leuven; Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR)); Shusen Qi (Xiamen University - School of Management); Vathunyoo Sila (University of Edinburgh)
    Abstract: We show that lenders charge higher interest rates for mortgages on properties exposed to a greater risk of Sea Level Rise (SLR). This SLR premium is not evident in short-term loans and is not related to borrowers’ short-term realized default or creditworthiness. Further, the SLR premium is smaller when the consequences of climate change are less salient and in neighborhoods with more climate change deniers. Overall, our results suggest that mortgage lenders view the risk of SLR as a long-term risk, and that lack of attention and beliefs are potential barriers that inhibit the pricing of climate-related risk in residential mortgage markets.
    Keywords: bank loans, residential mortgage, climate change risk, sea level rise
    JEL: G14 Q54
    Date: 2020–11
  19. By: Walter Theseira (Singapore University of Social Sciences)
    Abstract: This paper reviews the development and implementation of congestion control policies in Singapore since the introduction of the Area Licensing Scheme in 1975. It examines the city state’s experience of vehicle quotas, cordon charging and electronic road pricing. It also looks at developments in public transport and urban planning to improve accessibility and congestion control. Both public attitudes to congestion policies and their economic effects are discussed and analysed.
    Date: 2020–10–12
  20. By: Guillermo Esteban-Oliver (Department of Geography and Sociology, University of Lleida, Spain)
    Abstract: In this study, we explore the relationship between rail accessibility and municipal population growth in Spain from 1877 to 1930. To carry out this analysis we introduce a novel database, which combines census data with the geo-location of access points (stations and stops). Then, and in order to establish causality, we use a Least Cost Path (LCP) instrument. Our results suggest that municipalities with direct access (less than 1-hour walking distance to the nearest station or stop) experienced more rapid growth. The findings are robust to several checks and point to the transformative power of transport infrastructure, especially developing economies with an unforgiving geography.
    Keywords: Railways, population, growth
    JEL: N7 N9 R00
    Date: 2020–11
  21. By: Ibanez, Ana Maria (Inter-American Development Bank); Rozo, Sandra V. (USC Marshall School of Business); Bahar, Dany (Brookings Institution)
    Abstract: How can the regularization of approximately half a million migrant's impact crime reports in hosting areas? To identify the effects of this large amnesty, we match confidential administrative data on the location of undocumented migrants with department-monthly data from crime reports and compare crime outcomes in departments that were granted different average time windows to register for the amnesty online, before and after the amnesty roll-out. We document that the regularization caused a reduction of domestic crime and an increment on sexual crime reports. Both results are in line with qualitative evidence suggesting that the regularization empowered migrants to report crimes against them and also improved their mental health.
    Keywords: migration, crime, regularization
    JEL: D72 F2 O15 R23
    Date: 2020–11
  22. By: Huang, Donna; Horne, Ralph; Willand, Nicola; Dorignon, Louise; Middha, Bhavna
    Abstract: This study investigated housing outcomes during the first three months of the COVID-19 pandemic, and evaluated the complex interrelated impacts it is having on Australian households with a range of vulnerabilities. COVID-19 has exacerbated vulnerabilities such as poor housing quality and location; housing affordability; energy poverty and a range of social, mental and physical health conditions.
    Date: 2020–11–19
  23. By: Böhm, Michael Johannes (University of Bonn); Gregory, Terry (IZA); Qendrai, Pamela (IZA); Siegel, Christian (University of Kent)
    Abstract: Like many other countries, Germany has experienced rapid population and workforce ageing, yet with substantial variation across regions. In this paper we first use this spatial variation between 1975 and 2014 to estimate quasi-causal supply effects of ageing on regional labour market outcomes, drawing on the identification strategy of Böhm and Siegel (2020). We find in our panel of German labour market regions that workforce mean age has considerable negative effects on the wage returns to age. We also obtain suggestive evidence that relative employment rates of older workers decline when mean age rises. A decomposition of the heterogeneous regional trends using our estimates shows that ageing of rural regions is mainly driven by supply (reflecting local population dynamics) whereas urban ageing is driven by demand (reflecting responses to economic conditions). We discuss the differential implications of these drivers for regional policy.
    Keywords: ageing, demographic change, regional differences, wage returns to age
    JEL: J11 J31 R23
    Date: 2020–11
  24. By: Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica; Nguyen, The Linh Bao
    Abstract: Combining a unique dataset of birth records with municipal-level real estate infor- mation, we assess the impact of the 2008 recession on the health of immigrant newborns in Italy. Health at birth (e.g., low birth weight) of immigrants deteriorated more than health at birth of Italians. The negative effects on immigrants are not equally dis- tributed across ethnicities, but rather they are driven by the main economic activity of the ethnicity and its related network at the municipal level. Immigrants whose ethnicity is mainly employed in the sectors most affected during the recession, suffered the most. By contrast, the recession hardship is mitigated for immigrants in municipalities where their ethnic network is organized through more registered immigrant associations. The characteristics of ethnic groups and their organization at the municipal level do not explain the heterogeneous effects on Italian newborns and this confirms network rather than neighborhood effects.
    Keywords: Recessions,Immigrants,Low birth weight,Premature babies,Networks
    JEL: I1 I12 J15 J60
    Date: 2020
  25. By: Manara, Martina; Regan, Tanner
    Abstract: Many African cities face extremely high rates of informal land ownership. Governments implement land titling projects to alleviate poverty and facilitate urban development in these unplanned and rapidly urbanizing cities. However, these programs often register low uptake. We suggest addressing this problem with a pricing strategy that elicits local demand for titles from community leaders. We study the demand for title deeds in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, where the fixed costs of surveying and planning have been covered, conducting two lab-in-the-field experiments with 90 local leaders and 146 property owners. Demand for property titles, as elicited by the Becker-DeGroot-Marschak (BDM) method, while largely below current fees, is substantial. We then ask if local leaders can help predict this demand ex-ante. We find that leaders have accurate information about both the aggregate demand curve in their neighbourhoods, as well as, the ability to distinguish variation in willingness-to-pay across owners in their neighbourhood. Predictions of aggregate demand deteriorate under an environment where the responses of leaders are used to allocate subsidies, but an incentive scheme of cash prizes is able to mitigate this. To keep leaders from misreporting, an appropriately designed policy will compensate leaders for accuracy.
    Keywords: property rights; willingness-to-pay; subsidy targeting
    JEL: O12 O17 H41 R22 D82
    Date: 2020–11–13
  26. By: Ugo Albertazzi (ECB -DG Monetary Policy); Fulvia Fringuellotti (Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of New York); Steven Ongena (University of Zurich - Department of Banking and Finance; Swiss Finance Institute; KU Leuven; Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR))
    Abstract: Why do residential mortgages carry a fixed or an adjustable interest rate? To answer this question we study unique data from 103 banks belonging to 73 different banking groups across twelve countries in the euro area. To explain the large cross-country and time variations observed, we distinguish between household conditions that determine the local demand for credit and the characteristics of banks that supply credit. As bank funding mostly occurs at the group level, we disentangle these two sets of factors by comparing the outcomes observed for the same banking group across the different countries. Local household conditions dominate. In particular we find that the share of new loans with a fixed rate is larger when: (1) the historical volatility of inflation is lower, (2) the correlation between unemployment and the short-term interest rate is higher, (3) households' financial literacy is lower, and (4) the use of local mortgages to back covered bonds and of mortgage-backed securities is more widespread.
    Date: 2020–11
  27. By: Brian Knight; Ana Tribin
    Abstract: This paper investigates the link between violent crime and immigration using data from Colombian municipalities during the recent episode of immigration from Venezuela. The key finding is that, following the closing and then re-opening of the border in 2016, which precipitated a massive immigration wave, homicides in Colombia increased in areas close to the border with Venezuela. Using information on the nationality of the victim, we find that this increase was driven by homicides involving Venezuelan victims, with no evidence of a statistically significant increase in homicides in which Colombians were victimized. Thus, in contrast to xenophobic fears that migrants might victimize natives, it was migrants, rather than natives, who faced risks associated with immigration. Using arrests data, there is no corresponding increase in arrests for homicides in these areas. Taken together, these results suggest that the increase in homicides close to the border documented here are driven by crimes against migrants and have occurred without a corresponding increase in arrests, suggesting that some of these crimes have gone unsolved.
    Date: 2020
  28. By: Alda, Erik
    Abstract: Do Body-Worn Cameras improve police efficiency? This study answers this question in the context of a sample of local police agencies in the US, where the adoption of BWCs by police agencies has increased significantly in recent years. To estimate the effects of BWCs on police efficiency, I exploited the differences in the adoption of BWCs between agencies that acquired them ("acquirers") and agencies that deployed them ("deployers"). Using a multiple stage approach, in the first stage I estimated the efficiency of local police agencies using a robust order-m model. In the second stage, I estimated the effects of BWCs using a range of matching estimators and an instrumental variable model. The first stage results show that police agencies could improve their efficiency by 31 percent from 0.76 to 1. The second stage matching and IV estimates suggest that BWCs can help improve police efficiency between eight and 21 percentage points. The effects are larger for those agencies that fully deployed BWCs with their officers. Overall, this study’s results support the argument that BWCs can help improve police efficiency
    Keywords: Police, Performance, Efficiency, Data Envelopment Analysis, Matching Estimators, Instrumental Variables
    JEL: C26 D24 H11 H44 L23
    Date: 2020–10–31
  29. By: Reisch, Julian
    Abstract: In railway transportation, each train needs to have a timetable that specifies which track at which time will be occupied by it. This task can be addressed by automatization techniques both in generating a timetable and in optimizing an existing one. In this paper, we give an overview on the state of the art of these techniques. We study the computation of a technically valid slot for a train that guarantees a (short) spatial and temporal way through the network. Furthermore, the construction of a cyclic timetable where trains operate e.g. every 60 minutes, and the simultaneous construction of timetables for multiple trains are considered in this paper. Finally, timetables also need to be robust against minor delays. We will review the state of the art in the literature for these aspects of railway timetabling with respect to models, solution algorithms, complexity results and applications in practice.
    Keywords: Operations Research,Public Transport,Railway Timetabling
    Date: 2020
  30. By: Matey, Juabin
    Abstract: The free senior high school policy is one of best social and economic intervention policies that openly affect both parents and students of senior high schools. Parents and guardians especially, have been left off the hook of their economic and financial burden. This study therefore looks at the effect of introducing the free senior high school policy on the economic and social lives of parents and students respectively. Data were obtained from three hundred and thirty six (336) participants. A correlational cross-sectional descriptive design was used. Questionnaires were administered onto parents of wards in three senior high schools in the North East and Upper East Regions of Ghana. The study finds the introduction of the free senior high school policy as a relief to the financial burden of parents, especially guardians from rural and peri-rural settlements. Not just that, a few other public members who are fortunate, can now keep body and soul together through employment creation. Challengingly enough, there was a lack of adequate stakeholder consultation, hence saddled with implementation shortfalls. Delay in the disbursement of funds for feeding and learning materials presented yet another problem. It is important that governments find sustainable sources of funding the educational system and also ensure the double-track system is regularised into a single-track by expanding academic facilities and employing additional skilled and unskilled labour.
    Keywords: Free Senior High School Education, Operationalisation, Policy, Parents
    JEL: I3 I31 I38
    Date: 2020–11–08
  31. By: Andre Loureiro; Louisee Cruz
    Keywords: Education - Secondary Education Education - Primary Education Education - Early Childhood Development Education - Education For All Education - Education Reform and Management Education - Effective Schools and Teachers
    Date: 2020–06
  32. By: Eguia, Jon (Michigan State University, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: I propose a measure of artificial partisan advantage in redistricting. Redistricting is the process of drawing electoral district maps. Electoral outcomes depend on the maps drawn. The measure I propose compares the share of seats won by a party to the share of the population that lives in jurisdictions (counties and towns) won by this party. If a party has a larger share of seats than the share of the population in jurisdictions in which the party won most votes, then the drawing of the electoral maps conferred an artificial advantage to this party. This measure takes into account the geographic sorting of partisan voters and is simple to compute. Using U.S. election data from 2012 to 2018, I find an artificial partisan advantage of seventeen House seats to the Republican party. I argue that the artificial partisan advantage in the congressional maps of North Carolina, Utah, Michigan and Ohio is excessive.
    Keywords: Election law; redistricting; gerrymandering; partisan advantage
    JEL: D72 K16
    Date: 2020–12–01
  33. By: Jing Chen (Central China Normal University)
    Abstract: Conventional wisdom indicates that economic specialization can promote growth, whereas economic stability is associated with diversified economies. This conflicting relationship between specialization and diversity has been questioned, as regional scientists have suggested that specialization and diversity can coexist in a regional economy and proposed the concept of diversified specializations. To test this proposition empirically, two Herfindahl–Hirschman Indices were used to examine the relationship between economic diversity and economic performance among 359 metropolitan statistical areas in the contiguous United States. The first index measures industry diversity across 87 three-digit North American Industry Classification Systems sectors, and the second index quantifies cluster diversity among 51 economic specializations. This analysis confirms that cluster diversity contributes to both stability and growth, and regions can simultaneously pursue both high and stable economic growth.
    Keywords: Specialization, Diversity, Economic Structure, Regional Economic Development
    Date: 2019–12–17
  34. By: Juan Pablo Bocarejo (Universidad de los Andes)
    Abstract: This paper surveys trends in private vehicle use in Latin American cities and related government policies. It discusses the Colombian government’s initiatives to adopt congestion charging in major cities, highlights the political constraints encountered, and discusses policy changes adopted in response. The paper presents modelling results for the impact of different congestion charging proposals and identifies the principal challenges for adopting them.
    Date: 2020–09–21
  35. By: Enrique López-Bazo (AQR-IREA Research Group, University of Barcelona. Av. Diagonal 690, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.)
    Abstract: Cohesion Policy is the main policy tool of the European Union and the backbone of its regional policy. Given its characteristics, it is the EU policy with the greatest impact on the daily life of European citizens and can compensate population groups and places less favoured by the European integration process. As a result, the implementation of Cohesion Policy in a region is expected to shape the degree of regional support for the process of European integration. This study tests this assumption using regional data for the EU28 in a period that includes the recent phases of expansion and recession, in a scenario characterized by growing anti-EU rhetoric. The results suggest that a greater amount of EU funds spent in the region does not stimulate regional support for the Union. However, an appropriate temporal distribution of the resources allocated to the region could have a positive effect on support.
    Keywords: Cohesion policy, Regional policy, Attitudes towards the EU, Structural funds, EU regions. JEL classification: H54, 018, R10, R58.
    Date: 2020–12
  36. By: Daniel Hörcher (Imperial College); Daniel Graham (Imperial College)
    Abstract: Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is widely expected to make sustainable transport choices more attractive. New approaches to ticketing will be a core part of MaaS, both to attract users and fund services. The associated pricing decisions will be a matter of public policy as much as business objectives, because they can have large social welfare effects. This paper describes options for different pricing structures and their relative efficiency. It considers the potential impact that differing objectives of public and privately-owned transport providers might have on pricing decisions. It concludes with an assessment of the possible effects of Covid-19 on the MaaS market.
    Date: 2020–10–12
  37. By: Yifan Yu; Shan Huang; Yuchen Liu; Yong Tan
    Abstract: Social media-transmitted online information, particularly content that is emotionally charged, shapes our thoughts and actions. In this study, we incorporate social network theories and analyses to investigate how emotions shape online content diffusion, using a computational approach. We rigorously quantify and characterize the structural properties of diffusion cascades, in which more than six million unique individuals transmitted 387,486 articles in a massive-scale online social network, WeChat. We detected the degree of eight discrete emotions (i.e., surprise, joy, anticipation, love, anxiety, sadness, anger, and disgust) embedded in these articles, using a newly generated domain-specific and up-to-date emotion lexicon. We found that articles with a higher degree of anxiety and love reached a larger number of individuals and diffused more deeply, broadly, and virally, whereas sadness had the opposite effect. Age and network degree of the individuals who transmitted an article and, in particular, the social ties between senders and receivers, significantly mediated how emotions affect article diffusion. These findings offer valuable insight into how emotions facilitate or hinder information spread through social networks and how people receive and transmit online content that induces various emotions.
    Date: 2020–11
  38. By: Dharani Dhar Burra; Sriganesh Lokanathan
    Abstract: Big data sources provide a significant opportunity for governments and development stakeholders to sense and identify in near real time, economic impacts of shocks on populations at high spatial and temporal resolutions. In this study, we assess the potential of transaction and location based measures obtained from automatic teller machine (ATM) terminals, belonging to a major private sector bank in Indonesia, to sense in near real time, the impacts of shocks across income groups. For each customer and separately for years 2014 and 2015, we model the relationship between aggregate measures of cash withdrawals for each year, total inter-terminal distance traversed by the customer for the specific year and reported customer income group. Results reveal that the model was able to predict the corresponding income groups with 80% accuracy, with high precision and recall values in comparison to the baseline model, across both the years. Shapley values suggest that the total inter-terminal distance traversed by a customer in each year differed significantly between customer income groups. Kruskal-Wallis test further showed that customers in the lower-middle class income group, have significantly high median values of inter-terminal distances traversed (7.21 Kms for 2014 and 2015) in comparison to high (2.55 Kms and 0.66 Kms for years 2014 and 2015), and low (6.47 Kms for 2014 and 2015) income groups. Although no major shocks were noted in 2014 and 2015, our results show that lower-middle class income group customers, exhibit relatively high mobility in comparison to customers in low and high income groups. Additional work is needed to leverage the sensing capabilities of this data to provide insights on, who, where and by how much is the population impacted by a shock to facilitate targeted responses.
    Date: 2020–11
  39. By: Rakesh Banerjee (University of Exeter Business School); Tushar Bharati (Economics Discipline, Business School, University of Western Australia)
    Abstract: We use the spatial and temporal variation in mass shooting incidents to show that babies born in a county have, on average, lower weight and gestational age at birth, and are more likely to be low birth weight (bw
    Keywords: mass shootings; infant mortality; birth weight; mental stress
    JEL: I10 I18 J10
    Date: 2020
  40. By: Robert Poole (Reason Foundation)
    Abstract: This paper describes the evolution of high-occupancy vehicle lanes (HOV) and high-occupancy toll lanes (HOT) lanes in the United States. It evaluates their performance and analyses the impact on carpooling and public transport. The demographics of HOV and HOT lane users and the implications for equal access are also examined. The paper also proposes ways to apply lessons learned from the success of HOV and HOT lanes to the political challenges of road pricing.
    Date: 2020–09–21
  41. By: Lin, Carl (Bucknell University); van der Meulen Rodgers, Yana (Rutgers University)
    Abstract: This article uses an innovative rural-urban migrant survey to assess how social disadvantage is associated with children's nutritional status in migrant households. Measures of social disadvantage are based on China's hukou system of household registration (designed to limit domestic migration flows by denying urban public services to migrants with rural registrations) and on son preference (stemming in part from the strict one-child policy). Regression results indicate that a rural hukou status is negatively associated with children's weight-for-age Z-scores, even after controlling for household characteristics, and girl children exhibit poorer nutritional status than boys. Results from a quantile decomposition procedure confirm that left-behind children have lower nutritional scores than children who migrate with their parents, and the gaps are biggest at lower portions of the distribution.
    Keywords: migration, China, children, health, nutrition
    JEL: I10 J61
    Date: 2020–11
  42. By: Mwanda Phiri; Shimukunku Manchishi
    Abstract: The successful use of special economic zones as economic tools for export-led industrial development in East Asia propelled a wave of similar initiatives across Africa. In Southern Africa, Zambia and South Africa instituted special economic zones in their respective legal and institutional frameworks in the 2000s as mechanisms for catalysing industrialization and employment creation by means of domestic and foreign investments.
    Keywords: Special Economic Zones, Agglomeration, Industrialization, job creation
    Date: 2020
  43. By: Jip Leendertse; Mirella T. Schrijvers; Erik Stam; ;
    Abstract: In spite of the popularity of the entrepreneurial ecosystem approach in science and policy, there is a scarcity of credible, accurate and comparable metrics of entrepreneurial ecosystems. This is a severe shortcoming for both scientific progress and successful policy. In this paper, we bridge this metrics gap. We use the entrepreneurial ecosystem approach to quantify and qualify regional economies. Entrepreneurial ecosystems consist of the actors and factors that enable entrepreneurship. We operationalize the elements and outputs of entrepreneurial ecosystems for 273 European regions. The ecosystem elements show strong and positive correlations between them, confirming the systemic nature of entrepreneurial economies, and the need for a complex systems perspective. Our analyses show that physical infrastructure, finance, formal institutions, and talent take a central position in the interdependence web, providing a first indication of these elements as fundamental conditions of entrepreneurial ecosystems. The measures of the elements are used to calculate an index to approximate the quality of entrepreneurial ecosystems. This index is robust and performs well in regressions to predict entrepreneurial output, which we measure with novel data on productive entrepreneurship. The entrepreneurial ecosystem approach and the metrics we present provide a lens for public policy to better diagnose, understand and improve entrepreneurial economies.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial ecosystem; regional dynamics; entrepreneurship; economic development; economic policy; entrepreneurship policy
    JEL: D2 E02 L26 M13 O43 P00 R1 R58
    Date: 2020–11
  44. By: Stefano Castriota; Marco Delmastro; Mirco Tonin
    Abstract: Looking at TV news viewership in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic using actual consumption data, we investigate whether demand for national and local news depends on national or local epidemiological developments, as measured by the number of new positives or the number of currently positives in any given day. Exploiting the fact that the seriousness of the pandemic displays a great deal of variation among the different regions, we find that at the regional level demand for both national news and, more surprisingly, local news responds to the national epidemiological developments rather than to the local ones. This has implications for the incentives faced by local politicians to take preventive action.
    Keywords: news, local news, TV, Covid-19
    JEL: D12 L82
    Date: 2020
  45. By: Silver, Daniel; Fox, Mark; Adler, Patrick
    Abstract: This paper develops a formal model of urban evolution in terms of 1) sources of variations; 2) principles of selection; and 3) mechanisms of retention. More specifically, regarding (1) it defines local and environmental sources of variation and identifies some of their generative processes, such as recombination, migration, mutation, extinction, and transcription errors. Regarding (2), it outlines a series of selection processes as part of an evolutionary ecology of urban forms, including density dependence, scope dependence, distance dependence, content dependence, and frequency dependence. Regarding (3), it characterizes retention as a combination of absorption and restriction of novel variants, defines mechanisms by which these can occur, including longevity, fidelity, and fecundity, and specifies how these processes issue in trajectories define by properties such as stability, pace, convergence, and divergence. A conclusion reviews the effort and looks forward to computer simulation and data-driven applications, as well as focused theoretical extensions of parts of the model.
    Date: 2020–11–22

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