nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2019‒12‒09
76 papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. Racial Segregation in Metropolitan Regions: What can be Learned from a Social Interaction Approach? By Farber, Steven; Wessel, Nate; Xu, Jielan
  2. House prices and the evaluation of local amenities By Colleoni, Marco
  3. Diversifying but Not Integrating: Entropic Measures of Local Segregation By Kramer, Rory; Kramer, Peter
  4. Polycentricity and regional development: an analytical framework and some evidence from Italy By David Burgalassi; Chiara Agnoletti; Leonardo Piccini
  5. Future access to essential services in a growing smart city: The case of Surrey, British Columbia By Mayaud, Jerome; Tran, Martino; Pereira, Rafael Henrique Moreas; Nuttall, Rohan
  6. Crowdsourced Quantification and Visualization of Urban Mobility Space Inequality By Szell, Michael
  7. Social Norms in Networks By Ushchev, Philip; Zenou, Yves
  8. Regional Income Disparities, Distributional Convergence, and Spatial Effects: Evidence from Indonesia By Gunawan, Anang; Mendez, Carlos; Santos-Marquez, Felipe
  9. Isolated by Caste: Neighbourhood-Scale Residential Segregation in Indian Metros By Bharathi, Naveen; Malghan, Deepak; Rahman, Andaleeb
  10. Economic Consequences of Housing Speculation By Zhenyu Gao; Michael Sockin; Wei Xiong
  11. Embedded cohesion: Social bases of urban public goods distribution By Bradlow, Benjamin H.
  12. Immigration and Preferences for Redistribution in Europe By Alberto Alesina; Elie Murard; Hillel Rapoport
  13. Multi-dimensional Urban Network Percolation By Juste Raimbault
  14. Shaking Criminal Incentives By Aoki, Yu; Koutmeridis, Theodore
  15. What Matters for Student Achievement? Exploring Teacher Instructional Practices and the Role of School-Level and Student-Level Characteristics By Scott Richman; Alicia Demers; Dmitriy Poznyak
  16. Diseconomies of scale and subsidies in urban public transportation By Nicolas Coulombel; Guillaume Monchambert
  17. The Elusive Effects of Residential Energy Efficiency Improvements: Evidence from Ukraine By Anna Alberini; Olha Khymych; Milan Scasny
  18. The Spatial Structure of US Metropolitan Employment: New Insights from LODES Data By Manduca, Robert
  19. Spatial Segregation, Multi-scale Diversity, and Public Goods By Bharathi, Naveen; Malghan, Deepak; Mishra, Sumit; Rahman, Andaleeb
  20. Air Quality Warnings and Temporary Driving Bans: Evidence from Air Pollution, Car Trips, and Mass-Transit Ridership in Santiago By Nathaly Rivera
  21. Cities, from information to interaction By Netto, Vinicius M.; Brigatti, Edgardo; Meirelles, João; Ribeiro, Fabiano L.; Pace, Bruno; Cacholas, Caio; Sanches, Patricia Mara
  22. St. Louis's "Urban Prairie": Vacant Land and the Potential for Revitalization By Prener, Chris; Braswell, Taylor; Monti, Daniel J.
  23. Twenty years of tax autonomy across levels of government: Measurement and applications By Sean Dougherty; Michelle Harding; Andrew Reschovsky
  24. The Formation of Social Groups under Status Concern By Staab, Manuel
  25. Shared mobility and urban form impacts: a case study of peer-to-peer (P2P) carsharing in the US By Shaheen, Susan PhD; Martin, Elliot PhD; Hoffman-Stapleton, Mikaela
  26. Disproportionality in School Discipline: An Assessment in Maryland through 2018 By Johanna Lacoe; Mikia Manley
  27. Local Ties in Spatial Equilibrium By Zabek, Mike
  28. Neighborhood Boundaries and Violent Crime. An Introduction to Boundary Detection Methods in R By Legewie, Joscha
  29. Strategies for Improving Attendance in Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten: Toolkit for Districts, Schools, and Early Childhood Providers By Martha Bleeker; Jaimie Grazi; Felicia Hurwitz
  30. Reading habits, socioeconomic conditions, occupational aspiration and academic achievement in Vietnamese junior high school students By Thi Thu Hien Le; Trung Tran; Thi Phuong Thao Trinh; Chi Thanh Nguyen; Thuy Phuong Tram Nguyen; Thu Trang Vuong; Thi Hanh Vu; Dieu Quynh Bui; Ha My Vuong; Phuong Hanh Hoang; Minh Hoang Nguyen; Manh Toan Ho; Quan-Hoang Vuong
  31. The Effect of Sentencing Reform on Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Involvement with the Criminal Justice System: The Case of California's Proposition 47 By Lofstrom, Magnus; Martin, Brandon; Raphael, Steven
  32. A woman’s touch? Female migration and economic development in the United States By Berlepsch, Viola; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés; Lee, Neil
  33. Larrikin youth: crime and Queensland's earning or learning reform By Beatton, Tony; Kidd, Michael P.; Machin, Stephen; Sarkar, Dipanwita
  34. Examining return visitation and the monetary value of participatory sport events: The role of attribute non-attendance By John C. Whitehead; Pamela Wicker
  35. Improving the School Attendance of New Jersey's Youngest Learners: Chronic Absenteeism in the Early Grades: How to Choose and Implement Proven Strategies to Improve Attendance By Martha Bleeker; Jaimie Grazi; Felicia Hurwitz
  36. Visible Minorities and Job Mobility: Evidence from a Workplace Panel Survey By Javdani, Mohsen
  37. Strength through diversity: Country spotlight report for Chile By Caitlyn Guthrie; Hanna Andersson; Lucie Cerna; Francesca Borgonovi
  38. Supporting or thwarting? The influence of European Union migration policies on African free movement regimes in West and North-Eastern Africa By Castillejo, Clare; Dick, Eva; Schraven, Benjamin
  39. Evaluation of Support for Using Student Data to Inform Teachers’ Instruction—Appendices By Philip Gleason; Sarah Crissey; Greg Chojnacki; Marykate Zukiewicz; Tim Silva; Sarah Costelloe; Fran O'Reilly
  40. Urban Wage Premia, Cost of Living, and Collective Bargaining By Belloc, Marianna; Naticchioni, Paolo; Vittori, Claudia
  41. Building the Glass House: Transparency and Civic Capital across Italian municipalities By Giuseppe Albanese; Emma Galli; Ilde Rizzo; Carla Scaglioni
  42. New Imported Inputs, Wages and Worker Mobility By Colantone, Italo; Matano, Alessia; Naticchioni, Paolo
  43. Transportation Policymaking in Beijing and Shanghai: Contributors, Obstacles, and Process By Chun, Jungwoo; Moody, Joanna; Zhao, Jinhua
  44. Fiscal federalism and income inequality: An empirical analysis for Switzerland By Feld, Lars P.; Frey, Christian; Schaltegger, Christoph A.; Schmid, Lukas A.
  46. The Effects of a Principal Professional Development Program Focused on Instructional Leadership By Mariesa Herrmann; Melissa Clark; Susanne James-Burdumy; Christina Tuttle; Tim Kautz; Virginia Knechtel; Dallas Dotter; Claire Smither Wulsin; John Deke
  47. The Relative Price of Housing and Subsequent GDP Growth in the USA By Robert J. Waldmann
  48. School Tracking and Mental Health By Böckerman, Petri; Haapanen, Mika; Jepsen, Christopher; Roulet, Alexandra
  49. Research Review: Understanding Discipline Disparities in Maryland (Infographic) By Johanna Lacoe; Mikia Manley
  50. Historical Replication Preserves Cultural Heritage By Bruno S. Frey; Andre Briviba
  51. The Effect of E-Verify Laws on Crime By Churchill, Brandyn; Dickinson, Andrew; Mackay, Taylor; Sabia, Joseph J.
  52. Diversifying the Donor Pool: Did Seattle's Democracy Vouchers Program Reshape Participation in Municipal Campaign Finance? By McCabe, Brian J; Heerwig, Jennifer A.
  53. Decentralised development co-operation: Unlocking the potential of cities and regions By OECD
  54. Designing for and against Symbolic Boundaries By Kramer, Rory
  55. The Impact of Internship Experience during Secondary Education on Schooling and Labour Market Outcomes By Neyt, Brecht; Verhaest, Dieter; Baert, Stijn
  56. Public Employment Services under Decentralization: Evidence from a Natural Experiment By Lukas Mergele; Michael Weber
  57. Voting contagion: Modeling and analysis of a century of U.S. presidential elections By Braha, Dan; de Aguiar, Marcus A. M.
  58. Profitability and constraints to urban exotic vegetable production systems in the Kumasi metropolis of Ghana: a recipe for job creation By Wongnaa, Camillus Abawiera; Akuriba, Margaret Atosina; Ebenezer, Amissah; Danquah, Karen Sakyibea; Ofosu, Danso Anthony
  59. Spatial context effects at different scales: A formal model for egocentric contexts in two- and three-dimensional space By Hillmert, Steffen
  61. Adaptations to Sea Level Rise: A Tale of Two Cities – Venice and Miami By Molinaroli, Emanuela; Guerzoni, Stefano; Suman, Daniel
  62. My City Is Smarter than Yours By Burns, Ryan
  63. Inquiry into social impact investment for housing and homelessness outcomes By Muir, Kristy; Michaux, Fabienne; Sharam, Andrea; Flatau, Paul; Meltzer, Ariella; Moran, Michael; Heaney, Richard; North, Gill; Webb, Eileen; Mason, Chris
  64. Does Peer Adoption Increase the Diffusion of Pollution Prevention Practices? By Bi, Xiang; Mullally, Conner
  65. Does religious bias shape access to public services? A large-scale audit experiment among street-level bureaucrats By Pfaff, Steven; Crabtree, Charles; Kern, Holger L.; Holbein, John B.
  66. Determinants of Regional Disparities in Indonesia : Lessons from Provincial Level By Muhammad Refqi; Achmad Kemal Hidayat
  67. Visualizing demographic evolution using geographically inconsistent census data By Dias, Fabio; Silver, Daniel
  68. Evaluating the Age-Energy Consumption Profile in Residential Buildings By Estiri, Hossein; Zagheni, Emilio
  69. Decentralized leadership in a federation with competition for mobile firms: Does economic integration matter? By Thierry MADIÈS; Emmanuelle TAUGOURDEAU
  70. Migrating for Children's Better Future: Intergenerational Mobility of Internal Migrants' Children in Indonesia By Fatimah, Alfariany Milati; Kofol, Chiara
  71. Small town research in Germany - Status quo and recommendations By Porsche, Lars; Steinführer, Annett; Beetz, Stephan; Dehne, Peter; Fina, Stefan; Großmann, Katrin; Leibert, Tim; Maaß, Anita; Mayer, Heike; Milbert, Antonia; Nadler, Robert; Sondermann, Martin
  72. An Impact that Lasts: KIPP Middle Schools Boost College Enrollment By Thomas Coen; Ira Nichols-Barrer; Philip Gleason
  73. Segregation and Public Spending under Social Identification By NAKAGAWA Mariko; SATO Yasuhiro; YAMAMOTO Kazuhiro
  74. Structure and dynamics of populations: The ‘years-to-live’ pyramid, national aspects and regional examples. By Riffe, Tim; Brouard, Nicolas
  75. Delineating urban areas using building density By Marie-Pierre de Bellefon; Pierre-Philippe Combes; Gilles Duranton; Laurent Gobillon; Clément Gorin
  76. Power Sharing at the Local Level: Evidence on Opting-In for Non-Citizen Voting Rights By Stutzer, Alois; Slotwinski, Michaela

  1. By: Farber, Steven; Wessel, Nate; Xu, Jielan
    Abstract: Racial segregation is a pervasive social feature of American cities responsible for social, economic and health disparities. Conventional measures of segregation have been criticised for ignoring the spatial and temporal dynamics of everyday life, which are theorized to influence the ease of interaction between people. In this paper we explore a Social Interaction Potential based measure of racial segregation (SIP-Seg). SIP-Seg attempts to quantify the time-geographic constraints on between-group and within-group interaction opportunities based on the spatial distributions of residences, workplaces, and the daily commute. We compute SIP-Seg for all Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in the United States, and regress them against conventional measures of segregation as well as a host of factors capturing the spatial structure of regions. Our results indicate that the relationship between zonal segregation and SIP-Seg is strong, but the strongest explanatory factors are race-disaggregated commuting distances, which explain far more of the variance than non-racial spatial structure factors. The research suggests that SIP-Seg captures a spatiotemporal dimension of segregation that is ignored by conventional measures.
    Date: 2018–05–22
  2. By: Colleoni, Marco
    Abstract: Our aim is to estimate how local amenities, for example availability of schools or restaurants, and in general the level of happiness of a neighbourhood, affect the housing market. We consider the city of Phoenix, AZ, for which we hold housing transaction data. Our observation unit is the census tract. After having located schools, restaurants and Tweets in order to gain the average mood of the neighbourhood, we add a set of controls to our empirical estimation. We find a strong positive correlation of transaction prices with the average income of a district, as well as a negative correlation with the rate of violent crime.
    Date: 2018–02–28
  3. By: Kramer, Rory; Kramer, Peter
    Abstract: Scholars of segregation have struggled to adapt indices designed to model two‐group segregation for cities with large populations drawn from more than two racial/ethnic groups. Considering segregation as a social form of entropy resolves that struggle and introduces a family of related measures that offer means of analysing segregation at both the local (neighbourhood) level and the greater (city/region) area. A case study of Philadelphia's level of segregation from 1990 to 2010 illustrates the benefits of the new measures. While Philadelphia has diversified, it remains racially segregated. Further, the new measures show the growing importance of Hispanic segregation and a shift from segregation being visited upon the city's Black residents to being driven by a White population that grows more segregated as its population share shrinks. Integrating measures of segregation and diversity into studies of residential racial patterns enhances our understanding of racial segregation patterns in a multiracial context.
    Date: 2018–09–21
  4. By: David Burgalassi; Chiara Agnoletti; Leonardo Piccini
    Abstract: This paper analyses the relationships between polycentricity and regional development, under a multi-dimensional and policy oriented conceptualization of development. We provide an analytical framework and an explorative analysis of Italian regions, by taking into account several aspects of spatial structure. We found that competitiveness is positively associated with agglomeration and negatively with polycentricity. However, larger regions show to be less inclusive, while there is a positive association between polycentricity and social cohesion. Our results allow for a discussion on regional polycentricity and its effectiveness when planning and evaluating public policies, possibly enriching the debate on regional policy assessment and implementation.
    Keywords: regional development, regional urban systems, polycentric urban regions, inequalities
    JEL: R11 R12 R14
    Date: 2019–10–01
  5. By: Mayaud, Jerome; Tran, Martino; Pereira, Rafael Henrique Moreas; Nuttall, Rohan
    Abstract: The concept of accessibility – the ease with which people can reach places or opportunities –lies at the heart of what makes cities livable, workable and sustainable. As urban populations shift over time, predicting the changes to accessibility demand for certain services becomes crucial for responsible and ‘smart’ urban planning and infrastructure investment. In this study, we investigate how projected population change could affect accessibility to essential services in the City of Surrey, one of the fastest growing cities in Canada. Our objectives are two-fold: first, to quantify the additional pressure that Surrey’s growing population will have on existing facilities; second, to investigate how changes in the spatial distribution of different age and income groups will impact accessibility equity across the city. We evaluated accessibility levels to healthcare facilities and schools across Surrey’s multimodal transport network using origin-destination matrices, and combined this information with high-resolution longitudinal census data. Paying close attention to two vulnerable population groups – children and youth (0–19 years of age) and seniors (65+ years of age) – we analyzed shifts in accessibility demand from 2016 to 2022. The results show that population growth both within and outside the catchments of existing facilities will have varying implications for future accessibility demand in different areas of the city. By 2022, the city’s hospitals and walk-in clinics will be accessible to ~9,000 and ~124,000 more people (respectively) within a predefined threshold of 30 minutes by public transport. Schools will also face increased demand, as ~8,000 additional children/youth in 2022 will move to areas with access to at least half of the city’s schools. Conversely, over 27,000 more people – almost half of them seniors – will not be able to access a hospital in under 30 minutes by 2022. Since low-income and senior residents moving into poorly connected areas tend to be more reliant on public transport, accessibility equity may decline in some rural communities. Our study highlights how open-source data and code can be leveraged to conduct in-depth analysis of accessibility demand across a city, which is key for ensuring inclusive and ‘smart’ urban investment strategies.
    Date: 2018–06–04
  6. By: Szell, Michael
    Abstract: Most cities are car-centric, allocating a privileged amount of urban space to cars at the expense of sustainable mobility like cycling. Simultaneously, privately owned vehicles are vastly underused, wasting valuable opportunities for accommodating more people in a livable urban environment by occupying spacious parking areas. Since a data-driven quantification and visualization of such urban mobility space inequality is lacking, here we explore how crowdsourced data can help to advance its understanding. In particular, we describe how the open-source online platform What the Street!? uses massive user-generated data from OpenStreetMap for the interactive exploration of city-wide mobility spaces. Using polygon packing and graph algorithms, the platform rearranges all parking and mobility spaces of cars, rails, and bicycles of a city to be directly comparable, making mobility space inequality accessible to a broad public. This crowdsourced method confirms a prevalent imbalance between modal share and space allocation in 23 cities worldwide, typically discriminating bicycles. Analyzing the guesses of the platform’s visitors about mobility space distributions, we find that this discrimination is consistently underestimated in the public opinion. Finally, we discuss a visualized scenario in which extensive parking areas are regained through fleets of shared, autonomous vehicles. We outline how such accessible visualization platforms can facilitate urban planners and policy makers to reclaim road and parking space for pushing forward sustainable transport solutions.
    Date: 2018–03–28
  7. By: Ushchev, Philip (HSE); Zenou, Yves (Monash University)
    Abstract: Although the linear-in-means model is the workhorse model in empirical work on peer effects, its theoretical properties are understudied. In this study, we develop a social-norm model that provides a microfoundation of the linear-in-means model and investigate its properties. We show that individual outcomes may increase, decrease, or vary non-monotonically with the taste for conformity. Equilibria are usually inefficient and, to restore the first best, the planner needs to subsidize (tax) agents whose neighbors make efforts above (below) the social norms. Thus, giving more subsidies to more central agents is not necessarily efficient. We also discuss the policy implications of our model in terms of education and crime.
    Keywords: social norms, conformism, local-average model, welfare, anti-conformism, network formation
    JEL: D85 J15 Z13
    Date: 2019–11
  8. By: Gunawan, Anang; Mendez, Carlos; Santos-Marquez, Felipe
    Abstract: Using a novel dataset, this paper studies the spatio-temporal dynamics of income per capita across provinces and districts in Indonesia over the 2000-2017 period. First, an exploratory spatial analysis suggests that spatial autocorrelation is only significant at the district level and it appears to be robust from 2013 to 2017. Thus, at the district level, we proceed to use a spatial filtering model for decomposing income into a spatially independent component and a spatial residual. Next, through the lens of a distributional convergence framework, we find that the non-filtered income is characterized by a lack of regional mobility. In contrast, the spatially independent component shows a pattern of polarization. We conclude arguing that neighbor effects have played a significant role in reducing regional polarization in Indonesia.
    Keywords: Convergence, Getis filter, Nonparametric distribution, Indonesia
    JEL: R10 R11 R15
    Date: 2019–11–24
  9. By: Bharathi, Naveen; Malghan, Deepak; Rahman, Andaleeb
    Abstract: We present the first ever neighbourhood-scale portrait of caste-based residential segregation in Indian cities. Residential segregation studies in Indian cities have relied on ward-level data. We demonstrate in this paper that wards cannot approximate an urban neighborhood, and that they are heterogeneous. For a typical ward, the neighbourhood-ward dissimilarity index is greater than the ward-city dissimilarity index. Using 2011 enumeration block (EB) level census data for five major cities in India – Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata, and Mumbai – we show how patterns of caste-based urban residential segregation operate in contemporary India. We also present the first visual snapshot of caste-based residential segregation in an Indian city using georeferenced EB level data for Bengaluru. Besides implications for policy, our analysis also points to the need for publicly available, geospatially-linked neighborhood-scale census data that includes data on economic class for a spatial understanding of economic and social stratification within Indian cities. En
    Date: 2018–06–09
  10. By: Zhenyu Gao; Michael Sockin; Wei Xiong
    Abstract: By exploiting variation in state capital gains taxation as an instrument, we analyze the economic consequences of housing speculation during the U.S. housing boom in the 2000s. We find that housing speculation, anchored, in part, on extrapolation of past housing price changes, led not only to greater price appreciation, economic expansions, and housing construction during the boom in 2004-2006, but also to more severe economic downturns during the subsequent bust in 2007-2009. Our analysis supports supply overhang and local household demand as two key channels for transmitting these adverse effects.
    JEL: E3 R31
    Date: 2019–11
  11. By: Bradlow, Benjamin H.
    Abstract: Theories of urban political economy under globalization predict convergence across cities: growing inequalities of income, wealth, and access to public goods, and the political dominance of business elites. However, São Paulo, Brazil, witnessed surprisingly effective redistribution of residential public goods — housing and sanitation — between 1989 and 2016. I use original interviews and archival research for a comparative-historical analysis of institutional changes in São Paulo’s governance of housing and sanitation. I argue that sequential configurations of a) “embeddedness” of the local state in civil society and b) the “cohesion” of the institutional sphere of the local state, explain why and when cities generate the coordinating capacity to distribute public goods. I further illustrate how these configurations can explain variation in urban governing regimes across the world.
    Date: 2018–08–24
  12. By: Alberto Alesina; Elie Murard; Hillel Rapoport
    Abstract: We examine the relationship between immigration and preferences for redistribution in Europe using a newly assembled data set of immigrant stocks for 140 regions in 16 Western European countries. Exploiting within-country variations in the share of immigrants at the regional level, we find that native respondents display lower support for redistribution when the share of immigrants in their residence region is higher. This negative association is driven by regions of countries with relatively large Welfare States and by respondents at the center or at the right of the political spectrum. The effects are also stronger when immigrants originate from Middle-Eastern or Eastern European countries, are less skilled than natives, and experience more residential segregation. These results are unlikely to be driven by immigrants' endogenous location choices, that is, by welfare magnet effects or by immigrants' sorting into regions with better economic opportunities. They are also robust to instrumenting immigration with a standard shiftshare approach or to controlling for regional growth prospects.
    Keywords: Income Redistribution;Population Heterogeneity;Welfare Systems;Immigration
    JEL: D31 D64 I3 Z13
    Date: 2019–11
  13. By: Juste Raimbault (ISC-PIF - Institut des Systèmes Complexes - Paris Ile-de-France - ENS Cachan - École normale supérieure - Cachan - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - UP11 - Université Paris-Sud - Paris 11 - X - École polytechnique - Institut Curie - SU - Sorbonne Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Center for Advanced Spatial Analysis, UCL - UCL - University College of London [London], GC (UMR_8504) - Géographie-cités - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - UPD7 - Université Paris Diderot - Paris 7 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Network percolation has recently been proposed as a method to characterize the hierarchical structure of an urban system from the bottom-up. This paper proposes to extend urban network per-colation in a multi-dimensional way, to take into account both urban form (spatial distribution of population) and urban functions (here as properties of transportation networks). The method is applied to the European urban system to reconstruct endogenous urban regions. The variable parametrization allows to consider patterns of optimization for two stylized contradictory sustainability indicators (economic performance and greenhouse gases emissions). This suggests a customizable spatial design of policies to develop sustainable territories.
    Keywords: Multi-dimensional percolation,Road network,European urban system,Mega-city region,ACL,PARIS team
    Date: 2019–11–19
  14. By: Aoki, Yu (University of Aberdeen); Koutmeridis, Theodore (University of Glasgow)
    Abstract: We study criminal incentives exploiting the devastating shock of the 1995 Kobe earthquake. Evidence shows that the earthquake decreased burglaries but left other crime types unaffected. The effect stays significant even after controlling for unemployment, policing and income. We corroborate this by instrumenting damages with the distance from the earthquake epicentre. These findings survive various robustness checks under different specifications. The evidence is consistent with a simple theory of crime, value and specialization. We conclude that burglars respond to damages that devaluate their prospective takings. Yet, they cannot shift their specialization and substitute burglaries with other crime types.
    Keywords: crime, burglary, value, housing damage, specialization
    JEL: K42
    Date: 2019–11
  15. By: Scott Richman; Alicia Demers; Dmitriy Poznyak
    Abstract: The purpose of this exploratory study is to provide evidence on how teaching practices might contribute to student learning in different ways for different groups of students or in different kinds of schools.
    Keywords: instructional practices, Common Core State Standards, middle grades teachers, English Language Arts, student achievement
  16. By: Nicolas Coulombel (LVMT - Laboratoire Ville, Mobilité, Transport - IFSTTAR - Institut Français des Sciences et Technologies des Transports, de l'Aménagement et des Réseaux - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech); Guillaume Monchambert (LAET - Laboratoire Aménagement Économie Transports - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - ENTPE - École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2)
    Abstract: Subsidization of urban public transportation systems is often motivated by economies of scale and/or second-best considerations (underpriced road alternative). We model a public transportation system subject to frictions between users, users and vehicles, and vehicles. We derive the monopolistic and optimal provisions of supply. We show that if demand exceeds a first threshold, the system enters a congested regime and service frequency decreases. If demand exceeds a second threshold, the public transit system operates under diseconomies of scale, calling for a Pigovian tax instead of a subsidy. This finding, which goes against Mohring's classical rule (1972), holds with an untolled road alternative. We estimate the model for the London Piccadilly lane and find evidence of substantial diseconomies of scale during the morning peak, questioning current subsidy policies for the busiest transit lines.
    Keywords: mass transit,congestion,externality,Mohring effect,London Piccadilly lane
    Date: 2019–11–21
  17. By: Anna Alberini (AREC, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, United States); Olha Khymych (nstitute of Economic Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University, Opletalova 26, 110 00, Prague, Czech Republic); Milan Scasny (Charles University Environment Centre, José Martího 407/2, 162 00, Prague, Czech Republic)
    Abstract: Untapped improvements in energy efficiency in the residential sector may deliver large savings in energy use and the CO2 associated emissions. Yet empirical assessments have been difficult and controversial. We collect monthly natural gas meter readings from a sample of homes in Transcarpathia, in Western Ukraine, an early adopter of the country’s trend away from district heating, from January 2013 to April 2017, a period over which the residential natural gas tariffs rose by over 700%. We combine the monthly meter readings with documentation about each household’s heating-related energy efficiency upgrades to the home (wall, attic or basement insulation; new windows; boiler replacement, and insulation around pipes) to form a panel dataset. We estimate the effect of the energy efficiency renovations on natural gas consumption, controlling for weather, income and government energy assistance. The decision to do the renovations and natural gas consumption are likely endogenous (people do the renovations because they hope to consume less), so we instrument for the renovations by creating a cross-validation instrument based on a supply-side argument. Even for a given type of energy efficiency upgrades, the estimated effect of the renovations varies dramatically in magnitude, depending on whether the renovations are instrumented for and on how detailed the fixed effects are. The coefficients on the renovations are almost always negative in our regressions, but practically and statistically significant only when we instrument for the renovations. This is in agreement with our respondents’ difficulty assessing whether the renovations had saved them gas or money. The IV estimates indicate that insulation delivers 13-24% reductions in natural gas usage, and up to a 5% internal rate of return (IRR) to the investment over 20 years. Judicious use of an existing government program can yield positive IRRs and make energy efficiency upgrades a good investment in a generally poor-performing housing market.
    Keywords: Residential gas demand, long-run effects, tariff reforms, energy efficiency
    JEL: D12 Q41 Q48
    Date: 2019–04
  18. By: Manduca, Robert
    Abstract: Urban researchers have long debated the extent to which urban employment is monocentric, polycentric, or diffuse. In this paper I use high-resolution data based on unemployment insurance records to show that employment in US metropolitan areas is not centralized but is spatially concentrated. Unlike residents, who form a continuous surface covering most parts of each MSA, jobs have a bimodal spatial distribution, with most blocks containing no jobs whatsoever and a small number having extremely high employment densities. Across the 100 largest MSAs about 75% of jobs are located on the 10% of built land in Census blocks with at least twice as many jobs as people. Further, most of these jobs are in clustered business districts of more than 5 contiguous employment blocks. These relative proportions are extremely consistent across MSAs, even though cities vary greatly in the physical density at which they are constructed. Motivated by these empirical regularities, I introduce an algorithm to identify contiguous business districts and classify them into four major types. Based solely on the relative densities of employment and population, this algorithm is both simpler to implement and more flexible than current approaches, requiring no metro-specific tuning parameters and no assumptions about urban form. As one output, it provides an inductive, data-driven method of identifying city centers for the purposes of urban economic analysis.
    Date: 2018–09–14
  19. By: Bharathi, Naveen; Malghan, Deepak; Mishra, Sumit; Rahman, Andaleeb
    Abstract: We develop a general multi-scale diversity framework to account for spatial segregation of ethnic groups in politically %and administratively nested geographic aggregations. Our framework explains why the celebrated ``diversity-debit hypothesis'' in political economy of public goods is sensitive to spatial unit of analysis, and how not accounting for segregation biases empirical diversity-development models. We test our framework using census data from Indian villages ($n \approx 600,000$) and sub-districts containing these villages ($n \approx 6,000$), for twenty-five different public goods.
    Date: 2018–06–08
  20. By: Nathaly Rivera (University of Alaska Anchorage)
    Abstract: Driving restrictions are a common governmental strategy to reduce airborne pollution and traffic congestion in many cities of the world. Using high-frequency data on air pollution, car trips, and mass-transit systems ridership, I evaluate the effectiveness of temporary driving bans triggered by air quality warnings in Santiago, Chile. I employ a fuzzy regression discontinuity design that uses the thresholds in the air quality index used to announce these warnings as instruments for their announcement. Results show that these temporary bans reduce car trips by 6-9% during peak hours, and by 7-8% during off-peak hours. This is consistent with air pollution reductions during peak hours, and with increases in the use of Santiago's mass-transit systems during hours the systems run with excess capacity. Increments in mass-transit ridership uncover the importance of alternatives modes of transportation in securing the effectiveness of temporary driving bans.
    Keywords: Air Pollution, Pollution Alerts, Environmental Episodes, Driving Restrictions, Latin America
    JEL: Q52 Q53 R41
    Date: 2019–11
  21. By: Netto, Vinicius M.; Brigatti, Edgardo; Meirelles, João; Ribeiro, Fabiano L.; Pace, Bruno; Cacholas, Caio; Sanches, Patricia Mara
    Abstract: From physics to the social sciences, information is now seen as a fundamental component of reality. However, a form of information seems still underestimated, perhaps precisely because it is so pervasive that we take it for granted: the information encoded in the very environment we live in. We still do not fully understand how information takes the form of cities, and how our minds deal with it in order to learn about the world, make daily decisions, and take part in the complex system of interactions we create as we live together. This paper addresses three related problems that need to be solved if we are to understand the role of environmental information: (1) the physical problem: how can we preserve information in the built environment? (2) The semantic problem: how do we make environmental information meaningful? and (3) the pragmatic problem: how do we use environmental information in our daily lives? Attempting to devise a solution to these problems, we introduce a three-layered model of information in cities, namely environmental information in physical space, environmental information in semantic space, and the information enacted by interacting agents. We propose forms of estimating entropy in these different layers, and apply these measures to emblematic urban cases and simulated scenarios. Our results suggest that ordered spatial structures and diverse land use patterns encode information, and that aspects of physical and semantic information affect coordination in interaction systems.
    Date: 2018–07–10
  22. By: Prener, Chris; Braswell, Taylor; Monti, Daniel J.
    Abstract: As part of a larger project to understand the relative health and disorder of St. Louis City neighborhoods, this paper presents estimates of the number of vacant parcels in the city. These estimates, which are considerably higher than previously published ones, are heavily concentrated in the city's disinvested and segregated North side. We term this heavy concentration of vacancy as "urban prairie". After accounting for other factors as well as possible sources of statistical error, we identify both long-term population loss since 1970 and the proportion of African American residents as significant covariates associated with the amount of urban prairie land per neighborhood. These high levels of concentrated vacancy lead us to critique the City's existing approaches as being too limited in scope, and to suggest a range of possibilities for revitalizing portions of North St. Louis while allowing prairie land to continue to exist in others.
    Date: 2018–05–04
  23. By: Sean Dougherty; Michelle Harding; Andrew Reschovsky
    Abstract: The Network on Fiscal Relations has been assessing the degree of sub-central government tax autonomy in OECD countries for almost two decades. This paper provides an in-depth description of the methodology used to characterise tax autonomy. After summarizing the wide-spread use of the tax autonomy results by researchers addressing a range of policy issues, the paper highlights recent trends in sub-central government revenues and presents the results of the latest survey of tax autonomy, completed in 2017. Using the OECD’s tax autonomy methodology, the paper for the first time assesses local government tax autonomy in the 50 US states. The analysis reveals that US local governments have somewhat more tax autonomy than local governments in the average OECD country. The paper includes suggestions for further refinements of the tax autonomy methodology.
    Keywords: fiscal decentralisation, local taxation, property tax design, sub-national governments, tax autonomy
    JEL: H20 H71
    Date: 2019–12–04
  24. By: Staab, Manuel
    Abstract: I study the interaction of two forces in the formation of social groups: the preference for high quality peers and the desire for status among one's peers. I present a characterization of fundamental properties of equilibrium group structures in a perfect information, simultaneous move game when group membership is priced uniformly and cannot directly depend on type. While equilibrium groups generally exhibit some form of assortative matching between individual type and peer quality, the presence of status concern reduces the potential degree of sorting and acts as a force for greater homogeneity across groups. I analyse the effect of status concern for the provision of groups under different market structures and particularly focus on the implications for segregation and social exclusion. I find that status concern reduces the potential for and benefit from segregation - both for a social planner and a monopolist - but the interaction of preference for rank and status can make the exclusion of some agents a second-best outcome.
    Keywords: peer effects, status concern, public goods, network effects
    JEL: D62 D71 H41 L10
    Date: 2019–11
  25. By: Shaheen, Susan PhD; Martin, Elliot PhD; Hoffman-Stapleton, Mikaela
    Abstract: This paper advances the understanding of peer-to-peer (P2P) carsharing within the broader context of shared mobility and its connection to the built environment in the US through a survey conducted in 2014 (n = 1,151). Eleven per cent of respondents used carpooling/ridesharing more, and 19% avoided a vehicle purchase due to P2P vehicle access in urban areas. Nevertheless, P2P carsharing has the potential to operate in a range of land-use environments and could be an important strategy to further deemphasize car ownership. Additionally, as the deployment of automated vehicles (AVs) is examined, sharing of privately owned AVs could mirror current P2P carsharing dynamics in important ways.
    Keywords: Engineering
    Date: 2019–11–26
  26. By: Johanna Lacoe; Mikia Manley
    Abstract: The purpose of this report was to describe trends in disciplinary removals in Maryland from the 2009/10 to 2017/18 school years and apply the Maryland State Department of Education's (MSDE) definition of discipline disproportionality to identify and describe disproportionate schools.
    Keywords: discipline rates, Maryland, Black students, disabilities, suspended and expelled from school, infractions, out-of-school suspensions
  27. By: Zabek, Mike
    Abstract: If someone lives in an economically depressed place, they were probably born there. And the presence of people who have local ties - preferences to live in their birth places - leads to smaller migration elasticities. Smaller migration elasticities lead to lower equilibrium real wages in depressed places, and local ties make real wages more sensitive to demand shocks, a form of hysteresis. Local ties can persist for centuries. Low migration elasticities also suggest that place based policies will cause smaller distortions in depressed places since few people are willing to move there. Higher migration elasticities in newly productive places imply that place based policies will induce migration and increase aggregate productivity.
    Date: 2018–08–02
  28. By: Legewie, Joscha
    Abstract: Neighborhood boundaries are a defining aspect of highly segregated urban areas. Yet, few studies examine the particular challenges and spatial processes that occur at the bordering region between two neighborhoods. This guide introduces readers to different methods to measure neighborhood boundaries. It illustrates the use of boundary detection methods in the social science based on the R package 'BoundaryDetection'. The analysis example estimates the relationship between violent crimes and racial neighborhood boundaries in Chicago.
    Date: 2018–04–18
  29. By: Martha Bleeker; Jaimie Grazi; Felicia Hurwitz
    Abstract: The Go-Learn-Grow materials can help support districts, schools, and early childhood providers in improving school attendance in pre-kindergarten and kindergarten.
    Keywords: early childhood, absenteeism, pre-K
  30. By: Thi Thu Hien Le; Trung Tran; Thi Phuong Thao Trinh; Chi Thanh Nguyen; Thuy Phuong Tram Nguyen; Thu Trang Vuong; Thi Hanh Vu; Dieu Quynh Bui; Ha My Vuong; Phuong Hanh Hoang; Minh Hoang Nguyen; Manh Toan Ho; Quan-Hoang Vuong
    Abstract: Reading practices play an important role in the learning process of students. Especially in a fast-changing world where knowledge about nature and society is in a constant state of flux, book reading helps students foster skills such as thinking, valuing, adaptability and creativity for sustainable development. This research study used a dataset of 1676 observations of junior high school students from Northern Vietnam to explore students' academic achievement and its association with their reading passion, family socio economic condition, parental education and occupational aspiration. The empirical results show that higher grades in STEM-related subjects are predicted by reading interest (βReadbook = 0.425, p
    Keywords: Academic achievement; Junior high school students; Occupational aspiration; Parental influence; Quality education; Reading practices; Socioeconomic background; STEM; Sustainable development goal 4; Vietnam
    Date: 2019–09
  31. By: Lofstrom, Magnus (Public Policy Institute of California); Martin, Brandon (Public Policy Institute of California); Raphael, Steven (University of California, Berkeley)
    Abstract: We analyze the disparate effects of a recent California sentencing reform on the arrest, booking, and incarceration rates experienced by California residents from different racial and ethnic groups. In November 2014 California voters passed state proposition 47 that redefined a series of felony and "wobbler" offenses (offenses that can be charged as either a felony or misdemeanor) as straight misdemeanors, causing an immediate 15 percent decline in total drug arrests, an approximate 20 percent decline in total property crime arrests, and shifts in the composition of arrests away from felonies towards misdemeanors. Using microdata on the universe of arrests in the state in conjunction with demographic data from the American Community Survey, we document a substantial narrowing in inter-racial differences in overall arrest rates and arrest rates by offense type, with very large declines in the inter-racial arrest rate gaps for felony drug offenses. Conditional on being arrested, we see declines in bookings rates for all groups, though we find a larger decrease for white arrestees. This relatively larger decline for white arrests is largely explained by difference in the distribution of arrests across recorded offenses. Despite the widening of racial gaps in the conditional booking rate, we observe substantial declines in overall booked arrests that are larger for African Americans and Hispanics relative to whites. For some offenses (felony drug offenses), inter-racial disparities in jail booking rates narrow by nearly half. Finally, we use data from the American Community Survey to analyze change in the proportion incarcerated on any given day and how these changes vary by race and ethnicity. For these results, we present trends for the time period spanning the larger set of policy reforms that have been implemented in the state since 2011. We observe sizable declines in the overall incarceration rate for African Americans, with the largest declines observed for African America males. The one-quarter decline in total correctional populations in the state coincided with sizable narrowing in inter-racial difference in incarceration rates.
    Keywords: racial disparity, criminal justice, reform, arrests, incarceration, Proposition 47
    JEL: K40 K42
    Date: 2019–10
  32. By: Berlepsch, Viola; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés; Lee, Neil
    Abstract: Does the economic effect of immigrant women differ from that of immigrants in general? This paper examines if gender has influenced the short- and long-term economic impact of mass migration to the US, using Census microdata from 1880 and 1910. By means of ordinary least squares and instrumental variable estimations, the analysis shows that a greater concentration of immigrant women is significantly associated with lower levels of economic development in US counties. However, immigrant women also shaped economic development positively, albeit indirectly via their children. Communities with more children born to foreign mothers and that successfully managed to integrate female immigrants experienced greater economic growth than those dominated by children of foreign-born fathers or American-born parents.
    Keywords: gender; migration; economic growth; development; counties; US
    JEL: F22 J16 J61 O15 R23
    Date: 2018–05–21
  33. By: Beatton, Tony; Kidd, Michael P.; Machin, Stephen; Sarkar, Dipanwita
    Abstract: This paper analyses the impact of the introduction of an Earning or Learning reform on youth crime in Queensland, Australia. The 2006 reform increased learning and reduced earning as school participation rose post-reform, while teen employment fell. Empirical analysis of detailed administrative data reveals that criminal offending fell significantly after enactment of the reform. For males, violent, property and drug crime all declined, while the main effect for females was a significant fall in property crime. The property and drug crime falls are underpinned by a significant incapacitation effect, with some evidence of a persistent crime reduction for young men and women at later ages. Crime reduction resulting from the reform is concentrated in significant falls in the likelihood of ever offending by marginal individuals, rather than lower criminality of recalcitrant persistent offenders.
    Keywords: Youth crime; Earning or Learning reform
    JEL: I2 K42
    Date: 2018–06–01
  34. By: John C. Whitehead; Pamela Wicker
    Abstract: The purposes of this study are to examine the effect of training satisfaction and weather on the intention to revisit a sport event and to assign a monetary value to these event attributes considering attribute non-attendance. It uses survey data from four sport events in the United States in 2017 and 2018. Respondents answered a series of hypothetical scenarios that randomly assign travel costs per mile and travel distances for the return visit along with weather forecasts and training satisfaction. Logit models estimated with and without attribute non-attendance reveal the extent of preference heterogeneity and respondent attention to trip attributes. The monetary value of training satisfaction and favorable weather is obtained by converting willingness-to-travel into willingness-to-pay estimates based on travel costs. The results indicate that attribute non-attendance is an issue in each data set and that willingness-to-pay for event attributes differs across event and time. Key Words: Intention to revisit; Monetary valuation; Sport event; Willingness-to-pay; Willingness-to-travel
    Date: 2019
  35. By: Martha Bleeker; Jaimie Grazi; Felicia Hurwitz
    Abstract: Fact sheet for districts and schools on the importance of attendance in pre-kindergarten and kindergarten and how to choose and implement and proven strategies.
    Keywords: early childhood, absenteeism, pre-K
  36. By: Javdani, Mohsen (University of British Columbia, Okanagan)
    Abstract: In this study we use Canadian linked employer-employee data to examine whether visible minority Canadian-borns experience any differences in their inter-firm and intra-firm job mobility, as well as wage returns associated with them, compared to white Canadian-borns. We also examine the extent to which any differences in intra-firm mobility operates within firms versus between firms. Our results suggest that both male and female visible minority Canadian-borns experience substantial differences in probability of promotion, number of times promoted, and wage returns to promotions, compared to their white peers. For male visible minorities, these differences with their white peers mainly operate within firms. For female visible minorities however, almost half of the gap is driven by their crowding into firms with fewer promotion opportunities. In terms of inter-firm mobility, while male visible minorities are similarly likely to move between firms compared to their white peers, female visible minorities are less likely to change employer. Both groups however receive similar wage returns to their inter-firm mobility. This seems to suggest that differences in intra-firm mobility do not translate into visible minorities moving more frequently between firms, or receiving higher returns to their inter-firm mobility. We find no evidence that these differences could be driven by differences in hierarchical level, career path, or immigration background. Labour market discrimination however remains a potential contributor to these differences, which is also consistent with some of our findings. Our results also suggest that for female visible minorities, different family responsibilities driven potentially by different cultural norms or family dynamics could also contribute to these differences.
    Keywords: promotions, inter-firm mobility, job mobility, visible minority, ethnic minority, discrimination
    JEL: J15 J62 J71 M51
    Date: 2019–10
  37. By: Caitlyn Guthrie (OECD); Hanna Andersson (Barcelona Graduate School of Economics); Lucie Cerna (OECD); Francesca Borgonovi (OECD)
    Abstract: Chile is now working to develop stronger integration processes after being largely unprepared for the influx of immigrants who arrived in recent years. In the education sector, evidence suggests important differences in the academic and well-being outcomes between students with an immigrant background and native Chilean students. While available data on immigrant students in Chile is limited, these disparities highlight the need to reflect on the types of policies that can reverse emerging gaps, advance the educational and long-term success of students and promote social cohesion. As such, the Ministry of Education invited the OECD Strength through Diversity project to develop this Spotlight Report, which examines four policy priorities regarding the inclusion of immigrant and refugee students in the country: (1) School choice and segregation; (2) Language training; (3) Capacity building; and (4) Inclusive education. The findings of this report reflect existing OECD work on education policy in Chile and in the area of migration policy. The report also draws on national data, questionnaire results on policies and practices implemented in Chile to support the educational achievement and socio emotional well-being of immigrant students and examples of policies and practices in peer-learner countries and regions that were collected through desk based research (notably from Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United States). Finally, interviews conducted by the OECD Strength through Diversity team during a review mission and a stakeholder workshop that took place in Santiago in June 2018 help inform the report.
    Date: 2019–12–10
  38. By: Castillejo, Clare; Dick, Eva; Schraven, Benjamin
    Abstract: The European Union (EU) approach to migration in Africa has significantly shifted in the last few years. Notably since 2015, it has focused on preventing irregular migration and privileges engagement with the main countries of origin and transit of migrants. In the context of the 2015 Joint Valletta Action Plan (JVAP), a funding instrument - the EU Emergency Trust Fund for Africa (EUTF) -was created to channel development aid in support of EU interests in curbing migration. As reflected in historical and more recent policy agendas, economic integration and free movement within the continent and its regions constitute key elements of African development ambitions and narratives. But an increasing body of research suggests that EU activities (in particular the EUTF) sideline or even undermine African stakeholders and interests in decision-making and programming on migration. This paper analyses the effects of EU political dialogue and programming on regional free movement (RFM) in two African regions: the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) in the Horn of Africa and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) in West Africa. These regions receive the greatest amount of EUTF funding. While both IGAD and ECOWAS have frameworks on RFM, these are at very different stages of development. The analysis, based on literature review and field research, shows that EU approaches to and impact on RFM differ significantly in the two regions. In the IGAD region, the EU is not undermining but rather supporting free movement - albeit not as significantly as it could. In contrast, in the ECOWAS region the EU's focus on preventing irregular migration is undermining progress on RFM. At least three factors drive this difference: 1) institutional coherence and decision-making powers vary considerably in the two regions; 2) whereas some powerful member states in the IGAD region consider free movement to be a barrier to their hegemonic role, member states in the ECOWAS region largely see it as positive; and 3) EU migration programming in these regions is driven by different levels of urgency - with the largest number of irregular migrants coming from West Africa, the EU's objective of curbing migration is more accentuated in the ECOWAS region. A number of policy processes between and within the EU and Africa are currently underway that could reshape how the EU engages with Africa on migration issues, provided existing tensions are acknowledged and addressed. Since RFM is in the long-term interests of both parties, given its potential value to contribute to growth, development and stability within Africa, the EU should pursue the following programmatic steps for its support: Supporting regional organisations. This includes tailored capacity support in strategic direction, analytical capacity and outreach to member states. This should build on lessons from existing EU projects in support of RFM. Enhancing coherence between security and development. This means for example that existing programmes addressing irregular migration are examined regarding their impact on free movement. Improving capacity of EU delegations. This requires linking the regional EU delegations more effectively to EU delegations in member states to support joint regional and national level actions on RFM.
    Date: 2019
  39. By: Philip Gleason; Sarah Crissey; Greg Chojnacki; Marykate Zukiewicz; Tim Silva; Sarah Costelloe; Fran O'Reilly
    Abstract: This is the appendices for Evaluation of Support for Using Student Data to Inform Teachers’ Instruction presenting findings from a random assignment study examining how providing coaching and support to schools to help them use student data to inform teachers’ instruction affects teachers’ practices and student achievement.
    Keywords: random assignment, randomized controlled trial, data-driven instruction, teachers’ instructional practices, impact analysis, implementation analysis, cluster randomization, data use, student achievement, formative assessments, interim assessments
  40. By: Belloc, Marianna (Sapienza University of Rome); Naticchioni, Paolo (University of Rome 3); Vittori, Claudia (Sapienza University of Rome)
    Abstract: In this paper, we estimate nominal and real (in temporal and spatial terms) urban wage premia (UWP) in Italy, with its economy characterized by the interplay between collective wage bargaining and spatial heterogeneity in the cost of living. Our dataset for the 2005- 2015 period includes, for workers' characteristics, unique administrative data provided by the Italian Social Security Institute and, for the local CPI computation, housing prices detailed at a fine level of spatial aggregation delivered by the Italian Revenue Agency. For employees covered by collective bargaining, we find a zero UWP in nominal terms and a negative and non-negligible UWP in real terms (-2.6% when all controls are included). To capture the role played by centralized wage settings, we consider various groups of self-employed workers, who are not covered by national labour agreements, while living in the same locations and enjoying the same amenities as employees. We find that, differently from employees, selfemployed workers enjoy a positive UWP in nominal terms, and do not suffer from urban real wage penalties. Results hold under a large array of robustness checks.
    Keywords: urban wage premium, cost of living, wage setting
    JEL: R12 R31 J31
    Date: 2019–11
  41. By: Giuseppe Albanese (Banca d'Italia, sede di Catanzaro); Emma Galli (Università di Roma "La Sapienza"); Ilde Rizzo (Università di Catania); Carla Scaglioni (Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria)
    Abstract: Our paper explores one particular channel through which social capital affects political outcomes, that is transparency. Citizens who share social values are more inclined to get information via transparency and monitor public activity. Thus, we first investigate whether social capital affects the transparency of public action, using a new dimension of the quality of institutions that has not investigated so far; then, we verify if transparency affects the relationship between social capital and the accountability of politicians. We find that civic capital positively affects transparency, suggesting that the quality of the social environment provides an incentive for public agents to become more transparent and therefore more accountable. Our results are robust to different samples and endogeneity concerns.
    Keywords: Transparency, civic capital, political accountability, local governments
    JEL: K2 K4 H3 Z1
    Date: 2019–11
  42. By: Colantone, Italo (Bocconi University); Matano, Alessia (University of Barcelona); Naticchioni, Paolo (University of Rome 3)
    Abstract: We study how firms and industries adjust to increasing international trade in intermediate inputs. In particular, we provide a comprehensive assessment of the effects of new imported inputs on wage dynamics, on the skill-composition of the labor force, on worker mobility, and on assortative matching between firms and workers. We employ matched employer-employee data for Italy, over 1995-2007. We complement these data with information on the arrival of new import-ed inputs at the industry level. We find new imported inputs to have a positive effect on average wage growth at the firm level. This effect is driven by two factors: (1) an increase in the white-collar/blue-collar ratio; and (2) an increase in the average wage growth of blue-collar workers, while the wage growth of white collars is not significantly affected. The individual-level analysis reveals that the increase in the average wage of blue collars is driven by the displacement of the lowest paid workers, while continuously employed individuals are not affected. We estimate the unobserved skills of workers following Abowd et al. (1999). We find evidence that new imported inputs lead to a positive selection of higher-skilled workers, and to an increase in the degree of positive assortative matching between firms and workers.
    Keywords: matched employer-employee data, wages, new imported inputs
    JEL: J01 J31 F14
    Date: 2019–10
  43. By: Chun, Jungwoo; Moody, Joanna; Zhao, Jinhua
    Abstract: With continued motorization and urbanization in Chinese cities, there is a growing demand for innovative transportation policies at the city level to address the challenges of congestion, local air pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. Using Beijing and Shanghai as case studies, this paper draws on 32 in-depth semi-structured interviews with municipal government officials, academics, and transportation professionals to explore the city-level transportation policymaking process in China. Across the two cities, we identify three common contributors – policy learning, data informatization, and public opinion – and four obstacles – public complaint, unilateral decisionmaking, inadequate coordination among relevant departments, and lack of adaptiveness in policy implementation practice – to adopting timely and appropriate transportation policies. We then introduce a processual model that connects the contributors and obstacles identified within the flow of transportation policy among key actors in city-level government. This process shows how transportation policymaking in Chinese megacities is often reactive to public outcry over a transportation problem. This problem is investigated by a technical government research center that reports to the municipal transport committee. This committee then assesses public opinion and submits a policy recommendation to city government leadership, who make the final policy decision. Based on both case studies, we discuss potential recommendations for how to better enable transportation policymaking at the city level in China through more formalized processes of policy experimentation and public participation. We conclude with a discussion of limitations and areas of future research.
    Date: 2018–07–25
  44. By: Feld, Lars P.; Frey, Christian; Schaltegger, Christoph A.; Schmid, Lukas A.
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the impact of fiscal federalism on income inequality and redistribution. Economic theory delivers contradicting arguments such that empirical evidence is needed to shed light on the relationship. To obtain such evidence, we rely on the ideal institutional setting of federalism in Switzerland. According to our findings, decentralization actually reduces income concentration if jurisdictional fragmentation is limited. We provide evidence that it is crucial to consider the interdependence of decentralization and fragmentation, since the inequality decreasing effect of fiscal decentralization is counteracted by the interaction with jurisdictional fragmentation. Interestingly, it is not redistribution via progressive taxes that drive our results. Instead, we find significant effects in pre-tax income.
    Keywords: Federalism,Decentralization,Inequality,Income Concentration,Top Incomes,Redistribution,Switzerland
    JEL: D31 H23 H77
    Date: 2019
  45. By: Abdurrahman, Ahmad Yani; Basalamah, H. Salim; Mallongi, H. Syahrir; Serang, Serlin; Jamali, Hisnol
    Abstract: This study aims to examine and analyze the influence of discipline, motivation, local wisdom, and work environment on job satisfaction and employee performance. This study uses primary data through the obtained through a survey of 257 employees at the Organization of the Regional Revenue Management Area of Ternate. The result of Structural Equation Model analysis using AMOS 18 provides proof that Discipline, motivation, local wisdom, and work environment have positive and significant effect to job satisfaction. Other factors that are motivation, local wisdom, work environment and job satisfaction have positive and significant effect to employee performance, different condition for work discipline is not significant. In indirect effect test found Discipline, motivation, local wisdom, and work environment have positive and significant effect to employee performance through job satisfaction as variable intervening. The recommendation of this research is suggested that the motivation, local wisdom, and work environment that gives significant influence is maintained, while the discipline that has no significant affect on employee performance needs to be improved maximally in order to increase job satisfaction and employee performance in the future.
    Date: 2018–08–29
  46. By: Mariesa Herrmann; Melissa Clark; Susanne James-Burdumy; Christina Tuttle; Tim Kautz; Virginia Knechtel; Dallas Dotter; Claire Smither Wulsin; John Deke
    Abstract: The Institute of Education Sciences conducted a random assignment study of an intensive professional development program for elementary school principals.
    Keywords: principal professional development, instructional leadership, student achievement, random assignment, individualized coaching, school climate, principal retention
  47. By: Robert J. Waldmann (DEF, University of Rome "Tor Vergata")
    Abstract: In the USA a high relative price of housing is associated with log GDP growth over the following 5 years. It is possible to forecast the great recession using this pattern and a trend both estimated with 20th century data. The forecast recession is even more severe than the actual recession.
    Keywords: housing, bubble, e medium term forecasting
    Date: 2019–11–29
  48. By: Böckerman, Petri (Labour Institute for Economic Research); Haapanen, Mika (Jyväskylä University School of Business and Economics); Jepsen, Christopher (University College Dublin); Roulet, Alexandra (INSEAD)
    Abstract: We examine the effects of a comprehensive school reform on mental health. The reform postponed the tracking of students into vocational and academic schools from age 11 to age 16. The reform was implemented gradually across Finnish municipalities between 1972 and 1977. We use difference-in-differences variation and administrative data. Our results show that there is no discernible effect on mental health related hospitalizations on average even though the effect is precisely estimated. Heterogeneity analysis shows that, after the reform, females from highly-educated families were more likely to be hospitalized for depression.
    Keywords: tracking age, comprehensive school, mental health, depression, hospitalization
    JEL: I12 I26 I28
    Date: 2019–10
  49. By: Johanna Lacoe; Mikia Manley
    Abstract: Although disciplinary removals—out-of-school suspensions and expulsions—have declined in Maryland over the past 10 years, discipline disparities persist.
    Keywords: rel-ma, mid-atlantic, research review, understanding, discipline, disparities, Maryland
  50. By: Bruno S. Frey; Andre Briviba
    Abstract: We propose a radically new approach to deal with major negative effects resulting from overtourism. The major attractions of heavily visited historical sites are to be identically replicated in a new location emphasizing a vivid historical experience supported by modern technology. In the near future, an enormous increase in the number of tourists is predicted due to low flight prices and a great increase of cruise ship passengers. The local populations will be exposed to strong negative external effects, the cultural site will be damaged, and the environment polluted. Under our proposal, tourists will no longer visit the historical sites but will be exposed to Historical Replicas (HIRE) with more intense historical experience achieved through modern technology (such as holograms). Our proposal provides an alternative to today’s overcrowded historical sites doomed to destruction by overtourism.
    Keywords: Historical Replication; overtourism; overcrowding; cities of culture; impacts of tourism
    Date: 2019–12
  51. By: Churchill, Brandyn (Vanderbilt University); Dickinson, Andrew (University of Oregon); Mackay, Taylor (University of California, Irvine); Sabia, Joseph J. (San Diego State University)
    Abstract: E-Verify laws, which have been adopted by 23 states, require employers to verify whether new employees are eligible to legally work prior to employment. In the main, these laws are designed to reduce employment opportunities for unauthorized immigrants, reduce incentives for their immigration, and increase employment and earnings for low-skilled natives. This study explores the impact of state E-Verify laws on crime. Using agency-by-month data from the 2004 to 2015 National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS), we find that the enactment of E-Verify is associated with a 5 to 10 percent reduction in property crimes involving Hispanic arrestees, an effect driven by universal E-Verify mandates that extend to private employers. Supplemental analyses from the Current Population Survey (CPS) suggest that E-Verify-induced increases in employment of low-skilled natives of Hispanic descent, and outmigration of younger Hispanics are important channels. We find no evidence that crime was displaced to nearby U.S. jurisdictions without E-Verify or that violent crime was impacted by E-Verify mandates. Moreover, neither arrests nor labor market outcomes of white or African American adults were affected by E-Verify laws. The magnitudes of our estimates suggest that E-Verify mandates generated $491 million in social benefits of reduced crime to the United States.
    Keywords: E-Verify, immigration, crime, employment
    JEL: K14 J61
    Date: 2019–11
  52. By: McCabe, Brian J; Heerwig, Jennifer A.
    Abstract: In this paper, we evaluate whether an innovative new campaign finance program in Seattle, Washington shifted the composition of campaign donors in local elections. In 2015, voters in Seattle approved the creation of the Democracy Voucher program with the intent of broadening representation in the campaign finance system and expanding participation from marginalized communities. Every registered voter in Seattle was provided with four, twenty-five-dollar vouchers that they could, in turn, assign to the local candidate(s) of their choice. Through an analysis of the inaugural implementation of the program in 2017, we investigate whether this innovative public financing system increased participation, broadened involvement from underrepresented groups and led to a donor pool that was more representative of the electorate. Compared to cash donors in the municipal election, we report that voucher users are less likely to be high-income and more likely to come from poor neighborhoods. While older residents are over-represented among voucher users, there is little difference in the racial composition of cash donors and voucher users. Our analysis confirms that the Democracy Voucher program successfully moved the donor pool in a more egalitarian direction, although it remains demographically unrepresentative of the electorate. The lessons from Seattle’s inaugural implementation offer key insights for other municipalities considering public financing policies, and these lessons have the potential to reshape the national policy debate about the influence of political money.
    Date: 2018–05–16
  53. By: OECD
    Abstract: The Addis Ababa Action Agenda raises the urgency to address growing financing and capacity needs at all levels of government in developing countries (para. 34) while the 2030 Agenda calls to “localise” the SDGs. In its High Level Communiqué of 31 October 2017, the DAC stressed that “complex challenges increasingly require coherent approaches at all levels and co-ordinated, inclusive actions”, remaining “committed to improving quality and impact of our development co-operation policies”. Decentralised development co-operation, or international development co-operation carried out by subnational governments, is one tool OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) members can deploy to ensure that development co-operation is fit-for-purpose and responds to the local realities of the 2030 Agenda. The paper provides an assessment of the potential strengthens of decentralised development co-operation approaches as well as new opportunities to overcome longstanding challenges, including through the promotion of new forms of multi-level and multi-stakeholder partnerships.
    Keywords: 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, Addis Ababa Action Agenda, cities, decentralised development co-operation, official development assistance, regions, subnational governments
    JEL: F35 F63 F65 H2 H7 O18
    Date: 2019–12–09
  54. By: Kramer, Rory
    Abstract: I argue that, via the mixture of physical and symbolic boundaries, placemaking and urban design reinforce inequality, albeit less overtly than the architecture of fear Davis identifies and shifted in response to the new political economy. That shift also offers an opportunity to reimagine an urban design that subverts that inequality. To understand urban design today, urban planner Marlon Williams pointedly asks, “As urban planners, are we revolutionaries? Or are we the very reason there needs to be a revolution?”
    Date: 2018–09–21
  55. By: Neyt, Brecht (Ghent University); Verhaest, Dieter (KU Leuven); Baert, Stijn (Ghent University)
    Abstract: The literature on workplace learning in secondary education has mainly focussed on vocational education programmes. In this study, we examine the impact of internship experience in secondary education on a student's schooling and early labour market outcomes, by analysing unique, longitudinal data from Belgium. To control for unobserved heterogeneity, we model sequential outcomes by means of a dynamic discrete choice model. In line with the literature on vocational education programmes, we find that internship experience has a positive effect on labour market outcomes that diminishes over time, although within the time window of our study, we find no evidence for a null or negative effect over time.
    Keywords: internship, transitions in youth, education, labour
    JEL: I21 I26 J21 J24
    Date: 2019–11
  56. By: Lukas Mergele; Michael Weber
    Abstract: This paper studies whether the decentralization of public employment services (PES) increases job placements among the unemployed. Decentralizing PES has been a widely applied reform used by governments aiming to enhance their efficacy. However, economic theory is ambiguous about its effects, and empirical evidence has been scarce. Using a difference-in-differences design, we exploit unique within-country variation in decentralization provided by the partial devolution of German job centers in 2012. We find that decentralization reduces job placements by approximately 10%. Decentralized providers expand the use of public job creation schemes which diminish job seekers’ reemployment prospects but shift costs to higher levels of government.
    Keywords: decentralization, public employment services, job placements
    JEL: H11 H75 I38 J48 J64
    Date: 2019
  57. By: Braha, Dan; de Aguiar, Marcus A. M.
    Abstract: Social influence plays an important role in human behavior and decisions. Sources of influence can be divided as external, which are independent of social context, or as originating from peers, such as family and friends. An important question is how to disentangle the social contagion by peers from external influences. While a variety of experimental and observational studies provided insight into this problem, identifying the extent of contagion based on large-scale observational data with an unknown network structure remains largely unexplored. By bridging the gap between the large-scale complex systems perspective of collective human dynamics and the detailed approach of social sciences, we present a parsimonious model of social influence, and apply it to a central topic in political science--elections and voting behavior. We provide an analytical expression of the county vote-share distribution, which is in excellent agreement with almost a century of observed U.S. presidential election data. Analyzing the social influence topography over this period reveals an abrupt phase transition from low to high levels of social contagion, and robust differences among regions. These results suggest that social contagion effects are becoming more instrumental in shaping large-scale collective political behavior, with implications on democratic electoral processes and policies.
    Date: 2018–01–02
  58. By: Wongnaa, Camillus Abawiera; Akuriba, Margaret Atosina; Ebenezer, Amissah; Danquah, Karen Sakyibea; Ofosu, Danso Anthony
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Community/Rural/Urban Development
    Date: 2019–09
  59. By: Hillmert, Steffen
    Abstract: Spatial context effects are a topic in many scientific disciplines. This paper examines which conceptual steps are necessary for determining the extension, or the appropriate scale, of relevant spatial environments when contexts can be analytically disaggregated into context elements. Adequate models of scale need to specify not only the distance-dependent relevance of context elements but also their distribution and an adequate combination. In this way, it becomes possible to understand why non-monotonic patterns in scale-related context effects have been repeatedly found in spite of common assumptions of distance decay in relevance. In many cases, a distance-related maximum of (aggregate) context relevance can be expected, so that there is an “optimal” range for the measurement of context effects. It is also important to distinguish between applications in two- and three-dimensional space. This general model helps to specify the steps necessary for the determination of spatial context patterns and to identify unrealistic assumptions.
    Date: 2018–10–29
  60. By: Ekaterina Kodja (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Tatiana Ryabichenko (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This cross-cultural study examines the role of social identities (ethnic, national and place) and acculturation strategies in the psychological well-being of young ethnic minorities in regions with different policies on minority integration - Russians in Latvia (N=109, age 16-24) and Crimean Tatars in Crimea (N=122, age 17-24). Results revealed the identities that promote psychological well-being of the young generation of these minorities. Ethnic identity predicts self-esteem in both groups and life satisfaction in Crimean Tatar youth. Place identity is positively related to life satisfaction of both groups. The national identity of ethnic minority youth predicts integration in both groups, while integration promotes self-esteem among Russian youth in Latvia only. The findings are discussed taking into account the historical, political and social context of Latvia and Crimea
    Keywords: ethnic minorities, social identities, acculturation strategies, subjective well-being.
    JEL: F22
    Date: 2019
  61. By: Molinaroli, Emanuela; Guerzoni, Stefano; Suman, Daniel
    Abstract: Both Venice and Miami are highly vulnerable to sea level rise and climate change. We examine the two cities´ biophysical environments, their socioeconomic bases, the legal and administrative structures, and their vulnerabilities and responses to sea level rise and flooding. Based on this information we critically compare the different adaptive responses of Venice and Miami and suggest what each city may learn from the other, as well as offer lessons for other vulnerable coastal cities.
    Date: 2018–05–21
  62. By: Burns, Ryan
    Abstract: In this presentation at the 2018 AAG (New Orleans, LA), Ryan Burns delivered these provocations to kick off a panel about the buzzwords around open data.
    Date: 2018–04–09
  63. By: Muir, Kristy; Michaux, Fabienne; Sharam, Andrea; Flatau, Paul; Meltzer, Ariella; Moran, Michael; Heaney, Richard; North, Gill; Webb, Eileen; Mason, Chris
    Abstract: This research investigated Social impact investment (SII), which aims to generate and actively measure social and financial returns. There are several promising SII models—including housing supply bonds, property funds, funding social enterprises, social impact bonds and social impact loans. Effective SII requires suppliers of goods and services, intermediaries, suppliers of capital, government and beneficiaries to work together.
    Date: 2018–05–15
  64. By: Bi, Xiang; Mullally, Conner
    Abstract: This paper examines the effect of lagged pollution prevention (P2) adoption among sibling facilities (i.e., facilities with the same parent firm) on a facility’s own adoption of P2 practices. We use panel data from 10,224 facilities that reported to the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) over two decades and address the endogeneity of sibling P2 adoption by instrumental variables while controlling for facility-specific and parent firm-year fixed effects. We find that sibling’s cumulative knowledge of P2 practices increases a facility’s own adoption. Intrafirm spillover effects are greater among firms that operate within a single state and among small firms.
    Date: 2017–12–12
  65. By: Pfaff, Steven; Crabtree, Charles; Kern, Holger L.; Holbein, John B.
    Abstract: Despite growing descriptive evidence of discrimination against minority religious groups and atheists in the United States, little experimental work exists studying whether individuals face differential barriers to receiving public services depending on their religious affiliation. Here we report results from a large-scale audit study of street-level bureaucrats in the American public school system. We emailed the principals of more than 45,000 public schools and asked for a meeting, randomly assigning the religious affiliation/non-affiliation of the family. To get at potential mechanisms, we also randomly assigned belief intensity. We find evidence of substantial discrimination against Muslims and atheists. These individuals are substantially less likely to receive a response, with discrimination growing when they signal that their beliefs are more intense. Protestants and Catholics face no discrimination unless they signal that their religious beliefs are intense. Our ?findings suggest that minority religious groups and atheists face important barriers to equal representation in the public arena.
    Date: 2018–08–12
  66. By: Muhammad Refqi (Master of Applied Economics, Padjadjaran University); Achmad Kemal Hidayat (Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University)
    Abstract: The phenomenon of regional income inequality, which is experienced by both developed and developing countries, might also occur at the district level. This study measured the conditions of difference at both the national and provincial level. Measured using the Theil Inequality Index, income inequality was narrowed on the national scale and varied at the provincial scale. Furthermore, panel data regression was used to find the explanatory factors of regional income inequality using data from 2010 to 2017. According to the result, general allocation funds, road and education might be significant factors in decreasing income inequality, while GDP per capita, DBH (Revenue Sharing Funds), and spatial planning policies might produce the opposite impact. There is considerable influence of natural resources on inequality, and fiscal transfers were not able to quickly overcome these conditions. The government was advised to be more considerate about the importance of underdeveloped areas through fiscal transfer reformulation, potential economic maximization, and equitable development with proper spatial planning to promote income convergence and equalize welfare.
    Keywords: regional disparity, Theil inequality index, Indonesia
    JEL: H3
    Date: 2019–12
  67. By: Dias, Fabio; Silver, Daniel
    Abstract: Video Abstract: Census measurements provide reliable demographic data going back centuries. However, their analysis is often hampered by the lack of geographical consistency across time. We propose a visual analytics system that enables the exploration of geographically inconsistent data. Our method also includes incremental developments in the representation, clustering, and visual exploration of census data, allowing an easier understanding of the demographic groups present in a city and their evolution over time. We present the feedback of experts in urban sciences and sociology, along with illustrative scenarios in the USA and Canada.
    Date: 2018–04–01
  68. By: Estiri, Hossein; Zagheni, Emilio
    Abstract: Age is an important proxy for many life course trajectories. The relationship between energy consumption and age is complex and understudied. We evaluated the existence and determinants of an age-energy consumption profile in the U.S. residential sector, using microdata from four waves of the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) in 1987, 1990, 2005, and 2009. We constructed pseudo cohorts from Bayesian generalized linear model estimates to draw micro-profiles for energy consumption across the life course. Overall, we found that residential energy consumption increases over the life course. Much of the increase in energy consumption is due to housing size. Variations in the age-energy consumption micro-profiles can be described by concave and convex functions. In contrast to previous research that suggested that population aging would reduce energy demand, our results indicate that changing population age structure could amplify residential energy demand.
    Date: 2018–09–05
  69. By: Thierry MADIÈS (Université de Fribourg); Emmanuelle TAUGOURDEAU (CREST, University of Paris-Saclay, ENS Paris-Saclay.)
    Abstract: Our paper presents a model of decentralized leadership with fiscal equalization and imperfect economic integration. The degree of trade integration (reflected by trade costs) turns out to have ane effect on both the state tax rates and the ex-post vertical equalization transfers. Our main results are the following: Ex post vertical transfers are welfare deteriorating for low levels of trade integration while they are welfare improving compared to tax competition when trade integration is high enough. However, when public goods are highly valued by the citizens of the federation, ex post transfers are always welfare enhancing.
    Keywords: Tax competition, Trade Integration, Decentralized Leadership.
    JEL: H7 H2 R3 R5
    Date: 2019–11–19
  70. By: Fatimah, Alfariany Milati; Kofol, Chiara
    Abstract: Internal migration dominates population mobility in Indonesia; according to the 2010 census, there were almost 30 million permanent migrants, around 12.5 percent of the population. The effects of this internal migration on the second generation continue to be under-explored. This paper investigates the long-term impact of parents' migration on their children's intergenerational per capita expenditure when adults. We argue that parental migration affects the human capital investment on their children, which has a direct impact on the children's outcomes when adults and on their deviation from the parents' economic status, hence their intergenerational mobility. We pooled the data of five waves of the Indonesian Family Life Survey, and we tackled the self-selection of parents' migration using linear regression with endogenous treatment. Our findings show that despite the fact that parental migration increases the education level of children and their per capita expenditure, it increases intergenerational mobility only when grown-up children live in urban areas, come from the poorest parents, and migrated themselves in their childhood. The left-behind children have more intergenerational mobility only if their father migrated, while there is no significant impact on intergenerational mobility if their mother migrated. The results are consistent with the persistence of individual inequality in Indonesia.
    Keywords: Labor and Human Capital, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2019–12–04
  71. By: Porsche, Lars; Steinführer, Annett; Beetz, Stephan; Dehne, Peter; Fina, Stefan; Großmann, Katrin; Leibert, Tim; Maaß, Anita; Mayer, Heike; Milbert, Antonia; Nadler, Robert; Sondermann, Martin
    Abstract: Urban studies in Germany are traditionally oriented towards large cities. The structures, meanings and functions of small towns are not sufficiently perceived and differentiated in scientific or political debates. Adequate research on small towns requires systematic, comparative, inter- and transdisciplinary approaches. Traditional attributions should be questioned critically and small towns should be examined empirically in their diversity and differentiation. This involves paying attention to external influences and heterogeneous internal structures as well as to regional functions and interdependencies. The availability and generation of statistical data, which also make small-scale analyses possible, are just as necessary as more comprehensive studies, which go beyond limited case studies. Finally, also research funding and academic teaching should address small towns more systematically than it has been the case in the past. This position paper presents recommendations for research, university teaching, official statistics and research funding in the field of small town research. The Ad-hoc Working Group focused on small town research in Germany and German- language literature, respectively.
    Keywords: Small towns,Small town research,Urban development,Development of rural areas,Urbanstudies,Spatial research,Germany
    Date: 2019
  72. By: Thomas Coen; Ira Nichols-Barrer; Philip Gleason
    Abstract: This issue brief presents results of a long-term tracking study that follows 1,177 students who applied to enter 1 of 13 oversubscribed KIPP middle schools through a 5th-or 6th-grade admissions lottery in 2008 or 2009.
    Keywords: KIPP, middle schools, college enrollment, education, charter schools
  73. By: NAKAGAWA Mariko; SATO Yasuhiro; YAMAMOTO Kazuhiro
    Abstract: We investigate the relationship between segregation and public spending from the viewpoint of theory on social identification by developing a model wherein ethnic minority assimilation and public goods provision are both endogenous. We first show the possibility of multiple equilibria with respect to assimilation: in one equilibrium, individuals belonging to minorities choose to assimilate into the majority society whereas in the other, they reject assimilation, resulting in segregation. We then show that the government's public spending is smaller in the latter equilibrium than in the former one, which is consistent with the empirical finding that segregation decreases public spending. We further examine how changes in the government's objectives affect the possibility of multiple equilibria.
    Date: 2019–11
  74. By: Riffe, Tim; Brouard, Nicolas
    Abstract: We translate Brouard (1986) to English from the original French. Figures are originals with translated captions. This article has been notable in the field of demography for its influence on later work relating to mortality tempo effects, the CAL index, and for mathematical demography on years lived and years left in stationary populations. A translation of a 1985 theorem on (and proof of) equality between age distributions and years-left distributions in stationary populations that is mentioned in section 1.1 is provided in an appendix.
    Date: 2018–03–04
  75. By: Marie-Pierre de Bellefon (INSEE Paris, PSE - Paris School of Economics); Pierre-Philippe Combes (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne] - Université de Lyon - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Gilles Duranton (University of Pennsylvania [Philadelphia]); Laurent Gobillon (PSE - Paris School of Economics); Clément Gorin (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne] - Université de Lyon - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: We develop a new dartboard methodology to delineate urban areas using detailed information about building location, which we implement using a map of all buildings in France. For each pixel, our approach compares actual building density after smoothing to counterfactual smoothed building density computed after randomly redistributing buildings. We define as urban any area with statistically significant excess building density. Within urban areas, extensions to our approach allow us to distinguish 'core' urban pixels and detect centres and subcentres. Finally, we develop novel one-and two-sided tests that provide a statistical basis to compare maps with different delineations, which we use to assess the robustness of our approach and to document large differences between our preferred delineation and the corresponding official one.
    Keywords: Jaccard indices,dartboard approach,urban area definition
    Date: 2019
  76. By: Stutzer, Alois (University of Basel); Slotwinski, Michaela (University of Basel)
    Abstract: The enfranchisement of foreigners is likely one of the most controversial frontiers of institutional change in developed democracies, which are experiencing an increasing number of non-citizen residents. We study the conditions under which citizens are willing to share power. To this end, we exploit the unique setting of the Swiss canton of Grisons, where municipalities are free to decide on the introduction of non-citizen voting rights at the local level (a so called opting-in regime). Consistent with the power dilution hypothesis, we find that enfranchisement is less likely the larger the share of resident foreigners. Moreover, municipalities with a large language/cultural minority are less likely to formally involve foreigners. In contrast, municipality mergers seem to act as an institutional catalyst, promoting democratic reforms. A supplementary panel analysis on electoral support for an opting-in regime in the canton of Zurich also backs the power dilution hypothesis, showing that a larger share of foreigners reduces support for a regime change.
    Keywords: non-citizen voting rights; opting-in; power sharing; democratization
    JEL: D72 D78 J15
    Date: 2019–11–13

This nep-ure issue is ©2019 by Steve Ross. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.