nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2019‒12‒16
74 papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. Fast Locations and Slowing Labor Mobility By Coate, Patrick; Mangum, Kyle
  2. How Prevalent Were Racially Restrictive Covenants in 20th Century Philadelphia? A New Spatial Data Set Provides Answers By Santucci, Larry
  3. Teacher Effects on Student Achievement and Height: A Cautionary Tale By Marianne Bitler; Sean Corcoran; Thurston Domina; Emily Penner
  4. Foreclosure Externalities and Vacant Property Registration Ordinances By Biswas, Arnab; Cunningham, Chris; Gerardi, Kristopher S.; Sexton, Daniel
  5. On the concentration of innovation in top cities in the digital age By Caroline Paunov; Dominique Guellec; Nevine El-Mallakh; Sandra Planes-Satorra; Lukas Nüse
  6. Lessons Learned for Designing Programs to Charge for Road Use, Congestion, and Emissions By Jenn, Alan
  7. Migration Networks and Location Decisions: Evidence from U.S. Mass Migration By Stuart, Bryan; Taylor, Evan J.
  8. How Settlement Locations and Local Networks Influence Immigrant Political Integration By Bernt Bratsberg; Jeremy Ferwerda; Henning Finseraas; Andreas Kotsadam
  9. Efficiency of road pricing schemes with endogenous workplace locations in a polycentric city By Romain Gaté
  10. Does Increased Teacher Accountability Decrease Leniency in Grading? By Patrick A. Puhani; Philip Yang
  11. Technological innovation in mortgage underwriting and the growth in credit, 1985–2015 By Foote, Christopher L.; Loewenstein, Lara; Willen, Paul S.
  12. Spatial Solution to Measure Regional Efficiency - Introducing Spatial Data Analysis (SDEA) By Alicja Olejnik; Agata Zoltaszek; Jakub Olejnik
  13. School autonomy and educational inclusion of children with special needs: Evidence from England By Liu, Yi; Bessudnov, Alexey; Black, Alison; Norwich, Brahm
  14. European Jobs Monitor 2019: Shifts in the employment structure at regional level By John Hurley; Enrique Fernandez Macias; Martina Bisello; Carlos Vacas; Marta Fana
  15. The EU-OECD definition of a functional urban area By Lewis Dijkstra; Hugo Poelman; Paolo Veneri
  16. The Rise and Fall of US Manufacturing: Re-Examination of Long-Run Spatial Trends By Nicholas Crafts; Alexander Klein
  17. Seeking for tipping point in the housing market : evidence from a field experiment By Sylvain Chareyron; Samuel Gorohouna; Yannick l'Horty; Pascale Petit; Catherine Ris
  18. Measuring when Uber behaves as a substitute or complement to transit: An examination of travel-time differences in Toronto By Young, Mischa; Allen, Jeff; Farber, Steven
  19. Private school vouchers in developing countries: A survey of the evidence By Baum, Donald R.
  20. Ordinal Rank and Peer Composition: Two Sides of the Same Coin? By Bertoni, Marco; Nistico, Roberto
  21. The Effects of Foreign-Born Peers in US High Schools and Middle Schools By Jason Fletcher; Jinho Kim; Jenna Nobles; Stephen Ross; Irina Shaorshadze
  22. Why do people continue to live near polluted sites? Empirical evidence from Southwestern Europe By Pierre Levasseur; Katrin Erdlenbruch; Christelle Gramaglia
  23. Spatial Clustering Patterns of Children in Single-Mother Households in Japan By Yukiko Abe; Mizuki Kawabata; Yuki Shibatsuji
  24. Toward the Theory of Urban Spatial Articulation (Study Results at two Commercial Centers in Makassar City, Indonesia) By Eisenring, Tommy S.S.
  25. O Brother, Where Start Thou? Sibling Spillovers in College Enrollment By Joshua Goodman; Michael Hurwitz; Christine Mulhern; Jonathan Smith
  26. Advancing Social Capital through Participatory Approaches Case of Community-Based Slum Upgrading in Yogyakarta, Indonesia By Iqbal, Muhammad Nelza Mulki
  27. How Lotteries in School Choice Help to Level the Playing Field By Christian Basteck; Bettina Klaus; Dorothea Kuebler
  28. Are larger labor market more resilient? Evidence of the French army restructuring on exit from unemployment By Mathieu Sanch-Maritan; Lionel Védrine
  29. Refugees' and Irregular Migrants' Self-Selection into Europe: Who Migrates Where? By Aksoy, Cevat Giray; Poutvaara, Panu
  30. Wellbeing and Housing Report Supplement By Philip Garboden; Inessa Love; Thuy Doan
  31. Choosing Racial Identity in the United States, 1880-1940 By Ricardo Dahis; Emily Nix; Nancy Qian
  32. Paradoxical impact of sprawling intra-Urban Heat Islets: Reducing mean surface temperatures while enhancing local extremes By Shreevastava, Anamika; Bhalachandran, Saiprasanth; McGrath, Gavan; Huber, Matthew; Rao, P. Suresh C.
  33. Salience and Accountability: School Infrastructureand Last-Minute Electoral Punishment By Nicolas Ajzenman; Ruben Durante
  34. Is the Remedy Worse Than the Disease? The Impact of Teacher Remediation on Teacher and Student Performance in Chile By María Lombardi
  35. University Admission:Is Achievement a Sufficient Criterion? By Alessandro Tampieri
  36. Lessons Learned for Designing Programs to Charge for Road Use, Congestion, and Emissions By Jenn, Alan
  37. Trust and R&D Investments: Evidence from OECD Countries By Ndubuisi, Gideon
  38. Labor mobility from R&D-intensive multinational companies: Implications for knowledge and technology By Jacob Rubak Holm; Bram Timmermans; Christian Richter Ostergaard; Alexander Coad; Nicola Grassano; Antonio Vezzani
  39. Geofaceting: aligning small-multiples for regions in a spatially meaningful way By Kashnitsky, Ilya; Aburto, Jose Manuel
  40. Heterogeneity in Households’ Expectations of Housing Prices – Evidence from Micro Data By Hjalmarsson, Erik; Österholm, Pär
  41. Understanding the Geographic Coding in the 1960 Decennial Census Microdata By Todd Gardner
  42. Self-employment and Migration By Samuele Giambra; David McKenzie
  43. Racial Disparities in Voting Wait Times: Evidence from Smartphone Data By M. Keith Chen; Kareem Haggag; Devin G. Pope; Ryne Rohla
  44. Water Purification Efforts and the Black-White Infant Mortality Gap, 1906-1938 By D. Mark Anderson; Kerwin Kofi Charles; Daniel I. Rees; Tianyi Wang
  45. Open space preservation in an urbanization context By Camille Régnier
  46. Compulsory Voting and Political Participation: Empirical Evidence from Austria By Stefanie Gäbler; Niklas Potrafke; Felix Rösel
  47. Smartphone Use and Academic Performance: a Literature Review By Simon Amez; Stijn Baert
  48. Driving Behavior and the Price of Gasoline: Evidence from Fueling-Level Micro Data By Christopher R. Knittel; Shinsuke Tanaka
  50. Determinant factors influencing people to use motorcycle taxi online services using the Analytical Hierarchy Process By Raco, Jozef; Raton, Yulius; Taroreh, Frankie; Muaja, Octavianus
  51. ANALYSIS OF SERVICE QUALITY FACTORS ON CUSTOMER SATISFACTION ON TAXI ONLINE IN MEDAN CITY By The 11th International Workshop And Conference Of Asean Studies In Linguistics, Islamic And Arabic Education, Social Sciences And Educational Technology 2018; Daulay, Raihanah; Rany, Muhriza Al
  52. Is politics the missing piece of the minimum wage puzzle? By Jesse Wursten
  53. Testing for redlining in the labor market By Yannick l'Horty; Mathieu Bunel; Pascale Petit
  54. Supporting and guiding novice teachers: Evidence from TALIS 2018 By OECD
  55. History as inspiration: Tracing Franco-Chinese architectural elements in Hanoi old houses By Hanh, Vu Thi; Ho, Toan Manh
  57. Evaluating the impact of information campaign in deterring irregular migration intention among youths. a randomised control experiment in Edo State, Nigeria By Obi, Chinedu; Bartolini, Fabio; D'Haese, Marijke
  58. Effects of Minimum Wage on Import and Innovation: Theory and Evidence from China By Chu, Angus C.; Furukawa, Yuichi; Kou, Zonglai; Liu, Xueyue
  59. Tied in: the Global Network of Local Innovation By Ernest MIGUELEZ; Julio RAFFO; Christian CHACUA; Massimiliano CODA-ZABETTA; Deyun YIN; Francesco LISSONI, Gianluca TARASCONI
  60. The Labor Market Effects of Mexican Repatriations: Longitudinal Evidence from the 1930s By Yasenov, Vasil; Peri, Giovanni; Lee, Jongkwan
  61. Immigrant Child Poverty in an Emerging Country of Destination: the Evidence from Finland By Ognjen Obucina; Ilari Ilmakunnas
  62. THE INFLUENCE OF PRICE AND LOCATION AGAINST THE DECISION OF BUYING A HOME IN PT WIRATAMA GROUP UNIT GRAND MANSION JOHOR MEDAN By The 11th International Workshop And Conference Of Asean Studies In Linguistics, Islamic And Arabic Education, Social Sciences And Educational Technology 2018; Purnama, Nadia Ika; Arta, Raja Tia Parama
  63. EFFECT OF GREEN MARKETING STRATEGY AND PRICES ON CONSUMER LOYALTY (STUDY OF STUDENT CASE ISLAMIC HIGH PROTECTIONIN THE MEDAN CITY) By The 11th International Workshop And Conference Of Asean Studies In Linguistics, Islamic And Arabic Education, Social Sciences And Educational Technology 2018; Astuti, Rini; Abdullah, Ikhsan
  64. The Impact of Mass Migration of Syrians on the Turkish Labor Market By Ege Aksu; Refik Erzan; Murat Güray Kırdar
  65. Modelling International Migration Flows by Integrating Multiple Data Sources By Del Fava, Emanuele; Wiśniowsk, Arkadiusz; Zagheni, Emilio
  66. Do social networks leverage market opportunities for smallholders? case of African leafy vegetables in Kenya By Mwema, Catherine; Crewett, Wibke; Lagat, Job; Bokelmann, Wolfgang
  67. Police Trust and Domestic Violence: Evidence from Immigration Policies By Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Arenas-Arroyo, Esther
  68. Mortgage lending, monetary policy, and prudential measures in small euro-area economies: Evidence from Ireland and the Netherlands By Mary Everett; Jakob de Haan; David-Jan Jansen; Peter McQuade; Anna Samarina
  69. QUESTIONING FINANCIAL EDUCATION SYSTEM IN INDONESIA: AN ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS’ PERSONAL FINANCIAL LITERACY By The 11th International Workshop And Conference Of Asean Studies In Linguistics, Islamic And Arabic Education, Social Sciences And Educational Technology 2018; , murviana; , Marliyah; Ardiana, Asma
  70. Systemising social innovation initiatives and their regional context in Europe By Wintjes, Rene; Es-Sadki, Nordine; Notten, Ad
  71. Stabilized Branch-Price-and-Cut for the Commodity-constrained Split Delivery Vehicle Routing Problem By Timo Gschwind; Nicola Bianchessi; Stefan Irnich
  72. Emergent self-similarity and scaling properties of fractal intra-Urban Heat Islets for diverse global cities By Shreevastava, Anamika; Rao, P. Suresh C.; McGrath, Gavan
  73. The Role of Immigrants in the ‘Take-Offs’ of Eastern European ‘Manchesters.’ A Comparative Case Studies of Three Cities: Lodz, Tampere, and Ivanovo By Kamil Kowalski; Rafal Matera; Mariusz E. Sokolowicz
  74. Youth Unemployment and U.S. Job Search Assistance Policy during the Great Recession By Marios Michaelides; Peter Mueser; Jeffrey Smith

  1. By: Coate, Patrick (National Council on Compensation Insurance); Mangum, Kyle (Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia)
    Abstract: Declining internal migration in the United States is driven by increasing home attach-ment in locations with initially high rates of population turnover. These “fast” locations were the population growth destinations of the 20th century, where home attachments were low, but have increased as regional population growth has converged. Using a novel measure of attachment, this paper estimates a structural model of migration that distinguishes moving frictions from home utility. Simulations quantify candidate explanations of the decline. Rising home attachment accounts for most of the decline not attributable to population aging, and its effect is consistent with the observed spatial pattern.
    Keywords: declining internal migration; labor mobility; home attachment; rootedness; local ties; conditional choice probability estimation
    JEL: C50 J61 R11 R23
    Date: 2019–12–02
  2. By: Santucci, Larry (Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia)
    Abstract: One of the tools used by early 20th century developers, builders, and white homeowners to prevent African Americans from accessing parts of the residential real estate market was the racially restrictive covenant. In this paper, we present a newly constructed spatial data set of properties in the city of Philadelphia with deeds that contained a racially restrictive covenant at any time from 1920 to 1932. To date, we have reviewed hundreds of thousands of property deeds and identified nearly 4,000 instances in which a racial covenant had been included in the deed. The covenanted properties formed an invisible barrier to less densely populated areas sought after by white residents and around predominantly white neighborhoods throughout the city. We present the data in a series of geospatial maps and discuss plans for future enhancements to the data set.
    Keywords: racially restrictive covenants; exclusionary zoning; segregation; race; property; Philadelphia
    JEL: J15 K11 R12
    Date: 2019–11–18
  3. By: Marianne Bitler; Sean Corcoran; Thurston Domina; Emily Penner
    Abstract: Estimates of teacher “value-added” suggest teachers vary substantially in their ability to promote student learning. Prompted by this finding, many states and school districts have adopted value-added measures as indicators of teacher job performance. In this paper, we conduct a new test of the validity of value-added models. Using administrative student data from New York City, we apply commonly estimated value-added models to an outcome teachers cannot plausibly affect: student height. We find the standard deviation of teacher effects on height is nearly as large as that for math and reading achievement, raising obvious questions about validity. Subsequent analysis finds these “effects” are largely spurious variation (noise), rather than bias resulting from sorting on unobserved factors related to achievement. Given the difficulty of differentiating signal from noise in real-world teacher effect estimates, this paper serves as a cautionary tale for their use in practice.
    JEL: I2 J24
    Date: 2019–11
  4. By: Biswas, Arnab (University of Wisconsin-Stout); Cunningham, Chris (Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta); Gerardi, Kristopher S. (Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta); Sexton, Daniel (Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta)
    Abstract: This paper tests the effectiveness of vacant property registration ordinances (VPROs) in reducing negative externalities from foreclosures. VPROs were widely adopted by local governments across the United States during the foreclosure crisis and facilitated the monitoring and enforcement of existing property maintenance laws. We implement a border discontinuity design combined with a triple-difference specification to overcome policy endogeneity concerns, and we find that the enactment of VPROs in Florida more than halved the negative externality from foreclosure. This finding is robust to a rich set of time-by-location fixed effects, limiting the sample to properties within 0.1 miles of a VPRO/non-VPRO border and to a number of other sample restrictions and falsification exercises. The results suggest that an important driver of the negative price effect of nearby foreclosures is a non-pecuniary externality where the failure to maintain or secure a property affects one's neighbors.
    Keywords: mortgage default; foreclosure; externality; policy; vacancy
    JEL: H23 R28 R52
    Date: 2019–12–01
  5. By: Caroline Paunov (OECD); Dominique Guellec (OECD); Nevine El-Mallakh (Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne); Sandra Planes-Satorra (OECD); Lukas Nüse (Bertelsmann Foundation)
    Abstract: This paper investigates how digital technologies have shaped the concentration of inventive activity in cities across 30 OECD countries. It finds that patenting is highly concentrated: from 2010 to 2014, 10% of cities accounted for 64% of patent applications to the European Patent Office, with the top five (Tokyo, Seoul, San Francisco, Higashiosaka and Paris) representing 21.8% of applications. The share of the top cities in total patenting increased modestly from 1995 to 2014. Digital technology patent applications are more concentrated in top cities than applications in other technology fields. In the United States, which has led digital technology deployment, the concentration of patent applications in top cities increased more than in Japan and Europe over the two decades. Econometric results confirm that digital technology relates positively to patenting activities in cities and that it benefits top cities, in particular, thereby strengthening the concentration of innovation in these cities.
    Keywords: cities, digital technologies, geography of innovation, innovation, local knowledge spillovers, OECD countries, patenting
    JEL: R12 O31 O34
    Date: 2019–12–16
  6. By: Jenn, Alan
    Abstract: Pricing externalities from vehicle use such as road damage, vehicular emissions (both greenhouse gases and local pollutants), and congestion has become an important topic in the transportation sector in recent years. Road user charge pilot programs are being explored in various states in the U.S.; cities like New York and San Francisco are following in the footsteps of Stockholm and London by announcing plans to implement congestion pricing; and numerous cities and countries have announced gasoline vehicle phase-outs or bans. In this study, we provide an overview of the academic literature related to vehicle pricing, we examine case studies of locations where pricing has been implemented, and we investigate the design choices for programs that would address each of three major externalities related to vehicle use: road damage, emissions (both greenhouse gases and local pollutants), and congestion. Our analysis finds opportunities for integrating technology across multiple pricing programs—by relying on overlapping systems, programs can be implemented more efficiently and provide tremendous cost savings. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Law, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vehicle pricing, congestion charges, mileage fees
    Date: 2019–12–01
  7. By: Stuart, Bryan (George Washington University); Taylor, Evan J. (University of Chicago)
    Abstract: This paper studies how birth town migration networks affected long-run location decisions during historical U.S. migration episodes. We develop a new method to estimate the strength of migration networks for each receiving and sending location. Our estimates imply that when one randomly chosen African American moved from a Southern birth town to a destination county, then 1.9 additional black migrants made the same move on average. For white migrants from the Great Plains, the average is only 0.4. Networks were particularly important in connecting black migrants with attractive employment opportunities and played a larger role in less costly moves.
    Keywords: migration networks, location decisions, social interactions, Great Migration
    JEL: J61 N32 O15 R23 Z13
    Date: 2019–10
  8. By: Bernt Bratsberg (Frisch Centre for Economic Research); Jeremy Ferwerda (Dartmouth College); Henning Finseraas (Institute for Social Research); Andreas Kotsadam (Frisch Centre for Economic Research)
    Abstract: To what extent do early experiences in the host country shape the political integration of immigrants? We argue that the initial neighborhoods immigrants settle in establish patterns of behavior that influence subsequent political participation. Using Norwegian administrative register data, we leverage quasi-exogenous variation in the placement of refugees to assess the consequences of assignment to particular neighborhoods. We find that the di erence in turnout between refugees initially placed in 20th and 80th percentile neighborhoods is 12.6 percentage points, which represents 47 percent of the participation gap between refugees and residents. To assess the mechanism, we draw on individual level data on all neighbors present at the time of each refugees' arrival, and evaluate the relative impact of neighborhood characteristics and available social networks. Our findings suggest that while neighborhood socioeconomic factors play a limited role, early exposure to politically engaged neighbors and peer cohort increases immigrants' turnout over the long run.
    Keywords: Voter turnout, minorities, immigration, social networks, Western Europe
    Date: 2019–11
  9. By: Romain Gaté (CREM - Centre de recherche en économie et management - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper aims to measure the efficiency of different road pricing schemes (Pigouvian tax, flat tax and cordon toll) to address congestion externalities when the locations of jobs and dwellings within a city are endogenous. The model captures the fact that commuters face a trade-off between taking advantage of the wage premium in the Central Business District (CBD) and being stuck in traffic. I find that the Pigouvian tax strategy is not a social optimum due to the presence of two market failures in the urban economy: congestion and misallocation of jobs within the city. A Pigouvian tax on commuters cannot solve two different problems simultaneously, namely, reducing the congestion level given the locations of jobs and reaching the optimal spatial allocation of firms. Without regulation, the number of jobs in the CBD is too high (and the congestion cost is excessive), while the Pigouvian tax generates a CBD that is too small. In addition, a flat tax is not necessarily worse than a Pigouvian tax, in contrast to the cordon toll.
    Keywords: Polycentric city,Second-best policies,Congestion,Welfare,Urban land use
    Date: 2019–10–18
  10. By: Patrick A. Puhani (Leibniz Universität Hannover); Philip Yang (Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen)
    Abstract: Because accountability may improve the comparability that is compromised by lenient grading, we compare exit exam outcomes in the same schools before and after a policy change that increased teacher accountability by anchoring grading scales. In particular, using a large administrative dataset of 364,445 exit exam outcomes for 72,889 students, we assess the effect of introducing centralized scoring standards into schools with higher and lower quality peer groups. We find that implementation of these standards increases scoring differences between the two school types by about 25 percent.
    Keywords: Subjective performance evaluation; rating standards; policy reform; transparency
    JEL: H83 I20 I28
    Date: 2019–10
  11. By: Foote, Christopher L. (Federal Reserve Bank of Boston); Loewenstein, Lara (Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland); Willen, Paul S. (Federal Reserve Bank of Boston)
    Abstract: The application of information technology to finance, or “fintech,” is expected to revolutionize many aspects of borrowing and lending in the future, but technology has been reshaping consumer and mortgage lending for many years. During the 1990s, computerization allowed mortgage lenders to reduce loan-processing times and largely replace human-based assessments of credit risk with default predictions generated by sophisticated empirical models. Debt-to-income ratios at origination add little to the predictive power of these models, so the new automated underwriting systems allowed higher debt-to-income ratios than previous underwriting guidelines would have allowed. In this way, technology brought about an exogenous change in lending standards that was especially relevant for borrowers with low current incomes relative to their expected future incomes—in particular, young college graduates. By contrast, the data suggest that the credit expansion during the 2000s housing boom was an endogenous response to widespread expectations of higher future house prices, as average mortgage sizes rose for borrowers across the entire income distribution.
    Keywords: mortgage underwriting; housing cycle; technological change; credit boom
    JEL: C55 D53 G21 L85 R21 R31
    Date: 2019–11–01
  12. By: Alicja Olejnik (University of Lodz); Agata Zoltaszek (University of Lodz); Jakub Olejnik (University of Lodz)
    Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to introduce a new approach to measuring efficiency in regional studies through SDEA (Spatial Data Envelopment Analysis). The paper offers a proper mathematical elaboration and a highlight of the differences between classic DEA and newly developed method. Presented literature review and the discussion on theoretical examples, proves the need for new solution to measure regional efficiency, which takes into consideration region-specific spatial context. The introduced method, SDEA, incorporates explicitly spatial interactions (via the W matrix) into the model through spatially weighted inputs and outputs. An example study concerning healthcare efficiency of European regions will be presented to illustrate SDEA. We confront the efficiency results of classic DEA with results of SDEA, which is expanded by the spatial equivalents of inputs and outputs. The results suggest that classic DEA undervalues the regional healthcare efficiency, underestimating the region-specific spatial context.
    Keywords: spatial data envelopment analysis (SDEA), regional efficiency, spatial interaction, healthcare, diseases of affluence
    JEL: C44 C31 R15 I15
    Date: 2019–10–22
  13. By: Liu, Yi; Bessudnov, Alexey; Black, Alison; Norwich, Brahm
    Abstract: In the past few decades, several countries have introduced reforms aimed at increasing school autonomy. We evaluate the effect of the introduction of autonomous academies, in secondary education in England, on the educational trajectories of children with special educational needs. This has been done using longitudinal data on all schoolchildren in state schools in England, from the National Pupil Database. The results show that the effects of school autonomy on educational inclusion depend on schools’ previous performance and socio-economic composition. Poorly performing schools that obtained autonomy under the control of an external sponsor were more likely to decrease the proportion of pupils with special needs and remove additional support for them. We compare these results with the previous studies of charter schools in the USA.
    Date: 2019–01–07
  14. By: John Hurley; Enrique Fernandez Macias (European Commission - JRC); Martina Bisello; Carlos Vacas; Marta Fana (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: Accumulating evidence indicates that large metropolitan centres are faring much better than other regions within the Member States of the EU. Such interregional inequality contributes to disenchantment with existing political systems, which in turn can weaken the social bonds that ground democratic systems. This report analyses shifts in the employment structure – meaning change in the distribution of employment across occupations and sectors – of the EU regions. The analysis covers 130 regions of nine Member states, which together account for nearly four out of five EU workers. The study finds that regions within countries are becoming more occupationally different, but in similar ways. It also finds that cities have disproportionately high and rising shares of well-paid, high-skilled services employment alongside growth in low-paid employment. The findings support continued EU regional policy assistance of regions in danger of being left behind.
    Keywords: Job polarisation, occupational change, labour markets, regional policy, inequality, structural change
    Date: 2019–11
  15. By: Lewis Dijkstra (European Commission); Hugo Poelman (European Commission); Paolo Veneri (OECD)
    Abstract: This paper describes the EU-OECD method to define functional urban areas (FUAs). Being composed of a city and its commuting zone, FUAs encompass the economic and functional extent of cities based on daily people’s movements. The paper first presents briefly the methodological approach and subsequently provides a detailed description of the identification algorithm, together with the data needed to apply it. This definition has been applied to 33 OECD member countries and Colombia, as well as to all European Union member countries.
    Keywords: City, Delineation, Functional Urban Area, Metropolitan area
    JEL: O18 P25
    Date: 2019–12–11
  16. By: Nicholas Crafts; Alexander Klein
    Abstract: We re-examine the long-run geographical development of U.S. manufacturing industries using recent advances in spatial concentration measures. We construct spatially-weighted indices of the geographical concentration of U.S. manufacturing industries during the period 1880 to 1997 using data from the Census of Manufactures and Bureau of Labor Statistics. Doing so we improve upon the existing indices by taking into account industrial structure and checkerboard problem. Several important new results emerge. First, we find that average spatial concentration was much lower in the late 20th- than in the late 19th-century and that this was the outcome of a continuing reduction over time. Second, spatial concentration of industries did not increase in early twentieth century as shown by traditional indices but rather declined, implying that we do not find an inverted-U shape pattern of long-run spatial concentration. Third, the persistent tendency to greater spatial dispersion was characteristic of most manufacturing industries. Fourth, even so, economically and statistically significant spatial concentration was pervasive throughout this period.
    Keywords: manufacturing belt; spatial concentration; transport costs
    JEL: N62 N92 R12
    Date: 2019–12
  17. By: Sylvain Chareyron (ERUDITE - Equipe de Recherche sur l’Utilisation des Données Individuelles en lien avec la Théorie Economique - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12, TEPP - Travail, Emploi et Politiques Publiques - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Samuel Gorohouna (LARJE - Laboratoire de Recherches Juridique et Economique - UNC - Université de la Nouvelle Calédonie); Yannick l'Horty (ERUDITE - Equipe de Recherche sur l’Utilisation des Données Individuelles en lien avec la Théorie Economique - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12, TEPP - Travail, Emploi et Politiques Publiques - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Pascale Petit (ERUDITE - Equipe de Recherche sur l’Utilisation des Données Individuelles en lien avec la Théorie Economique - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12, TEPP - Travail, Emploi et Politiques Publiques - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Catherine Ris (LARJE - Laboratoire de Recherches Juridique et Economique - UNC - Université de la Nouvelle Calédonie)
    Keywords: discrimination,rental market,tipping - point
    Date: 2019–10–25
  18. By: Young, Mischa; Allen, Jeff (University of Toronto); Farber, Steven
    Abstract: Policymakers in cities worldwide are trying to determine how ride-hailing services affect the ridership of traditional forms of public transportation. The level of convenience and comfort that these services provide is bound to take riders away from transit, but by operating in areas, or at times, when transit is less frequent, they may also be filling a gap left vacant by transit operations. These contradictory effects reveal why we should not merely categorize ride-hailing services as a substitute or complement to transit, and demonstrate the need to examine ride-hailing trips individually. Using data from the 2016 Transportation Tomorrow Survey in Toronto, we investigate the difference in travel-time between observed ride-hailing trips and their fastest transit alternative. Ordinary least square and ordered logistic regressions are used to uncover the characteristics that influence travel-time differences. We find that ride-hailing trips contained within the City of Toronto, pursued during peak hours, or for shopping purposes, are more likely to have transit alternatives of similar duration. We also find discrepancies in travel-time to be often caused by lengthy walk- and wait-times for transit or because of transfers. Our results further indicate that 30.61% of ride-hailing trips in our sample have transit alternatives of similar duration. These are particularly damaging for transit agencies as they compete directly with services that fall within reasonable transit expectations. We also find that 26.87% of ride-hailing trips would take at least 30 minutes longer by transit. In light of these findings, we discuss recommendations for ride-hailing taxation structures.
    Date: 2019–09–25
  19. By: Baum, Donald R. (Brigham Young University)
    Abstract: This paper provides a narrative review of the existing rigorous evaluations of private school vouchers in developing countries. The findings suggest that school vouchers can be an effective means of expanding access to education, particularly for underserved populations (e.g., poorer students, girls, and students in undersupplied rural and urban communities). However, there is insufficient empirical evidence to sustain the expectation that universal school voucher policies will substantially raise the performance of an education system by increasing school choice and competition; and, universal vouchers are likely to reinforce socioeconomic stratification. However, as a catalyst for increased school attendance, targeted school vouchers have been effective at improving the performance of students on the margins of participation in the education system; and these outcomes can be achieved at lower costs than in the traditional public school system.
    Date: 2018–09–01
  20. By: Bertoni, Marco (University of Padova); Nistico, Roberto (University of Naples Federico II)
    Abstract: We use data from two experiments that randomly assign students to groups to show that, so long as ordinal rank has a causal effect on educational achievement, estimates of the effects of peer ability composition obtained from models that omit rank are downward biased. This finding holds both in the standard linear-in-means model as well as in models that allow for non-linear and heterogeneous peer effects, and contributes to explain why previous studies have detected only modest effects of peer ability on achievement. We also illustrate how this finding helps understand the mechanisms behind the effects of ability tracking policies.
    Keywords: rank effects, peer effects, omitted variables bias, ability tracking
    JEL: I21 I24 J24
    Date: 2019–11
  21. By: Jason Fletcher; Jinho Kim; Jenna Nobles; Stephen Ross; Irina Shaorshadze
    Abstract: The multi-decade growth and spatial dispersion of immigrant families in the United States has shifted the composition of US schools, reshaping the group of peers with whom students age through adolescence. US-born students are more likely to have foreign-born peers and foreign-born students are more likely to be educated outside of enclaves. This study examines the short-term and long-term impact of being educated with immigrant peers, for both US-born and foreign-born students. We leverage a quasi-experimental research design that uses across-grade, within-school variation in cohort composition for students in the Add Health study. We describe effects on a broad set of education, social, and health outcomes. For US-born students, we find little evidence that having immigrant peers affects a wide array of outcomes, either in adolescence or in adulthood. For foreign-born students, attending school with other immigrant students is protective against risky health behaviors and social isolation, relative to native born students. However, foreign-born students’ language skills measured with Picture-Vocabulary Test scores are negatively affected by attending school with a larger share of other immigrant students. The negative effect on vocabulary scores persists through young adulthood but does not translate into reductions in most longer-run socioeconomic outcomes, including earnings or the economic status of their residential neighborhoods.
    JEL: I1 I12 I14 I24 J1 J15 J24
    Date: 2019–11
  22. By: Pierre Levasseur (UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - IRSTEA - Institut national de recherche en sciences et technologies pour l'environnement et l'agriculture - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier); Katrin Erdlenbruch (UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - IRSTEA - Institut national de recherche en sciences et technologies pour l'environnement et l'agriculture - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier, CEE-M - Centre d'Economie de l'Environnement - Montpellier - FRE2010 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier - UM - Université de Montpellier - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Christelle Gramaglia (UMR G-EAU - Gestion de l'Eau, Acteurs, Usages - CIRAD - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - AgroParisTech - IRSTEA - Institut national de recherche en sciences et technologies pour l'environnement et l'agriculture - Montpellier SupAgro - Institut national d’études supérieures agronomiques de Montpellier)
    Abstract: Poverty is a major determinant for pollution exposure, according to the US location choice literature. In this paper, we assess the impact of poverty on location choices in the European context. Our analysis is based on an original dataset of 1194 households living in polluted and non-polluted areas in three European countries: Spain, Portugal and France. We use instrumental variable strategies to identify the socioeconomic causes of location choices. We show that low education, wealth and income are main reasons for living in polluted areas. However, we also highlight several reasons why intermediate social groups (especially young couples) prefer living in polluted areas, such as greater housing surfaces or non-environmental amenities. Similarly, we show that middle-income households have lower move-out intentions than other income groups, next to households with strong community attachment or long lengths of residence in the area.
    Keywords: instrumental variables strategy.,soil pollution exposure,residential choice,socioeconomic status,environmental inequalities
    Date: 2019
  23. By: Yukiko Abe (Faculty of Economics and Business, Hokkaido University); Mizuki Kawabata (Faculty of Economics, Keio University); Yuki Shibatsuji (Graduate School of Economics, Keio University)
    Abstract: We examine spatial clustering patterns of children living in single-mother households in Japan, where the risk of poverty among these children is extremely high. Our analysis employs spatial panel data at the municipal level in 2000 and 2010. The Global and Local Moran's I statistics reveal significant spatial clustering of children in single-mother households. The spatial clusters of these children are located mostly in Hokkaido and western Japan. The spatial clustering patterns of children under the ages of 6 and 18 are similar, but the older children under age 18 are more spatially clustered. Moreover, from 2000 to 2010, the spatial clustering intensified for children under 18, whereas it weakened for children under 6. The regression results of spatial fixed-effects models indicate that from 2000 to 2010, the proportions of children in single-mother households increased in areas with low income growth, high out-migration rate, and slow growth in the availability of childcare centers. The results of this study can help identify the areas that need policy attention.
    Keywords: Children in single-mother households, Spatial clustering patterns, Spatial statistics, Spatial panel data models, Japan
    JEL: J13 C21 R23
    Date: 2019–11–18
  24. By: Eisenring, Tommy S.S.
    Abstract: This article aimed at introduce and offer a thought to the direction establishment of the theory of Urban Spatial Articulation developed and based on the theory of Articulation of Mode of Production—a theory in the realm of macro sociology that offers an assumption that social formations in "periphery" are controlled, at least, by the articulation of two modes of production, i.e capitalist mode of production and pre-capitalist mode of production in which one dominates the other. To understand this theory well, at the beginning of the discussion it is described some significant concepts, then a description of the result of two studies on urban spatial articulation in two urban commercial areas, each of which has the different physical character. The first was a study of urban spatial articulation that occur at a shopping street. While the second, is a study of urban spatial articulation formed in a wholesale market area, where both are located in Makassar City. Both used the theory of articulation of urban spatial as a theoretical foothold, which was collaborated with Lefebvre's theoretical concepts of production and reproduction of space that expected could support the establishment of the theory of Urban Spatial Articulation.
    Date: 2018–05–04
  25. By: Joshua Goodman; Michael Hurwitz; Christine Mulhern; Jonathan Smith
    Abstract: We study within-family spillovers in college enrollment to show college-going behavior is transmissible between peers. Because siblings’ test scores are weakly correlated, we exploit college-specific admissions thresholds that directly affect older but not younger siblings’ college options. Older siblings’ admissibility substantially increases their own four-year college enrollment rate and quality of college attended. Their improved college choices in turn raise younger siblings’ college enrollment rate and quality of college chosen, particularly for families with low predicted probabilities of college enrollment. Some younger siblings follow their older sibling to the same campus but many upgrade by choosing other colleges. The observed spillovers are not well-explained by price, income, proximity or legacy effects, but are most consistent with older siblings transmitting otherwise unavailable information about the college experience and its potential returns. The importance of such personally salient information may partly explain persistent differences in college-going rates by income, geography and other characteristics that define a community.
    JEL: D1 D62 I20 I23 I24 J24
    Date: 2019–11
  26. By: Iqbal, Muhammad Nelza Mulki (Indonesia Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: Social capital discourse has come to be the foremost and essential aspects in achieving sustainable development, participatory democracy and just cities. Indonesia is like most Asian countries where people spatially and socially co-live in a community that is related to a network of small clusters. However, the formal study related to social capital is hardly founded. Based on its characters, Gotong Royong which is a socio-cultural ethic of the togetherness philosophy in Indonesia can be perceived as an Indonesian social capital practice. Advancing social capital through participatory approaches will need a deep consideration about the role of professional and community engagement. Successful collaborations between wider actors in participatory approaches could lead to a fundamental transformation that can both preserve and nurture social capital values. High level of social capital within communities can potentially underpin the successful community participation towards communal goals.
    Date: 2017–12–07
  27. By: Christian Basteck; Bettina Klaus; Dorothea Kuebler
    Abstract: School authorities in the UK and the US advocate the use of lotteries to help desegregate schools. Inspired by the current school choice mechanism in Berlin, we study lottery quotas embedded in the deferred acceptance (DA) and immediate acceptance (IA) mechanisms. Some seats are allocated based on academic achievement (e.g.,grades) and some based on a lottery. We focus on the e ect of the lottery quota on truth-telling, stability, the utility of students, and the student composition at schools, using theory and experiments. We find that in theory a lottery quota strengthens truth-telling in DA by eliminating non-truth-telling equilibria. The equilibrium outcome of DA with a lottery is stable while this is not the case for IA with a lottery. Both predictions are borne out in the experiment. Moreover,the lottery quota leads to more diverse school populations in the experiment, as predicted. Comparing the two mechanisms, students with the lowest grades profit more from the introduction of the lottery under IA than under DA.
    Keywords: School choice, immediate acceptance mechanism, deferred acceptance mechanism, lotteries, experiment, market design
    JEL: C78 C91 D82 I24
    Date: 2019–11
  28. By: Mathieu Sanch-Maritan (CREAM - Centre de Recherche en Economie Appliquée à la Mondialisation - UNIROUEN - Université de Rouen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - IRIHS - Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire Homme et Société - UNIROUEN - Université de Rouen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université); Lionel Védrine (CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AgroSup Dijon - Institut National Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, de l'Alimentation et de l'Environnement)
    Abstract: This article explore how the relation between economic shocks and local unemployment can be mitigated by labor market size. We exploit a quasi-natural experiment by studying the economic impact of 357 local shocks both negative and positive generated by the reform and the restructuring of the French army. Exploiting a geo-referenced dataset of unemployment spell over an extensive period of time (2005-2014), we are able to measure the impact of these local shock on the rate at which unemployed workers find a job. To construct a credible counterfactual for each zone which experienced a closure, we use an interactive fixed effects model. We show that contractions in military personnel reduce the local likelihood of finding a job. Moreover, our results reveal some heterogeneity in the local economy's resilience. In line with our theoretical model, we show that city size is a relevant explanation for the observed heterogeneity in resilience: the likelihood of finding a job is less affected in denser area by a relative equal-sized shift in labor demand.
    Keywords: Labor market shocks,Resilience,Common factor panel,Heterogeneous effects,Urban-Rural gradient 1
    Date: 2019–10–25
  29. By: Aksoy, Cevat Giray (European Bank for Reconstruction and Development); Poutvaara, Panu (University of Munich)
    Abstract: We analyze self-selection of refugees and irregular migrants and test our theory in the context of the European refugee crisis. Using unique datasets from the International Organization for Migration and Gallup World Polls, we provide the first large-scale evidence on reasons to emigrate, and the self-selection and sorting of refugees and irregular migrants. Refugees and female irregular migrants are positively self-selected with respect to human capital, while male irregular migrants are negatively self-selected. These patterns are similar when analyzing individually stated main reason to emigrate, country-level conflict intensity, and sub-regional conflict intensity. Migrants respond to economic incentives and border policies.
    Keywords: international migration, refugees, irregular migrants, self-selection, human capital, gender differences in migration
    JEL: F22 J15 J16 J24 O15
    Date: 2019–11
  30. By: Philip Garboden (University of Hawai‘i at Manoa, UHERO); Inessa Love (University of Hawai‘i at Manoa, Department of Economics, UHERO); Thuy Doan (University of Hawai‘i at Manoa,)
    Abstract: The goal of this report is to summarize how neighborhood housing price appreciation can impact quality of life beyond individual level impacts (see Love and Garboden 2019). We first discuss how housing market indicators, particularly appreciation, can be measured and summarize different patterns across Hawaii. In answer to our our main question, we find few statistically significant associations between these measures and well-being. Data limitations, however, restrict our ability to assert a null effect. We conclude with next steps for research.
    Keywords: Housing
    Date: 2019–09
  31. By: Ricardo Dahis; Emily Nix; Nancy Qian
    Abstract: This paper documents that many black males experienced a change in racial classification to white in the United States, 1880 – 1940, while changes in racial classification were negligible for other races. We provide a rich set of descriptive evidence on the lives of black men “passing” for white, such as their patterns of marriage, children, the passing of spouses and children, migration and income.
    JEL: J1 J15 N3
    Date: 2019–11
  32. By: Shreevastava, Anamika; Bhalachandran, Saiprasanth; McGrath, Gavan (Department of Biodiversity Conservation and Attractions); Huber, Matthew; Rao, P. Suresh C.
    Abstract: Cities are at the forefront of climate change impacts and face a growing burden of adaptation to ensuing natural hazards. Extreme heat is a particularly challenging hazard as persistent heatwaves are locally exacerbated by the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. As a result, there is an increasing scientific interest in the influence of diverse urban morphologies on UHI. However, as the temperatures within cities are highly spatially heterogeneous, bulk quantification metrics such as UHI Intensity may hamper understanding. Here, we use remotely sensed Land Surface Temperature (LST) data for 78 diverse cities to develop a novel multi-scale framework of quantifying spatial heterogeneity in the Surface UHI. We identify heat clusters emerging within the SUHI using percentile-based thermal thresholds and refer to them collectively as \textit{intra-Urban Heat Islets}. We first develop a Lacunarity based metric ($\Lambda_{score}$) to quantify the spatial organization of heat islets at various degrees of sprawl and densification. Using probabilistic models, we condense the size, spacing, and intensity information about heterogeneous clusters into distributions that can be described using single scaling exponents. This allows for a seamless comparison of the heat islet characteristics across cities at varying spatial scales. From the size distribution analysis, we observe the emergence of two distinct classes wherein the dense cities (positive $\Lambda_{score}$) follow a Pareto size distribution, whereas the sprawling cities (negative $\Lambda_{score}$) show an exponential tempering of Pareto tail. This indicates a significantly reduced probability of encountering large heat islets for sprawling cities. Contrastingly, however, Heat Islet Intensity modeled as exponential distributions reveal that a sprawling configuration is favorable for reducing the mean temperature of a city. However, for the same mean SUHI intensity, it also results in higher local thermal extremes. This poses a paradox for urban designers in adopting expansion versus densification as a growth trajectory to mitigate the UHI.
    Date: 2019–09–09
  33. By: Nicolas Ajzenman; Ruben Durante
    Abstract: Can seemingly unimportant factors influence voting decisions by making certain issuessalient? We study this question in the context of Argentina 2015 presidential electionsby examining how the quality of the infrastructure of the school where citizens wereassigned to vote influenced their voting choice. Exploiting the quasi-random assignmentof voters to ballot stations located in different public schools in the city of BuenosAires, we find that individuals assigned to schools with poorer infrastructure weresignificantly less likely to vote for Mauricio Macri, the incumbent mayor then runningfor president. The effect is larger in low-income areas - where fewer people can affordprivate substitutes to public education - and in places where more households have children in school age. The effect is unlikely to be driven by information scarcity,since information on public school infrastructure was readily available to parents beforeelections. Rather, direct exposure to poor school infrastructure at the time of votingis likely to make public education - and the poor performance of the incumbent - moresalient.
    Keywords: Elections, Salience, Electoral Punishment, Public Infrastructure, Education
    JEL: D72 D83 I25 D90
    Date: 2019–09
  34. By: María Lombardi
    Abstract: I study the impact of remedial training for low-performing teachers in Chile. Taking advantage of the fact that assignment to remediation is mainly based on teacher evaluation scores, I use a fuzzy regression discontinuity design and find that teachers barely assigned to remediation improve their pedagogical practices as measured by their next evaluation scores. While there is suggestive evidence that these teachers’ students obtain higher standardized test scores after the training is complete, this result is not robust, and the suggestive positive impact disappears after one year. I also find that during the year of their teacher’s reevaluation, the students of teachers assigned to remedial training obtain significantly lower test scores. Teachers assigned to remediation report lower prestige and job satisfaction, suggesting that the stigma of being labeled as a low performer leads teachers to put more effort into preparing their teaching evaluations, causing a temporary drop in student learning.
    Keywords: education, teachers, training, Chile
    JEL: I21 J24 M53
    Date: 2019–09
  35. By: Alessandro Tampieri
    Abstract: We analyse university admission through a statistical discrimination model where students differ in ability and social groups. Universities aim to enrol the students with the best human capital, which is given by their innate ability and of the learning carried outwhile at school. Students and school choose their learning and teaching effort based onthe behaviour of universities. Interestingly, we find that students from less advantaged groups need a lower grade to be admitted to the best universities, while less competitive universities do the opposite. If a university cannot discriminate according to social groups, all students with same grade will attend universities of the same quality, with different levels of human capital according to their social group.
    Keywords: discrimination, affermative action, studying effort, teaching effort.
    JEL: I21 I23 J71
    Date: 2019
  36. By: Jenn, Alan
    Abstract: Driving is associated with a series of costs to society, or externalities. These include road damages, traffic congestion, and vehicle emissions (of both local pollutants and greenhouse gases). A fuel tax has been used in the United States to account for some of these costs, particularly road damage. However, other methods of pricing may be more effective and able to cover a variety of externalities. While several successful programs have been implemented in other countries, very few have been attempted in the United States. To inform the optimal design of programs to price road use/damage, emissions, and congestion, researchers at UC Davis reviewed published studies, examined existing programs, and investigated potential design choices for such programs. This policy brief summarizes the findings of that study. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Law, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vehicle pricing, congestion charges, mileage fees
    Date: 2019–12–01
  37. By: Ndubuisi, Gideon
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the literature on the innovation effect of social trust by analyzing the mechanisms linking social trust and R&D Investments. High social trust level can ease firms’ credit constraints by reducing moral hazards and information asymmetries problems which make raising external capital difficult and expensive for firms. It can also reduce relational risks that expose firms to ex-post holdup or outright intellectual property expropriation. Using data from 20 OECD countries, I test these mechanisms by evaluating whether more external finance dependent and relational risks vulnerable sectors exhibit disproportional higher R&D investments in countries with high social trust level. The empirical results confirm that high social trust level encourages investments in R&D. Importantly, the results indicate that sectors which depend more on external finance and those sectors that are more vulnerable to relational risks experience a relatively greater increase in R&D investments in countries with high social trust. The results underline access to external credit and reduction in relational risks as causal pathways linking social trust and R&D investment.
    Keywords: Social Trust, Innovation; R&D Investments; Relational Risks; Credit Constraints
    JEL: A13 O17 O31 O43
    Date: 2019–11
  38. By: Jacob Rubak Holm (Aalborg University); Bram Timmermans (Norwegian School of Economics and Aalborg University); Christian Richter Ostergaard (Aalborg University); Alexander Coad (Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú); Nicola Grassano (European Commission - JRC); Antonio Vezzani (Roma Tre University)
    Abstract: Private sector R&D is largely concentrated in a few multinational companies (MNCs), which thus play an important role in the creation of knowledge and technology in the economy. The mobility of labor between these firms and the rest of the economy is therefore an important mechanism for the diffusion of knowledge. This paper analyses in great detail the flow of labor between firms with specific emphasis on flows to and from R&D intensive MNCs. Using linked employer-employee data for Denmark, we match employees moving from R&D intensive MNCs to other employees switching jobs. We find that employees are more inclined to move between R&D intensive MNCs and their subsidiaries rather than between these firms and other firms in the economy. This is particularly true for high skill employees. Our results suggest that other domestic firms are to a larger extent kept out of the ‘knowledge spillover’ loop, which provide them with fewer opportunities to learn from the R&D intensive MNCs. In other words, R&D intensive MNCs and their subsidiaries form a kind of sub labor market within the national labor market; employees exhibit higher mobility within this group of firms than between this group and the rest of the labor market.
    Keywords: Labor mobility, Multinational companies, Knowledge flows, R&D
    JEL: J21 F23 O32
    Date: 2019–11
  39. By: Kashnitsky, Ilya (Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute); Aburto, Jose Manuel
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Visualizing multiple relevant dimensions while preserving spatial structure and readability is challenging. Here we demonstrate the use of geofaceting to meet this challenge. OBJECTIVE: Using data on young adult mortality in the 32 Mexican states from 1990 to 2015, we demonstrate how aligning small multiples for territorial units, often regions, according to their approximate geographical location--geofaceting--can be used to depict complex multi-dimensional phenomena. RESULTS: Geofaceting reveals the macro-level spatial pattern while preserving the flexibility of visualization technique choice for the small-multiples. Creating geofaceted visualizations gives all the advantages of standard plots in which one can adequately display multiple dimensions of a dataset. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to other ways of small-multiples arrangement, geofaceting improves the speed of regions’ identification and exposes the broad spatial pattern.
    Date: 2019–08–07
  40. By: Hjalmarsson, Erik (University of Gothenburg); Österholm, Pär (Örebro University School of Business)
    Abstract: Expectations about future housing prices are arguably an important determinant of actual housing prices, and an important input in decisions on whether and how to transact in the housing market. Using novel micro-level survey data on Swedish households, we analyse households’ expectations of housing prices and how these expectations relate to the character-istics of the respondents. Results show that age is found to be significantly related to housing-price expectations, with the youngest households – whose adulthood largely corresponds to the extended period of rapid housing-price growth in Sweden – having the highest housing-price expectations, thus lending support to the hypothesis that expectations are influenced by personal experiences. Our findings suggest that aggregate measures of expectations might hide important features of the data, which could be of interest to policy makers when choosing regulatory actions or formulating macroprudential policies.
    Keywords: Housing prices; Survey data
    JEL: R20
    Date: 2019–12–06
  41. By: Todd Gardner
    Abstract: The geographic coding used in the 1960 decennial census was unique to that year. State, county, place and subcounty geographic units of residence require only a simple conversion, but the place of work and migration geography is more complicated. The 1960 made use of Universal Area Codes, which combined counties with selected places and Minor Civil Divisions into a single coding system. This technical note describes how to interpret the place of work and migration variables and convert the information into more readily comparable geographic codes.
    Date: 2019–11
  42. By: Samuele Giambra (Brown University); David McKenzie (World Bank)
    Abstract: There is a widespread policy view that a lack of job opportunities at home is a key reason for migration, accompanied by suggestions of the need to spend more on creating these opportunities so as to reduce migration. Self-employment is widespread in poor countries, and faced with a lack of existing jobs, providing more opportunities for people to start businesses is a key policy option. But empirical evidence to support this idea is slight, and economic theory offers several reasons why the self-employed may in fact be more likely to migrate. We put together panel surveys from eight countries to descriptively examine the relationship between migration and self-employment, finding that the self-employed are indeed less likely to migrate than either wage workers or the unemployed. We then analyze seven randomized experiments that increased self-employment, and find their causal impacts on migration are negative on average, but often small in magnitude.
    Keywords: internal migration; international migration, self-employment, migrant selection,randomized experiment
    JEL: F22 J61 O15
    Date: 2019–10
  43. By: M. Keith Chen; Kareem Haggag; Devin G. Pope; Ryne Rohla
    Abstract: Equal access to voting is a core feature of democratic government. Using data from millions of smartphone users, we quantify a racial disparity in voting wait times across a nationwide sample of polling places during the 2016 U.S. presidential election. Relative to entirely-white neighborhoods, residents of entirely-black neighborhoods waited 29% longer to vote and were 74% more likely to spend more than 30 minutes at their polling place. This disparity holds when comparing predominantly white and black polling places within the same states and counties, and survives numerous robustness and placebo tests. We shed light on the mechanism for these results and discuss how geospatial data can be an effective tool to both measure and monitor these disparities going forward.
    JEL: D72
    Date: 2019–11
  44. By: D. Mark Anderson; Kerwin Kofi Charles; Daniel I. Rees; Tianyi Wang
    Abstract: According to Troesken (2004), efforts to purify municipal water supplies at the turn of the 20th century dramatically improved the relative health of blacks. There is, however, little empirical evidence to support the Troesken hypothesis. Using city-level data published by the U.S. Bureau of the Census for the period 1906-1938, we explore the relationship between water purification efforts and the black-white infant mortality gap. Our results suggest that, while water filtration was effective across the board, adding chlorine to the water supply reduced mortality only among black infants. Specifically, chlorination is associated with an 11 percent reduction in black infant mortality and a 13 percent reduction in the black-white infant mortality gap. We also find that chlorination led to a substantial reduction in the black-white diarrhea mortality gap among children under the age of 2, although this estimate is measured with less precision.
    JEL: I18 J11 J15 N3
    Date: 2019–11
  45. By: Camille Régnier
    Date: 2019
  46. By: Stefanie Gäbler; Niklas Potrafke; Felix Rösel
    Abstract: We examine whether compulsory voting influences political participation as measured by voter turnout, invalid voting, political interest, confidence in parliament, and party membership. In Austria, some states temporarily introduced compulsory voting in national elections. We investigate border municipalities across two states which differ in compulsory voting legislation using a difference-in-differences approach. The results show that compulsory voting increased voter turnout by 3.5 percentage points but we do not find long-run effects. Once compulsory voting was abolished, voter turnout returned to pre-compulsory voting levels. Microdata evidence suggests that compulsory voting tends to crowd out intrinsic motivation for political participation which may explain why compulsory voting is not found to be habit-forming.
    Keywords: Compulsory voting, election, voter turnout, Austria
    Date: 2019
  47. By: Simon Amez; Stijn Baert (-)
    Abstract: We present the first systematic review of the scientific literature on smartphone use and academic success. We synthesise the theoretical mechanisms, empirical approaches, and empirical findings described in the multidisciplinary literature to date. Our analysis of the literature reveals a predominance of empirical results supporting a negative association between students’ frequency of smartphone use and their academic success. However, the strength of this association is heterogeneous by (a) the method of data gathering, (b) the measures of academic performance used in the analysis, and (c) the measures of smartphone use adopted. The main limitation identified in the literature is that the reported associations cannot be given a causal interpretation. Based on the reviewed findings and limitations, directions for further research are discussed.
    Keywords: Smartphone use, smartphone addiction, academic performance, literature review, causality
    Date: 2019–11
  48. By: Christopher R. Knittel; Shinsuke Tanaka
    Abstract: We use novel microdata on on-road fuel consumption and prices paid for fuel in Japan to estimate short-run price elasticities of demand for gasoline consumption. We have three main findings. First, our elasticity estimates of roughly -0.37 are in orders of magnitude larger than previously estimated using more aggregate data. Second, we are one of the first papers to separately estimate both the price elasticities of miles driven (-0.30) and on-road fuel economy (0.07). Lastly, we find that on-road fuel economy is determined by recent prices than distant past prices paid, suggesting limited habit formation of fuel-conserving driving behaviors.
    JEL: D12 L71 Q31 Q41 R48
    Date: 2019–11
  49. By: Leiwakabessy, Erly; Effendy, Jani; Rijoly, Jacobus Cliff Diky (Pattimura University)
    Abstract: The aim of this research is; 1) To test and analyze the influence of local government spending towards economic transformation has occurred, the transformation of labor, per capita income and population migration, 2) To test and analyze the influence of local government investment to economic transformation, the transformation of labor, per capita income and immigration, 3) To test and analyze the effects of regional economic transformation on the transformation of employment, investment and immigration, 4) To test and analyze the effect of the transformation of labor against immigration per capita income and population, 5) To test and analyze the influence of income per capita of the population migration. This research was conducted in the province of Maluku, by taking data on the eight districts of the city for five years. The data were analyzed panel data, and testing was conducted using structural equation modeling. The results of structural equation analysis shows that government spending affect the transformation of the economy, per capita income and immigration, but no direct impact on the transformation of the workforce. Investment effect on economic transformation, the transformation of labor, per capita income and population immigration. Economic transformation effect on the transformation of labor, per capita income and population immigration. Labor transformation effect on per capita income, but does not affect the immigration population. Per capita income affect the immigration population in the province of Maluku.
    Date: 2017–11–21
  50. By: Raco, Jozef; Raton, Yulius; Taroreh, Frankie; Muaja, Octavianus
    Abstract: The advancement of technology and Smartphone applications offers a lot of opportunities and challenges for companies to increase their market share. Through this technology and its application, companies such as transportation industries can make a lot of money and bring their products and services closer, faster and more easily to customers. In addition the customers can gain access to companies’ services and products on time. On the other hand the advancement of Smartphone technology disrupts the common transportation business practices. Communication and negotiation are becoming more virtual. This technology brings about huge benefits to both customers and companies. However the same technology causes a huge problem especially to other transportation companies as they might lose market if they do not use it. This technology helps many transportation industries to make business innovations such as offering lower prices, faster services and deliveries. This research focuses on transportation companies, specifically motorcycle taxis with online booking, which use a Smartphone application. In Manado Indonesia there are three popular motorcycle taxi online companies that use a Smartphone online application, which are Gojek, Grab and Uber. A lot of people use an online motorcycle taxi rather than public transportation because of its convenience, affordable price, safety and speed compared to local public transport. This study aims to find out the determinant factors that influence people to use motorcycle taxi online services. This research is going to reveal the favorite motorcycle taxi online company and its criteria based on respondents’ perspectives. This paper will use the Analytical Hierarchy Process both for data gathering and data analysis. The research findings will contribute to the local government in formulating laws and policies specifically on motorcycle taxi online service.
    Date: 2018–06–22
  51. By: The 11th International Workshop And Conference Of Asean Studies In Linguistics, Islamic And Arabic Education, Social Sciences And Educational Technology 2018; Daulay, Raihanah; Rany, Muhriza Al
    Abstract: This paper has been presenting at The 11th International Workshop And Conference Of Asean Studies In Linguistics,Islamic And Arabic Education, Social Sciences And Educational Technology 2018 in Kisaran, North Sumatera, Indonesian on 7 May 2018
    Date: 2018–05–26
  52. By: Jesse Wursten
    Abstract: The effect of minimum wages on employment in the US is highly disputed. We show that the differences in the literature can be explained by heterogeneous shifts in political ideology across states. We add a control for political ideology to US county-level panel studies based on 1990-2013 employment and earnings data from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW). The results suggest minimum wages increase earnings in affected sectors without reducing employment. Unlike existing estimates, these new results remain consistent across specifications, even when we instrument the political ideology variable using evolving cultural values or campaign contributions. The methodology used can be extended to analyses of other state level policies.
    Keywords: minimum wage, labour policy, political ideology, employment, labour markets
    Date: 2019–05–14
  53. By: Yannick l'Horty (ERUDITE - Equipe de Recherche sur l’Utilisation des Données Individuelles en lien avec la Théorie Economique - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12, TEPP - Travail, Emploi et Politiques Publiques - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Mathieu Bunel (LARJE - Laboratoire de Recherches Juridique et Economique - UNC - Université de la Nouvelle Calédonie, TEPP - Travail, Emploi et Politiques Publiques - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Pascale Petit (ERUDITE - Equipe de Recherche sur l’Utilisation des Données Individuelles en lien avec la Théorie Economique - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12, TEPP - Travail, Emploi et Politiques Publiques - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Keywords: Distance from place of employment,testing,redlining
    Date: 2019–10–25
  54. By: OECD
    Abstract: Novice teachers bring new energy and ideas to schools and classrooms that could improve the learning environment of students, if harnessed correctly. At the same time, novice teachers are, by definition, inexperienced in some aspects concerning classroom practices and schoolwork. As is the case for any other profession, novice teachers need time, support and guidance to improve their skills and adapt to the tasks they are confronted with on a regular basis. Thus, providing novice teachers with adequate support in their initial years is a key challenge of developing teaching as a profession.
    Date: 2019–12–13
  55. By: Hanh, Vu Thi; Ho, Toan Manh (Thanh Tay University Hanoi)
    Abstract: History is written in textbooks but is indubitably remembered through cultural artifacts and architecture. This is particularly the case when one thinks of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam, where its thousands of years of ancient history can be found in the old citadels, and more than half a century of French colonialism can be glimpsed in the Old Quarter houses. Many of these structures have survived the brutality of wars and now feed into the nostalgia of French aesthetic. Yet, in what way can we come to gain greater insight into a cultural space where there is an interconnection between religion, house designs, and forms of feeling? One can find an answer to this question in a newly-published scientific research article titled “Cultural evolution in Vietnam's early 20th century: A Bayesian networks analysis of Hanoi Franco-Chinese house designs” in the Social Sciences and Humanities Open journal of Elsevier.
    Date: 2019–09–10
  56. By: Gidehag, Anton (Institute of Retail Economics (Handelns Forskningsinstitut))
    Abstract: Immigrants have long faced great challenges in European labor markets, and policymakers in many countries are struggling to improve immigrants’ labor market integration. This paper evaluates whether a Swedish youth payroll tax cut had the unintended effect of promoting employment of nonwestern immigrants. The reform generated firm-level labor cost savings, which were proportional to the number of young employees at the time of the reform implementation. Utilizing matched employer-employee data, this study investigates the effect of these labor cost savings on the recruitment of nonwestern immigrants. The findings suggest a strong and positive link between firms’ labor cost savings and their subsequent hiring of first-generation nonwestern immigrants, which is largely driven by increased employment of older immigrants who were not targeted by the reform. Within the analyzed sample of firms, 1,100 jobs were created for this group, which corresponds to a net job creation that is more than proportionate to the group’s population share. The youth payroll tax reform thus had employment-promoting effects outside its target group, illustrating that general labor cost reductions can lower barriers against immigrant employment and enhance the labor market opportunities for non-western immigrants.
    Keywords: labor market integration; labor costs; payroll tax cut; non-western immigrants; employment
    JEL: H32 J23 J30 J61 L25
    Date: 2019–12–09
  57. By: Obi, Chinedu; Bartolini, Fabio; D'Haese, Marijke
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries
    Date: 2019–09
  58. By: Chu, Angus C.; Furukawa, Yuichi; Kou, Zonglai; Liu, Xueyue
    Abstract: This study explores the heterogeneous effects of minimum wage on innovation of different types of firms. Using firm-level data in China, we find that a higher minimum wage is associated with more innovation by importing firms but less innovation by non-importing firms. To interpret these empirical findings, we develop an open-economy R&D-based growth model and find that a higher minimum wage reduces innovation of firms that use domestic inputs but increases innovation of firms that import foreign inputs. Intuitively, when a higher minimum wage reduces employment, importing firms respond by importing more inputs, which have technology spillovers and enhance their innovation.
    Keywords: innovation; minimum wage; imports; knowledge spillovers
    JEL: E24 F43 O31
    Date: 2019–11
  59. By: Ernest MIGUELEZ; Julio RAFFO; Christian CHACUA; Massimiliano CODA-ZABETTA; Deyun YIN; Francesco LISSONI, Gianluca TARASCONI
    Abstract: In this paper we exploit a unique and rich dataset of patent applications and scientific publications in order to answer several questions concerned with two current phenomena on the way knowledge is produced and shared worldwide: its geographical spread at the international level and its spatial concentration in few worldwide geographical hotspots. We find that the production of patents and scientific publications has spread geographically to several countries, and has not kept within the traditional knowledge producing economies (Western Europe, Japan and the U.S.). We observe that part of this partial geographical spread of knowledge activities is due to the setting up of Global Innovation Networks, first toward more traditional innovative countries, and then towards emerging economies too. Yet, despite the increasing worldwide spread of knowledge production, we do not see the same spreading process within countries, and even we see some increased concentration in some of them. This may have, of course, important distributional consequences within countries. Moreover, these selected areas also concentrate a large and increasing connectivity, within their own country to other hotspots, and across countries through Global Innovation Networks.
    Keywords: patents, scientific publications, geocoding, global innovation networks, clusters, geography of innovation
    JEL: O30 F20 F60
    Date: 2019
  60. By: Yasenov, Vasil; Peri, Giovanni; Lee, Jongkwan
    Abstract: We examine the labor market consequences of an extensive campaign repatriating around 400,000 Mexicans in 1929-34. To identify a causal effect, we instrument county level repatriations with the existence of a railway line to Mexico interacted with the size of the Mexican communities in 1910. Using individual linked data we find that Mexican repatriations reduced employment of native incumbent workers and resulted in their occupational downgrading. However, using a repeated cross section of county level data, we find attenuated and non-significant employment effects and amplified wage downgrading. We show that this is due to selective in- and out-migration of natives.
    Date: 2019–10–16
  61. By: Ognjen Obucina; Ilari Ilmakunnas
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze the patterns of poverty and housing overcrowding among immigrant children in Finland, with a particular focus on the standard of living in the first years of settlement. We also seek to explore whether and to what degree foreign-born children are disadvantaged relative to native children in terms of income poverty and housing conditions. We use data from a compilation of Finnish registers. The registers are of longitudinal nature and contain yearly information on all individuals who resided in Finland at any point between 1995 and 2014. We distinguish between four different types of poverty trajectories in the first five years after arrival in Finland: 1) no experience of poverty, 2) not poor in at least three out of five years, 3) poor in at least three out of five years, and 4) poor in all five years. An analogous classification is applied when looking at housing overcrowding. The relative disadvantage of immigrant children relative to native children is more pronounced in terms of income poverty than in terms of housing. The most frequent outcome in terms of income poverty in the first years of settlement is no experience of poverty, followed by persistent poverty, i.e. poverty in all five years after arrival. The same patterns are found for overcrowding. The multivariate analysis, based on the ordered logistic regression, shows a substantial heterogeneity across immigrant groups defined by country of birth
    Date: 2019
  62. By: The 11th International Workshop And Conference Of Asean Studies In Linguistics, Islamic And Arabic Education, Social Sciences And Educational Technology 2018; Purnama, Nadia Ika; Arta, Raja Tia Parama
    Abstract: This paper has been presenting at The 11th International Workshop And Conference Of Asean Studies In Linguistics,Islamic And Arabic Education, Social Sciences And Educational Technology 2018 in Kisaran, North Sumatera, Indonesian on 7 May 2018
    Date: 2018–05–26
  63. By: The 11th International Workshop And Conference Of Asean Studies In Linguistics, Islamic And Arabic Education, Social Sciences And Educational Technology 2018; Astuti, Rini; Abdullah, Ikhsan
    Abstract: This paper has been presenting at The 11th International Workshop And Conference Of Asean Studies In Linguistics,Islamic And Arabic Education, Social Sciences And Educational Technology 2018 in Kisaran, North Sumatera, Indonesian on 7 May 2018
    Date: 2018–05–26
  64. By: Ege Aksu (The Graduate Center, CUNY); Refik Erzan (Department of Economics Bogazici University); Murat Güray Kırdar (Department of Economics Bogazici University)
    Abstract: We estimate the effects of the arrival of 2.5 million Syrian migrants in Turkey by the end of 2015 on the labor market outcomes of natives, using a difference-in-differences IV methodology. We show that relaxing the common-trend assumption of this methodology—unlike recent papers in the same setting—makes a substantial difference in several key outcomes. Despite the massive size of the migrant influx, no adverse effects on the average wages of men or women or on total employment of men are observed. For women, however, total employment falls—which results mainly from the elimination of part-time jobs. While the migrant influx has adverse effects on competing native workers in the informal sector, it has favorable effects on complementary workers in the formal sector. We estimate about one-to-one replacement in employment for native men in the informal sector, whereas both wage employment and wages of men in the formal sector increase. Increases in prices in the product market and in capital flow to the treatm nt regions contribute to the rise in labor demand in the formal sector.
    Keywords: Labor Force and Employment, Wages, Immigrant Workers, Formal and Informal Sectors, Syrian Refugees, Turkey, Difference-in-differences, Instrumental Variables
    JEL: J21 J31 J61 C26
    Date: 2019–10
  65. By: Del Fava, Emanuele (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research); Wiśniowsk, Arkadiusz; Zagheni, Emilio
    Abstract: Migration has become a significant source of population change at the global level, with broad societal implications. Although understanding the drivers of migration is critical to enacting effective policies, theoretical advances in the study of migration processes have been limited by the lack of data on flows of migrants, or by the fragmented nature of these flows. In this paper, we build on existing Bayesian modeling strategies to develop a statistical framework for integrating different types of data on migration flows. We offer estimates, as well as associated measures of uncertainty, for immigration, emigration, and net migration flows among 31 European countries, by combining administrative and household survey data from 2002 to 2015. Substantively, we document the historical impact of the EU enlargement and the free movement of workers in Europe on migration flows. Methodologically, our approach improves on the Integrated Modeling of European Migration (IMEM) framework by providing a robust statistical framework for evaluating recent migration trends that is flexible enough to be further extended to incorporate new data sources, like social media.
    Date: 2019–11–13
  66. By: Mwema, Catherine; Crewett, Wibke; Lagat, Job; Bokelmann, Wolfgang
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Marketing
    Date: 2019–09
  67. By: Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina (University of California, Merced); Arenas-Arroyo, Esther (Vienna University of Economics and Business)
    Abstract: Domestic violence is a serious under-reported crime in the United States, especially among immigrant women. While the Violence against Women Act (VAWA) allows battered immigrants to petition for legal status without relying on abusive U.S. citizen or legal permanent resident spouses, we find that intensified interior immigration enforcement has curbed the VAWA self-petition rate. In contrast, sanctuary policies limiting the cooperation of police with immigration authorities have helped counteract that impact. The results, which prove robust to alternative measures of the policies, support the hypothesized changes in victims' reporting in response to the policies. Understanding survivors' responses to immigration policy is crucial given growing police mistrust and vulnerability to crime among immigrants.
    Keywords: immigration enforcement, trust acts, domestic violence, United States
    JEL: J12 J16 J15 K37
    Date: 2019–10
  68. By: Mary Everett; Jakob de Haan; David-Jan Jansen; Peter McQuade; Anna Samarina
    Abstract: This paper examines whether the increased use of macroprudential policies since the global financial crisis has affected the impact of (euro area and foreign) monetary policy on mortgage lending in Ireland and the Netherlands, which are both small open economies in the euro area. Using bank-level data on domestic lending in both countries during the period 2003-2018, we find that restrictive euro area monetary policy shocks reduce the growth of mortgage lending. We find evidence that stricter domestic prudential regulation mitigates this effect in Ireland, but not so in the Netherlands. There is weak evidence for an international bank lending channel.
    Keywords: monetary policy; prudential policy; mortgage lending; European monetary union
    JEL: G21 E42 F36
    Date: 2019–11
  69. By: The 11th International Workshop And Conference Of Asean Studies In Linguistics, Islamic And Arabic Education, Social Sciences And Educational Technology 2018; , murviana; , Marliyah; Ardiana, Asma
    Abstract: This paper has been presenting at The 11th International Workshop And Conference Of Asean Studies In Linguistics,Islamic And Arabic Education, Social Sciences And Educational Technology 2018 in Kisaran, North Sumatera, Indonesian on 7 May 2018
    Date: 2018–06–09
  70. By: Wintjes, Rene (UNU-MERIT, and SBE, Maastricht University); Es-Sadki, Nordine (UNU-MERIT, and SBE, Maastricht University); Notten, Ad (UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: Social innovation can be seen as new combinations of social, economic and political capital (resources and capabilities)1. In social innovation initiatives actors with different capabilities cooperate and function as systems of innovation. The various actors (from the social, economic and/or political domain) contribute and benefit in different tangible and intangible ways. As producers and users of solutions for societal problems they co-create value for society. The paper aims for insights in the economic outcomes of social innovation. We argue that social innovation can be seen as an investment, rather than a cost. For 55 social innovation initiatives across Europe we identify economic outcomes for the various actors, and the sustainability of the initiative. Since social innovation is context-dependent, and because the regional situation concerning social innovation differs across the EU, we also systemise the regional context in which the social innovation initiatives have emerged. The results support the idea that social innovation generates economic as well as complementary social benefits. Four types of regional systems of social innovation can be identified. It helps explain why regions as different contexts induce different social innovation initiatives and economic outcomes.
    Keywords: social innovation, indicators, outcome, regions, measurement, innovation systems
    JEL: O31 I31
    Date: 2019–12–11
  71. By: Timo Gschwind (Johannes Gutenberg-University); Nicola Bianchessi (Johannes Gutenber-University); Stefan Irnich (Johannes Gutenberg-University)
    Abstract: In the commodity-constrained split delivery vehicle routing problem (C-SDVRP), customer demands are composed of sets of different commodities. The C-SDVRP asks for a minimum-distance set of vehicle routes such that all customer demands are met and vehicle capacities are respected. Moreover, whenever a commodity is delivered by a vehicle to a customer, the entire amount requested by this customer must be provided. Different commodities demanded by one customer, however, can be delivered by different vehicles. Thus, the C-SDVRP is a relaxation of the capacitated vehicle routing problem and a restriction of the split delivery vehicle routing problem. For its exact solution, we propose a branch-price-and-cut algorithm that employs and tailors stabilization techniques that have been successfully applied to several cutting and packing problems. More precisely, we make use of (deep) dual-optimal inequalities which are particularly suited to reduce the negative effects caused by the inherent symmetry of C-SDVRP instances. One main issues here is the interaction of branching and cutting decisions and the different classes of dual inequalities. Extensive computational tests on existing and extended benchmark instances show that all stabilized variants of our branch-price-and-cut are clearly superior to the non-stabilized version. On the existing benchmark, we are signifcantly faster than the state-of-the-art algorithm and provide several new optima for instances with up to 60 customers and 180 tasks. Lower bounds are reported for all tested instances with up to 80 customers and 480 tasks, improving the bounds for all unsolved instances and providing first lower bounds for several instances.
    Keywords: routing, vehicle routing, dual-optimal inequalities, column generation, discrete split delivery
    Date: 2018–10–05
  72. By: Shreevastava, Anamika; Rao, P. Suresh C.; McGrath, Gavan (Department of Biodiversity Conservation and Attractions)
    Abstract: Urban areas experience elevated temperatures due to the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. However, temperatures within cities vary considerably and their spatial heterogeneity is not well characterized. Here, we use Land Surface Temperature (LST) of 78 global cities to show that the Surface UHI (SUHI) is fractal. We use percentile-based thermal thresholds to identify heat clusters emerging within SUHI and refer to them collectively as intra-urban heat \textit{islets}. The islets display properties analogous to that of a percolating system as we vary the thermal thresholds. At percolation threshold, the size distribution of these islets in all cities follows a power-law, with a scaling exponent ($\beta$) of 1.88 ($\pm 0.23, 95\% CI$) and an aggregated Perimeter Fractal Dimension ($D$) of 1.33 ($\pm 0.064, 95\% CI$). This commonality indicates that despite the diversity in urban form and function across the world, the urban temperature patterns are different realizations with the same aggregated statistical properties. Furthermore, we observe the convergence of these scaling exponents as the city sizes increase. Therefore, while the effect of diverse urban morphologies is evident in smaller cities, in the mean, the larger cities are alike. Lastly, we calculate the mean islet intensities, i.e. the difference between mean islet temperature and thermal threshold, and show that it follows an exponential distribution, with rate parameter, $\lambda$, for all cities. $\lambda$ varied widely across the cities and can be used to quantify the spatial heterogeneity within SUHIs. In conclusion, we present a basis for a unified characterization of urban heat from the spatial scales of an urban block to a megalopolis.
    Date: 2019–09–02
  73. By: Kamil Kowalski (University of Lodz); Rafal Matera (University of Lodz); Mariusz E. Sokolowicz (University of Lodz)
    Abstract: In this paper, we try to identify the institutional offers for emigrants and evaluate the role of immigrants at the time of the industrial revolution in the nineteenth century history of three cities where the dynamic growth and the ‘take-offs’ depended largely on newcomers. In all cases, the industry was the main factor that led to the ‘take-off’ in terms of the number of inhabitants and also the creation of the bourgeoisie as a socio-economic class. In our paper we reveal key institutional and geographical factors that accelerated the unprecedent waves of immigrants (with different strengths in different cities) to these Eastern European ‘Manchesters’ and made their role central to urban economic development. Their activity was the result of advantageous institutional circumstances connected with changes in the borders, the appearance of governments, and new local management being strictly related to changes in customs policy or extraordinary international situations.
    Keywords: J15, J61, K37, N23
    Date: 2019–12–12
  74. By: Marios Michaelides; Peter Mueser; Jeffrey Smith
    Abstract: We present experimental evidence on the effects of four U.S. job search assistance programs for unemployed youth during the Great Recession. Results show that all four programs reduced Unemployment Insurance (UI) duration and the benefit amounts collected by youth participants, with savings exceeding program costs. The three programs that included monitoring activities and services referrals but did not mandate services participation had little or no effects on employment and earnings. This suggests that the primary effect of these programs was to cause the early UI exits of unemployed youth with no loss of earnings. The program that combined monitoring with mandatory job counseling increased employment rates and earnings, suggesting that job counseling can help unemployed youth to improve their job search efficacy. We conclude that, during recessions, job search assistance programs should focus primarily on providing job counseling and provide less emphasis on monitoring activities for unemployed youth.
    Keywords: Youth; Great Recession; job counseling; active labor market policies; unemployment; Unemployment Insurance; program evaluation
    JEL: J6 H4
    Date: 2019–12

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