nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2019‒12‒23
57 papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. Housing, wealth accumulation and wealth distribution: Evidence and stylized facts By Orsetta Causa; Nicolas Woloszko; David Leite
  2. Urbanization and Human Development Index: Cross-country evidence By Tripathi, Sabyasachi
  3. Endogenous agglomeration in a many-region world By Takashi Akamatsu; Tomoya Mori; Minoru Osawa; Yuki Takayama
  4. The suburbanization of poverty: Homeownership policies and spatial inequalities in France By Anne Lambert; Laurent Gobillon
  5. Moved to Vote: The Long-Run Effects of Neighborhoods on Political Participation By Eric Chyn; Kareem Haggag
  6. Improving school results and equity in compulsory education in Sweden By Jon Pareliussen; Christophe André; Hyunjeong Hwang
  7. Building the city: urban transition and institutional frictions By Anthony Venables; J. Vernon Henderson; Tanner Regan
  8. What drives the performance of Swedish lower secondary schools? By Christophe André; Jon Pareliussen; Hyunjeong Hwang
  9. Take It to the limit? The effects of household leverage caps By Sjoerd Van Bekkum; Marc Gabarro; Rustom M. Irani; José-Luis Peydró
  10. Die wirtschaftliche Spezialisierung ländlicher Räume By Meister, Moritz; Niebuhr, Annekatrin; Peters, Jan Cornelius; Reutter, Philipp; Stiller, Johannes
  11. Do workers make good neighbours? The impact of local employment on young male and female entrants to the labour market By Matthieu Solignac; Maxime Tô
  12. The Practice of Municipal Cooperation: Australian Perspectives and Comparisons with Canada By Graham Sansom
  13. The Right Tax for the Job: The Role of Property Taxes in Funding Cities By Bev Dalhby; Melville McMillan
  14. Home Equity in Retirement By Nakajima, Makoto; Telyukova, Irina A.
  15. Global trends towards urban street-network sprawl By Barrington-Leigh, Christopher Paul; Millard-Ball, Adam
  16. Peculiarities of housing market: dynamics of housing availability in Ukraine By Valerii O. Omelchuk
  17. Accounting for racial wealth disparities in the United States By Jeffrey P. Thompson; Gustavo A. Suarez
  18. Peer effects in stock market participation: evidence from immigration By Girshina, Anastasia; Mathä, Thomas Y.; Ziegelmeyer, Michael
  19. The Role of Business Improvement Areas and Neighbourhood Associations in the City of Toronto By Alexandra Flynn
  20. Promise and Peril in the Smart City: Local Government in the Age of Digital Urbanism By John Lorinc
  22. Does Local Government Autonomy Promote Fiscal Sustainability? Lessons from Illinois By Matthew Walshe
  23. Does Growing Up in Tax-subsidized Housing Lead to Higher Earnings and Educational Attainment? By Elena Derby
  24. Migrants, towns, poverty and jobs: insights from Tanzania By Luc Christiaensen; Joachim De Weerdt; Bert Ingelaere; Ravi Kanbur
  25. Regional Data in Macroeconomics: Some Advice for Practitioners By Gabriel Chodorow-Reich
  26. Transit in the Greater Toronto Area: How to Get Back on the Rails By Harry Kitchen; Enid Slack; Tomas Hachard
  27. When do firms choose global cities as foreign investment locations within countries? The roles of contextual distance, knowledge intensity, and target-country experience By Rene Belderbos; H Du; Arjen Slangen
  28. Mind the Funding Gap: Transit Financing in Los Angeles County and Metro Vancouver By Matthew Lesch
  29. Skills and Smart Specialisation: The role of Vocational Education and Training in Smart Specialisation Strategies By Ellen Hazelkorn; John Edwards
  30. Teacher Value-Added and Economic Agency By Hugh Macartney; Robert McMillan; Uros Petronijevic
  31. Public R&D and green knowledge diffusion:\r\nEvidence from patent citation data By Gianluca ORSATTI
  32. Housing insecurity, homelessness and populism : Evidence from the UK By Fetzer, Thiemo; Sen, Srinjoy; Souza, Pedro CL
  33. Assessing House Prices in Canada By Michal Andrle; Miroslav Plašil
  34. Socio-economic profile of the low income and poor communities in Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia By Murad, Wahid; Hasan, Mahadi; Islam, Saiful; Alam, Md. Mahmudul
  35. Die Binnenwanderung von Arbeitskräften in Deutschland: Eine deskriptive Analyse für ländliche Räume auf Basis der Integrierten Erwerbsbiografien (IEB) des IAB By Meister, Moritz; Stiller, Johannes; Peters, Jan Cornelius; Birkeneder, Antonia
  36. The Evolution of Local Governance in Mexico City: Pursuing Autonomy in a Growing Region By Alejandra Reyes
  37. Continuously Updated Indirect Inference in Heteroskedastic Spatial Models By Maria Kyriacou; Peter C.B. Phillips; Francesca Rossi
  38. An integrated approach to the Paris climate Agreement: The role of regions and cities By Tadashi Matsumoto; Dorothée Allain-Dupré; Jonathan Crook; Alexis Robert
  39. The Effect of Lifestyle and Level of Knowledge in Household Financial Management By Maulamin, Taufan; As’ad, Muhammad; Hasim, Abdul Hafid
  40. Effect of motivation, competence and Islamic leadership on job satisfaction and Teacher performance in vocational high school By Abusama, Muhammad; Haming, Murdifin; Hamzah, Muh. Nasir; , Ramlawati; Jamali, Hisnol
  41. Land value is a progressive and efficient property tax base: Evidence from Victoria By Murray, Cameron; Hermans, Jesse
  42. Temptation and commitment: understanding the demand for illiquidity By Agnes Kovacs; Patrick Moran
  43. Can land market regulations fulfill their promises? By Heinrich, Florian; Appel, Franziska; Balmann, Alfons
  44. The role of spatial dependence in risk preference: Evidence from Nigeria By Ambali, Omotuyole I.; Areal, Francisco J.; Georgantzis, Nikolaos
  45. Effect of Competence, Information Systems Management, Organizational Culture on the Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment and Teacher Performance By Abdullah, Ibrahim H.; Gunawan, Hendra; Hamzah, H. Muh. Nasir; Ella, Hamza; Jamali, Hisnol
  46. The Australian housing supply myth By Murray, Cameron
  47. Spatial association between regionalizations using the information-theoretical V-measure By Nowosad, Jakub; Stepinski, Tomasz
  48. Knowledge sharing through enterprise social network : the key roles of servant leader virtues and eudaimonic well-being By Annabel Martin-Salerno; Andrea L. Micheaux; Valentina Stan
  49. Motivating Low-Achievers—Relative Performance Feedback in Primary Schools By Hermes, Henning; Huschens, Martin; Rothlauf, Franz; Schunk, Daniel
  50. Mixing the Rich and Poor: The Impact of Peers on Education and Earnings By Einiö, Elias
  51. School Goes Online With Avatars: Extended Learning in a Secondary School By Martine Gadille; Maria Antonietta Impedovo
  52. The Value of Terroir. A historical analysis of the Bordeaux and Champagne geographical indications By Catherine Haeck; Giulia Meloni; Jo Swinnen
  53. Self-directed learning and teacher professional development: An adapted Profile of Implementation By Tswakae Sebotsa; Josef De Beer; Jeanne Kriek
  54. Marginal and average prices of land lots should not be equal: A critique of Glaeser and Gyourko’s method for identifying residential price effects of town planning regulations By Murray, Cameron
  55. Does Virtual Advising Increase College Enrollment? Evidence from a Random Assignment College Access Field Experiment By Meredith Phillips; Sarah J. Reber
  56. Chilean teacher educators in initial teacher education policy: A qualitative content analysis By Yenny Hinostroza Paredes
  57. Job-to-Job Flows and the Consequences of Job Separations By John Haltiwanger; Erika McEntarfer; Bruce C. Fallick; Matthew Staiger

  1. By: Orsetta Causa; Nicolas Woloszko; David Leite
    Abstract: This paper produces new evidence and stylised facts on housing, wealth accumulation and wealth distribution, relying on an in-depth analysis of micro-based data on household wealth across OECD countries. The analysis addresses several questions: i) How is homeownership and housing tenure distributed across the population along various socio-economic characteristics such as income, wealth and age? What is the weight of housing in households’ balance sheets and how does this vary across socio-economic groups? ii) What is the incidence of mortgage debt across households and how does this vary across socio-economic groups? What is the impact of mortgage debt on access to homeownership and wealth accumulation, and on debt overburden and financial risks among vulnerable groups? iii) Is housing a vehicle for wealth accumulation? Can it be a barrier to residential mobility? iv) Is there a link between homeownership and wealth inequality? Between inequality in housing wealth and in total wealth? A key policy issue addressed in this paper is whether and how housing-related policies affect wealth distribution. Another important issue is whether housing-related policies raise potential trade-offs between equity, or inequality reduction, and other policy objectives such as employment and productivity growth as well as macroeconomic resilience. Informed by the stylised facts and existing evidence, this paper discusses preliminary policy implications of housing reform to promote inclusiveness and social mobility, to enhance efficiency in the allocation of labour and capital and to strengthen macroeconomic resilience.
    Keywords: household portfolio, housing, inequality, intergenerational wealth transfers, mobility, mortgage debt, progressivity, prudential regulation, taxes, wealth accumulation, wealth distribution
    JEL: D14 D31 D64 E21 G21 H24 J61
    Date: 2019–12–19
  2. By: Tripathi, Sabyasachi
    Abstract: The present study assesses the impact of urbanization on the value of country-level Human Development Index (HDI), using random effect Tobit panel data estimation from 1990 to 2017. Urbanization is measured by the total urban population, percentage of the urban population, urban population growth rate, percentage of the population living in million-plus agglomeration, and the largest city of the country. Analyses are also separated by high income, upper middle income, lower middle income, and low-income countries. We find that, overall; the total urban population, percentage of the urban population, and percentage of urban population living in the million-plus agglomerations have a positive effect on the value of HDI with controlling for other important determinants of the HDI. On the other hand, urban population growth rate and percentage of the population residing in the largest cities have a negative effect on the value of HDI. Finally, we suggest that the promotion of urbanization is essential to achieving a higher level of HDI. The improvement of the percentage of urbanization is most important than other measures of urbanization. Developing countries need to promote balanced urbanization with the improvement of basic urban services for improving the HDI rank.
    Keywords: Urbanization, human development index, cross country
    JEL: O15 R11 R13
    Date: 2019
  3. By: Takashi Akamatsu; Tomoya Mori; Minoru Osawa; Yuki Takayama
    Abstract: We theoretically study a general family of economic geography models that features endogenous agglomeration. In many-region settings, the spatial scale---global or local---of the dispersion force(s) in a model plays a key role in determining the resulting endogenous spatial patterns and comparative statics. A global dispersion force accrues from competition between different locations and leads to the formation of multiple economic clusters, or cities. A local dispersion force is caused by crowding effects within each location and induces the flattening of each city. By distinguishing local and global dispersion forces, we can reduce a wide variety of extant models into only three prototypical classes that are qualitatively different in implications. Our framework adds consistent interpretations to the empirical literature and also provides general predictions on treatment effects in structural economic geography models.
    Date: 2019–12
  4. By: Anne Lambert; Laurent Gobillon
    Abstract: This article examines the role of assisted loans in accessing homeownership and in the residential segregation of low-income households in France. During the 1996-2006 period, no-interest loans (NILs) affected 1.4 million households and were the main policy tool that favored homeownership. We rely on French housing surveys and the administrative records on NILs to compare the position of social groups in the housing market before and after implementing NILs. We show that in a context of increasing housing prices, NILs have limited the exclusion of lower- and middle-class households from the new-build housing market outside the Paris region. Nevertheless, households with NILs tend to relocate to peripheral areas that are characterized not only by a lower proportion of professionals and managers than central areas, but also by lower access to public services and collective amenities. Moreover, in-depth interviews suggest that low-income households had no clear perception of the social and physical disconnections they would experience when they purchased their new homes.
    Date: 2019
  5. By: Eric Chyn; Kareem Haggag
    Abstract: How does one's childhood neighborhood shape political engagement later in life? We leverage a natural experiment that moved children out of disadvantaged neighborhoods to study effects on their voting behavior more than a decade later. Using linked administrative data, we find that children who were displaced by public housing demolitions and moved using housing vouchers are 12 percent (3.3 percentage points) more likely to vote in adulthood, relative to their non-displaced peers. We argue that this result is unlikely to be driven by changes in incarceration or in their parents' outcomes, but rather by improvements in education and labor market outcomes, and perhaps by socialization. These results suggest that, in addition to reducing economic inequality, housing assistance programs that improve one's childhood neighborhood may be a useful tool in reducing inequality in political participation.
    JEL: D72 H75 I38 J13 R23 R38
    Date: 2019–11
  6. By: Jon Pareliussen; Christophe André; Hyunjeong Hwang
    Abstract: Swedish school results declined for two decades following a series of reforms in the early 1990s decentralising the school system and introducing choice, competition and management by objectives. The general aims and direction of reform were not destined to lower results, but weaknesses of reform design and implementation, against the backdrop of a deep recession, likely contributed to falling outcomes. Residential segregation and the current model of competition and choice increase school segregation and likely reduce equality of opportunity. A coherent set of reforms should strengthen central government institutions, rebuild a regional governance structure and increasingly target funding to pupils’ needs. Better steering of competition and school choice implies ensuring that grades fairly represent pupils’ skills and knowledge, that municipalities increasingly take the socio-economic mix of pupils into account in entry and investment decisions, and that entry and expansion of private schools are better coordinated to counter school segregation. Teaching needs to become more attractive to raise the quality of recruitment to the profession and to address current and future teacher shortages by improving teacher education, strengthening continuous learning and instigating more cooperation, feedback and support between colleagues. This Working Paper relates to the 2019 OECD Economic Survey of Sweden ( omic-snapshot/).
    Keywords: competition, education, governance, Sweden
    JEL: H44 H75 I21 I28
    Date: 2019–12–19
  7. By: Anthony Venables; J. Vernon Henderson; Tanner Regan
    Abstract: We model the building of a city, estimate parameters of the model, and calculate welfare losses from institutional frictions encountered in changing land-use. We distinguish formal and slum construction technologies; in contrast to slums, formal structures can be built tall, are durable, and non-malleable. As the city grows areas are initially developed informally, then formally, and then redeveloped periodically. Slums are modelled as a technology choice; however, institutional frictions in land markets may hinder their conversion to formal usage that requires secure property rights. Using unique data on Nairobi for 2003 and 2015, we develop a novel set of facts that support assumptions of the model, estimate all parameters of the model, and calculate welfare losses of conversion frictions. We track the dynamic evolution of the city and compare it with model predictions. In the core city formal sector, about 35% of buildings were torn down over 12 years and replaced by buildings on average three times higher. For slums in older areas near the centre, even after buying out slumlords, overcoming institutional frictions would yield gains amounting to $16,000 -18,000 per slum household, 30 times typical annual slum rent payments.
    Keywords: city, urban growth, slums, urban structure, urban form, housing investment, capital durability.
    JEL: O14 O18 R1 R3 H
    Date: 2019–12–10
  8. By: Christophe André; Jon Pareliussen; Hyunjeong Hwang
    Abstract: This paper presents the econometric analysis of lower secondary school performance carried out for the chapter on education of the 2019 OECD Economic Survey of Sweden. The dataset covers most Swedish schools providing education for 9th graders. Student socio-economic background has a considerable impact on academic results. Policy inputs are also correlated with results, notably in schools with pupils from weaker socio-economic backgrounds, but teacher qualifications and spending per student are endogenous. For-profit private schools underperform compared to non-profit and public schools, albeit with strong heterogeneity between schools. The introduction of an indicator of competition, based on the density of schools, suggests that intensified school competition lowers results in schools with a high share of pupils from weaker socio-economic backgrounds. Schools, and especially those achieving weaker results, have scope to raise their performance by improving their adaptation to student needs. This Working Paper relates to the 2019 OECD Economic Survey of Sweden mic-snapshot/
    Keywords: competition, education, efficiency, stochastic frontier analysis, Sweden
    JEL: C23 H75 I21 I28
    Date: 2019–12–19
  9. By: Sjoerd Van Bekkum; Marc Gabarro; Rustom M. Irani; José-Luis Peydró
    Abstract: We examine the effects of borrower-based macroprudential policy for household leverage, liquidity, and financial distress. For identification, we exploit the introduction of a mortgage loan-to-value limit in the Netherlands, in conjunction with population tax-return and property ownership data linked to the universe of housing transactions.First-time homebuyers most affected by the policy shock substantially reduce household leverage and debt servicing costs by taking on less mortgage debt. Rather than buying more affordable homes or taking non-regulated loans, households consume greater liquidity in the year of home purchase to plug funding gaps. Improvements in household solvency are accompanied by fewer instances of financial distress despite the temporary loss of liquidity; however, along the extensive margin, fewer households transition from renting into ownership. These effects are stronger among cash-constrained households.
    Keywords: Macroprudential policy; financial regulation; residential mortgages; household finance; household leverage; loan-to-value ratio
    JEL: D14 D31 E21 E58 G21 G28
    Date: 2019–11
  10. By: Meister, Moritz; Niebuhr, Annekatrin; Peters, Jan Cornelius; Reutter, Philipp; Stiller, Johannes
    Abstract: This working paper describes the industry structure of regions and types of regions in Germany. It focusses on the economic specialization of rural areas relative to Germany’s federal economy overall. These investigations stem from the research project „The spatial mobility of workers throughout individual working lives - Analyses for rural areas in Germany“ (MobiLä), which receives funding from the Federal Rural Development Scheme (BULE). Our analysis of regional industry structures shows that the four types of rural regions according to the typology of the Thünen Institute are marked by an industry structure that differs from the overall federal struc-ture, but the extent of these differences is moderate. In addition to a specialization in the prima-ry sector, whose significance for employment is limited even in rural areas, we observe speciali-zations of the aggregate of rural areas in knowledge intensive industries as well as non-knowledge intensive industries. Conversely, knowledge intensive services are significantly under-represented in rural regions. A detailed analysis of the specialization of individual regions reveals a marked heterogeneity within the regional type „rural areas“. Extreme deviations from Germa-ny’s aggregate industry structure are observed in few regions and are mostly driven by branches of the manufacturing industry. Furthermore, the negative correlation of the share of industrial branches and the share of non-knowledge intensive services is noticeable. Regions‘ distinct specialization tendencies are expected to be significant for the heterogeneity of regional migra-tion balances regarding the direction of the net flow as well as the composition of migration flows. First, industry structure influences the regional level of wages and can have effects on economic growth and labour demand. Second, companies‘ required qualifications vary signifi-cantly across different industry branches, therefore the respective specialization partly deter-mines which workers are attracted to a region’s labour market.
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, Labor and Human Capital
    Date: 2019–12–18
  11. By: Matthieu Solignac; Maxime Tô
    Abstract: This paper investigates the social endogenous effect linking the employment probability of young workers entering the labour market to the local employment rate. We focus on the transition from school to work, using a representative sample of youths leaving the French educational system in 1998 and 2004. We identify the causal effect of local employment rate using a neighbourhood fixed-effect strategy (Bayer et al, 2007).We provide evidence that the within-neighbourhood random allocation assumption is likely to hold. The results show that an individual’s own employment is strongly affected by the share of working people in their neighbourhood, estimates being higher for high-school dropouts. Results also reveal gender differences, suggesting that young people are more sensitive to same-sex neighbours.
    Date: 2018–07–13
  12. By: Graham Sansom (University of Toronto)
    Abstract: Municipal cooperation is an important feature of local and regional governance in both Australia and Canada. Many of the responsibilities of local governments cannot be addressed satisfactorily within the boundaries of a single municipality, whilst complex issues facing central governments often require complementary action at local and regional levels. This paper documents and evaluates the track record of Australian municipal cooperation within the context of the federal system, state legislation and policy, and the ongoing debate about the respective merits of joint service delivery and mergers. At first glance, Australian local government appears to exhibit a thriving culture of cooperation, but the evidence suggests that in practice most cooperative arrangements are shallow and fragile. No legislation compels municipalities to enter into joint undertakings or establish “upper-tier” authorities. The most common mechanisms for cooperation are non-statutory agreements or voluntary regional organizations, both of which enable municipalities to protect local autonomy and minimize the risk of state government intervention in their affairs. The paper also makes some comparisons with Canadian experience, drawing on research into inter-local agreements in Ontario and selected metropolitan regions, as well as Regional Districts in British Columbia. It concludes by outlining some key factors that will influence the future of municipal cooperation in the two countries.
    Keywords: municipal governance, regional governance, municipal cooperation, Australia, Canada, service delivery, municipal autonomy
    JEL: H19 H70 H77
    Date: 2019–04
  13. By: Bev Dalhby; Melville McMillan (The University of Toronto)
    Abstract: The property tax generates a significant proportion of municipal revenues in Canada and has done so since Confederation. This paper makes the case that the property tax is a good tax for funding local (especially general-purpose) governments for several reasons: the base of the tax is immovable; the tax can generate reliable and sufficient revenues and make local governments independent from other orders of government; many of the core goods and services provided by local governments directly benefit property owners; the tax is visible to property owners; and the tax is easy to administer. The paper also counters many criticisms levelled at the property tax, including that it is inelastic, unresponsive, and regressive, and that it limits growth. The authors conclude that the property tax is an adequate but underused source of revenues for Canadian municipalities and make a strong argument for lowering the taxation of business properties by eliminating provincial school property taxes on both business and residential property. The result of such a reform, which would leave the property tax solely a municipal tax, would better meet tax criteria for revenue and expenditure assignment.
    Keywords: property tax
    Date: 2019–05
  14. By: Nakajima, Makoto (Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia); Telyukova, Irina A. (Mulligan Funding)
    Abstract: Retired homeowners dissave more slowly than renters, which suggests that homeownership affects retirees’ saving decisions. We investigate empirically and theoretically the life-cycle patterns of homeownership, housing and nonhousing assets in retirement. Using an estimated structural model of saving and housing decisions, we find, first, that homeowners dissave slowly because they prefer to stay in their house as long as possible but cannot easily borrow against it. Second, the 1996-2006 housing boom significantly increased homeowners’ assets. These channels are quantitatively significant; without considering homeownership, retirees’ net worth would be 28-44 percent lower, depending on age.
    Keywords: Housing; Retirement Saving Puzzle; Mortgage; Health; Life cycle; Medical expenditure; Bequest
    JEL: D91 E21 G11 J26
    Date: 2019–12–09
  15. By: Barrington-Leigh, Christopher Paul (McGill University); Millard-Ball, Adam
    Abstract: We present the first global time series of street-network sprawl — that is, sprawl as measured through the local connectivity of the street network. Using high-resolution data from OpenStreetMap and a satellite-derived time series of urbanization, we compute and validate changes over time in multidimensional street connectivity measures based on graph-theoretic and geographic concepts. We report on global, national, and city-level trends since 1975 in the Street-Network Disconnectedness Index (SNDi), based on every mapped node and edge in the world. Streets in new developments in 90% of the 134 most populous countries have become less connected since 1975, while just 29% show an improving trend since 2000. The same period saw a near doubling in the relative frequency of a street-network type characterized by high circuity, typical of gated communities. We identify persistence in street-network sprawl, indicative of path-dependent processes. Specifically, cities and countries with low connectivity in recent years also had relatively low preexisting connectivity in our earliest time period. We discuss implications for policy intervention in road building in new and expanding cities as a top priority for sustainable urban development.
    Date: 2019–04–23
  16. By: Valerii O. Omelchuk (National Academy for Public Administration under the President of Ukraine)
    Abstract: The article analyzes the dynamics of availability of housing for Ukrainian citizens in 1990-2017 years. The social and commercial availability of housing is investigated. The refined author's methodology for determining the commercial availability of housing was applied in the article. The actual values of social accessibility of housing in 1990-2017 years, and the commercial affordability of housing in 2011-2017, as well as trends in their dynamics are defined also. It is shown that the coefficient of social availability of housing has promptly fell from 1990 to 2010 years, and in 2011-2017 it has reached a critical low level. This proves that the government of Ukraine was actually discharged from the problem of social availability of housing and it has not developed modern effective tools for solving the housing problem of the poorest layer of citizens, who really need social housing. It is revealed that the mechanism of bank mortgage lending evolves in the direction opposite to the increase of affordability of housing. This indicates the need for radical changes in the state regulation of the mentioned mechanism. It is proposed to introduce new mortgage institutes in Ukraine, particularly, such as savings and credit, and to adapt the best examples of foreign experience for the sphere of state housing policy with the purpose of real increase of the level of availability of housing for Ukrainian citizens.
    Keywords: availability of housing,social housing,housing problem,mortgage loan,state housing policy Additional disciplines: law,political sciences
    Date: 2018–12–30
  17. By: Jeffrey P. Thompson (Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.); Federal Reserve Bank of St Louis); Gustavo A. Suarez
    Abstract: Using data from the Survey of Consumer Finances, this paper updates and extends previous research on the racial wealth gap in the United States. We explore several hypotheses that help explain differential wealth accumulation by racial groups, including the importance of receiving inheritances and other financial support from relatives and the conditions in local real estate markets. By exploring the disparities among white, black, and Hispanic families, we make new contributions to the literature. We find that observable factors account for the entire wealth gap between white and Hispanic families and most of the gap between white and black families. Differences in human capital, demographics, and family financial support each make substantial contributions to the wealth gaps we observe between white and nonwhite families. Yet a substantial portion of the wealth gap between white and black families remains unaccounted for after a detailed decomposition. This unexplained portion is greater at the top of the wealth distribution.
    Keywords: inheritance; inequality; racial wealth gap; savings
    JEL: D31 D63
    Date: 2019–12–01
  18. By: Girshina, Anastasia; Mathä, Thomas Y.; Ziegelmeyer, Michael
    Abstract: This paper studies how peers’ financial behaviour affects individuals’ own investment choices. To identify the peer effect, we exploit the unique composition of the Luxembourg population and use the differences in stock market participation across various immigrant groups to study how they affect stock market participation of natives. We solve the reflection problem by instrumenting immigrants’ stock market participation with lagged participation rates in their countries of birth. We separate the peer effect from the contextual and correlated effects by controlling for neighbourhood and individual characteristics. We find that stock market participation of immigrant peers has sizeable effects on that of natives. We also provide evidence that social learning is one of the channels through which the peer effect is transmitted. However, social learning alone does not account for the entire effect and we conclude that social utility might also play an important role in peer effects transmission. JEL Classification: G5, D14, D83, G11, I22
    Keywords: peer effects, social learning, social utility, stock market participation
    Date: 2019–12
  19. By: Alexandra Flynn (University of Toronto)
    Abstract: In October 2018, the City of Toronto elected 25 councillors to serve as the “local” voice within the city’s governance model. In addition to these local representatives, Toronto has 83 Business Improvement Areas (BIAs) – it was the first city in the world to introduce them – and more than 150 neighbourhood associations (NAs), which claim to represent the interests of residents and businesses on matters ranging from the public realm to planning. There is little information on the role that these bodies play in local decision-making, and the relationship between these local interest groups and elected officials. As City Council reconsiders its governance in the wake of the provincial government’s decision to reduce the size of Toronto’s City Council, the role of BIAs and NAs must be included. Filling the Gaps: The Role of Business Improvement Areas and Neighbourhood Associations in the City of Toronto provides background and comprehensive data on the city’s BIAs and NAs, including their locations, functions, and correlations with other socioeconomic indicators, such as income. It also identifies the city rules that govern these bodies and their role in planning and other decisions. The paper concludes with options for City Council in reforming its governance model.
    Keywords: municipal governance, business improvement areas, neighbourhood associations
    JEL: R10
    Date: 2019–11
  20. By: John Lorinc (Spacing magazine)
    Abstract: In the past few years, a growing numbers of urbanists, planners, technology companies, and governance experts have started to use the term “smart city.†Some define smart cities in terms of using emerging and established technologies to improve the performance of municipal systems. Others take a more expansive view that embeds these new systems in a broader vision of urban regions characterized by innovation-based economic activity, a highly educated labour force, and policy-making that leverages these new technologies to confront stubborn urban problems. The market for smart-city technologies – such as cutting edge networked sensors, big-data repositories, powerful analytics software, and smart grids – has gathered momentum, as leading technology suppliers develop products and services geared to this domain. Entire new communities are being developed using smart-city systems, in some cases as proof-of-concept living labs. Yet the rapid adoption of consumer and security technologies that do not fall under the conventional “smart city†definition also have far-reaching impacts on municipal systems (such as housing, transportation, and policing), including those that have benefited from new smart-city systems. These include ride- and apartment-sharing apps, autonomous vehicles, and data-driven law enforcement or predictive policing applications. In other words, the emerging challenge facing municipal policymakers is to determine the degree of investment or procurement in purpose-built smart-city technologies while adapting regulatory and governance systems to respond to changes arising from the adoption of services such as Airbnb and Uber. At the same time, policymakers must consider some unfamiliar issues in responding to smart-city developments, including equity, privacy, algorithmic bias, and data governance. This Forum paper draws on the insights and professional experiences of four individuals with informed perspectives on these questions: Tracey Cook, Executive Director, Municipal Licensing and Standards, City of Toronto; Pamela Robinson, Associate Professor, School of Urban and Regional Planning, Ryerson University; Peter Sloly, Partner and National Security and Justice Lead, Deloitte Canada; and Zachary Spicer, Visiting Researcher, Institute on Municipal Finance and Governance. The report concludes by observing that policymakers must be smart when thinking about the smart city trend and ensure that technologies are not adopted for their promised efficiencies only.
    Keywords: smart city, municipal policy, local governance, digital urbanism
    Date: 2018–06
  21. By: Kittisak Laksana (Curriculum and Instruction Department, Faculty of Education, Ramkhamhaeng University); Kanrawee Busayanon (Curriculum and Instruction Department, Faculty of Education, Ramkhamhaeng University); Yasa Mahamarn (Curriculum and Instruction Department, Faculty of Education, Ramkhamhaeng University)
    Abstract: A primary goal of teacher preparation programs is to develop pre-service teachers? ability in applying the teaching knowledge and skills they learn in real classrooms in varying community, school, and classroom contexts. Upon developing these abilities, pre-service teachers can help their students successfully acquire knowledge. The present study aims to investigate the extent to which project-based instruction can enhance the ability to develop teaching materials among pre-service Social Studies teachers currently studying at an open-admission university in Thailand. The same subjective test was administered to a sample of 30 participants before and after the study and was scored using an analytic rubric. The pre-test and post-test data were analyzed via a paired sample t-test, which revealed that participation in project-based instruction resulted in the pre-service Social Studies teachers? improved ability to develop teaching materials, both overall and for each specific criterion, at a statistical significance level of .01.
    Keywords: Instructional media, pre-service teachers, project-based learning, social studies
    JEL: I29
    Date: 2019–10
  22. By: Matthew Walshe (University of Toronto)
    Abstract: Since the implementation of its 1970 Constitution, Illinois has granted home rule to any municipality with a population exceeding 25,000 and allowed municipalities below that population threshold to adopt home rule by referendum. In Does Local Government Autonomy Promote Fiscal Sustainability? Lessons from Illinois's Home-Rule Municipalities, Matthew Walshe studies the question of whether the local government autonomy conferred through home rule promotes fiscally sustainable policies. A difference-in-differences estimation shows that home rule enlarges the public sector but improves operating surpluses. There is no evidence that home rule causes an increase in the debt burden, although it does cause a marked substitution of general obligation bonds for other forms of debt instruments.
    Keywords: Local government autonomy, fiscal sustainability, home rule, fiscal institutions, tax and expenditure limits, debt limits, municipal finance
    JEL: H11 H70 H71 H72 H73 H74
    Date: 2019–01
  23. By: Elena Derby (Department of Economics, Georgetown University ; Joint Committee on Taxation)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of the Low Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) on residents of buildings qualifying for the credit. Specifically, it analyzes whether individuals who grow up in LIHTC housing are more likely to enroll in post-secondary education programs and have higher earnings as adults. Using administrative tax records, I find that each additional year spent in LIHTC housing as a kid is associated with a 3.5 percent increase in the likelihood of attending a higher education program for four years or more, and a 3.2 percent increase in future earnings. Furthermore, I find that there are heterogeneous effects when comparing individuals who live in LIHTC housing located in neighborhoods with different characteristics, and among families that have varying levels of housing security prior to entering a LIHTC building. Based on this analysis, I conclude that the driving mechanism behind the positive estimated LIHTC effect is likely that the housing subsidy provides families with a more stable living situation.
    Keywords: Low Income Housing, Tax Policy, Poverty and Welfare
    JEL: H20 I31 H53
    Date: 2019–11–22
  24. By: Luc Christiaensen; Joachim De Weerdt; Bert Ingelaere; Ravi Kanbur
    Abstract: For a long time, the urbanization and development discourse has coincided with a focus on economic growth and big cities. Yet, much of the world’s new urbanization is taking place in smaller urban entities (towns), and the composition of urbanization may well bear on the speed of poverty reduction. This paper reviews the latter question within the context of Tanzania. It starts from the observation that migration to towns contributed much more to poverty reduction than migration to cities because many more (poor) rural migrants ended up in Tanzania’s towns than its cities, despite larger welfare gains from moving to the city. Drawing on the findings from a series of studies, looking at this from different angles (theoretical and empirical, quantitative and qualitative), the paper shows how towns are better at enabling the rural poor to access off-farm employment and exit poverty because they are more nearby. It concludes with a call for greater consideration of the role of towns in accelerating Africa’s poverty reduction.
    Keywords: migration, urbanization, secondary town, jobs, poverty, life history
    Date: 2018–02
  25. By: Gabriel Chodorow-Reich
    Abstract: Cross-sectional or panel studies have joined time series techniques as an important element in empirical macroeconomists' toolkit. The econometric best practices for these studies and their aggregate implications remain active topics of research. In this paper, I offer several pieces of advice for practitioners in this literature. I begin by casting regional analysis in a Rubin (1978) potential outcomes framework. This formalism clarifies three reasons why the estimated impact of a shock on a single region can differ from the aggregate effect of the shock: (i) contamination of the untreated areas through ``micro'' spillovers, (ii) these spillovers sum to an economically relevant magnitude, and (iii) national variables endogenously respond to national shocks but not to local shocks. I provide several examples to illustrate and discuss how economic theory can sometimes sign the spillovers and bound the difference between the regional and aggregate effects of the shock. I then turn to econometric issues including the choice of endogenous variable in a regional regression and whether or not to weight by population.
    JEL: E0 R0
    Date: 2019–11
  26. By: Harry Kitchen; Enid Slack; Tomas Hachard (The University of Toronto)
    Abstract: Every year, as cities prepare to set and approve their budgets, debates begin over whether property taxes should increase by more than the rate of inflation. Property tax policy is more than a matter of rate increases, however. Across the country, residents and businesses may have access to different exemptions, incentives, tax breaks, and relief programs, while municipalities may be subject to different policies on how tax rates are set. This paper examines the current state of property tax policy across Canada and finds that municipalities and provinces are facing a number of shared challenges and questions, including: whether to apply progressive property tax rates;the volatility of property taxes;the benefits and drawbacks of using property tax incentives to attract businesses; and the role of provincial property taxes The paper proposes five steps that governments in Canada should take to ensure a fair and efficient property tax system: Remove exemptions that do not have a sound and explicit public policy rationale. Reduce the difference between residential and non-residential property tax rates. Remove redistributive services from the property tax base and avoid progressive rates. Avoid capping and land averaging to prevent inequities in property taxation. Eliminate provincial property taxes.
    Keywords: transit
    Date: 2019–11
  27. By: Rene Belderbos; H Du; Arjen Slangen
    Abstract: Foreign investors generally need to overcome a liability of foreignness stemming from contextual distance between their home country and the target country. We argue that they can limit that liability more easily by investing in a global city rather than elsewhere in the target country. Accordingly, we hypothesize that the contextual distance to a target country has a positive effect on a firm’s propensity to invest in a global city in that country. We also predict that this effect is stronger for investments in knowledge-intensive activities and weaker for investors with more target-country experience in general and target-country experience in global cities in particular. Our hypotheses receive considerable support in an analysis of 11,748 foreign greenfield investments by 1,025 manufacturing and service firms during 2008-2012. Our findings suggest that global cities are superior subnational locations for gathering contextual knowledge about target countries and limiting the liability of foreignness.
    Keywords: contextual distance, global cities, knowledge-intensive activities, liability of foreignness, location decisions, target-country experience, contextual distance, global cities, knowledge-intensive activities, liability of foreignness, location decisions, target-country experience
    Date: 2019–09–11
  28. By: Matthew Lesch (University of Toronto)
    Abstract: Across North American cities, the demand for better public transit is pervasive, yet many local governments lack sufficient revenue to finance the construction of new infrastructure. To resolve this dilemma, some localities have turned to citizens directly, proposing temporary, earmarked, sales tax increases as a way to finance capital-intensive projects. Why have some communities been more receptive to this funding model than others? This study addresses this question by comparing the recent experiences of Los Angeles County (2008), where a ballot measure to raise money for transportation was successful and Metro Vancouver (2015), where a similar public vote was unsuccessful. The analysis demonstrates the importance of political trust, issue framing, policy design, and coalition-building when engaging public support. The findings offer important lessons for other municipalities looking to invest in their public transportation systems.
    Keywords: transit, taxes, ballot measures, municipal finance
    JEL: H54 H71 R42
    Date: 2019–03
  29. By: Ellen Hazelkorn; John Edwards (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: The Smart Specialisation approach has been part of EU regional innovation policy since 2010 and yet the role of skills and vocational education and training in implementing Smart Specialisation Strategies has only recently attracted attention. Despite being raised in earlier policy documents, it was the 2017 Communication on Strengthening Innovation in Europe's Regions, drawing on experience of implementing smart specialisation in practice, which illustrated its significance for regional innovation policy. In the proposals for Cohesion Policy post 2020, education and skills for innovation are important priorities. Therefore, this technical report is timely since it explores trends in Vocational Education and Training (VET), looks at where it has contributed to Smart Specialisation in specific cases, and highlights elements to consider in regional strategies.
    Keywords: Vocational Excellence, Smart Specialisation, Local and Regional Development
    Date: 2019–12
  30. By: Hugh Macartney; Robert McMillan; Uros Petronijevic
    Abstract: We present an estimable framework expressing teacher value-added in terms of teacher ability and effort, along with a strategy to identify these two unobserved inputs and their distinct test score effects for the first time. This uses exogenous incentive policy variation and rich longitudinal data from North Carolina. We find both inputs raise current and future scores, and effort responds systematically to incentives, underlining the agency of the teaching force. To explore the policy implications of this agency, we use our estimates to compare the cost effectiveness of incentive and ability-based education reforms, finding incentive reforms often come out ahead.
    Keywords: Incentives, Education Production, Effort, Ability, Teacher Value- Added, Accountability, Education Policy, Cost-Effectiveness, Persistence
    JEL: I21 J24 M52
    Date: 2019–12–19
  31. By: Gianluca ORSATTI
    Abstract: The present paper investigates the relationship between public R&D and the diffusion of green knowledge. To do so, we exploit information contained in green patents filed at the European Patent Office from 1980 to 1984. The diffusion of green knowledge is measured by meaning of patent citations. The level of public R&D is instrumented through the policy reaction to the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident – that affected the level of public R&D in the energy generation domain – in a difference in differences setting. Results show that a 10% increase in public R&D increases by around 0.7% the number of citations to green patents. Moreover, increasing public R&D fosters the diffusion of green knowledge across traditional (non-green) domains and increases the average technological distance of inventions citing green patents. This evidence suggests that public R&D is a driver of green knowledge diffusion, accelerates the hybridization of traditional innovation processes and fosters technological diversification.
    Keywords: Public R&D, Green innovation, Knowledge diffusion, Patent citations, Environmental policy, Green R&D
    JEL: O30 O32 O33 O38 Q55
    Date: 2019
  32. By: Fetzer, Thiemo (University of Warwick and CAGE, Department of Economics); Sen, Srinjoy (University of Warwick and CAGE, Department of Economics); Souza, Pedro CL (University of Warwick and CAGE, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: Homelessness and precarious living conditions are on the rise across much of theWesternworld. This paper exploits exogenous variation in the affordability of rents due to a cut that substantially lowered housing benefit – a welfare benefit aimed at helping low income households pay rent. Before April 2011, local housing allowance covered up to the median level of market rents ; from April 2011 onwards, only rents lower than the 30th percentile were covered. We exploit that the extent of cuts significantly depend on statistical noise due to estimation of percentiles. We document that the affordability shock caused a significant increase in : evictions ; individual bankruptcies ; property crimes ; share of households living in insecure temporary accommodation ; statutory homelessness and actual rough sleeping. The fiscal savings of the cut are much smaller than anticipated. We estimate that for every pound saved by the central government, council spending to meet statutory obligations for homelessness prevention increases by 53 pence. We further document political effects : the housing benefit cut causes lower electoral registration rates and is associated with lower turnout and higher support for Leave in the 2016 EU referendum, most likely driven by its unequal impact on the composition of those that engage with democratic processes.
    Keywords: housing markets ; welfare cuts ; austerity ; voting
    JEL: H2 H3 H5 P16 D72
  33. By: Michal Andrle; Miroslav Plašil
    Abstract: This paper assesses house prices in 11 Canadian Census Metropolitan Areas (CMA) using the borrowing-capacity and the net-present-value approaches. The results indicate that by the end of 2018, house prices in most metropolitan areas are aligned with macroeconomic fundamentals. However, in Hamilton, Toronto, and Vancouver house prices have increased beyond the values implied by the fundamentals.
    Date: 2019–11–15
  34. By: Murad, Wahid; Hasan, Mahadi; Islam, Saiful; Alam, Md. Mahmudul (Universiti Utara Malaysia)
    Abstract: It seems to have been apparent in developing nations that economic growth and urbanization are always interrelated. Malaysia's rapid economic growth has also resulted in a considerable growth of urbanization. As gleaned from the other side of the coin, the process of such urbanization had twisted numerous negative impacts on the socioeconomic aspects of the urban low income and poor communities living in the low-cost flats and squatters. One of the major impacts of Malaysia's rapid urbanization is the transformation in the socio-economic profile of the urban low income and poor communities. This paper aims to determine and analyze the socio-economic indicators affecting the profile of the urban low income and poor communities residing in the squatters and low-cost flats of Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia. To pursue the objective, the study has conducted a field survey, collected primary data from the level of living conditions of the urban low income and poor households and has employed some statistical techniques such as descriptive statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the chi-square test. The empirical findings of this study appeared to have important policy implications and are expected to enable the respective policy and decision makers in their effort to alleviate urban poverty
    Date: 2019–02–25
  35. By: Meister, Moritz; Stiller, Johannes; Peters, Jan Cornelius; Birkeneder, Antonia
    Abstract: This working paper stems from the joint research project “The spatial mobility of workers throughout individual working lives - Analyses for rural areas in Germany" by the Thünen Institute of Rural Studies and the Institute for Employment Research (IAB). The project receives funding from the Federal Rural Development Scheme (BULE). Our analyses are based on data from the IAB’s integrated employment biographies (IEB), which provide information on places of residence and individual characteristics of more than 90 percent of Germany’s labor force. Our analyses show, that migration balances of rural regions are not per se negative, but are characterized by a marked heterogeneity and results of the migration balance between rural and non-rural areas fluctuate during the period of observation. Regional migration balances also differ by the observed groups of individuals. Migration flows of employees with mandatory social security show significant patterns of suburbanisation that result in a net flow into rural regions between 2014 and 2017. Rural areas surrounding large cities particularly benefit from these patterns. Net losses in rural areas are observed for the younger part of the labor force and the unemployed. Migration balances of some very rural areas with less favorable socio-economic conditions hint to disadvantegeous demographic developments. This is particularly true for regions of this type in eastern Germany. Considering the entire labor force, we observe negative migration balances for two thirds of very rural western German regions as well. Most rural areas in the vicinity of larger agglomerations record positiv balances. The observed migration flows affect the spatial structure within regions of different types in distinct ways. Regions with below average employment growth exhibit increasing spatial concentration of workers’ places of residence through their intraregional migration flows. On the other hand, rural areas near large agglomerations exhibit increasing dispersion of workers’ places of residence through intra-regional mobility.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Labor and Human Capital
    Date: 2019–12–18
  36. By: Alejandra Reyes (The University of Toronto)
    Abstract: This paper examines the evolution of Mexico City’s governance structure in relation to the pursuit of greater political and administrative autonomy. Although it is a federalist country, Mexico has had relatively centralized governments. The governance, finances, and legislation of the country’s capital, Mexico City (formerly the federal district), were in the hands of the federal government until recently. Yet since the 1980s, strong civic demands for greater local autonomy have led to significant victories, culminating in the first elections for Mexico City mayor in 1996. Twenty years later, in 2016, the federal district was dissolved to make Mexico City the 32nd state of the country. The first local Constitution was completed a year later, along with the formation of a local-state congress. Such shifts would not have been possible without the participation of sociopolitical movements and organizations. Nonetheless, further social and political mobilization will be required to consolidate and put to good use the city’s autonomy and address persistent challenges, such as metropolitan and regional coordination with neighbouring states and municipalities to promote inclusive and sustainable growth and development across the entire metropolis.
    Keywords: local governance; Mexico City
    Date: 2019–09
  37. By: Maria Kyriacou (University of Southampton); Peter C.B. Phillips (Cowles Foundation, Yale University); Francesca Rossi (University of Verona)
    Abstract: Spatial units typically vary over many of their characteristics, introducing potential unobserved heterogeneity which invalidates commonly used homoskedasticity conditions. In the presence of unobserved heteroskedasticity, standard methods based on the (quasi-)likelihood function generally produce inconsistent estimates of both the spatial parameter and the coefficients of the exogenous regressors. A robust generalized method of moments estimator as well as a modiï¬ ed likelihood method have been proposed in the literature to address this issue. The present paper constructs an alternative indirect inference approach which relies on a simple ordinary least squares procedure as its starting point. Heteroskedasticity is accommodated by utilizing a new version of continuous updating that is applied within the indirect inference procedure to take account of the parametrization of the variance-covariance matrix of the disturbances. Finite sample performance of the new estimator is assessed in a Monte Carlo study and found to offer advantages over existing methods. The approach is implemented in an empirical application to house price data in the Boston area, where it is found that spatial effects in house price determination are much more signiï¬ cant under robustiï¬ cation to heterogeneity in the equation errors.
    Keywords: Spatial autoregression, Unknown heteroskedasticity, Indirect inference, Robust methods, Weights matrix
    JEL: C13 C15 C21
    Date: 2019–10
  38. By: Tadashi Matsumoto; Dorothée Allain-Dupré; Jonathan Crook; Alexis Robert
    Abstract: Following the historic 2015 Paris Agreement aiming to limit global temperature rise to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels by 2100, 165 Intended Nationally Determined Contributions, representing 192 countries, have been submitted. Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) detail each Party’s efforts to reduce domestic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and adapt to the impacts of climate change. This paper, recognising the role of cities and regions in implementing the Paris Agreement, highlights the need for an integrated approach in implementing NDCs and long-term low GHG emission development strategies (LT-LEDS) and attempts to present key policy options for such an approach. First, the paper identifies the national and subnational co-ordination mechanisms in current NDCs, LT-LEDS and other subnational climate strategies and argues that the current processes of developing and implementing NDCs and LT-LEDS provide a unique opportunity for national governments to integrate innovative subnational climate action. The paper then assesses the potential for co-ordination of national, regional and local climate mitigation investment through the lens of the OECD Recommendation on Effective Public Investment Across Levels of Government adopted in 2014.
    Keywords: cities, climate change, infrastructure, long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategies (LT-LEDS), mitigation, Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), Paris Agreement, public investment
    JEL: H54 Q01 Q54 Q56 R11 R58
    Date: 2019–12–17
  39. By: Maulamin, Taufan; As’ad, Muhammad; Hasim, Abdul Hafid
    Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the extent to which lifestyle and level of knowledge affect the financial management in the household. The research area located in urban village Sungai Bambu, North Jakarta. The population in this study is every person who manages the finances in the family either husband, wife or both. A total of 162 respondents from the people in the study area. Research method with a survey to obtain primary data with random sample technique. Primary data collected from the questionnaires distributed in the study area. Data analysis techniques used in this study is multiple regression with the help of SPSS Program. The independent variables in the research a lifestyle (X1) and knowledge level (X2) then the dependent variable is household financial management (Y). The result of this study shows that there is a significant influence of lifestyle variable to household financial management with the acquisition of 0.727 and there is also a significant influence of knowledge level variable to household financial management with the addition of 0.593. From these results, it is clear that lifestyle factors tend to be more influential in household financial management. Life in a big city like Jakarta one that causes lifestyle variables dramatically affects. It is difficult to distinguish between the needs and wants associated with household consumption.
    Date: 2017–11–24
  40. By: Abusama, Muhammad; Haming, Murdifin; Hamzah, Muh. Nasir; , Ramlawati; Jamali, Hisnol
    Abstract: Based on the type of research is an explanatory research that is used to describe the influence of motivation, competence and Islamic leadership on job satisfaction and teacher performance at 88 teachers Colleges in District South Halmahera in North Maluku province. The results of the analysis of SEM (Structural Equation Modeling) with the help WaphPLS Ver. 5.0 provides evidence that working conditions that support teachers to implement the learning process becomes a lever entire relationship between the variables analyzed. Motivation and competence of teachers made a significant contribution to job satisfaction and performance, significant Islamic leadership on job satisfaction but not significant on teacher performance> job satisfaction proved to contribute significantly to the performance of teachers. On testing indirect effect, there is only one proven as a mediator variable
    Date: 2017–11–29
  41. By: Murray, Cameron; Hermans, Jesse
    Abstract: Property taxes are a common revenue source for city governments. There are two property tax bases available—land value (site value, SV), or total property value (capital improved value, CIV). The choice of property tax base has implications for both the distribution and efficiency of the tax. We provide new evidence in favour of SV being both the more progressive and efficient property tax base. First, we use three Victorian datasets at different levels of geographic aggregation to model the SV-CIV ratio as a function of various household income measures. At all three levels, a higher SV-CIV ratio occurs in areas with higher incomes, implying that SV is the more progressive property tax base. Our range of results suggests that a one percent increase in the income of an area is associated with a 0.10 to 0.57 percentage point increase in the SV-CIV ratio. Second, we use historical council data to conduct a difference-in-difference analysis to compare the effect of switching from a CIV to SV tax base on the number of building approvals and value of construction investment. We find that switching from CIV to SV as a property tax base is associated with a 20% increase in the value of new residential construction. This is consistent with the view that changes to land value tax rates are non-neutral with respect to the timing of capital investment on vacant and under-utilised land, which we also demonstrate theoretically.
    Date: 2019–11–25
  42. By: Agnes Kovacs (Institute for Fiscal Studies and University of Manchester); Patrick Moran (Institute for Fiscal Studies and IFS)
    Abstract: The vast majority of household wealth in the U.S. is held in illiquid assets, primarily housing, making households vulnerable to unexpected income shocks. To rationalize this preference for illiquidity, we build a life-cycle model where households are tempted to consume their liquid wealth but can use illiquid housing as a savings commitment device. The importance of temptation and commitment is identi?ed using data on consumption, liquid assets, and housing wealth over the life-cycle. Our model matches observed portfolio choices and gives rise to a high demand for illiquid housing partially driven by the need for commitment. Preference for illiquidity has important implications for the consumption response to unexpected income shocks. Our model is able to replicate the recent empirical evidence that MPCs remain high in response to large shocks, a ?nding that cannot be explained by current heterogeneous agent models, but that has great signi?cance for ?scal stimulus targeting.
    Date: 2019–07–01
  43. By: Heinrich, Florian; Appel, Franziska; Balmann, Alfons
    Abstract: After land prices in Germany increased continuously since 2006, policy makers, representatives of farmers’ unions, NGOs, and farmers started and continued to discuss or propose new land market regulations to stop price increases and to protect particularly smaller farmers. In this paper we analyze different types of regulations for the land rental market with the agent-based model AgriPoliS. Our simulation results show that price and farm size limitations may inhibit rental priceincreases and reduce structural change. The regulations do however not lead to a conservation in the number of small farms; neither do they have a substantial positive impact on their profitabilityand competitiveness. Many small farms still exit agricultural production and only few are able to grow into a larger size class. Beyond redistributional costs, e.g. beared by landowners, economic and social costs result from reduced average economic land rents, less regional value-added and less employment caused by a reduced functionality of the land market and biased incentives.
    Keywords: structural change,land market,land market regulation,agent-based modeling
    JEL: Q15 Q18 C63
    Date: 2019
  44. By: Ambali, Omotuyole I.; Areal, Francisco J.; Georgantzis, Nikolaos
    Keywords: Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2019–09
  45. By: Abdullah, Ibrahim H.; Gunawan, Hendra; Hamzah, H. Muh. Nasir; Ella, Hamza; Jamali, Hisnol
    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of competence, information systems management and organizational culture on job satisfaction, organizational commitment and performance of teachers, to analyze the impact of job satisfaction on the performance of teachers, to analyze the effect of organizational commitment on teacher performance, to analyze the effect of competence through job satisfaction on teacher performance, to analyze the effect of information management system through job satisfaction and organizational commitment on teacher performance, and to analyze the effect of organizational culture through the organization's commitment on teacher performance. The research was conducted on 10 private junior high school and 10 public junior high school namely SMP in Makassar City with a population of 909 teacher and a sample set with Slovin formula as many as 278 teacher . The data from questionnaires were analyzed using Structural Equation Model using AMOS assistance 18. The study found that direct information management system is a positive and insignificant effect on job satisfaction, organizational commitment and teachers’ performance. This means that the information management system application has been run by the teachers, but the information management system application did not show significant correlation (insignificant) against the teacher job satisfaction, organizational commitment and teacher performance. Indirectly effect has found that the information management system through organizational commitment is a positive and insignificant effect on teachers’ performance. This means that teachers have to understand and know the importance of a series of activities of input, process, output and feedback in the application license, so it has a positive effect, but its application was not significantly correlated on job satisfaction and organizational commitment, because the application of the information management system oriented utilization and use of schools media and are not real anyway directly correlated on teachers performance.
    Date: 2017–11–29
  46. By: Murray, Cameron
    Abstract: Australia’s expensive housing market is claimed to be primarily the result of a shortage of supply due to town planning constraints, leading to political pressure on councils and state governments to remove planning regulations, regardless of their planning merit. We argue that this supply story is a myth and provide evidence against three key elements of the myth. First, there has been a surplus of dwellings constructed compared to population demand, rather than a shortage. Second, planning approvals typically far exceed dwelling construction, implying that more approvals or changes to planning controls on the density and location of development cannot accelerate the rate of new housing supply. Third, large increases in the rate of housing supply would have small price effects relative to other factors, like interest rates, and come with the opportunity cost of forgone alternative economic activities. Indeed, if the story were true, then property developers would be foolishly lobbying for policy changes that reduce the price of their product and the value of the balance sheets, which mostly comprise undeveloped land.
    Date: 2019–11–25
  47. By: Nowosad, Jakub; Stepinski, Tomasz
    Abstract: There is a keen interest in inferring spatial associations between different variables spanning the same study area. We present a method for quantitative assessment of such associations in the case where spatial variables are either in the form of regionalizations or in the form of thematic maps. The proposed index of spatial association – called the V-measure – is adapted from a measure originally developed in computer science, where it was used to compare clusterings, to spatial science for comparing regionalizations. The V-measure is rooted in the information theory and, at its core, it is equivalent to mutual information between the two regionalizations. Here we re-introduce the V-measure in terms of spatial variance analysis instead of information theory. We identify three different contexts for application of the V-measure, comparative, associative, and derivative, and present an example of an application for each of them. In the derivative context, the V-measure is used to select an optimal number of regions for clustering-derived regionalizations. In effect, this also constitutes a novel way to determine the number of clusters for non-spatial clustering tasks as well. The advantage of V-measure over the Mapcurves method is discussed. We also use the insight from deriving the V-measure in terms of spatial variance analysis to point out a shortcoming of the Geographical Detector – a method to quantify associations between numerical and categorical spatial variables. The open-source software for calculating the V-measure accompanies this paper.
    Date: 2018–04–19
  48. By: Annabel Martin-Salerno (LEM - Lille économie management - LEM - UMR 9221 - UCL - Université catholique de Lille - Université de Lille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IAE Lille - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises - Lille - Université de Lille, Sciences et Technologies); Andrea L. Micheaux (MMS - Département Management, Marketing et Stratégie - IMT - Institut Mines-Télécom [Paris] - TEM - Télécom Ecole de Management - IMT-BS - Institut Mines-Télécom Business School, LITEM - Laboratoire en Innovation, Technologies, Economie et Management - UEVE - Université d'Évry-Val-d'Essonne - IMT-BS - Institut Mines-Télécom Business School); Valentina Stan (ESSCA Research Lab - ESSCA - Groupe ESSCA)
    Abstract: To elucidate the favorable conditions for knowledge sharing through Enterprise Social Network (ESN), a qualitative study was conducted to identify benefits of ESN converts. Results highlight that the virtues of the servant leader seem to play a major role in overcoming barriers to sharing knowledge as well as several dimensions of eudaimonic well-being.
    Keywords: Enterprise Social Network,Servant leadership,Eudaimonic well-being,Knowledge sharing
    Date: 2019
  49. By: Hermes, Henning (Dept. of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration); Huschens, Martin (2University of Mainz, Information Systems and Business Administration); Rothlauf, Franz (2University of Mainz, Information Systems and Business Administration); Schunk, Daniel (University of Mainz, Public and Behavioral Economics)
    Abstract: Relative performance feedback (RPF) has often been shown to improve effort and performance in the workplace and educational settings. Yet, many studies also document substantial negative effects of RPF, in particular for low-achievers. We study a novel type of RPF designed to overcome these negative effects of RPF on low-achievers by scoring individual performance improvements. With a sample of 400 children, we conduct a class-wise randomized-controlled trial using an e-learning software in regular teaching lessons in primary schools. We demonstrate that this type of RPF significantly increases motivation, effort, and performance in math for low-achieving children, without hurting high-achieving children. Among low-achievers, those receiving more points and moving up in the ranking improved strongest on motivation and math performance. In addition, we document substantial gender differences in response to this type of RPF: improvements in motivation and learning are much stronger for girls. We argue that using this new type of RPF could potentially reduce inequalities, especially in educational settings.
    Keywords: relative performance feedback; rankings; randomized-controlled trial; education; gender differences
    JEL: A10
    Date: 2019–11–30
  50. By: Einiö, Elias
    Abstract: This study exploits a large-scale natural experiment in Finnish conscription to study how exposure to peers from different family backgrounds affects education, earnings, employment, and hourly wage. Our research design is based on the alphabetic rule in assigning conscripts to dorms, which induces credible exogenous variation in peer family backgrounds. Being exposed to a dormmate from a high-income family has a positive long-term effect on earnings. The effects are the largest for individuals who come from high-income families. Exposure to peers with one standard deviation higher average parent income raises their earnings at age 28-42 by 2.6%. The results suggest beneficial labor market networks as a key mechanism. Exposure to peers from high-income families has little impact on earnings and hourly wages of individuals who come from low-income families, but it increases their educational attainment in the long run. The findings imply that social stratification reinforces economic and educational inequality between rich and poor families.
    Keywords: earnings, employment, education, wages, peer effects, family background, Labour markets and education, J24, J31,
    Date: 2019
  51. By: Martine Gadille (LEST - Laboratoire d'économie et de sociologie du travail - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Maria Antonietta Impedovo (ADEF - Apprentissage, Didactique, Evaluation, Formation - AMU - Aix Marseille Université)
    Abstract: Abstract: This paper focuses on the initial implications of students' extended activity between virtual and in-presence learning. The study is part of an ongoing project founded in 2018 in a CSCL setting titled "e-PIm" (Incubator of Immersive Pedagogy for Virtual Reality) taking place in a secondary school in France labelled as pilot in 2016. For this study, some data are selected and qualitatively analysed. The implication of the implementation of the Multi-user Virtual Environment emerges in the field of didactics, student-teacher interactions, and students' corporal and socio-cognitive behaviours ; the uses of the MUVE are revealed to be an ongoing transformative learning experience through an extended learning space and institutional change.
    Keywords: Embodiment,avatar,school,learning,immersive pedagogy,MUVEn learning space,institutional change
    Date: 2019
  52. By: Catherine Haeck; Giulia Meloni; Jo Swinnen
    Abstract: Previous studies on the value of terroir, or more generally geographical indications (GI), used hedonic techniques. We use historical data and exploit temporal and geographical variations in the introduction of wine GIs in early twentieth century France to study the impact on the price of specific wines in the years and decades following their introduction. We find large effects of GIs on prices of some Champagne wines, but no significant impact on Bordeaux or other Champagne wines.
    Date: 2018–09
  53. By: Tswakae Sebotsa (Self-Directed Learning, North-West University (NWU)); Josef De Beer (Self-Directed Learning, North-West University (NWU)); Jeanne Kriek (University of South Africa (UNISA), Pretoria)
    Abstract: The leitmotiv of this paper is an appreciative inquiry of the Rogan and Grayson (2003) Profile of Implementation heuristic, which has the potential to guide teacher professional development programmes, and also record a teacher?s growth and development during such interventions. The research question that guides this paper is, ?what are the affordances and limitations of Rogan and Grayson?s (2003) Profile of Implementation to guide teacher professional development?? To this end, we structure the paper according to the four dimensions included in the Rogan and Grayson heuristic, namely (a) classroom interaction, (b) practical work, (c) science and society, and (d) assessment. The research context is a teacher professional development programme facilitated by the North-West University in Potchefstroom, South Africa, in which ten science teachers participated. In this research we identified the need to map teachers? progress in terms of their professional development. In the Rogan and Grayson heuristic, teachers are plotted in each of the four dimensions (classroom interaction, practical work, science-and-society perspectives, and assessment) in one of four levels (with level 1 indicating basic compliance, and level 4 mastery. However, we adopted Petersen?s interpretation of the heuristic, which also provides for a level 0, indicating non-compliance). In the paper we focus on research data on teachers? classroom interaction, their ability to facilitate practical laboratory work based on the tenets of science, their ability to effectively contextualize science, and to engage in meaningful assessment. We also show how the professional development programme attempted to assist teachers? learning and professional development in each of these four dimensions. We critique the Profile of Implementation based on the absence of self-directed learning (SDL) in it. Self-directed learning describes a process by which individuals take the initiative, with or without the assistance of others, in diagnosing their learning needs, formulating learning goals, identifying human and material resources for learning, choosing and implementing appropriate learning strategies, and evaluating learning outcomes. A particular contribution of this paper is the suggestion that a fifth dimension should be added, namely self-directed learning. The proposed fifth dimension sees self-directed learning as a sine qua non for development in the other four dimensions. Such a focus on SDL could arguably assist the teacher in a quicker transition from one level to the next.
    Keywords: Teacher professional development, Classroom interaction, Practical work, Science and society, Assessment, Self-directed learning, Profile of Implementation, Nature of Science and Nature of Indigenous Knowledge
    JEL: I23 I24 I21
    Date: 2019–10
  54. By: Murray, Cameron
    Abstract: Glaeser and Gyourko’s (2003) (henceforth G&G’s) method of measuring the gap between marginal and average land prices of housing lots has become a popular way of demonstrating the degree to which planning controls, or “regulatory taxes”, increase residential land prices. This has led policy-makers across the globe to focus on town planning as a critical determinant of rising home prices. We show, however, that G&G’s method shows no such thing. Instead, the price gap is a product of the location premium of land, diminishing returns to buyers of residential land size, and historical city development patterns. Numerous shortcomings are identified in their theoretical model, including that (1) they ignore that development happens over time, (2) their “regulatory tax” is simply the location value of land, (3) they reason inconsistency about the source of land prices, arguing that land at the margins is scarce but locations for a whole housing lots are not, and (4) there are no optimal lot sizes nor subdivision incentives in their model. Standard price-taking models of residential land markets that recognise that locations are scarce contain none of these limitations and provide a better interpretation of land price patterns. Empirically, we show that G&G’s method finds a high “regulatory tax” even in the absence of regulatory constraints using both simulated suburb development scenarios and historical land sales data from colonial Australia and ancient Mesopotamia. In short, there is no information regarding the effect of planning controls on the supply of new dwellings in a comparison of marginal and average land prices and this method should not be relied upon to inform planning and housing policy decisions.
    Date: 2019–11–25
  55. By: Meredith Phillips; Sarah J. Reber
    Abstract: This paper describes the effects of two variants of a virtual college-counseling intervention designed to reduce informational and social support barriers to college application and enrollment among socioeconomically disadvantaged students. Students who were randomly assigned to the program felt more supported during the college application process and applied more broadly to four-year colleges, but they were not more likely to be accepted or enroll. We show that treatment effects on intermediate outcomes were larger for the types of students we anticipated would most need additional support during the college application process and discuss why the program did not improve college enrollment, while some other similar-seeming programs have improved enrollment. We conclude that low-intensity programs may work for some students, but targeting can be difficult. And many students probably need in-person and more intensive help to increase four-year enrollments.
    JEL: I23 I24 J24
    Date: 2019–11
  56. By: Yenny Hinostroza Paredes (University of Helsinki)
    Abstract: This article examines an under-researched area of education in Chile by exploring how contemporary initial teacher education policy addresses the professionalism of university-based teacher educators. While the content analysis is limited by the data available, its focus is on describing the notion of teacher educators? professionalism inherent in the current political discourse. First, findings show that policy pays scarce attention to the professionalism of teacher educators; most of these policies are part of general policies for university-based initial teacher education programs. Second, located within the academia, the prevalent view of teacher educators? professionalism is centered in a particular construction of the teacher-researcher that stresses greater the role of the researcher. Third, policy predominantly defines educators? professionalism in terms of market-oriented values (competences, knowledge-related resources). Finally, the article concludes by considering the implications for developing initial teacher education policy that puts greater emphasis on teacher educators, strengthens their professionalism, and positions them for an active role in policy-making.
    Keywords: teacher educator; professionalism, initial teacher education, qualitative content analysis, policy-making
    JEL: I21 I28 I29
    Date: 2019–10
  57. By: John Haltiwanger (University of Maryland; National Bureau of Economic Research; Johns Hopkins University; Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit; Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)); Erika McEntarfer; Bruce C. Fallick; Matthew Staiger (University of Maryland, US Census Bureau)
    Abstract: A substantial empirical literature documents large and persistent average earnings losses following job displacement. Our paper extends the literature on displaced workers by providing a comprehensive picture of earnings and employment outcomes for all workers who separate. We show that for workers not recalled to their previous employer, earnings losses follow separations in general, as opposed to displacements in particular. The key predictor of earnings losses is not displacement but the length of the nonemployment spell following job separation. Moreover, displaced workers are no more likely to experience a substantial spell of nonemployment than are other non-recalled separators. Our results suggest that future research on the consequences of job loss should work to disentangle the strong association between nonemployment and earnings losses, as opposed to focusing specifically on displaced workers.
    JEL: J63 J64
    Date: 2019–12–13

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