nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2020‒09‒07
71 papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. The Effect of Real Estate Purchase Subsidies on Property Prices By Carla Krolage
  2. Do short-term rentals increase housing prices? Quasi-experimental evidence from Lisbon By Susana Peralta; João Pereira dos Santos; Duarte Gonçalves
  3. Frictional Sorting By Wenquan Liang; Ran Song; Christopher Timmins
  4. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in COVID-19: Evidence from Six Large Cities By Benitez, Joseph; Courtemanche, Charles; Yelowitz, Aaron
  5. School Choice Design, Risk Aversion, and Cardinal Segregation By Calsamiglia, Caterina; Martínez-Mora, Francisco; Miralles, Antonio
  6. Mysteries of the Trade? Skill-Specific Local Agglomeration Economies By Andersson, Martin; Larsson, Johan P
  7. How Hurricanes Sweep Up Housing Markets: Evidence from Florida By Joshua S. Graff Zivin; Yanjun Liao; Yann Panassie
  8. Regional Convergence and Spatial Dependence across Subnational Regions of ASEAN: Evidence from Satellite Nighttime Light Data By Mendez-Guerra, Carlos; Santos-Marquez, Felipe
  9. House Price Synchronization across the US States: The Role of Structural Oil Shocks By Xin Sheng; Hardik A. Marfatia; Rangan Gupta; Qiang Ji
  10. Dynamic Sales Tax Competition: Evidence from Panel Data at the Border By Melissa Gentry; Nadia Greenhalgh-Stanley; Shawn M. Rohlin; Jeffrey P. Thompson
  11. Do short-term rental platforms affect housing markets? Evidence from Airbnb in Barcelona By Miquel-Àngel Garcia-López; Jordi Jofre-Monseny; Rodrigo Martínez-Mazza; Mariona Segú
  12. Speaking the same language: The effect of foreign origin teachers on students' language skills By Höckel, Lisa Sofie
  13. Regional patterns and determinants of commuting between rural and urban India By Vasavi Bhatt; S. Chandrasekhar; Ajay Sharma
  14. Machine Learning Predictions of Housing Market Synchronization across US States: The Role of Uncertainty By Rangan Gupta; Hardik A. Marfatia; Christian Pierdzioch; Afees A. Salisu
  15. Lessons Learned from Collaborative Transportation Planning for Sea Level Rise in California By Lubell, Mark; Pia Vantaggiato, Francesca
  16. Big Data in Transportation : An Economics Perspective By Selod,Harris; Soumahoro,Souleymane
  17. Regulatory Arbitrage in Teacher Hiring and Retention: Evidence from Massachusetts Charter Schools By Jesse M. Bruhn; Scott A. Imberman; Marcus A. Winters
  18. A Graphical Lasso Approach to Estimating Network Connections: The Case of U.S. Lawmakers By Marco Battaglini; Forrest W. Crawford; Eleonora Patacchini; Sida Peng
  19. The Average and Heterogeneous Effects of Transportation Investments: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa 1960-2010 By Remi Jedwab; Adam Storeygard
  20. The Housing Boom and Selection into Entrepreneurship By João Alfredo Galindo da Fonseca; Pierluca Pannella
  21. Driven to Succeed? Teenagers' Drive, Ambition and Performance on High-Stakes Examinations By Jerrim, John; Shure, Nikki; Wyness, Gill
  22. The migration propensity index: An application to Guatemala By Ceballos, Francisco; Hernandez, Manuel A.
  23. COVID-19 and Crime: Effects of Stay-at-Home Orders on Domestic Violence By Lindsey Rose Bullinger; Jillian B. Carr; Analisa Packham
  24. Social Learning along International Migrant Networks By Yuan Tian; Maria Esther Caballero; Brian K. Kovak
  25. The Decline of Small Cities: Increased Competition from External Shopping Malls or Long-Term Negative Trends? By Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov; Mihaescu, Oana; Rudholm, Niklas
  26. COVID-19, Race, and Redlining By Bertocchi, Graziella; Dimico, Arcangelo
  27. Productivity, Sustainability, and Economic Growth in Metropolises: Estimates of Long-Time Commuting Effects in Developing Countries By Aurelio Hess; Sampson Banflo Narteh-Yoe
  28. Skilled Human Capital and High-Growth Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Inventor Inflows By Benjamin Balsmeier; Lee Fleming; Matt Marx; Seungryul Ryan Shin
  29. Measuring Uncertainty at the Regional Level Using Newspaper Text By Christopher Rauh
  30. Economic Immigrants in Gateway Cities: Factors Involved in Their Initial Location and Onward Migration Decisions By Frenette, Marc
  31. A thematic approach to regional economic development: Technical report for the state of Maine development strategy 2020-2029 By Crawley, Andrew; Hallowell, Angela
  32. Responding to Urban Violence Via Human Rights Approach to Urbanization By Joan Mbagwu
  33. Estimating the Costs of New Mobility Travel Options: Monetary and Non-Monetary Factors By Fulton, Lewis; Compostella, Junia; Kothawala, Alimurtaza
  34. Trauma-Informed Planning Strategies to Help Students Transition Back to School in the Era of COVID-19, Fact Sheet By Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic
  35. The impact of credit risk mispricing on mortgage lending during the subprime boom By James A Kahn; Benjamin S Kay
  36. Teacher-to-classroom assignment and student achievement By Byran S. Graham; Geert Ridder; Petra Thiemann; Gema Zamarro
  37. The Labor Market Effects of Venezuelan Migration in Ecuador By Olivieri, Sergio; Ortega, Francesc; Rivadeneira, Ana; Carranza, Eliana
  38. From Traditional Regional Analysis to Dynamics of Local Development: Foundations and Theoretical Reorientations By Vlados, Charis; Deniozos, Nikolaos; Chatzinikolaou, Dimos; Digkas, Agis-Georgios
  39. Air Pollution Quotas and the Dynamics of Internal Skilled Migration in Chinese Cities By Yu, Bo; Lee, Wang-Sheng; Rafiq, Shuddhasattwa
  40. Rational inattention and migration decisions By Jesus Fernandez-Huertas Moraga; Simone Bertoli; Lucas Guichard
  41. Changes in mobility and socioeconomic conditions in Bogotá city during the COVID-19 outbreak By Dueñas, Marco; Campi, Mercedes; Olmos, Luis
  42. Immigration and Violent Crime: Evidence from the Colombia-Venezuela Border By Brian G. Knight; Ana Tribin
  43. Pandemic Control in ECON-EPI Networks By Marina Azzimonti-Renzo; Alessandra Fogli; Fabrizio Perri; Mark Ponder
  45. When should infrastructure assets be renewed?: the economic impact of cumulative tonnes on railway infrastructure By Nilsson, Jan-Eric; Odolinski, Kristofer
  46. Manipulation and Learning by Peers in Online Marketplaces By Elias Carroni; Giuseppe Pignataro; Alessandro Tampieri
  47. Is Labour Market Discrimination against Ethnic Minorities Better Explained by Taste or Statistics? A Systematic Review of the Empirical Evidence By Lippens, Louis; Baert, Stijn; Ghekiere, Abel; Verhaeghe, Pieter-Paul; Derous, Eva
  48. The spatial distribution of population in Spain: an anomaly in european perspective By Eduardo Gutiérrez; Enrique Moral-Benito; Roberto Ramos; Daniel Oto-Peralías
  49. Regional Collaboration to Create a High-Skilled Workforce: Evaluation of the Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge Grants By Megan Hague Angus; Jeanne Bellotti; Brittany English; Stephanie Boraas; Kevin Hollenbeck; Sarah Osborn
  50. The Spillover of Anti-Immigration Politics to the Schoolyard By Bracco, Emanuele; De Paola, Maria; Green, Colin P.; Scoppa, Vincenzo
  51. From Fear to Hate: How the Covid-19 Pandemic Sparks Racial Animus in the United States By Runjing Lu; Yanying Sheng
  52. COVID-19 Prevention and Air Pollution in the Absence of a Lockdown By Hung-Hao Chang; Chad Meyerhoefer; Feng-An Yang
  53. One Money, Many Markets: Monetary Transmission and Housing Financing in the Euro Area By Giancarlo Corsetti; Joao B. Duarte; Samuel Mann
  54. The Effect of Mentoring on School Attendance and Academic Outcomes: A Randomized Evaluation of the Check & Connect Program By Jonathan Guryan; Sandra Christenson; Ashley Cureton; Ijun Lai; Jens Ludwig; Catherine Schwarz; Emma Shirey; Mary Clair Turner
  55. The Effects of Social Capital on Government Performance and Turnover: Theory and Evidence from Italian Municipalities By Lockwood, Ben; Porcelli, Francesco; Redoano, Michela; Bracco, Emanuele; Liberini, Federica; Sgroi, Daniel
  56. Window Dressing in the Public Sector: A Case Study of China’s Compulsory Education Promotion Program By Hanming Fang; Chang Liu; Li-An Zhou
  57. Does Immigration Affect Native’s Labor Market Outcomes in Germany? By Dilan Tas; Merima Kastrat
  58. Who Watches the Watchmen? Local News and Police Behavior in the United States By Mastrorocco, Nicola; Ornaghi, Arianna
  59. Keeping Pace: Strategies for Ensuring Equitable Continuity of Learning During the COVID-19 Pandemic, Fact Sheet By Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic
  60. The Multiple Perception of Innovation: The Case of Micro and Small Enterprises in the Region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace By Vlados, Charis; Chatzinikolaou, Dimos
  61. Shoring up Economic Refugees: Venezuelan Migrants in the Ecuadorian Labor Market By Olivieri, Sergio; Ortega, Francesc; Rivadeneira, Ana; Carranza, Eliana
  62. Good use of big data: building a home for everyone By Moustafa, Khaled
  63. Commuting behaviours and COVID-19 By Harrington, Deirdre; Hadjiconstantinou, Michelle
  64. Investing in your own and peers' risks: The simple analytics of p2p insurance By Denuit, Michel
  65. Regulating Ridesharing Services in São Paulo By Ciro Biderman
  66. Technology in the Classroom and Learning in Secondary Schools By Blimpo,Moussa Pouguinimpo; Gajigo,Ousman; Owusu,Solomon; Tomita,Ryoko; Xu,Yanbin
  67. Inequality and the Coronavirus: Socioeconomic Covariates of Behavioral Responses and Viral Outcomes Across US Counties By Caitlin S. Brown; Martin Ravallion
  68. Discrimination and Racial Disparities in Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from WWII By Anna Aizer; Ryan Boone; Adriana Lleras-Muney; Jonathan Vogel
  69. Adequate Housing for People Receiving National Merit Benefits - Comparative Analysis by Low Income Status By Brandon Ryu
  70. Geographical contexts of entrepreneurship: Spaces, places and entrepreneurial agency By Stam, Erik; Welter, Friederike
  71. Can Charter Schools Boost Civic Participation? The Impact of Democracy Prep Public Schools on Voting Behavior By Brian Gill; Emilyn Rubel Whitesell; Sean P. Corcoran; Charles Tilley; Mariel Finucane Liz Potamites

  1. By: Carla Krolage
    Abstract: This paper assesses to which degree housing purchase subsidies are capitalized into property prices. Using a large-scale micro data set on German house prices, I exploit the introduction of a new subsidy scheme in the state of Bavaria. My difference-indifference estimations at the Bavarian interstate border indicate that the prices of single-family homes increased by about 3.4% more in Bavarian border regions. This is consistent with a full capitalization of the subsidy. No effect is found for apartments, whose purchasers seldom qualify for the subsidy. A heterogeneity analysis confirms that the price effect is larger in segments of the real estate market with a higher exposure to the subsidy scheme. I also provide suggestive evidence that the subsidy scheme slightly stimulated construction activity. Overall, my results indicate that instead of making house purchases more affordable for families, the subsidy scheme led to a rise in house prices and mainly benefited sellers of properties.
    Keywords: Real estate market, housing subsidies, property prices
    JEL: H22 H24 H71 R31 R38
    Date: 2020
  2. By: Susana Peralta (Nova SBE); João Pereira dos Santos (Nova SBE); Duarte Gonçalves (Nova SBE)
    Abstract: We provide causal estimates of the impact of short-term rental regulations by exploiting a quasi-natural reform implemented in the city of Lisbon. In November 2018, the municipality of Lisbon banned the registry of new short-term rental properties in some neighborhoods. We rely on two administrative data sets on short-term rental registries, between 2015 and 2019, and house transactions between 2017 and 2019. We also use data on Airbnb rental prices since 2018. We employ a difference-in differences estimation taking advantage of the spatial discontinuity in the registry ban. We document a spike in new registries between the announcement and the implementation of the ban, driven by domestic incumbent owners. Airbnb prices do not seem to react to the ban. Both the number of transactions and house prices decreased after the reform, mostly in two-bedroom flats. Our findings confirm a sizeable impact of short-term rentals on real estate prices, concentrated in a segment of smaller houses.
    Keywords: Airbnb, Policy Analysis, Housing Market, Short-Term Rental, Portugal
    JEL: R12 R21 R30
    Date: 2020–07
  3. By: Wenquan Liang; Ran Song; Christopher Timmins
    Abstract: In many countries around the world, migration costs and housing supply restrictions interact with each other and combine to restrict workers’ location decisions. Using an equilibrium sorting model and rich micro data from China, we evaluate the impacts of these dual constraints on workers’ sorting behavior and quantify the resulting changes in aggregate welfare and inequality. We find strong policy interactions between the two kinds of frictions in determining welfare losses and regional inequality. Counterfactual simulations show that lowering migration costs can increase welfare and reduce regional inequality by moving workers from unproductive inland regions to productive coastal regions in China; such welfare and regional distributional impacts depend on the elasticity of housing supply in coastal regions and vice-versa. Results highlight the policy complementarities between reducing the two kinds of frictions and have general implications for countries with different levels of constraints on mobility and housing supply.
    JEL: J24 J61 R23
    Date: 2020–08
  4. By: Benitez, Joseph (University of Kentucky); Courtemanche, Charles (Georgia State University); Yelowitz, Aaron (University of Kentucky)
    Abstract: As of June 2020, the coronavirus pandemic has led to more than 2.3 million confirmed infections and 121 thousand fatalities in the United States, with starkly different incidence by race and ethnicity. Our study examines racial and ethnic disparities in confirmed COVID-19 cases across six diverse cities – Atlanta, Baltimore, Chicago, New York City, San Diego, and St. Louis – at the ZIP code level (covering 436 "neighborhoods" with a population of 17.7 million). Our analysis links these outcomes to six separate data sources to control for demographics; housing; socioeconomic status; occupation; transportation modes; health care access; long-run opportunity, as measured by income mobility and incarceration rates; human mobility; and underlying population health. We find that the proportions of black and Hispanic residents in a ZIP code are both positively and statistically significantly associated with COVID-19 cases per capita. The magnitudes are sizeable for both black and Hispanic, but even larger for Hispanic. Although some of these disparities can be explained by differences in long-run opportunity, human mobility, and demographics, most of the disparities remain unexplained even after including an extensive list of covariates related to possible mechanisms. For two cities – Chicago and New York – we also examine COVID-19 fatalities, finding that differences in confirmed COVID-19 cases explain the majority of the observed disparities in fatalities. In other words, the higher death toll of COVID-19 in predominantly black and Hispanic communities mostly reflects higher case rates, rather than higher fatality rates for confirmed cases.
    Keywords: COVID-19, coronavirus, racial disparities, ethnic disparities, health disparities
    JEL: I14
    Date: 2020–07
  5. By: Calsamiglia, Caterina (IPEG); Martínez-Mora, Francisco (University of Leicester); Miralles, Antonio (University of Messina)
    Abstract: We embed the problem of public school choice design in a model of local provision of education. We define cardinal (student) segregation as that emerging when families with identical ordinal preferences submit different rankings of schools in a centralised school choice procedure. With the Boston Mechanism (BM), when higher types are less risk-averse, and there is sufficient vertical differentiation of schools, any equilibrium presents cardinal segregation. Transportation costs facilitate the emergence of cardinal segregation as does competition from private schools. Furthermore, the latter renders the best public schools more elitist. The Deferred Acceptance mechanism is resilient to cardinal segregation.
    Keywords: school choice mechanisms, cardinal segregation, segregation, peer effects, local public goods
    JEL: I21 H4 D78
    Date: 2020–07
  6. By: Andersson, Martin (Department of Industrial Economics Blekinge Institute of Technology (BTH)); Larsson, Johan P (University of Cambridge, Department of Land Economy)
    Abstract: Using longitudinal Swedish data, we document robust evidence of highly local spillovers between individuals in similar occupations. The results are consistent with the existence of knowledge spillovers between workers performing similar work tasks in the same city-district. We further demonstrate less distance-sensitive benefits of working in diverse districts and regions, characterized by high density of employees in other occupations. The diversity benefits exist only in metropolitan areas and pertain to workers performing advanced services or non-routine work tasks.
    Keywords: Agglomeration economies; Wages; Spillovers; Attenuation; Clusters; Economic proximity; Relatedness
    JEL: J24 R10 R12
    Date: 2020–08–31
  7. By: Joshua S. Graff Zivin; Yanjun Liao; Yann Panassie
    Abstract: This paper examines the impacts of hurricanes on the housing market and the associated implications for local population turnover. We first characterize the post-hurricane equilibrium dynamics in local housing markets using microdata from Florida during 2000-2016. Our results show that hurricanes cause an increase in equilibrium prices and a concurrent decrease in transactions in affected areas, both lasting up to three years. Together, these dynamics imply a negative transitory shock to the housing supply as a consequence of the hurricane. Furthermore, we match buyer characteristics from mortgage applications to provide the first buyer-level evidence on population turnover. We find that incoming homeowners in this period have higher incomes, leading to an overall shift in the local economic profile toward higher-income groups. Our findings suggest that market responses to destructive natural disasters can lead to uneven and lasting demographic changes in affected communities, even with a full recovery in physical capital.
    JEL: J10 Q54 R23 R31
    Date: 2020–07
  8. By: Mendez-Guerra, Carlos; Santos-Marquez, Felipe
    Abstract: Satellite nighttime light data are increasingly used for evaluating the performance of economies in which official statics are non-existent, limited, or non-comparable. In this paper,we use a novel luminosity-based measure of GDP per capita to study regional convergence and spatial dependence across 274 subnational regions of the Association of South East Asian Nations(ASEAN) over the 1998-2012 period. Specifically, we first evaluate the usefulness of this new luminosity indicator in the context of ASEAN regions. Results show that almost 60 percent of the differences in (official) GDP per capita can be predicted by this luminosity-based measure of GDP. Next, given its potential usefulness for predicting regional GDP, we evaluate the spatio-temporal dynamics of regional inequality across ASEAN. Results indicate that although there is an overall (average) process of regional convergence, regional inequality within most countries has not significantly decreased. When evaluating the patterns of spatial dependence, we find increasing spatial dependence over time and stable spatial clusters (hotspots and coldspots) that are located across multiple national boundaries. Taken together, these results provide a new and more disaggregated perspective of the integration process of the ASEAN community.
    Keywords: convergence spatial dependence satellite nighttime light data luminosity subnational regions ASEAN
    JEL: O57 R10 R11
    Date: 2020–08–17
  9. By: Xin Sheng (Lord Ashcroft International Business School, Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, CM1 1SQ, United Kingdom); Hardik A. Marfatia (Department of Economics, Northeastern Illinois University, 5500 N St Louis Ave, BBH 344G, Chicago, IL 60625, USA); Rangan Gupta (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002, South Africa); Qiang Ji (Institutes of Science and Development, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; School of Public Policy and Management, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the impact of disentangled oil shocks on the synchronization in housing price movements across all the US states plus DC. Using a Bayesian dynamic factor model, the house price movements are decomposed into national, regional, and state-specific factors. We then study the impact of oil-specific supply and demand, inventory accumulation, and global demand shocks on the national factor using linear and nonlinear local projection methods. The impulse response analyses suggest that oil-specific supply and consumption demand shocks are most important in driving the national factor. Moreover, as observed from the regime-specific local projection model, these two shocks are found to have a relatively stronger impact in a bearish rather than a bullish national housing market. Our results have important policy implications.
    Keywords: Bayesian dynamic factor model, Housing market synchronization, Local projection method, Structural oil shocks
    JEL: C22 C32 E32 Q02 R30
    Date: 2020–08
  10. By: Melissa Gentry; Nadia Greenhalgh-Stanley; Shawn M. Rohlin; Jeffrey P. Thompson
    Abstract: We examine both vertical and horizontal tax competition over time by studying the strategic response of county sales taxation to state sales taxes and to cross-border neighboring municipalities’ combined (state and county) taxes. Using county and state sales tax data from 2003 through 2009, we employ both static and dynamic panel analysis as well as an instrumental variables approach in combination with a border analysis. Our results confirm the presence of tax competition in the cross section, as previous studies have found. Results from the fixed-effects and dynamic panel analysis also indicate the presence of vertical competition, though quite small, as counties are consistently responsive to changes in their own state sales tax level across all models and specifications. However, the panel findings suggest little to no horizontal tax competition. Following Parchet (2019), we address additional concerns about endogeneity by instrumenting the neighboring-county sales tax rate with the state-level sales tax rate of the neighboring state. Results from instrumental variables analysis reinforce the presence of a small vertical tax competition between local and state sales tax policies. Interestingly, our results, like those of Parchet (2019), indicate that cross-border local sales tax rates act as strategic substitutes.
    Keywords: tax competition; sales taxation; border approach
    JEL: H2 H7
    Date: 2020–03–01
  11. By: Miquel-Àngel Garcia-López (Department of Applied Economics, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra, Spain); Jordi Jofre-Monseny (Department of Economics , Universidad de Barcelona, 08034 Barcelona, Spain and Institut d´Economia de Barcelona (IEB)); Rodrigo Martínez-Mazza (Department of Economics , Universidad de Barcelona, 08034 Barcelona, Spain and Institut d´Economia de Barcelona (IEB)); Mariona Segú (RITM, Université Paris Sud, Paris Saclay)
    Abstract: In this paper, we assess the impact of Airbnb on housing rents and prices in the city of Barcelona. Examining very detailed data on rents and both transaction and posted prices, we use several econometric approaches that exploit the exact timing and geography of Airbnb activity in the city. These include i) panel fixed-effects models, where we run multiple specifications that allow for different forms of heterogeneous time trends across neighborhoods, ii) an instrumental variables shift-share approach in which tourist amenities predict where Airbnb listings will locate and Google searches predict when listings appear, iii) event-study designs, and iv) finally, we present evidence from Sagrada Familia, a major tourist amenity that is not found in the city centre. Our main results imply that for the average neighborhood, Airbnb activity has increased rents by 1.9%, transaction prices by 4.6% and posted prices by 3.7%. The estimated impact in neighborhoods with high Airbnb activity is substantial. For neighborhoods in the top decile of Airbnb activity distribution, rents are estimated to have increased by 7%, while increases in transaction (posted) prices are estimated at 17% (14%).
    Keywords: Housing markets, short-term rentals, Airbnb.
    Date: 2020–09
  12. By: Höckel, Lisa Sofie
    Abstract: This study investigates whether foreign origin teachers causally affect their students language skills in secondary school. Exploring within-student variation in assignment to teachers, I find that teachers who are immigrants or descendants of immigrants significantly increase the reading comprehension of students. The effect is strongest for foreign origin students and can partly be explained by a role model effect. The positive effect of bilingual foreign origin teachers is particularly large. They significantly increase reading comprehension for native and foreign origin students. Given their own experience in language learning, bilingual teachers seem exceptionally well-equipped in teaching languages to both native and foreign origin students.
    Keywords: academic achievement,education economics,language skills,matching,migration,role model effect,teacher bias effect
    JEL: J13 J15 I24
    Date: 2020
  13. By: Vasavi Bhatt (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research); S. Chandrasekhar (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research); Ajay Sharma (Indian Institute of Management, Indore)
    Abstract: Despite an increase in the number of workers commuting between rural and urban areas, much of theliterature on worker mobility continues to be migration centric. This paper establishes the importance ofrural-urban commuting in India. As per estimates from Periodic Labour Force Survey 2018-19, anestimated 18.8 million individuals living in rural are working in urban India and the share of earnings from urban in total non-farm rural earnings is 19.3 percent. Among all rural workers, 7.3 percent arerural-urban commuters while only 2.1 percent of urban workers are urban-rural commuters. Wedocument large variations at the sub-national level. Our results from a multinomial model to understand the factors associated with commuting highlight the importance of lagged regional unemployment rate. A high rural unemployment rate acts as a push factor and a low urban unemployment rate acts as a pull factor for rural urban commuting. The urbanness of occupations in aregion is also an important correlate of commuting. The paper concludes by highlighting the need toprioritize questions in Indias labour force survey that would help understand the nature of labour mobility and strength of rural urban linkages.
    Keywords: Labour Mobility, Commuting, Rural-Urban Linkages, Classification of Jobs, India
    JEL: J21 J61 R12 R23
    Date: 2020–08
  14. By: Rangan Gupta (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002, South Africa); Hardik A. Marfatia (Department of Economics, Northeastern Illinois University, 5500 N St Louis Ave, BBH 344G, Chicago, IL 60625, USA); Christian Pierdzioch (Department of Economics, Helmut Schmidt University, Holstenhofweg 85, P.O.B. 700822, 22008 Hamburg, Germany); Afees A. Salisu (Centre for Econometric & Allied Research, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria)
    Abstract: We analyze the role of macroeconomic uncertainty in predicting synchronization in housing price movements across all the United States (US) states plus District of Columbia (DC). We first use a Bayesian dynamic factor model to decompose the house price movements into a national, four regional (Northeast, South, Midwest, and West), and state-specific factors. We then study the ability of macroeconomic uncertainty in forecasting the comovements in housing prices, by controlling for a wide-array of predictors, such as factors derived from a large macroeconomic dataset, oil shocks, and financial market-related uncertainties. To accommodate for multiple predictors and nonlinearities, we take a machine learning approach of random forests. Our results provide strong evidence of forecastability of the national house price factor based on the information content of macroeconomic uncertainties over and above the other predictors. This result also carries over, albeit by a varying degree, to the factors associated with the four census regions, and the overall house price growth of the US economy. Moreover, macroeconomic uncertainty is found to have predictive content for (stochastic) volatility of the national factor and aggregate US house price. Our results have important implications for policymakers and investors.
    Keywords: Machine learning, Random forests, Bayesian dynamic factor model, Forecasting, Housing markets synchronization, United States
    JEL: C22 C32 E32 Q02 R30
    Date: 2020–08
  15. By: Lubell, Mark; Pia Vantaggiato, Francesca
    Abstract: Many of California’s critical transportation infrastructure assets along the coast are vulnerable to sea level rise (Figure 1). Climate adaptation generally and sea level rise adaption specifically entail land-use and transportation decisions that affect multiple jurisdictional levels. These decisions involve many stakeholders, including local, regional, county, state and federal agencies, non-governmental organizations, and individual citizens. Adapting transportation infrastructure to sea level rise requires collaboration among these actors. This is a challenging task given that different agencies and stakeholders have different mandates and priorities, which imply different ways of looking at the common issue of adaptation to sea level rise. Researchers at the University of California, Davis examined four case studies of governance processes formed around transportation assets threatened by sea level rise: a state highway along the San Francisco Bay, a coastal highway and railroad in San Diego County, and the Port of Long Beach. The researchers interviewed stakeholders, consulted policy documents, and organized a workshop with agency stakeholders to identify lessons learned and develop practical suggestions for facilitating collaboration to address sea level rise.
    Keywords: Engineering
    Date: 2020–08–01
  16. By: Selod,Harris; Soumahoro,Souleymane
    Abstract: This paper reviews the emerging big data literature applied to urban transportation issues from the perspective of economic research. It provides a typology of big data sources relevant to transportation analyses and describes how these data can be used to measure mobility, associated externalities, and welfare impacts. As an application, it showcases the use of daily traffic conditions data in various developed and developing country cities to estimate the causal impact of stay-at-home orders during the Covid-19 pandemic on traffic congestion in Bogotá, New Dehli, New York, and Paris. In light of the advances in big data analytics, the paper concludes with a discussion on policy opportunities and challenges.
    Date: 2020–06–30
  17. By: Jesse M. Bruhn; Scott A. Imberman; Marcus A. Winters
    Abstract: We study personnel flexibility in charter schools by exploring how teacher retention varies with teacher and school quality in Massachusetts. Charters are more likely to lose their highest and lowest value-added teachers. Low performers tend to exit public education, while high performers tend to switch to traditional public schools. To rationalize these findings, we propose a model in which educators with high fixed-costs use charter schools to explore teaching careers before obtaining licenses required for higher paying public sector jobs. The model suggests charter schools create positive externalities for traditional public schools by increasing the average quality of available teachers.
    JEL: I21 J45 M51
    Date: 2020–07
  18. By: Marco Battaglini; Forrest W. Crawford; Eleonora Patacchini; Sida Peng
    Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new approach to the estimation of social networks and we apply it to the estimation of productivity spillovers in the U.S. Congress. Social networks such as the social connections among lawmakers are not generally directly observed, they can be recovered only using the observable outcomes that they contribute to determine (such as, for example, the legislators’ effectiveness). Moreover, they are typically stable for relatively short periods of time, thus generating only short panels of observations. Our estimator has three appealing properties that allows it to work in these environments. First, it is constructed for “small” asymptotic, thus requiring only short panels of observations. Second, it requires relatively nonrestrictive sparsity assumptions for identification, thus being applicable to dense networks with (potentially) star shaped connections. Third, it allows for heterogeneous common shocks across subnetworks. The application to the U.S. Congress gives us new insights about the nature of social interactions among lawmakers. We estimate a significant decrease over time in the importance of productivity spillovers among individual lawmakers, compensated by an increase in the party level common shock over time. This suggests that the rise of partisanship is not affecting only the ideological position of legislators when they vote, but more generally how lawmakers collaborate in the U.S. Congress.
    JEL: D7 D72 D85
    Date: 2020–07
  19. By: Remi Jedwab; Adam Storeygard
    Abstract: Previous work on transportation investments has focused on average impacts in high- and middle-income countries. We estimate average and heterogeneous effects in a poor continent, Africa, using roads and cities data spanning 50 years in 39 countries. Using changes in market access due to distant road construction as a source of exogenous variation, we estimate a 30-year elasticity of city population with respect to market access of about 0.08-0.13. Our results suggest that this elasticity is stronger for small and remote cities, and weaker in politically favored and agriculturally suitable areas. Access to foreign cities besides international ports matters little. Additional evidence points suggestively to rural-urban migration as the primary source of this population increase, though we cannot fully rule out natural increase or reallocation across cities.
    JEL: F15 F16 O18 O20 R11 R12 R4
    Date: 2020–08
  20. By: João Alfredo Galindo da Fonseca (Université de Montréal, CIREQ); Pierluca Pannella (Sao Paulo School of Economics - FGV)
    Abstract: We provide evidence that the boom in housing prices occurred in the early 2000 distorted the selection of individuals that opened a business. A simple model of collateral financing predicts an increase in entry into entrepreneurship for house-owners and, particularly, for individuals with lower entrepreneurial ability and higher probability of failure. We support the predictions of the model using panel data at the individual level including restricted access information on the MSA of residence of an individual. We combine this data with geographic information about house prices at the MSA level. We confirm that the increase in house prices had a larger impact on the decision of becoming an entrepreneur for lower ability house-owners.
    Date: 2019–05
  21. By: Jerrim, John (University College London); Shure, Nikki (University College London); Wyness, Gill (University College London)
    Abstract: There has been much interest across the social sciences in the link between young people's socioemotional (non-cognitive) skills and their educational achievement. But much of this research has focused upon the role of the Big Five personality traits. This paper contributes new evidence by examining two inter-related non-cognitive factors that are rarely studied in the literature: ambition and drive. We use unique survey-administrative linked data from England, gathered in the lead-up to high-stakes compulsory school exams, which allow us to control for a rich set of background characteristics, prior educational attainment and, unusually, school fixed effects. Our results illustrate substantial gender and immigrant gaps in young people's ambitiousness, while the evidence for socio-economic differences is more mixed. Conversely, we find a strong socioeconomic gradient in drive, but no gender gap. Both academically ambitious and driven teenagers achieve grades around 0.37 standard deviations above their peers, even controlling for prior academic attainment and school attended.
    Keywords: socio-economic gaps, gender gaps, aspirations, secondary school, higher education
    JEL: I24 J24
    Date: 2020–07
  22. By: Ceballos, Francisco; Hernandez, Manuel A.
    Abstract: International migration has grown rapidly over the past two decades, at an annual rate of 2.4%, prompting increased interest in identifying the root causes of outmigration and the population groups more likely to emigrate. However, anticipating migration is a complex task, as the decision to migrate is often determined by multiple push and pull factors that are typically interrelated and are not always directly observable. This study proposes the Migration Propensity Index (MPI), a novel approach to indirectly estimate a household’s propensity or probability to emigrate. The central idea is to identify and keep track of a reduced set of household-level indicators that are strongly correlated with the (latent) decision of individuals to emigrate. Taken together and converted into an index, the combined indicators reflect the objective likelihood that one or more individuals from a given household will emigrate. The MPI is concise, easy to implement, and statistically rigorous, and avoids asking direct, sensitive questions about migration attempts or intentions, which are prone to refusals and underreporting. We calibrate the index to data for Guatemala, relying on an out-of-sample cross validation procedure using a panel dataset of 2,798 households living in what are considered “vulnerable†municipalities. The data were collected in 2012, 2013, and 2014. We discuss the index design and implementation, including concrete examples of its application. The resulting model includes 12 simple variables (and two location shifters) and correctly identifies 93% of eventual emigrating and non-emigrating households. The MPI can serve policymakers in getting better insights in drivers of migration, monitor present and expected migratory flows, and for targeting of economic and social policies.
    Keywords: GUATEMALA; LATIN AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; NORTH AMERICA; migration; migrants; models; policies; international migration; scoring index; migration probability
    Date: 2020
  23. By: Lindsey Rose Bullinger; Jillian B. Carr; Analisa Packham
    Abstract: COVID-19 has led to an abrupt change in time spent at home, with many cities and states implementing official stay-at-home (SAH), or “lockdown” policies. Using cell phone block-level activity data and administrative 911 and crime data from the city of Chicago, we estimate the effects of the Illinois governor's SAH order on calls for police service, crimes recorded by police, and arrests made relating to domestic violence. We find that the SAH order announcement increased time spent at home, leading to a decrease in total calls for police service, but a subsequent increase in domestic violence-related calls for police service. Effects are larger in areas with a high proportion of renters. These effects for domestic violence calls, however, are at odds with reported domestic-related crimes and arrests by police officers; we find that official reports and arrests for domestic violence crimes fell by 8.7 percent and 26.3 percent, respectively. Trends in reported domestic violence crimes mirror drops in total reported crimes; however, declines for domestic violence crimes are an order of magnitude smaller than the decline in other non-violent crime rates. Overall, we estimate that nearly 1,000 cases of domestic violence crimes went underreported between March and April.
    JEL: I18 J12 K42
    Date: 2020–08
  24. By: Yuan Tian; Maria Esther Caballero; Brian K. Kovak
    Abstract: We document the transmission of social distancing practices from the United States to Mexico along migrant networks during the early 2020 Covid-19 pandemic. Using data on pre-existing migrant connections between Mexican and U.S. locations and mobile-phone tracking data revealing social distancing behavior, we find larger declines in mobility in Mexican regions whose emigrants live in U.S. locations with stronger social distancing practices. We rule out confounding pre-trends and use a variety of controls and an instrumental variables strategy based on U.S. stay-at-home orders to rule out the potential influence of disease transmission and migrant sorting between similar locations. Given this evidence, we conclude that our findings represent the effect of information transmission between Mexican migrants living in the U.S. and residents of their home locations in Mexico. Our results demonstrate the importance of personal connections when policymakers seek to change fundamental social behaviors.
    JEL: D83 F22 I12 J61 O15
    Date: 2020–08
  25. By: Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov (Institute of Retail Economics (Handelns Forskningsinstitut)); Mihaescu, Oana (Institute of Retail Economics (Handelns Forskningsinstitut)); Rudholm, Niklas (Institute of Retail Economics (Handelns Forskningsinstitut))
    Abstract: We use the entry of 17 external shopping malls in Sweden to investigate how they have affected the performance of incumbent firms located in the city centres of small cities. We find that entry by external shopping malls decreased labour productivity for incumbent firms in city centres by -5.31%. However, when using time-specific fixed effects to control for common time trends in retailing in small cities, the impact on labour productivity, revenues, and number of employees due to the entry of external shopping malls becomes insignificant. The negative impact on incumbent firms is thus not due to the entry of external shopping malls but rather due to long-term negative economic trends in these cities.
    Keywords: external shopping malls; city centre; firm performance; agglomeration economies; competition; difference-in-differences
    JEL: D22 L25 P25 R12
    Date: 2020–08–24
  26. By: Bertocchi, Graziella (University of Modena and Reggio Emilia); Dimico, Arcangelo (Queen's University Belfast)
    Abstract: Discussion on the disproportionate impact of COVID-19 on African Americans has been at center stage since the outbreak of the epidemic in the United States. To present day, however, lack of race-disaggregated individual data has prevented a rigorous assessment of the extent of this phenomenon and the reasons why blacks may be particularly vulnerable to the disease. Using individual and georeferenced death data collected daily by the Cook County Medical Examiner, we provide first evidence that race does affect COVID-19 outcomes. The data confirm that in Cook County blacks are overrepresented in terms of COVID-19 related deaths since – as of June 16, 2020 – they constitute 35 percent of the dead, so that they are dying at a rate 1.3 times higher than their population share. Furthermore, by combining the spatial distribution of mortality with the 1930s redlining maps for the Chicago area, we obtain a block group level panel dataset of weekly deaths over the period January 1, 2020-June 16, 2020, over which we establish that, after the outbreak of the epidemic, historically lower-graded neighborhoods display a sharper increase in mortality, driven by blacks, while no pre-treatment differences are detected. Thus, we uncover a persistence influence of the racial segregation induced by the discriminatory lending practices of the 1930s, by way of a diminished resilience of the black population to the shock represented by the COVID-19 outbreak. A heterogeneity analysis reveals that the main channels of transmission are socioeconomic status and household composition, whose influence is magnified in combination with a higher black share.
    Keywords: COVID-19, deaths, blacks, redlining, vulnerability, Cook County, Chicago
    JEL: I14 J15 N32 N92 R38
    Date: 2020–07
  27. By: Aurelio Hess (Business and Economics Research Center, Brazil); Sampson Banflo Narteh-Yoe (University of Professional Studies, Accra, Ghana,)
    Abstract: In this study, the long-time commuting patterns of workers in six of the biggest metropolises of the world were observed – New Delhi, Mexico City, São Paulo, Manilla, Nairobi, and Accra – located in very different geographic regions, and all of them coming from the developing world. The main question to be answered was whether there is scope for labor policy changes towards productivity improvements in this area. The findings brought fundamental insights to the debate about big cities' problems to avoid becoming more crowded, congested, and polluted, reducing sustainability, productivity, and economic growth. Simple random samples of workers in the Metropolitan Areas of each city were surveyed electronically, by Google-Forms e-survey during the second half of 2019. The sample proportions were the estimators of the population proportions. Considering specific error margins – below 5 percentage points – for each city, and with a 95 percent point of confidence level, the authors used proportion sample distributions to draw inferences about the population of workers. It was found that long-time commuters are between 12 and 26 percent of the workers who participated in the survey. More than 65 percent of workers in all the cities observed were interested in reducing commuting time. More than half of the workers agreed that reducing commuting time could improve labor productivity, and approximately the same share is aware of the negative effects on quality of life and health. Labor policy changes in these six metropolises have the potential of affecting more than 6.5 million workers.
    Keywords: commuting, estimates, metropolis, productivity, sustainability
    Date: 2020–04
  28. By: Benjamin Balsmeier; Lee Fleming; Matt Marx; Seungryul Ryan Shin
    Abstract: To what extent does high-growth entrepreneurship depend on skilled human capital? We estimate the impact of the inflow of inventors into a region on the founding of high-growth firms, instrumenting mobility with the county-level share of millions of inventor surnames in the 1940 U.S. Census. Inventor immigration increases county-level high-growth entrepreneurship; estimates range from 29-55 immigrating inventors for each new high-growth firm, depending on the region and model. We also find a smaller but significant negative effect of inventor arrival on entrepreneurship in nearby counties.
    JEL: J24 J61 L26
    Date: 2020–07
  29. By: Christopher Rauh (Université de Montréal, CIREQ)
    Abstract: In this paper I present a methodology to provide uncertainty measures at the regional level in real time using the full bandwidth of news. In order to do so I download vast amounts of newspaper articles, summarize these into topics using unsupervised machine learning, and then show that the resulting topics foreshadow fluctuations in economic indicators. Given large regional disparities in economic performance and trends within countries, it is particularly important to have regional measures for a policymaker to tailor policy responses. I use a vector-autoregression model for the case of Canada, a large and diverse country, to show that the generated topics are significantly related to movements in economic performance indicators, inflation, and the unemployment rate at the national and provincial level. Evidence is provided that a composite index of the generated diverse topics can serve as a measure of uncertainty. Moreover, I show that some topics are general enough to have homogenous associations across provinces, while others are specific to fluctuations in certain regions.
    Keywords: machine learning, latent dirichlet allocation, newspaper text, economic uncertainty, topic model, Canada
    Date: 2019–09
  30. By: Frenette, Marc
    Abstract: Immigrants tend to reside disproportionately in larger Canadian cities, which may challenge their absorptive capacity. This study uses the linked Longitudinal Immigration Database and T1 Family File to examine the initial location and onward migration decisions of immigrants who are economic principal applicants (EPAs) and who have landed since the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act was passed. The main objective of the study is to identify the factors associated with initially residing and remaining in Canada’s three largest gateway cities: Montréal, Toronto and Vancouver (referred to as MTV).
    Keywords: Record linkage, Internal migration, Immigrants, Immigrant status, Census metropolitan areas, Administrative data
    Date: 2018–12–07
  31. By: Crawley, Andrew; Hallowell, Angela
    Abstract: This paper proposes a new approach to regional economic development that attempts to bring together sector and place-based strategies through the use of thematics. By connecting new measures and existing diagnostics we demonstrate how a region may identify emerging industrial themes based on their existing sectors, their labor pool, and their innovative capacity. By connecting often disparate heritage industries to new niche growing areas, a region might adapt to global and regional trends. To demonstrate this new approach, it is applied to data for the US state of Maine
    Keywords: Regional Economic Development; Place-based Policies; Thematics; Industrial Analysis
    JEL: R1 R11 R12
    Date: 2020–08–20
  32. By: Joan Mbagwu (Caleb University, Imota, Lagos, Nigeria)
    Abstract: The concept of urbanization in global development is a new approach which is currently sweeping through developing countries (Nigeria, Ghana, Mali) like a wild fire. However, with the huge efforts and speed at which urbanization is being pursued, many governments of these countries appear overwhelmed and unable to cope with its challenges as they are not able to provide enough basic infrastructures and services for the growth urban population. Nigeria is one of the countries struggling to cope with the challenges of urbanization especially in the areas of security of lives and property. The desire to write this article was motivated by the current inadequacy in urban policy implementation in relation to security in Nigeria. Relevant literature and archival retrieval of historical documents were reviewed. This article discussed important features of urbanization challenges in Nigeria like: rapid population growth and changing demographic structure; poverty and unemployment; difficulties in accessing housing delivery inputs; and lack of adequate capacity on the part of government. Finally, it examined the implications of these challenges in relation to the issue of insecurity in urban areas and maintained that urban policies in developing cities if properly implemented and managed should bring about a reduction of the lingering and persistent insecurity challenges and promote economic and social development.
    Keywords: urbanization, violence, government policies, human rights, development
    Date: 2020–04
  33. By: Fulton, Lewis; Compostella, Junia; Kothawala, Alimurtaza
    Abstract: UC Davis researchers have developed a cost model of travel choices that individuals make related to urban vehicle travel. These choices can include deciding to own, ride in, and drive a private vehicle or use pooled or solo ridesourcing (e.g., Uber). The model considers both monetary and non-monetary factors that affect travel choice. Monetary factors include the costs of purchasing, maintaining, and fueling different types of privately owned vehicles; and the cost of using ridesourcing services. Non-monetary (or “hedonic”) factors include travel time, parking time/inconvenience, willingness to drive or be a passenger in a driven or automated vehicle, and willingness to travel with strangers. The travel choices affected by these factors impact broader society through traffic congestion, pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, accidents, etc. and thus may be an important focus of policy. This report reviews recent literature, considers factors affecting travel choices, and reports, on a conjoint pilot survey or stated preferences. Finally, it considers approaches to apply time value to factors that are not typically associated with specific trips, such as time spent on vehicle maintenance and parking. The results should enable a deeper understanding of the likelihood that individuals will own and use private vehicles or use shared (solo and pooled) ridesourcing, and how automated vehicle services could affect these choices in the future. The study also highlights additional research needs, such as a large scale stated preference study covering more factors than have been included in previous studies. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, Travel costs, value of time, mode choice, cost estimating, hedonic costs, non-monetary costs
    Date: 2020–08–01
  34. By: Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic
    Abstract: To help schools and districts develop a trauma-informed plan as they prepare to reopen, we’ve distilled crisis response guidance from federal agencies, national professional associations, and federally funded research collaboratives and technical assistance centers.
    Keywords: rel, ma, mid-atlantic, fact sheet, trauma-informed, planning strategies, students, transition, back to shool, covid-19
  35. By: James A Kahn; Benjamin S Kay
    Abstract: We provide new evidence that credit supply shifts contributed to the U.S. subprime mortgage boom and bust. We collect original data on both government and private mortgage insurance premiums from 1999-2016, and document that prior to 2008, premiums did not vary across loans with widely different observable characteristics that we show were predictors of default risk. Then, using a set of post-crisis insurance premiums to fit a model of default behavior, and allowing for time-varying expectations about house price appreciation, we quantify the mispricing of default risk in premiums prior to 2008. We show that the flat premium structure, which necessarily resulted in safer mortgages cross-subsidizing riskier ones, produced substantial adverse selection. Government insurance maintained a flatter premium structure even post-crisis, and consequently also suffered from adverse selection. But after 2008 the government reduced its exposure to default risk through a combination of higher premiums and rationing at the extensive margin.
    Keywords: financial crisis, mortgage insurance, housing finance, default risk
    JEL: G21 E44 E32
    Date: 2020–08
  36. By: Byran S. Graham; Geert Ridder; Petra Thiemann; Gema Zamarro
    Abstract: We study the effects of counterfactual teacher-to-classroom assignments on average student achievement in elementary and middle schools in the US. We use the Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) experiment to semiparametrically identify the average reallocation effects (AREs) of such assignments. Our findings suggest that changes in within-district teacher assignments could have appreciable effects on student achievement. Unlike policies which require hiring additional teachers (e.g., class-size reduction measures), or those aimed at changing the stock of teachers (e.g., VAM-guided teacher tenure policies), alternative teacher-to-classroom assignments are resource neutral; they raise student achievement through a more efficient deployment of existing teachers.
    Date: 2020–07
  37. By: Olivieri, Sergio (Queens College, CUNY); Ortega, Francesc (Queens College, CUNY); Rivadeneira, Ana (Queens College, CUNY); Carranza, Eliana (World Bank)
    Abstract: As of 2019, more than 1.2 million Venezuelans have passed through Ecuador and over 400,000 settled in, which amounts to almost 3% of Ecuador's population. This paper analyzes the location choices of Venezuelan migrants within Ecuador and the labor market consequences of these choices, using data from Ecuador's labor force survey (ENEMDU) and mobile phone records on the geographic distribution of Venezuelan migrants. Around half of these migrants live in 4 cantons (out of 221). Their location is primarily driven by local economic conditions, rather than point of entry. Overall, regions with the largest inflows of Venezuelans have not seen any effects on labor market participation or employment, compared to regions with fewer inflows. However, our difference-in-difference estimates clearly indicate that young, low-educated Ecuadorian workers in high-inflow regions have been adversely affected. Specifically, we estimate that these workers have experienced reductions in employment quality, a 5 percentage-point increase in the rate of informality, and a 13 percentage-point reduction in earnings, relative to workers with similar characteristics living in areas with very low or non-existing inflows of Venezuelans.
    Keywords: migration Venezuela, labor market
    JEL: O15 J61 D31
    Date: 2020–07
  38. By: Vlados, Charis (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics); Deniozos, Nikolaos (National and Kapodistrian University of Greece - Department of Turkish Studies and Modern Asian Studies); Chatzinikolaou, Dimos (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics); Digkas, Agis-Georgios (National and Kapodistrian University of Greece - Department of Turkish Studies and Modern Asian Studies)
    Abstract: The conventional and traditional regional analysis seems to gradually changing focus, content and hermeneutic optic. The regional analysis of past seems increasingly saturated, being incapable to interpret and propose policy solutions that originate primarily from the potential of local development, innovation and entrepreneurship. To this end, new, multidisciplinary approaches of local development seem to prevail progressively, leading the study of development to the analysis of dynamically evolving localities.
    Keywords: Regional analysis; Local development; Innovation environment; Entrepreneurial dynamics
    JEL: O19 R11 R58
    Date: 2019–03–26
  39. By: Yu, Bo (Deakin University); Lee, Wang-Sheng (Deakin University); Rafiq, Shuddhasattwa (Deakin University)
    Abstract: This paper examines the role of a sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions quota introduced as part of China's 11th Five-Year Plan on internal movements of high-skilled labour across Chinese prefecture cities. Using data on migration flows calculated through changes in Hukou status, this study suggests that a 1,000 tons increase in the SO2 emissions reduction quota leads on average to approximately a 1.5 percentage points increase in high-skilled net outmigration. Compared to the largest prefectures, this regulation effect is twice as large in the smaller regulated prefectures. A possible mechanism could be that the implementation of SO2 quotas decreases relative labour demand in polluting industries in the regulated cities in the short term, thereby resulting in sectoral transitions from dirty-to-clean industries as well as skilled net outmigration flows. However, this net outmigration trend fades in the long term due to stabilisation in air quality. Our findings help contribute to a broader understanding of the effects of environmental policies on internal labour migration and labour force dynamics.
    Keywords: air pollution, China, emissions quota, environmental policy, internal migration, sulphur dioxide
    JEL: J61 O15 Q53 Q58
    Date: 2020–07
  40. By: Jesus Fernandez-Huertas Moraga (UAM - Universidad Autonoma de Madrid); Simone Bertoli (CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - Clermont Auvergne - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Lucas Guichard
    Abstract: Acquiring information about destinations can be costly for migrants. We model information frictions in the rational inattention framework and obtain a closed-form expression for a migration gravity equation that we bring to the data. The model predicts that flows from countries with a higher cost of information or stronger priors are less responsive to variations in economic conditions in the various destinations, as migrants rationally get less information before deciding where to move. The economet-ric analysis reveals systematic heterogeneity in the pro-cyclical behavior of migration flows across origins that is consistent with the existence of information frictions.
    Keywords: international migration,D83,information,rational inattention,gravity equation JEL codes: F22,D81
    Date: 2020–07
  41. By: Dueñas, Marco; Campi, Mercedes; Olmos, Luis
    Abstract: We analyze mobility changes following the implementation of containment measures aimed at mitigating the spread of COVID-19 in Bogotá, Colombia. We characterize the mobility network before and during the pandemic and analyze its evolution and changes between January and July 2020. We then link the observed mobility changes to socioeconomic conditions, estimating a gravity model to assess the effect of socioeconomic conditions on mobility flows. We observe an overall reduction in mobility trends, but the overall connectivity between different areas of the city remains after the lockdown, reflecting the mobility network's resilience. We find that the responses to lockdown policies depend on socioeconomic conditions. Before the pandemic, the population with better socioeconomic conditions shows higher mobility flows. Since the lockdown, mobility presents a general decrease, but the population with worse socioeconomic conditions shows lower decreases in mobility flows. We conclude deriving policy implications.
    Keywords: Mobility networks; Poverty; Informality; Socioeconomic strata; COVID-19
    JEL: R40 P46
    Date: 2020–09
  42. By: Brian G. Knight; Ana Tribin
    Abstract: This paper investigates the link between violent crime and immigration using data from Colombian municipalities during the recent episode of immigration from Venezuela. The key finding is that, following the closing and then re-opening of the border in 2016, which precipitated a massive immigration wave, homicides in Colombia increased in areas close to the border with Venezuela. Using information on the nationality of the victim, we find that this increase was driven by homicides involving Venezuelan victims, with no evidence of a statistically significant increase in homicides in which Colombians were victimized. Thus, in contrast to xenophobic fears that migrants might victimize natives, it was migrants, rather than natives, who faced risks associated with immigration. Using arrests data, there is no corresponding increase in arrests for homicides in these areas. Taken together, these results suggest that the increase in homicides close to the border documented here are driven by crimes against migrants and have occurred without a corresponding increase in arrests, suggesting that some of these crimes have gone unsolved.
    JEL: J15 J18 K42
    Date: 2020–07
  43. By: Marina Azzimonti-Renzo; Alessandra Fogli; Fabrizio Perri; Mark Ponder
    Abstract: We develop an ECON-EPI network model to evaluate policies designed to improve health and economic outcomes during a pandemic. Relative to the standard epidemiological SIR set-up, we explicitly model social contacts among individuals and allow for heterogeneity in their number and stability. In addition, we embed the network in a structural economic model describing how contacts generate economic activity. We calibrate it to the New York metro area during the 2020 COVID-19 crisis and show three main results. First, the ECON-EPI network implies patterns of infections that better match the data compared to the standard SIR. The switching during the early phase of the pandemic from unstable to stable contacts is crucial for this result. Second, the model suggests the design of smart policies that reduce infections and at the same time boost economic activity. Third, the model shows that reopening sectors characterized by numerous and unstable contacts (such as large events or schools) too early leads to fast growth of infections.
    Keywords: Complex networks; COVID-19; Epidemiology; Social distance; SIR
    JEL: D85 E23 E65 I18
    Date: 2020–08–19
  44. By: Tanupreet Singh
    Abstract: Internal migration has resulted in a mass population of 453.6 million according to 2011 as per the Census of India. Migrants are not only imperative but also but also invisible key actors of socially dynamic, culturally innovative and economically affluent societies. This paper aims to provide an overview of existing challenges associated with internal migration, specifically the psychosocial consequences of emigrants and their left behind families. Review of literature suggests that migration is linked up with a high risk for poor mental health because of alterations in the pattern and content of, exposure to new physical, psychosocial, social interactions/social support and economic/ employment environments, acculturation demands, housing problems, crime and discrimination. This paper also highlights certain suggestions as a holistic approach to meet the multiple challenges faced by emigrants. There is a high need to have in-depth understanding of the problems and pattern of mental health problems by formulating more effective intervention strategies such as pyramid intervention model in preventing the distress and disorders, moreover, developing the healthy psycho-social wellbeing of the migrants. Key Words:Migration, mental health, psychosocial, wellbeing Policy
    Date: 2020–03
  45. By: Nilsson, Jan-Eric (Research Programme in Transport Economics); Odolinski, Kristofer (Research Programme in Transport Economics)
    Abstract: This paper provides empirical evidence on the optimal timing of rail infrastructure renewal. Using an econometric approach on data from the Swedish railway network, we establish a relationship between cumulative tonnes and maintenance costs, as well as between cumulative tonnes and infrastructure failures that cause train delays. Together with average values on delay hours per failure and assumptions on passengers per train, we perform example calculations on the optimal timing for a track renewal. This timing will depend on the case considered, such as whether traffic intensity is high or low. Empirical evidence on the relationship between line capacity utilisation and delay time can provide more robust estimates for the different cases considered by an infrastructure manager. Still, the results in this paper is a significant step towards a usable cost-benefit analysis model for the timing of rail infrastructure renewals.
    Keywords: Railway; Infrastructure; Optimization; Renewal; Maintenance; Train Delays
    JEL: H54 L92 R49
    Date: 2020–08–28
  46. By: Elias Carroni; Giuseppe Pignataro; Alessandro Tampieri
    Abstract: We study a context in which a seller can increase the perceived value of her product by a costly manipulative action, and buyers’ collective learning can contrast the seller’s manipulation. Each buyer needs to face documentation (effort) costs to understand product value. A buyer alone is never willing to face the cost of effort, as her documentation activity has no impact on the seller’s choices. The intermediation of a platform induces the buyers to exert effort, thereby reducing manipulation. The platform can direct the learning activity by developing a peer-review system or only allowing for individual learning. The choice between the two environments depends on (i) the precisions of the signals that each buyer receives and (ii) the manipulative ability of the seller.
    Keywords: Manipulation, Private Information, Online Marketplace, Bayesian Learning, In- formation Acquisition, Peer-Review.
    JEL: D42 D82 D83 L13 M37
    Date: 2020
  47. By: Lippens, Louis (Ghent University); Baert, Stijn (Ghent University); Ghekiere, Abel (Free University of Brussels); Verhaeghe, Pieter-Paul (Free University of Brussels); Derous, Eva (Ghent University)
    Abstract: Scholars have gone to great lengths to chart the incidence of ethnic labour market discrimination. To effectively mitigate this discrimination, however, we need to understand its underlying mechanisms because different mechanisms lead to different counteracting measures. To this end, we reviewed the recent literature that confronts the seminal theories of taste-based and statistical discrimination against the empirical reality. First, we observed that the measurement operationalisation of the mechanisms varied greatly between studies, necessitating the development of a measurement standard. Second, we found that 20 out of 30 studies examining taste-based discrimination and 18 out of 34 studies assessing statistical discrimination produced supportive evidence for said mechanisms. However, (field) experimental research, which predominantly focuses on hiring outcomes, yielded more evidence in favour of taste-based vis-à-vis statistical discrimination, suggesting that the taste-based mechanism might better explain ethnic discrimination in hiring.
    Keywords: taste-based discrimination, statistical discrimination, ethnicity, race, labour market, systematic review
    JEL: J71 J15 J23
    Date: 2020–07
  48. By: Eduardo Gutiérrez (Banco de España); Enrique Moral-Benito (Banco de España); Roberto Ramos (Banco de España); Daniel Oto-Peralías (Universidad Pablo de Olavide)
    Abstract: We exploit the GEOSTAT 2011 population grid with a very high 1-km2 resolution to document that Spain presents the lowest density of settlements among European countries. We uncover that this anomaly cannot be accounted for by adverse geographic and climatic conditions. Using techniques from spatial econometrics, we identify the clusters that exhibit the lowest densities within Spain after controlling for geo-climatic factors: these areas mainly belong to Teruel, Zaragoza, Ciudad Real, Albacete, Sevilla and Asturias. We also explore the attributes that characterize the municipalities located in these low-density areas: larger population losses during the 1950-1991 rural exodus, higher shares of local-born inhabitants, longer distances to the province capital, higher shares of population employed in agriculture, and larger increases in regionalist vote after the Great Recession.
    Keywords: economic geography, Spain
    JEL: R10
    Date: 2020–08
  49. By: Megan Hague Angus; Jeanne Bellotti; Brittany English; Stephanie Boraas; Kevin Hollenbeck; Sarah Osborn
    Abstract: This report presents lessons learned from two initiatives aimed at creating high-wage jobs and innovation in various geographical regions.
    Keywords: employment, job creation, labor, workforce development, small businesses, economic development
  50. By: Bracco, Emanuele (Lancaster University); De Paola, Maria (University of Calabria); Green, Colin P. (Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)); Scoppa, Vincenzo (University of Calabria)
    Abstract: There has been a resurgence in right wing and populist politics in recent years. A common element is a focus on immigration, an increase in anti-immigrant rhetoric, and the vilification of minorities. This in turn has the potential to lead to increases in societal hostility towards immigrants. Children are likely to find themselves at the frontline of this phenomenon. This paper uses census data on two cohorts of 5th grade Italian students to estimate the causal effect of anti-immigration politics on school bullying. We use variations in the timing of municipal elections in Italy and focus on the effect of Lega Nord, a far-right party, with a strong anti-immigration platform. We demonstrate that in municipalities where elections occur and Lega Nord is highly active, the victimisation of immigrant school children increases. These effects are large, while they are absent for municipalities in which Lega Nord has little support, where no elections occurred and for native children. These findings are robust to different definitions of bullying outcomes or different definitions of Lega Nord presence. Our results suggest important negative spillovers from the political sphere to the welfare of children that are likely to be consequential.
    Keywords: bullying, immigration, politics, elections, schooling
    JEL: J15 J13 D72 I24
    Date: 2020–07
  51. By: Runjing Lu; Yanying Sheng
    Abstract: We estimate the effect of the Coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic on racial animus, as measured by Google searches and Twitter posts including a commonly used anti-Asian racial slur. Our empirical strategy exploits the plausibly exogenous variation in the timing of the first Covid-19 diagnosis across regions in the United States. We find that the first local diagnosis leads to an immediate increase in racist Google searches and Twitter posts, with the latter mainly coming from existing Twitter users posting the slur for the first time. This increase could indicate a rise in future hate crimes, as we document a strong correlation between the use of the slur and anti-Asian hate crimes using historic data. Moreover, we find that the rise in the animosity is directed at Asians rather than other minority groups and is stronger on days when the connection between the disease and Asians is more salient, as proxied by President Trump's tweets mentioning China and Covid-19 at the same time. In contrast, the negative economic impact of the pandemic plays little role in the initial increase in racial animus. Our results suggest that de-emphasizing the connection between the disease and a particular racial group can be effective in curbing current and future racial animus.
    Date: 2020–07
  52. By: Hung-Hao Chang; Chad Meyerhoefer; Feng-An Yang
    Abstract: Recent studies demonstrate that air quality improved during the coronavirus pandemic due to the imposition of social lockdowns. We investigate the impact of COVID-19 on air pollution in the two largest cities in Taiwan, which were not subject to economic or mobility restrictions. Using a generalized difference-in-differences approach and real-time data on air quality and transportation, we estimate that levels of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter increased 5 - 12 percent relative to 2017 - 2019. We demonstrate that this counterintuitive finding is likely due to a shift in preferences for mode of transport away from public transportation and towards personal automobiles. Similar COVID-19 prevention behaviors in regions or countries emerging from lockdowns could likewise result in an increase in air pollution.
    JEL: I12 Q53
    Date: 2020–07
  53. By: Giancarlo Corsetti; Joao B. Duarte; Samuel Mann
    Abstract: We study the transmission of monetary shocks across euro-area countries using a dynamic factor model and high-frequency identification. We develop a methodology to assess the degree of heterogeneity, which we find to be low in financial variables and output, but significant in consumption, consumer prices, and variables related to local housing and labor markets. Building a small open economy model featuring a housing sector and calibrating it to Spain, we show that varying the share of adjustable-rate mortgages and loan-to-value ratios explains up to one-third of the cross-country heterogeneity in the responses of output and private consumption.
    Date: 2020–06–26
  54. By: Jonathan Guryan; Sandra Christenson; Ashley Cureton; Ijun Lai; Jens Ludwig; Catherine Schwarz; Emma Shirey; Mary Clair Turner
    Abstract: In response to budget problems, many urban school systems reduced resources for getting students to come to school, like truancy officers. Chicago, for instance, went from 150 truancy officers down to, in 1991, a total of zero. Is that a good idea? We explore here the effects of increased support by a pro-social adult, or “social capital,” delivered through a structured student monitoring and mentoring program called Check & Connect (C&C). We carried out a large-scale randomized controlled trial with C&C in partnership with the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) to students in grades 1-8. Program participation decreased absences in grades 5-7 by 4.2 days, or 22.9 percent, but with no detectable effects on students in grades 1-4. We also did not find statistically significant effects on learning outcomes such as test scores or GPA, or any detectable spillovers to other students within the schools where the program was administered. The modest impacts per dollar spent, compared to previous evidence on either low-cost "nudges" or relatively intensive, higher-cost interventions, raise the possibility that, for very disadvantaged students, there may be decreasing but then increasing returns to program intensity for the problem of student disengagement.
    JEL: I20
    Date: 2020–08
  55. By: Lockwood, Ben (University of Warwick); Porcelli, Francesco (Universit`a di Bari); Redoano, Michela (University of Warwic); Bracco, Emanuele (Universit`a di Verona); Liberini, Federica (University of Bath); Sgroi, Daniel (University of Warwick)
    Abstract: This paper makes three contributions. First, it presents a theoretical analysis of how both the civic preference and information aspects of social capital impact on government performance and turnover, employing a political agency model with both moral hazard and adverse selection. Second, it presents novel measures of both local government performance and on social capital at the Italian municipality level, using administrative data and an online survey respectively. Third, empirical results show that higher social capital improves government performance, especially in the first term of office, but also increases turnover of incumbent mayors, as predicted by the theory. The voting rule predicted by the theory has the feature that the level effect of social capital on the incumbent vote share is negative, but the interaction between social capital and performance is positive. Our empirical results also support this prediction.
    Keywords: Social Capital ; Voting ; Elections ; Government Efficiency JEL codes: H41 ; H72 ; D72
    Date: 2020
  56. By: Hanming Fang; Chang Liu; Li-An Zhou
    Abstract: We examine window dressing phenomenon in the public sector by studying the strategic responses of Chinese local officials to the compulsory education promotion program launched by the central government in the 1990s. According to this program, the Chinese counties should receive inspections on whether the compulsory educational targets were achieved on pre-scheduled time by provincial governments; and failing to pass the inspection would have severe negative career consequences for the county leaders. We find that county-level educational expenditures saw a sustained increase before the inspection, but a sharp drop immediately after the inspection. Local officials who were more likely to be inspected within their tenures window-dressed more aggressively. As a result, middle school enrollment rates declined significantly after the inspection, and rural girls bore the blunt of the decline in school enrollment.
    JEL: D73 H11 H41 P26
    Date: 2020–07
  57. By: Dilan Tas; Merima Kastrat
    Abstract: Germany is one of the several countries in Europe that have opened its borders to immigrants for many years. The admission of immigrants into Germany has contributed to the country being the second largest immigration destination in the world, and this has resulted in both negative and positive outcomes for the natives. In this essay, the effect of immigration on natives’ hourly wages and employment was examined, by using microdata for Germany. Native workers’ educational level attainments and 16 different regions in Germany were taken into account to obtain regional variation. Cross-sectional data was used for the years 2005, 2009 and 2015 in order to measure the effect of the share of immigrants on natives’hourly wages and employment. The findings showed that the share of immigrants, had a positive effect on natives’ wages and employment in 2005 and 2009. In 2015, however, a negative relationship was found, with the share of immigrants impacting negatively on natives’ wages but not on employment. Thus, the study highlights the importance of immigrants on natives’ hourly wages and employment.
    Date: 2019–09
  58. By: Mastrorocco, Nicola (Trinity College Dublin); Ornaghi, Arianna (University of Warwick)
    Abstract: Does media content influence local institutions? We study this question by looking at how a negative shock to local crime-related news, induced by the acquisition of local TV stations by the Sinclair Broadcast Group, affects U.S. municipal police departments. In particular, we implement a triple differences-in-differences design that exploits the staggered timing of acquisitions 2010-2017, together with cross-sectional variation in whether municipalities are covered by local news at baseline, a proxy for exposure to the shock. First, using a newly collected dataset of 300,000 transcripts of local newscasts, we document that once acquired by Sinclair, TV stations decrease news coverage of local crime. Second, we find that after Sinclair enters a media market, municipalities that were likely to be in the news at baseline experience 8% lower violent crime clearance rates with respect to municipalities that were very rarely in the news in the first place. The main mechanism we propose is that the change in content induces police officers to decrease the effort allocated to clearing violent crimes, due to a decline in the salience of crime as an issue in the public opinion.
    Date: 2020
  59. By: Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic
    Abstract: As a result of COVID-19, schools are transitioning their instructional programs from in-person to blended learning environments to mitigate the spread of the coronavirus once schools reopen and to prepare for the possibility of additional school closures during the 2020–2021 school year.
    Keywords: relma, mid-atlantic, fact sheet, keeping pace, strategies, ensuring, continuity of learning, covid-19 pandemic
  60. By: Vlados, Charis (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics); Chatzinikolaou, Dimos (Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper explores how innovation is perceived, on the one hand, by the scientific literature and, on the other, by the everyday practice of small and micro enterprises operating in the less developed socioeconomic system of the Greek region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace. Our aim is to find out whether there are different perceptions of innovation from two different "worlds", the theoretical and the practical. For this, we conducted an introductory and qualitative field research on a sample of small and micro enterprises in the region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace. We found there is a notable distance in the perception of innovation between the scientific theory and the everyday practice of micro and small enterprises in this less developed region in Greece.
    Keywords: Innovation multiplicity; Innovation definitions; Micro and small enterprises; Region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace
    JEL: O39 R11
    Date: 2019
  61. By: Olivieri, Sergio (Queens College, CUNY); Ortega, Francesc (Queens College, CUNY); Rivadeneira, Ana (Queens College, CUNY); Carranza, Eliana (World Bank)
    Abstract: Ecuador has become the third largest receiver of the 4.3 million Venezuelans that left their country in the last five years, hosting around 10% of them. Little is known about the characteristics of these migrants and their labor market outcomes. This paper fills this gap, analyzing a new large survey (known as EPEC). On average, Venezuelan workers are highly skilled and have high rates of employment, compared to Ecuadorians. However, their employment is of much lower quality, characterized by low wages and high rates of informality and temporality. Venezuelans have experienced significant occupational downgrading, relative to their employment prior to emigration. As a result, despite their high educational attainment, Venezuelans primarily compete for jobs with the least skilled and more economically vulnerable Ecuadorian workers. Our simulations suggest that measures that allow Venezuelans to obtain employment that matches their skills, such as facilitating the conversion of educational credentials, would increase Ecuador's GDP between 1.6% and 1.9% and alleviate the pressure on disadvantaged native workers. We also show that providing work permits to Venezuelan workers would substantially reduce their rates of informality and increase their average earnings.
    Keywords: Ecuador, Venezuela, migration, skills, credentials, legalization
    JEL: O15 J61 D31
    Date: 2020–07
  62. By: Moustafa, Khaled
    Abstract: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic should teach us some lessons at health, environmental and human levels toward more fairness, human cohesion and environmental sustainability. At a health level, the pandemic raises the importance of housing for everyone particularly vulnerable and homeless people to protect them from the disease and other similar airborne pandemics. Here, I propose to make good use of big data along with 3D construction printers to solve major and pressing needs of housing worldwide. Big data can be used to calculate how many people do need accommodations and 3D construction printers to build houses accordingly and swiftly. The combination of such facilities- big data and 3D printers- can help solve global housing crises more efficiently than traditional and unguided construction plans. This is particularly urgent under environmental and major health crises where health and housing are tightly interrelated.
    Date: 2020–08–26
  63. By: Harrington, Deirdre; Hadjiconstantinou, Michelle
    Abstract: The UK Government restrictions on non-essential work in response to the COVID-19 pandemic has meant that millions of working aged-adults were forced into an unplanned change of lifestyle. We aim to present data on changes in planned commuting behaviour of public transport and car commuters and to describe the facilitators and barriers to switching commuting behaviours, with a specific focus on cycling and walking. An online survey queried individuals’ transport mode to/from work before becoming aware of the COVID-19 threat and their transport mode plans once UK Government restrictions are lifted. Free-form text responses were also collected on why they may switch to a sustainable mode of transport (e.g. walk, bicycle or bus) to work in the future and what would help/allow them to achieve this. Quantitative and qualitative data on those who commuted by car (single occupant) and public transport (bus/rail/park & ride) were analysed and presented separately. Overall, 725 car and public transport commuters responded; 72.4% were car commuters and 27.6% were public transport commuters before COVID-19. Of the car commuters, 81.9% plan to continue travelling by car once restrictions are lifted while 3.6% and 6.5% plan to change to walking and cycling, respectively. Of the public transport commuters, 49.0% plan to switch modes. From the free-form text responses three themes were identified: (a) perceived behavioural control towards cycling and walking (infrastructure and safety of roads, distance, weather) (b) key motivators to encourage a switch to cycling and walking (provision to support cycling, personal and environmental benefits, provision to support cycling); (c) the demands of current lifestyle (job requirements, family and lifestyle commitments). These UK data show how the COVID-19 pandemic has been an “external shock” causing some individuals to reassess their commuting mode. This provides an opportunity for theory-based behaviour change interventions tackling motivations, barriers and beliefs towards changing commute mode.
    Date: 2020–08–03
  64. By: Denuit, Michel
    Date: 2019–01–01
  65. By: Ciro Biderman (Fundação Getúlio Vargas)
    Abstract: This paper explores to what extent a road-use charge levied from transport network companies for their ridesharing services can mitigate negative impacts of ridesharing. This approach is being applied in the city of São Paulo in Brazil.
    Date: 2020–07–31
  66. By: Blimpo,Moussa Pouguinimpo; Gajigo,Ousman; Owusu,Solomon; Tomita,Ryoko; Xu,Yanbin
    Abstract: This paper studies the impact of a computer-assisted learning program on learning outcomes among high school students in The Gambia. The program uses innovative technologies and teaching approach to facilitate the teaching of mathematics and science. Since the pilot schools were not randomly chosen, the study first used administrative and survey data, including a written test, to build a credible counterfactual of comparable groups of control students. It used these data to conduct a pre-analysis plan prior to students taking the high-stakes certification exam. The study later used the certification exam data on the same students to replicate the results. The findings show that the program led to a 0.59 standard deviation gains in mathematics scores and an increase of 15 percentage points (a threefold increase) in the share of students who obtained credit in mathematics and English, a criterion for college admission in The Gambia. The impact is concentrated among high-achieving students at the baseline, irrespective of their gender or socioeconomic background.
    Keywords: Educational Institutions&Facilities,Effective Schools and Teachers,Educational Sciences,Energy Policies&Economics,Secondary Education,Gender and Development
    Date: 2020–06–22
  67. By: Caitlin S. Brown; Martin Ravallion
    Abstract: Not much is obvious about how socioeconomic inequalities impact the spread of infectious diseases once one considers behavioral responses, correlations among multiple covariates and the likely non-linearities and dynamics involved. Social distancing responses to the threat of catching COVID-19 and outcomes for infections and deaths are modelled across US counties, augmenting epidemiological and health covariates with within-county median incomes, poverty and income inequality, and age and racial composition. Systematic socioeconomic effects on social distancing and infections emerge, and most effects do not fade as the virus spreads. Deaths, once infected, are less responsive to socioeconomic covariates. Richer counties tend to see greater gains in social distancing and lower infection rates, controlling for more standard epidemiological factors. Income poverty and inequality tend to increase the infection rate, but these effects are largely accountable to their correlation with racial composition. A more elderly population increases deaths conditional on infections, but has an offsetting effect on the infection rate, consistent with the behavioral responses we find through social distancing.
    JEL: I12 I14 I32
    Date: 2020–07
  68. By: Anna Aizer; Ryan Boone; Adriana Lleras-Muney; Jonathan Vogel
    Abstract: The 1940s witnessed substantial reductions in the Black-white earnings gap. We study the role that domestic WWII defense production played in reducing this gap. Exploiting variation across labor markets in the allocation of war contracts to private firms, we find that war production contracts resulted in significant increases in the earnings of Black workers and declines in the racial wage gap, with no effect on white workers. This was achieved via occupational upgrading among Black men to skilled occupations. The gains largely persisted through at least 1970. Using a structural model, we show that declines in discrimination (and not migration or changes in productivity) account for all of the occupational upgrading and half of the estimated wage gains associated with the war production effort. Additionally, the war production effort explains one quarter (one seventh) of the overall improvements in racial gaps in occupation allocations (wages) witnessed over this decade. Finally, war spending led to an increase in the high school graduation rate of Black children, suggesting important intergenerational spillovers associated with declines in labor market discrimination.
    JEL: J24 J3 J7 N12 N4
    Date: 2020–08
  69. By: Brandon Ryu (Mercersburg Academy, Mercersburg, PA, USA)
    Abstract: This research compares the housing condition of people receiving national merit benefits and that of people from the group of low-income families. The research examined the mean difference of the two groups along with correlation and regression analyses. The descriptive statistics and percentage difference show that those who receive national merit benefits are less likely to own houses; to have ventilation installed in their bathroom; to live in asbestos-free houses; to have a solid structural frame, and to live in houses free of water leakage and dew condensation. Regression analysis shows that marital status explains the change of housing satisfaction for these people.
    Keywords: national merit benefits, veterans, adequate housing, low-income, marital status
    Date: 2020–04
  70. By: Stam, Erik; Welter, Friederike
    Abstract: This chapter focuses on contexts of entrepreneurship, in particular geographical contexts, and entrepreneurial agency. The twin concepts space and place are key in understanding geographical contexts for entrepreneurship, not least because place does not exist without physical space. Important research in this regard has touched upon the role of gendered places and spaces for entrepreneurship, social places such as families, households and neighbourhoods and explored new spaces for entrepreneurship such as makerspaces. We combine these spaces and places in a model of entrepreneurial ecosystems that allows us to focus simultaneously on the geographical contexts for entrepreneurship and the agency of entrepreneurs within those. The chapter ends with a future research agenda on geographical contexts for entrepreneurship.
    Date: 2020
  71. By: Brian Gill; Emilyn Rubel Whitesell; Sean P. Corcoran; Charles Tilley; Mariel Finucane Liz Potamites
    Abstract: This study examines the impact of Democracy Prep on voter registration and participation in the 2016 election.
    Keywords: Charter schools, civics, Democracy Prep

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