nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2019‒10‒21
58 papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. A shot in the dark? Policy influence on cluster networks By Holger Graf; Tom Broekel
  2. Are there asymmetries in the interaction between housing prices and housing credit? Evidence from a country with rapid credit accumulation By Juan Carlos Cuestas; Merike Kukk
  3. Creativity over Time and Space By Serafinelli, Michel; Tabellini, Guido
  4. Does increased teacher accountability decrease leniency in grading? By Puhani, Patrick A.; Yang, Philip
  5. Identifying Network Ties from Panel Data: Theory and an Application to Tax Competition By Aureo de Paula; Imran Rasul; Pedro Souza
  6. Transit-oriented developments and residential property values By Koen van Ruijven; Paul Verstraten; Peter Zwaneveld
  7. Social Capital Inequality and Subjective Wellbeing of Older Chinese By Appau, Samuelson; Awaworyi Churchill, Sefa; Smyth, Russell; Zhang, Quanda
  8. Local governments’ efficiency and its heterogeneity – empirical evidence from a Stochastic Frontier Analysis of Italian municipalities 2010-2015 By Tommaso Agasisti; Francesco Porcelli
  9. Exposure to More Female Peers Widens the Gender Gap in STEM Participation By Brenøe, Anne; Zölitz, Ulf
  10. Making Use of Home Equity: The Potential of Housing Wealth to Enhance Retirement Security By Bravo, Jorge Miguel; Ayuso, Mercedes; Holzmann, Robert
  11. House prices and tourism development in Cyprus: A contemporary perspective By Andrew A. Alola; Simplice A. Asongu; Uju V. Alola
  12. The countercyclical capital buffer and the composition of bank lending By Auer, Raphael; Ongena, Steven
  13. Housing Prices, Inter-generational Co-residence, and “Excess” Savings by the Young: Evidence using Chinese Data By R.; Junsen Zhang
  15. The Airbnb Effect on theRental Market: the Case of Madrid By Jorge Luis Casanova Ferrando
  16. Academic Achievement and Tracking - A Theory Based on Grading Standards By Tim Ehlers; Robert Schwager
  17. Fiscal decentralization and electoral participation: Analyzing districts in Indonesia By Farah, Alfa
  18. Assessing the migration and social instability nexus in sub-saharan Africa : A spatial analysis By fofana, moustapha; Lawson, Laté; ballo, zié
  19. A geography of corporate knowledge flows across world regions: evidence from patent citations of top R&D-investing firms By Mafini Dosso; Didier Lebert
  20. Locational Choice and Spatial Wage Inequality By Schran, Felix
  21. Can Female Doctors Cure the Gender STEMM Gap? Evidence from Randomly Assigned General Practitioners By Riise, Julie; Willage, Barton; Willen, Alexander
  22. House prices and tourism development in Cyprus: A contemporary perspective By Andrew A. Alola; Simplice A. Asongu; Uju V. Alola
  23. Single-Word Recognition Inpairments In Primary School-Aged Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder By Vardan Arutiunian
  24. News-driven housing booms: Spain vs. Germany By Laurentiu Guinea; Luis A. Puch; Jesús Ruiz
  25. Preterm Births and Educational Disadvantage: Heterogeneous Effects Across Families and Schools By Anna Baranowska-Rataj; Kieron Barclay; Joan Costa-i-Font; Mikko Myrskylä; Berkay Özcan
  26. The geography of EU discontent By Dijkstra, Lewis; Poelman, Hugo; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés
  27. The System of National Accounts and Alternative Approaches to the Construction of Commercial Property Price Indexes By Diewert, Erwin; Shimizu, Chihiro
  28. Departure Time Choice and Bottleneck Congestion with Automated Vehicles: Role of On-board Activities By Pudāne, Baiba
  29. Experimenting with dropout prevention policies By Jonneke Bolhaar; Sander Gerritsen; Sonny Kuijpers; Karen van der Wiel
  30. Does accessibility to local public employment agencies matter? Answers from a French quasi- experiment By Matthieu Bunel; Élisabeth Tovar
  31. Debunking Rumors in Networks By Luca Paolo Merlino; Nicole Tabasso
  32. Sorting in the Presence of Misperceptions By Lisa Windsteiger
  33. A spatiotemporal framework for the analytical study of optimal growth under transboundary pollution By Raouf Boucekkine; Giorgio Fabbri; Salvatore Federico; Fausto Gozzi
  34. Do house prices matter for household consumption? By Lu Zhang
  35. Method for Discriminating the Mode of Operation of the Steering Wheel during Car Driving By Akiko Watanabe; Yosuke Kurihara; Satoshi Kumagai; Toshiyuki Matsumoto; Takuya Hida
  36. Vocational training programs and youth labor market outcomes: Evidence from Nepal By Shubha Chakravarty; Mattias Lundberg; Plamen Nikolov; Juliane Zenker
  37. Branch-Price-and-Cut for the Soft-Clustered Capacitated Arc-Routing Problem By Stefan Irnich; Timo Hintsch; Lone Kiilerich
  38. Behind the Veil: The Effect of Banning the Islamic Veil in Schools By Maurin, Eric; Navarrete H., Nicolas
  39. Trends in economic inactivity across the OECD: The importance of the local dimension and a spotlight on the United Kingdom By Jonathan Barr; Elena Magrini; Michela Meghnagi
  40. How do trade and communication costs shape the spatial organization of firms? By Gokan, Toshitaka; Kichko, Sergey; Thisse, Jacques-François
  42. The Effect of Sentencing Reform on Crime Rates: Evidence from California's Proposition 47 By Dominguez-Rivera, Patricio; Lofstrom, Magnus; Raphael, Steven
  43. Job Loss, Credit and Crime in Colombia By Gaurav Khanna; Carlos Medina; Anant Nyshadham; Christian Posso; Jorge A. Tamayo
  45. Parental Employment Effects of Switching from Half‐Day to Full‐Day Kindergarten: Evidence from Ontario's French Schools By Dhuey, Elizabeth; Eid, Jean; Neill, Christine
  46. Human Behavior and New Mobility Trends in the United States, Europe, and China By Cohen, Kathleen
  47. Local Labor Demand and Participation in Social Insurance Programs By Andersen, Asbjørn Goul; Markussen, Simen; Røed, Knut
  49. Beauty and Adolescent Risky Behaviours By Colin Green; Luke Wilson; Anwen Zhang
  50. Analysing Job Creation Effects of Scaling Up Infrastructure Spending in South Africa By Helene Maisonnave; Ramos Mabugu; Margaret Chitiga; Véronique Robichaud
  51. The Comfort of the Future: The Role of Social Norms in Constructing the Ideal towards Sustainability – A Randomised Field Experiment By Idahosa; Love O; Marwa; Nyankomo; Akotey; Joseph O
  52. The Drivers of Social Preferences: Evidence from a Nationwide Tipping Field Experiment By Bharat Chandar; Uri Gneezy; John List; Ian Muir
  53. Can your house keep you out of a nursing home? By Maaike Diepstraten; Rudy Douven; Bram Wouterse
  54. State Capacity, Reciprocity, and the Social Contract By Besley, Timothy J.
  55. Segregation and sentiment: estimating refugee segregation and its effects using digital trace data By Neal Marquez; Kiran Garimella; Ott Toomet; Ingmar Weber; Emilio Zagheni
  56. Transparency and Fairness in School Choice Mechanisms By Yoan Hermstrüwer
  57. Maternal Stress and Birth Outcomes: Evidence from an Unexpected Earthquake Swarm By Kutinova Menclova, Andrea; Stillman, Steven
  58. Closures of coal-fired power stations in Australia: local unemployment effects By Paul J. Burke; Rohan Best; Frank Jotzo

  1. By: Holger Graf; Tom Broekel
    Abstract: Cluster policies are often intended and designed to promote interaction in R&D among co-located organisations, as local knowledge interactions are perceived to be underdeveloped. In contrast to the popularity of the policy measure little is known about its impact on knowledge networks, because most scientific evaluations focus on impacts at the firm level. Using the example of the BioRegio contest, we explore cluster policy effects on local patent co-application and co-invention networks observed from 1985 to 2013, in 17 German regions. We find that the initiative increases network size and innovation activities during the funding period but not afterwards. The impact of the BioRegio contest on network cohesion is moderate. In contrast, general project-based R&D subsidisation is found to support cohesion more robustly.
    Keywords: Cluster Policy, Knowledge Networks, Network Analysis, Patent Data, Regional Innovation, Policy Evaluation
    JEL: O31 Z13
    Date: 2019–10
  2. By: Juan Carlos Cuestas (Department of Economics, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain); Merike Kukk (Department of Economics and Finance, Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the mutual dependence between housing prices and housing credit in Estonia, a country which experienced rapid debt accumulation during the 2000s and big swings in house prices during that period. We use Bayesian econometric methods on data spanning 2000–2015. The estimations show the interdependence between house prices and housing credit. More importantly, negative housing credit innovations had a stronger effect on house prices than positive ones. The asymmetry in the linkage between housing credit and house prices highlights important policy implications, in that if central banks increase capital buffers during good times, they can release credit conditions during hard times to alleviate the negative spillover into house prices and the real economy.
    Keywords: house prices, housing credit, credit cycle, asymmetries, Bayesian
    JEL: E32 E44 E51 G21 R21 R31
    Date: 2019
  3. By: Serafinelli, Michel (University of California, Berkeley); Tabellini, Guido (Bocconi University)
    Abstract: Creativity is often highly concentrated in time and space, and across different domains. What explains the formation and decay of clusters of creativity? In this paper we match data on thousands of notable individuals born in Europe between the XIth and the XIXth century with historical data on city institutions and population. Our main variable of interest is the number of famous creatives (scaled to local population) born in a city during a century, but we also look at famous immigrants (based on location of death). We first document several stylized facts: famous births and immigrants are spatially concentrated and clustered across disciplines, creative clusters are persistent but less than population, and spatial mobility has remained stable over the centuries. Next, we show that the emergence of city institutions protecting economic and political freedoms and promoting local autonomy facilitates the attraction and production of creative talent.
    Keywords: innovation, agglomeration, political institutions, immigration, gravity
    JEL: R10 O10 J61 J24
    Date: 2019–09
  4. By: Puhani, Patrick A.; Yang, Philip
    Abstract: Because accountability may improve the comparability that is compromised by lenient grading, we compare exit exam outcomes in the same schools before and after a policy change that increased teacher accountability by anchoring grading scales. In particular, using a large administrative dataset of 364,445 exit exam outcomes for 72,889 students, we assess the effect of introducing centralized scoring standards into schools with higher and lower quality peer groups. We find that implementation of these standards increases scoring differences between the two school types by about 25 percent.
    Keywords: Education, gender, identification, fixed effects, teacher quality
    JEL: I21 J45 J71 J78
    Date: 2019–10
  5. By: Aureo de Paula; Imran Rasul; Pedro Souza
    Abstract: Social interactions determine many economic behaviors, but information on social ties does not exist in most publicly available and widely used datasets. We present results on the identification of social networks from observational panel data that contains no information on social ties between agents. In the context of a canonical social interactions model, we provide sufficient conditions under which the social interactions matrix, endogenous and exogenous social effect parameters are all globally identified. While this result is relevant across different estimation strategies, we then describe how high-dimensional estimation techniques can be used to estimate the interactions model based on the Adaptive Elastic Net GMM method. We employ the method to study tax competition across US states. We find the identified social interactions matrix implies tax competition differs markedly from the common assumption of competition between geographically neighboring states, providing further insights for the long-standing debate on the relative roles of factor mobility and yardstick competition in driving tax setting behavior across states. Most broadly, our identification and application show the analysis of social interactions can be extended to economic realms where no network data exists.
    Date: 2019–10
  6. By: Koen van Ruijven (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis); Paul Verstraten (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis); Peter Zwaneveld (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis)
    Abstract: As urbanization continues, congestion externalities are becoming more important due to an increasing utilization of the prevailing infrastructure. A growing number of cities have conducted transit-oriented developments to mitigate these congestion externalities. In this article, we analyze the effects of transit-oriented developments on residential property values As an extension to the standard hedonic pricing method, we employ the synthetic control method to estimate the value-added of transit-oriented developments. Three quantitative case studies in the Netherlands indicate that the effects of transit-oriented developments are highly heterogeneous. One case shows strong positive results. The other two are either insignificant, or temporarily negative.
    JEL: R38 R58
    Date: 2019–05
  7. By: Appau, Samuelson; Awaworyi Churchill, Sefa; Smyth, Russell; Zhang, Quanda
    Abstract: Using longitudinal data from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), this study provides insights on comparative wellbeing outcomes for older people who are institutionally segregated into clusters that produce uneven social capital. We present the first study that examines how institutionalized social capital inequality, measured by the social capital gap generated by hukou (household registration) status in China, affects the wellbeing of older people. Our results show that high levels of social capital inequality are associated with lower subjective wellbeing, measured by life satisfaction. This general conclusion is robust to a number of sensitivity checks including alternative ways of measuring subjective wellbeing and inequality. We also find that the negative relationship between social capital inequality and subjective wellbeing is strongest for people with a non-urban hukou living in urban areas. Our findings highlight the need for policies aimed at narrowing the social capital gap and the dismantling of institutional structures that hinder upward social capital mobility.
    Keywords: social capital, social networks, trust, social capital inequality, hukou, China
    JEL: I31 J14 O18
    Date: 2019–10–08
  8. By: Tommaso Agasisti (Politecnico di Milano School of management); Francesco Porcelli (SOSE)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the efficiency of Italian local governments using a novel dataset collected by SOSE (an agency of the Italian Ministry of Finance specialized in econometric analysis) and by means of Stochastic Frontier Analysis, for the period 2010-2015. As dependent variable of the cost function, we consider the total current expenditure for producing six “essential” local public services: education (ancillary services), waste management, general administration, local police, urbanization and road conditions, and social services. As outputs, we employ indicators for outputs for each of the six services, although they enter simultaneously in the multioutput cost function. In an alternative specification of the model, we use a composite indicator for the output volume. Thus, we estimate a global efficiency score for each local government in each year. The findings reveal that the total expenditure declined over time, less than proportionally when compared with reduction of outputs produced. As a consequence, the global efficiency of Italian municipalities is estimated to be lower in 2015 than it was in 2010. Moreover, there is evidence of substantial scale economies as well as congestion effects, with municipalities with around 10,000 inhabitants being more efficient than their smaller and larger counterparts. Lastly, on average local governments are more efficient in providing public services in northern Regions than in southern ones.
    Keywords: Efficiency, local governments, panel Stochastic Frontier Analysis
    JEL: D78 H11 H50 H72 H75
    Date: 2019–10
  9. By: Brenøe, Anne; Zölitz, Ulf
    Abstract: This paper investigates how high school gender composition affects students' participation in STEM at college. Using Danish administrative data, we exploit idiosyncratic within-school variation in gender composition. We find that having a larger proportion of female peers reduces women's probability of enrolling in and graduating from STEM programs. Men's STEM participation increases with more female peers present. In the long run, women exposed to more female peers are less likely to work in STEM occupations, earn less, and have more children. Our findings show that the school peer environment has lasting effects on occupational sorting, the gender wage gap, and fertility.
    Keywords: Gender; peer effects; STEM studies
    JEL: I21 J16 J31
    Date: 2019–08
  10. By: Bravo, Jorge Miguel (Universidade Nova de Lisboa); Ayuso, Mercedes (University of Barcelona); Holzmann, Robert (University of New South Wales)
    Abstract: The demographic change underway, declining adequacy levels from traditional pay-as-you-go old-age social security systems, structural reforms in pension schemes and the reduction in the traditional family support have increased the need for additional private savings to cover the old age income gap. In this paper we discuss the necessity, the role and the viability of home equity release schemes in supplementing public and private pensions in an integrated way. We use the latest European data from the Eurosystem Household Finance and Consumption Survey (HFCS) to analyse the household's wealth composition and accumulation process in the euro area. To quantify the size of the housing wealth and its potential to enhance existing and future retirement income, we compute the equity-to-value ratio (ETV) for all countries, estimate the time to loan payoff and compute the amount of home equity that is expected to be released over a 10-year period through regular monthly mortgage payments. We then catalogue and discuss the many alternative options for managing and accessing housing wealth over the life cycle, and highlight the main characteristics, risks, advantages and drawbacks of the two most important market products (home reversion plans and reverse mortgages). Finally, we discuss the main demand-side and supply-side obstacles and challenges to the development of equity release markets and extract some policy implications.
    Keywords: equity release schemes, housing wealth, reverse mortgage, homeownership, retirement income, pensions adequacy
    JEL: D1 G1 J1 R2 R3
    Date: 2019–09
  11. By: Andrew A. Alola (Istanbul Gelisim University, Turkey.); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon); Uju V. Alola (Istanbul Gelisim University, Turkey)
    Abstract: This study investigates the nexus between tourism development and house prices in the Republic of Cyprus over the period spanning from 2005Q1 to 2016Q4. Tourism indicators vis-Ã -vis tourism arrivals along with other explanatory variables (domestic credit, land area per person, and the consumer price index) are employed in a multivariate Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL)-bound test model. The empirical results indicate a significant evidence of cointegration. Indicatively, an observed adjustment of about 44% from short-run to long-run implies that the model is not relatively slow to adjust to disequilibrium. Importantly, a percent increase in tourism arrivals is observed to cause a rise in house price by about 37%. Expectedly, it is statistically observed that as the land area per person decreases, it is accompanied by a hike in house price. Also, the impacts of domestic credit offered to private enterprises and the consumer price index are different from the results in previous studies. As a policy guide, the government of Cyprus and stakeholders in the tourism and housing sectors should outline a strategy that will ensure the social welfare of people such that housing availability is not hampered by tourism activities.
    Keywords: house prices; tourism; domestic credit; cointegration; ARDL; Republic of Cyprus
    JEL: C22 O50 R31
    Date: 2019–01
  12. By: Auer, Raphael; Ongena, Steven
    Abstract: Do macroprudential regulations on residential lending influence commercial lending behavior too? To answer this question, we identify the compositional changes in banks' supply of credit using the variation in their holdings of residential mortgages on which extra capital requirements were uniformly imposed by the countercyclical capital buffer (CCyB) introduced in Switzerland in 2012. We find that the CCyB's introduction led to higher growth in commercial lending although this was unrelated to conditions in regional housing markets. Interest rates and fees charged to the firms concurrently increased. We rationalize these findings in a model featuring both private and firm-specific collateral.
    Keywords: bank capital; credit; macroprudential policy; Spillovers; systemic risk
    JEL: E51 E58 E60 G01 G21 G28
    Date: 2019–08
  13. By: R.; Junsen Zhang
    Abstract: In many countries of the world the co-residence of young adults aged 25-34 with their parents is not uncommon and in some countries the savings rates of these age groups exceed those of the middle-aged contrary to the standard model of life-cycle savings. In this paper we examine the role of housing prices in affecting the living arrangements of adult family members and their individual savings rates by age. Using unique data from China that enable the re-construction of whole families and identify individual savings regardless of who within the family co-resides in the same household, and exploiting the Chinese government rules determining the supply of land for residential housing, we find that increases in housing prices significantly increase inter-generational co-residence and elevate the savings rates of the young relative to the middle-aged, conditional on income, in part due to the subsidies to the young from sharing housing with parents. Based on our estimates of the effects of housing prices on co-residence and the effects of co-residence on individual savings, we find that the savings rates of the young in China would be 21% lower if housing prices were at the same ratio to disposable incomes as that observed in the United States.
    Keywords: savings, family, housing price, co-residence
    JEL: D91 D19 R31
    Date: 2019–10
  14. By: Wann-Ming Wey (Department of Real Estate and Built Environment, National Taipei University); Wei Huang (College of Real Estate, Beijing Normal University, ZhuHai, P.R.C.)
    Abstract: In recent years, countries around the world have proposed the vision of future cities such as ?smart cities?, ?sustainable cities? and ?inclusive cities?. Cities have also proposed relevant policies and measures, and hope to create a livable place. However, the composition of the city is wide and complex, and the future city is not only able to consider only one aspect. The planning of the future city should incorporate the concept of smartness, suatainability and inclusiveness. With the application of novel technologies in the future, the effective use and management of urban resources can be achieved, and the social network of citizens tends to be fair and harmonious, which enables the city to move towards sustainable urban development. Based on the planning criteria of smart cities, sustainable cities, and inclusive cities, this study will construct an assessment framework that is consistent with future cities. Through the Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) and the Analytic Network Process (ANP), the future urban development evaluation model is constructed considering the priority of its evaluation criteria. Finally, an empirical analysis of the future urban assessment model for Taichung City, Taiwan will be conducted to verify the suitability of the model and propose further planning strategies.
    Keywords: Analytic network process, Inclusive city, Smart city, Sustainable city
    JEL: R58 C00 O21
    Date: 2019–10
  15. By: Jorge Luis Casanova Ferrando
    Abstract: The debate over Airbnb is increasingly gaining attention both in academic and nonacademic spheres. However, in the specialized literature almost all analyses have ignored the spatial dependence behind it, that is, whether landlord’s decisions to raise or keep prices are related to each other. In the City of Madrid, non-spatial and spatial regressions of individual rental prices on dwelling characteristics and Airbnb density were compared. The results suggest that traditional models were biased as once spatial effects are introduced, the impact of Airbnb is no longer significant.
    Date: 2019–10
  16. By: Tim Ehlers; Robert Schwager
    Abstract: We present a theory explaining the impact of ability tracking on academic performance based on grading policies. Our model distinguishes between initial ability, which is mainly determined by parental background, and eagerness to extend knowledge. We show that achievements of low ability students may be higher in a comprehensive school system, even if there are neither synergy effects nor interdependent preferences among classmates. This arises because the comprehensive school sets a compromise standard which exceeds the standard from the low ability track. Moreover, if students with lower initial ability have higher eagerness to learn, merging classes will increase average performance.
    Keywords: ability tracking, comprehensive school, education, equality of opportunity, peer group effects
    JEL: I21 I28 D63
    Date: 2019
  17. By: Farah, Alfa
    Abstract: Many countries have adopted decentralization policies in order to strengthen democratic governance. Nevertheless, empirical literature on whether decentralization actually strengthens democratic governance is relatively limited when compared to empirical literature on the impact of decentralization on a wide array of fiscal or economic variables. Therefore, this paper empirically explores the effect of fiscal decentralization on democratic governance, particularly by highlighting one aspect of democratic governance, namely participation in local elections. Upon analyzing data from districts across Indonesia using the within-between specification, the empirical findings generally suggest that participation in district mayoral elections might not necessarily be driven by the increased autonomy that district have, but rather by some adverse consequences of decentralization such as capture by local elites. In addition, the analysis shows that when a district government gains fiscal power, this might not necessarily encourage electoral participation when the district's budget is mostly allocated to spending that does not benefit the public at large.
    Keywords: fiscal decentralization,fiscal autonomy,voter turnout,local election,the within-between specification
    JEL: H71 H72 H77 D72
    Date: 2019
  18. By: fofana, moustapha; Lawson, Laté; ballo, zié
    Abstract: The reverse effects of migration in enhancing small-scale social unrest seem less regarded in the existing studies on social conflicts in Africa. Thus, this paper proposes to reversely assess the migration and social instability nexus in Africa, exploiting data on “riots and protests” and “violence against civilians”. In addition to geographical spillovers in social instability, our results indicate that increasing migrants stock enhances small-scale internal conflicts in African countries. On the contrary, good economic performances and openness to trade are found to be reducing social conflicts. Globally, our results impel political actors and regional unions to further implement specific policies for the inclusive integration of regional migrants.
    Keywords: Small-scale conflicts; migration, spatial spillovers; development; Sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: C23 O15 Q34
    Date: 2019–07–30
  19. By: Mafini Dosso (European Commission - JRC); Didier Lebert (ENSTA ParisTech, UniversiteÌ Paris-Saclay (France))
    Abstract: This exploratory study looks at the structural and geographical patterns of corporate knowledge flows from a regional perspective. The methodological approach combines the centrality indicators developed in the social network analysis (SNA) and complementary tools from the graphs theory to assess the betweenness centrality of regions (or poles)- their ability to control knowledge flows within a network or to impact its cohesiveness - and the relative contribution of individual firms (or layers) to the centrality of regions. The combination of the two approaches brings relevant insights on the way large R&D-driven firms organise their knowledge sourcing and generation across world regions
    Keywords: patent citations; knowledge flows; graphs theory; regions; top corporate R&D investors.
    JEL: L14 O33 R58
    Date: 2019–10
  20. By: Schran, Felix (University of Bonn and IZA)
    Abstract: During the last few decades, aggregate wage growth has been very unevenly distributed across space in Germany. While wages in Southern German local labor markets rose by up to 28 log points, they increased only modestly or even declined in the north. Similar results apply to employment changes. Overall, this has led to a strong positive correlation between local wage and employment growth. What is driving these differential trends across space? This paper examines to what extent regions with growing employment are increasingly paying workers higher wage premia or, in contrast, to what extent the quality of workers in growing regions has risen. To decouple the demand for skill and supply of skill from each other, I estimate how regional wage premia have changed over time using administrative panel data that allow me to hold constant changes in unobserved worker quality. I find that wage premia in regions with expanding employment did not rise more than in regions with declining employment. Instead, the quality of workers in growing regions went up. I investigate the importance of various possible observables for this relationship including local amenity differences, changes in occupation and industry structure as well as variation in education rates. Last, I explore the impact of changing wage premia and changing worker quality on the recent rise in the density wage premium.
    Keywords: location choice, density premium, Roy model
    JEL: R11 R12 J21 J24 J31
    Date: 2019–09
  21. By: Riise, Julie (Department of Economics, University of Bergen); Willage, Barton (Department of Economics, Louisiana State University); Willen, Alexander (Dept. of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration)
    Abstract: We use random assignment of general practitioners (GPs) to provide the first evidence on the effects of female role models in childhood on the long-run educational outcomes of girls. We find that girls who are exposed to female GPs in childhood are significantly more likely to sort into traditionally male-dominated education programs in high school, most notably STEMM. These effects persist as females enter college and select majors. We also find strong positive effects on educational performance throughout their academic careers, suggesting that female role models in childhood improve education matches of girls. The effects we identify are significantly larger for high-ability girls with low educated parents, suggesting that female role models may improve intergenerational mobility and narrow the gifted gap for disadvantaged girls.
    Keywords: Role Models; STEMM; Gender Gap
    JEL: I20 I24 J24
    Date: 2019–10–09
  22. By: Andrew A. Alola (Istanbul Gelisim University, Turkey.); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon); Uju V. Alola (Istanbul Gelisim University, Turkey)
    Abstract: This study investigates the nexus between tourism development and house prices in the Republic of Cyprus over the period spanning from 2005Q1 to 2016Q4. Tourism indicators vis-à-vis tourism arrivals along with other explanatory variables (domestic credit, land area per person, and the consumer price index) are employed in a multivariate Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL)-bound test model. The empirical results indicate a significant evidence of cointegration. Indicatively, an observed adjustment of about 44% from short-run to long-run implies that the model is not relatively slow to adjust to disequilibrium. Importantly, a percent increase in tourism arrivals is observed to cause a rise in house price by about 37%. Expectedly, it is statistically observed that as the land area per person decreases, it is accompanied by a hike in house price. Also, the impacts of domestic credit offered to private enterprises and the consumer price index are different from the results in previous studies. As a policy guide, the government of Cyprus and stakeholders in the tourism and housing sectors should outline a strategy that will ensure the social welfare of people such that housing availability is not hampered by tourism activities.
    Keywords: C22; O50; R31
    Date: 2019–01
  23. By: Vardan Arutiunian (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication as well as behavior. Usually children with ASD have comorbid language disorders and/or delay. The present study concentrated on single-word recognition in 7-to-11-year-old Russian children with ASD. The results showed that primary-school-aged children with autism have difficulties even with such a basic process as single-word recognition.
    Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorder, single-word recognition, language impairments, phonological errors, semantic errors.
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2019
  24. By: Laurentiu Guinea (Universidad Complutense de Madrid and ICAE.); Luis A. Puch (Universidad Complutense de Madrid and ICAE.); Jesús Ruiz (Universidad Complutense de Madrid and ICAE.)
    Abstract: In this paper we investigate how the economy responds to anticipated (news) shocks to future investment decisions. Using structural vector autoregressions (SVARs), we show that news about the future relative price of residential investment explains a high fraction of the variance of output, aggregate investment and residential investment for Spain. In contrast, for Germany it is the news shocks on business structures and equipment that explain a higher fraction of the variance of output, consumption and non-residential investment. To interpret our empirical findings we propose a stylized two-sector model of the willingness to substitute current consumption for future investment in housing, structures or equipment. The model combines a wealth effect driven by the expectation of rising house prices, with frictions in labour reallocation. We find that the model calibrated for Spain displays a response to anticipated house price shocks that stimulate residential investment, whereas for Germany those shocks enhance investment in equipment and structures. The results stress that the propagation mechanism of anticipated shocks to future investment is consistent with the housing booms in Spain.
    Keywords: Investment-specifi technical change; News shocks; Housing booms; Wealth eff.
    JEL: C32 D84 E22 E32
    Date: 2019–09
  25. By: Anna Baranowska-Rataj; Kieron Barclay; Joan Costa-i-Font; Mikko Myrskylä; Berkay Özcan
    Abstract: Using Swedish population register data on cohorts born 1982-1994 (N=1,087,750), we examine the effects of preterm births on school grades using sibling fixed effect models which compare individuals with their non-preterm siblings. We test for heterogeneous effects by degree of prematurity, as well as whether family socioeconomic resources and school characteristics can compensate for any negative effects of premature births. Our results show that preterm births can have negative effects on school grades, but these negative effects are largely confined to children born extremely preterm (
    Keywords: premature births, human capital, early life investments, education investments, Sweden
    JEL: I10 I20 J13
    Date: 2019
  26. By: Dijkstra, Lewis; Poelman, Hugo; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés
    Abstract: Support for parties opposed to EU-integration has risen rapidly and a wave of discontent has taken over the EU. This discontent is purportedly driven by the very factors behind the surge of populism: differences in age, wealth, education, or economic and demographic trajectories. This paper maps the geography of EU discontent across more than 63,000 electoral districts in the EU-28 and assesses which factors push anti-EU voting. The results show that anti-EU vote is mainly a consequence of local economic and industrial decline in combination with lower employment and a less educated workforce. Many of the other suggested causes of discontent, by contrast, matter less than expected or their impact varies depending on levels of opposition to European integration.
    Keywords: Anti-Europeanism; anti-system voting; economic decline; education; European Union; industrial decline; migration; populism
    JEL: D72 R11
    Date: 2019–10
  27. By: Diewert, Erwin; Shimizu, Chihiro
    Abstract: While fluctuations in commercial property prices have an enormous impact on economic systems, the development of related statistics that can capture these fluctuations is one of the areas that is lagging the furthest behind. The reasons for this are that, in comparison to housing, commercial property has a high level of heterogeneity and there are extremely significant data limitations. Focusing on the Tokyo office market, this study estimated commercial property price indexes using the data available in the property market, and clarified discrepancies in commercial property price indexes based on differences in the method used to create them. Specifically, we estimated a quality adjusted price index with the hedonic price method using property appraisal prices and transaction prices. The international System of National Accounts (SNA) requires a decomposition of property values into price and volume (quantity) components for both the structure and land components of property value. The paper shows how this can be accomplished for Commercial properties.
    Keywords: Commercial property price indexes, System of National Accounts, the builder’s model, transaction based indexes, appraisal prices, assessment prices
    JEL: C2 C23 C43 D12 E31 R21
    Date: 2019–10–15
  28. By: Pudāne, Baiba
    Abstract: The enhanced possibility to perform non-driving activities in automated vehicles (AVs) may not only decrease the disutility of travel, but also change the AV users’ departure time preferences, thereby affecting traffic congestion. Depending on the AV interior, travellers may be able to perform in the vehicle activities that they would otherwise perform at home or at work. These possibilities might make them depart at different times compared to situations, when they are not able to engage in any activities during travel or when the possible activities do not substitute any out-of-vehicle activities. This paper formalises the on-board activity and substitution effects using new scheduling preferences in the morning commute context. The new scheduling preferences are used (1) to analyse the optimal departure times when there is no congestion, and (2) to obtain the equilibrium congestion patterns in a bottleneck setting. If there is no congestion, it is predicted that AV users would choose to depart earlier (later), if the on-board environment is better suited for their home (work) activities. If there is congestion, more AV users departing earlier or later would skew the congestion in the corresponding direction. Given the minimalistic bottleneck setting, it is found that congestion with AVs is more severe than with conventional vehicles. If AVs were specialised to support only home, only work, or both home and work activities, and would do so to a similar extent, then ‘Work AVs’ would increase the congestion the least.
    Keywords: Automated vehicles; On-board activities; Scheduling preferences; Departure time choice; Bottleneck model; Traffic congestion
    JEL: R41
    Date: 2019–10–01
  29. By: Jonneke Bolhaar (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis); Sander Gerritsen (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis); Sonny Kuijpers (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis); Karen van der Wiel (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis)
    Abstract: This paper concludes that school dropout rates did not decrease significantly in three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in Dutch vocational training colleges. Colleges could apply for a subsidy on interventions that aim to reduce dropout rates amongst young students that still lack a sufficient degree. All interventions were bottom-up approaches, so initiated by the colleges themselves. The interventions were relatively light interventions for a tough problem. The interventions focused on different elements of the dropout process: one aimed to improve the initial match between student and discipline, one aimed to improve parental involvement and another aimed to decrease illicit non-attendance. Simple analyses at the school level show that participation in the subsidy program did not decrease average dropout rates. The individual level results – making use of the RCT nature of the data – are very similar. The setup of the subsidy and our results show that testing new interventions using an RCT is possible and that these small scale trials can prevent ineffective interventions to be rolled-out on a large scale.
    JEL: I21 I28 C93
    Date: 2019–05
  30. By: Matthieu Bunel; Élisabeth Tovar (EconomiX - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: We question whether accessibility to local public employment agencies impacts exits from unemployment. We deal with the potential endogeneity of the residential location of jobseekers by using the unanticipated creation of a new agency in the French region of Lyon as a quasi-natural experiment. We use exhaustive and geo-located individual data on jobseekers and local public employment agencies. Contrary to past evidence based on aggregated data, we find no evidence that jobseekers with improved accessibility to the local public employment services experience an improvement of their probability of exiting unemployment. We however find evidence of transitory organizational effects. These findings strongly question the costly strategy of a fine distribution of local public employment agencies across the territory while suggesting that institutional issues are key.
    Date: 2019
  31. By: Luca Paolo Merlino (Department of Economics University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium; Université Paris 1-Panthéon Sorbonne); Nicole Tabasso (Department of Economics Ca' Foscari University of Venice; School of Economics, University of Surrey)
    Abstract: We study the diffusion of a true and a false opinion (the rumor) in a social network. Upon hearing an opinion, individuals may believe it, disbelieve it, or debunk it through costly verification. Whenever the truth survives in steady state, so does the rumor. Online social communication exacerbates relative rumor prevalence as long as it increases homophily or verification costs. Our model highlights that successful policies in the fight against rumors increase individuals’ incentives to verify.
    Keywords: Social Networks, Rumors, Verification
    JEL: D83 D85
    Date: 2019
  32. By: Lisa Windsteiger
    Abstract: In this paper I develop a general model of how social segregation and beliefs interact. Sorting decisions will be affected by beliefs about society, but these beliefs about society are in turn influenced by social interactions. In my model, people sort into social groups according to income, but become biased about the income distribution once they interact only with their own social circle. I define "biased sorting equilibria", which are stable partitions in which people want to stay in their chosen group, despite their acquired misperceptions about the other groups. I introduce a refinement criterion - the consistency requirement - and find necessary and su¢ cient conditions for existence and uniqueness of biased sorting equilibria.
    Keywords: Stratification, Assortative Matching, Group Formation, Beliefs
    JEL: D83 D85 Z13
    Date: 2018–10
  33. By: Raouf Boucekkine (Aix-Marseille Univ, CNRS, EHESS, Ecole Centrale, IMERA & AMSE, Marseille, France); Giorgio Fabbri (Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, INRA, Grenoble INP, GAEL, 38000 Grenoble); Salvatore Federico (Universita degli Studi di Siena, Dipartimento di Economia Politica e Statistica, Siena, Italy); Fausto Gozzi (Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza, LUISS Guido Carli, Rome, Italy)
    Abstract: We construct a spatiotemporal frame for the study of optimal growth under transboundary pollution. Space is continuous and polluting emissions originate in the intensity of use of the production input. Pollution flows across locations following a diffusion process. The objective functional of the economy is to set the optimal production policy over time and space to maximize welfare from consumption, taking into account a negative local pollution externality and the diffusive nature of pollution. Our framework allows for space and time dependent preferences and productivity, and does not restrict diffusion speed to be space-independent. This provides a comprehensive setting to analyze pollution diffusion with a close account of geographic heterogeneity. The involved optimization problem is infinite-dimensional. We propose an alternative method for an analytical characterization of the optimal paths and the asymptotic spatial distributions. The method builds on a deep economic concept of pollution spatiotemporal welfare effect, which makes it definitely useful for economic analysis.
    Keywords: optimal growth, spatiotemporal modelling, transboundary pollution, infinite dimensional optimal control
    JEL: Q53 R11 C61 R12 O41
    Date: 2019–10
  34. By: Lu Zhang (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis)
    Abstract: To what extent do large drops in house prices drive household consumption? Using a large panel of Dutch households over the period 2007 to 2014, when house price dropped 27%, we find a significantly positive relationship between house prices and household (durable) consumption. A 10% change in home values leads to a 0.7% change in household consumption for homeowners, but a negligible response for renters. Young and middle-aged homeowners have larger consumption sensitivities to house prices than old households. Delving into the underlying channels, a pure wealth effect can explain part of the consumption sensitivity to house prices. Furthermore, we find strong evidence that house prices affect consumption through the borrowing collateral (and precautionary saving) channel.
    JEL: D12 D14 E21
    Date: 2019–04
  35. By: Akiko Watanabe (Aoyama Gakuin University); Yosuke Kurihara (Aoyama Gakuin University); Satoshi Kumagai (Aoyama Gakuin University); Toshiyuki Matsumoto (Aoyama Gakuin University); Takuya Hida (Aoyama Gakuin University)
    Abstract: Most traffic accidents in Japan are caused by a lack of attention by drivers. One of the main factors contributing to this is ?driving fatigue?. Previous research based on electromyographic evaluations has indicated that the optimal driving methods for reducing the upper limb load on drivers are an ?underside? grip position and the ?push?pull? steering operation technique. This previous research developed the systems that estimate the upper limb load during car driving. However, the systems developed only estimate the upper limb load based on a driving route assumed before driving a car: the problem being that actual driving operation is not considered. Therefore, we previously proposed a method for discriminating the grip position when steering on a straight road to estimate the upper limb load based on steering wheel operation during actual driving. This study now proposes a method for discriminating the modes of steering operation during turns to the right and left. First, we conduct an experiment with a motion sensor and a simple driving simulator to detect the two modes of steering-wheel operation (hand-over-hand steering and push?pull steering) on turning a corner. The 10 subjects (5 males and 5 females) perform the steering operation for each mode according to driving videos. It is found that the modes of steering operation can be discriminated because there are differences in the measurement results of the motion sensor for the two modes Second, using the experimental results, the method of steering operation is discriminated through machine learning with a support vector machine (SVM), supplying the SVM with the average value, standard deviation, maximum value, and minimum value of the measurements taken during steering operation. The discrimination accuracy rate of the test data is found by 5-fold cross-validation to be 97.5%.
    Keywords: steering operation, upper limb load, support vector machine
    JEL: I19
    Date: 2019–10
  36. By: Shubha Chakravarty; Mattias Lundberg; Plamen Nikolov; Juliane Zenker
    Abstract: Lack of skills is arguably one of the most important determinants of high levels of unemployment and poverty. In response, policymakers often initiate vocational training programs in effort to enhance skill formation among the youth. Using a regression-discontinuity design, we examine a large youth training intervention in Nepal. We find, twelve months after the start of the training program, that the intervention generated an increase in non-farm employment of 10 percentage points (ITT estimates) and up to 31 percentage points for program compliers (LATE estimates). We also detect sizable gains in monthly earnings. Women who start self-employment activities inside their homes largely drive these impacts. We argue that low baseline educational levels and non-farm employment levels and Nepal's social and cultural norms towards women drive our large program impacts. Our results suggest that the program enables otherwise underemployed women to earn an income while staying at home - close to household errands and in line with the socio-cultural norms that prevent them from taking up employment outside the house.
    Date: 2019
  37. By: Stefan Irnich (Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz); Timo Hintsch (Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz); Lone Kiilerich (Aarhus University, Denmark)
    Abstract: The soft-clustered capacitated arc-routing problem (SoftCluCARP) is a restricted variant of the classical capacitated arc-routing problem. The only additional constraint is that the set of required edges, i.e., the streets to be serviced, is partitioned into clusters and feasible routes must respect the soft-cluster constraint, that is, all required edges of the same cluster must be served by the same vehicle. In this article, we design an effectivebranch-price-and-cutalgorithmfortheexactsolutionoftheSoftCluCARP.Itsnewcomponentsarea metaheuristic and branch-and-cut-based solvers for the solution of the column-generation subproblem, which is a proï¬ table rural clustered postman tour problem. Although postman problems with these characteristics have been studied before, there is one fundamental difference here: clusters are not necessarily vertexdisjoint, which prohibits many preprocessing and modeling approaches for clustered postman problems from the literature. We present an undirected and a windy formulation for the pricing subproblem and develop and computationally compare two corresponding branch-and-cut algorithms. Cutting is also performed at the master-program level using subset-row inequalities for subsets of size up to ï¬ ve. For the ï¬ rst time, these non-robust cuts are incorporated into MIP-based routing subproblem solvers using two different modeling approaches. In several computational studies, we calibrate the individual algorithmic components. The ï¬ nal computational experiments prove that the branch-price-and-cut algorithm equipped with these problemtailored components is effective: The largest SoftCluCARP instances solved to optimality have more than 150 required edges or more than 50 clusters.
    JEL: J22 J61 R23
    Date: 2019–10–10
  38. By: Maurin, Eric (Paris School of Economics); Navarrete H., Nicolas (Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: Immigration from Muslim countries is a source of tensions in many Western countries. Several countries have adopted regulations restricting religious expression and emphasizing the neutrality of the public sphere. We explore the effect of the most emblematic of these regulations: the prohibition of Islamic veils in French schools. In September 1994, a circular from the French Ministry of Education asked teachers and principals to ban Islamic veils in public schools. In March 2004, the parliament took one-step further and enshrined prohibition in law. This paper provides evidence that the 1994 circular contributed to improving the educational outcomes of female students with a Muslim background and to reducing educational inequalities between Muslim and non-Muslim students. We also provide evidence suggesting that the 2004 law has not generated any further improvements.
    Keywords: Islamic veil, high-school graduation
    JEL: I21 J15
    Date: 2019–09
  39. By: Jonathan Barr; Elena Magrini; Michela Meghnagi
    Abstract: As unemployment rates have reached historical lows across many OECD countries, it is important to focus on the economically inactive – that is people who are neither in a job nor seeking work. This paper reviews recent trends in economic inactivity across the OECD, focusing on places and people. The paper demonstrates the importance of moving beyond national averages to understand which regions and cities have higher levels of economic inactivity. It then looks at regional economic inactivity trends across cities in the United Kingdom (UK).
    Keywords: disadvantaged groups, labour market participation, regional disparities
    JEL: J24 J21 J62 I26
    Date: 2019–10–17
  40. By: Gokan, Toshitaka; Kichko, Sergey; Thisse, Jacques-François
    Abstract: We consider an economic geography setting in which firms are free to choose one of the following organizational types: (i) integrated firms, which perform all their activities at the same location, (ii) horizontal firms, which operate several plants producing the same good at different locations, and (iii) vertical firms, which perform distinct activities at separated locations. We show that there exists a unique organizational equilibrium, which typically involves the coexistence of various organizational forms. We also give necessary and sufficient conditions for the three types of firms to coexist within the same region and show that transportation and communication costs have opposite effects on firms' organizational choices. This suggests that, depending on its nature, the supply of a new transportation infrastructure may lead to contrasted locational patterns.
    Keywords: Communication costs; horizontal firm; Region; Transportation Costs; vertical firm
    JEL: F12 F21 R12
    Date: 2019–10
  41. By: Devasheesh Mathur
    Abstract: "Bureaucracy and governments seldom innovate due to no competition and high costs of failures while businesses innovate to achieve competitive advantage. In such a scenario, social enterprises are quite well suited and well equipped to usher innovations in public services by their dense engagement with the community and viable business models.This effective combination creates new services with the hitherto neglected community at the helm and gives rise to total innovations in public services" Key Words: social entrepreneurship, public service, innovation, literature Policy
    Date: 2019–09
  42. By: Dominguez-Rivera, Patricio (Inter-American Development Bank); Lofstrom, Magnus (Public Policy Institute of California); Raphael, Steven (University of California, Berkeley)
    Abstract: We evaluate whether California's state proposition 47 impacted state violent and property crime rates. Passed by the voters in November 2014, the proposition redefined many less serious property and drug offenses that in the past could be charged as either a felony or misdemeanor to straight misdemeanors. The proposition caused a sudden and sizable decline in county jail populations, a moderate decline in the state prison population, a decrease in arrests for property and drug offenses, and a wave of legal petitions filed for retroactive resentencing and reclassification of prior convictions. We make use of multiple strategies to estimate the effect of the proposition, including state-level synthetic cohort analysis, within-state event study estimates based on state-level monthly time series, and a cross-county analysis of changes in county-level crime rates that exploit heterogeneity in the effects of the proposition on local criminal justice practices. We find little evidence of an impact on violent crime rates in the state. Once changes in offense definitions and reporting practices in key agencies are accounted for, violent crime in California is roughly at pre-proposition levels and generally lower than the levels that existed in 2010 prior to a wave major reforms to the state's criminal justice system. While our analysis of violent crime rates yields a few significant point estimates (a decrease in murder for one method and an increase in robbery for another), these findings are highly sensitivity to the method used to generate a counterfactual comparison path. We find more consistent evidence of an impact on property crime, operating primarily through an effect on larceny theft. The estimates are sensitive to the method used to generate the counterfactual, with more than half of the relative increase in property crime (and for some estimates considerably more) driven by a decline in the counterfactual crime rate rather than increases for California for several of the estimators that we employ. Despite this sensitivity, there is evidence from all methods tried that property crime increased with, a ballpark summary of five to seven percent roughly consistent with the totality of our analysis. Similar to violent crime, California property crime rates remain at historically low levels.
    Keywords: incarceration, sentencing, crime, jail, prison, Proposition 47
    JEL: K40 K42 H11
    Date: 2019–09
  43. By: Gaurav Khanna; Carlos Medina; Anant Nyshadham; Christian Posso; Jorge A. Tamayo
    Abstract: We investigate the effects of job displacement, as a result of mass-layoffs, on criminal arrests using a novel matched employer-employee-crime dataset in Medellín, Colombia. Job displacement leads to immediate earnings losses, and an increased likelihood of being arrested for both the displaced worker and for other youth in the family. We leverage variation in opportunities for legitimate reemployment and access to consumption credit to investigate the mechanisms underlying this job loss-crime relationship. Workers in booming sectors with more opportunities for legitimate reemployment exhibit smaller increases in arrests after job losses. Greater exposure to expansions in consumption credit also lowers the job loss-crime elasticity.
    JEL: J63 J65 K42
    Date: 2019–09
  44. By: P?nar Gültekin (Duzce University); Ya?ar Selman Gültekin (Düzce University)
    Abstract: The child represents a considerable number of the population living in a city. On the other hand, child is one of the groups whose existence is least taken into consideration when making urban arrangements. Many children living in today's cities are not able to spend time in the open space during their childhood due to their parents' busy work tempo, urban open and green deficiencies and lack of activity types. Studies reveal that children who are exposed to the stress of the city and who grow up in cities that cannot spend enough time with their families in outdoor areas may have feelings of anger and even hostility towards their parents.In this study, a questionnaire was applied to measure the contribution of families participating in activities in urban open spaces of Düzce to the participation of urban open space activities in good parenting and physical and psychological development of their children. Within the scope of the study, 100 families were interviewed and the survey results were analyzed in SPSS 22.0 Program. Frequency and percentage, average and one-way analysis of variance were applied. It was found that the families of the children who participated in urban outdoor activities more frequently, spend more time in the playgrounds with their children and participated in the after-work games were defined as children with higher self-esteem, self-distraction, and easily happy.
    Keywords: Family support, good parenting, recreation, urban open green space
    Date: 2019–10
  45. By: Dhuey, Elizabeth (University of Toronto); Eid, Jean (Wilfrid Laurier University); Neill, Christine (Wilfrid Laurier University)
    Abstract: Full-day kindergarten programs are expanding across North America, driven by a policy focus on early childhood development. These programs also affect parents' budget sets and may lead to changes in labour market outcomes. We exploit the unusual nature of Ontario's government school system to examine parents' labour supply response to a move from half-day to full-day kindergarten in Ontario's French – but not English – schools. We find no robust evidence of labour supply effects for fathers in two parent families, and only some limited and modest effects on mothers in two parent families. For single mothers, the point estimates suggest large and statistically significant effects on employment and hours of work, and in particular for working longer hours.
    Keywords: kindergarten, early education, maternal labour supply
    JEL: I28
    Date: 2019–09
  46. By: Cohen, Kathleen
    Abstract: New mobility trends such as shared mobility, autonomous vehicles, and mobility as a service are poised to disrupt the way the world moves. Since transport behavior is rooted in human behavior, how these trends are adopted will be influenced by behavioral preferences as well as cultural trends. This literature review looks at the behavioral preferences that will influence the uptake and impact of new mobility in the three largest markets: the United States, Europe, and China. The author finds that factors such as cost, time, comfort, convenience, safety, identity creation, and environmental concern are all important in transport modal choice. Larger societal trends such as changing preferences amongst younger generations as well as differences between urban and rural riders will also influence uptake of new mobility. Ultimately, the sustainability of new mobility in terms of reduced emissions and congestion will depend upon the adoption of shared models over private car ownership, which will require behavioral changes that could be incentivized with smart public policy.
    Keywords: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2019–10–17
  47. By: Andersen, Asbjørn Goul (Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research); Markussen, Simen (Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research); Røed, Knut (Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research)
    Abstract: Based on administrative data from Norway, we explore the "grey area" between the roles of unemployment- and temporary disability-insurances by examining how participation in these two program types is affected by local labor demand conditions. Local labor demand is identified by means of a shift-share instrumental variables strategy, where initial local industry-composition is interacted with sub-sequent national industry-specific employment fluctuations. Our results indicate that local labor demand has a large negative effect on the propensity to claim disability insurance, which, for some groups, is remarkably similar to its effect on the propensity to claim unemployment insurance. Based on this finding, we question whether it is meaningful to maintain a sharp distinction between these two programs.
    Keywords: unemployment, disability insurance, program substitution, shift-share analysis
    JEL: J23 J58 J65 H55
    Date: 2019–10
  48. By: Milan T.Mistry
    Abstract: "In this paper research try to focus on secondary school studentseducational achievement and study habits. Researcher used two standardized tools for data collection. Researcher administrated these test on the sample of 300 students which was selected by multistage sampling techniques. Researcher computed t-test for data analysis and draw research findings." Key Words: Educational Achievement, Study Habits, Gender, School Type Policy
    Date: 2019–09
  49. By: Colin Green (Department of Economics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology); Luke Wilson (University of Sheffield); Anwen Zhang (University of Glasgow)
    Abstract: A growing body of research demonstrates marked labour market bene?ts from physical attractiveness. Yet, how physical attractiveness in?uences earlier consequential decisions is not well understood. This paper estimates the effect of attractiveness in adolescence on one set of consequential outcomes, engagement in risky behaviours. We ?nd robust evidence of marked effects of teenage attractiveness across a range of risky behaviours, including underage drinking, smoking, substance abuse and teenage sexual activity. More attractive individuals are more likely to engage in underage drinking, but markedly less likely to smoke or to be sexual active. Mediation analysis reveals that popularity, self-esteem, and personality attractiveness are likely underlying mechanisms. Our ?ndings suggest physical attractiveness in adolescence carries long-lasting consequences over the life course.
    Keywords: beauty, risky behaviours, adolescent development
    JEL: I12 J10
    Date: 2019–10–15
  50. By: Helene Maisonnave (ULH - Université Le Havre Normandie - NU - Normandie Université); Ramos Mabugu; Margaret Chitiga; Véronique Robichaud
    Date: 2019–10–11
  51. By: Idahosa; Love O; Marwa; Nyankomo; Akotey; Joseph O
    Abstract: In light of the high energy consumption associated with Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) in tourism accommodation establishments, as well as the concern for guests’ satisfaction which limits the environmental actions of these establishments, this study tests the hypothesis that thermal comfort is socially constructed, and as such, social norms will be effective in influencing HVAC consumption towards more sustainable levels. Within the framework of a randomised field experiment, the response of hotel guests to message prompts to set their room thermostat to a prescribed temperature is observed. Response behaviour is monitored using Temperature data logging devises place in the rooms. Findings suggest that social norms are effective in influencing hotel guests’ room temperature settings, indicating that thermal comfort is largely socially constructed. The implication of this is that the future of the current unsustainable trend in resource consumption and Green House Gas pollution, driven by the increasing adoption of, and demand for, HVAC systems in buildings, can be modified towards more sustainable levels. The application of the behavioural intervention to testing the social construction of thermal comfort, as well as the technology adopted for observing behaviour, are a novel contribution to the existing body of knowledge.
    Keywords: Thermal Comfort, Social norms, Randomised Control Trial
    Date: 2018–07
  52. By: Bharat Chandar; Uri Gneezy; John List; Ian Muir
    Abstract: Even though social preferences affect nearly every facet of life, there exist many open questions on the economics of social preferences in markets. We leverage a unique opportunity to generate a large data set to inform the who's, what's, where's, and when's of social preferences through the lens of a nationwide tipping field experiment on the Uber platform. Our field experiment generates data from more than 40 million trips, allowing an exploration of social preferences in the ride sharing market using bid data. Combining experimental and natural variation in the data, we are able to establish tipping facts as well as provide insights into the underlying motives for tipping. Interestingly, even though tips are made privately, and without external social benefits or pressure, more than 15% of trips are tipped. Yet, nearly 60% of people never tip, and only 1% of people always tip. Overall, the demand-side explains much more of the observed tipping variation than the supply-side.
    Date: 2019
  53. By: Maaike Diepstraten (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis); Rudy Douven (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis); Bram Wouterse (CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis)
    Abstract: We examine the impact of the accessibility of an older individual’s house on her use of nursing home care. We link administrative data on the accessibility of all houses in the Netherlands to data on long-term care use of all older persons from 2011-2014. We find that older people living in more accessible houses are less likely to use nursing home care. The effects increase with age and are largest for individuals aged 90 or older. The effects are stronger for people with physical limitations than for persons with cognitive problems. We also provide suggestive evidence that older people living in more accessible houses substitute nursing home care by home care.
    JEL: I11 I13 H51
    Date: 2019–04
  54. By: Besley, Timothy J.
    Abstract: This paper explores the role of civic culture in expanding fiscal capacity by developing a model based on reciprocal obligations; citizens pay their taxes and the state provides public goods. Civic culture evolves over time according to the relative payoff of civic-minded and materialist citizens. A strong civic culture manifests itself as high tax revenues sustained by high levels of voluntary tax compliance and provision of public goods. This captures the idea of government as a reciprocal social contract between the state and its citizens. The paper highlights the role of political institutions and common interests in the emergence civic culture.
    Date: 2019–08
  55. By: Neal Marquez; Kiran Garimella; Ott Toomet; Ingmar Weber; Emilio Zagheni (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany)
    JEL: J1 Z0
    Date: 2019–10
  56. By: Yoan Hermstrüwer (Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods, Bonn)
    Abstract: This article explores the impact of procedural information on the behavior of applicants under two of the most commonly used school admissions procedures: the Gale-Shapley mechanism and the Boston mechanism. In a lab experiment, I compare the impact of information about the mechanism, information about individually optimal application strategies, and information about both. I find that strategic and full information increase truth-telling and stability under the Gale-Shapley mechanism. Under the Boston mechanism, however, the adoption of equilibrium strategies remains unaffected. Contrary to prevailing assumptions in matching theory, I show that the Boston mechanism improves perceived fairness. These results underscore the importance of procedural information and suggest that eliminating justified envy may not be a sucient condition of fairness.
    Keywords: matching markets, school choice, transparency, fairness, law and market design
    JEL: C78 C92 I20 K10
    Date: 2019–08
  57. By: Kutinova Menclova, Andrea (University of Canterbury); Stillman, Steven (Free University of Bozen/Bolzano)
    Abstract: We examine the impact of a major earthquake that unexpectedly affected the Canterbury region of New Zealand on a wide-range of birth outcomes, including birth weight, gestational age and an indicator of general newborn health. We control for observed and unobserved differences between pregnant women in the area affected by the earthquake and other pregnant women by including mother fixed effects in all of our regression models. We extend the previous literature by comparing the impact of the initial unexpected earthquake to the impacts of thousands of aftershocks that occurred in the same region over the 18 months following the initial earthquake. We find that exposure to these earthquakes reduced gestational age, increased the likelihood of having a late birth and negatively affected newborn health - with the largest effects for earthquakes that occurred in the first and third trimesters of pregnancy. Our estimates are similar when we focus on just the impact of the initial earthquake or, in contrast, on all earthquakes controlling for endogenous location decisions using an instrumental variables approach. This suggests that the previous estimates in the literature that use this approach are likely unbiased and that treatment effects are homogenous in the population. We present supporting evidence that the likely channel for these adverse effects is maternal stress.
    Keywords: maternal stress, pregnancy, earthquakes, birth weight, Apgar score
    JEL: I12 J13 I31
    Date: 2019–09
  58. By: Paul J. Burke (Arndt-Corden Department of Economics, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University); Rohan Best; Frank Jotzo (Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University)
    Abstract: Around one-third of Australia’s coal-fired power stations closed during 2012–2017, with most of the remainder expected to close over coming decades. Current investment in generation capacity is primarily in the form of alternative power, especially wind and solar. In this paper we conduct an event study to assess the local unemployment effects of Australia’s coal-fired power station closures. This is an issue of considerable interest given the prominence of coal-fired power stations in local economies. Our analysis uses monthly regional labour force survey data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. We find that there has on average been an increase in local unemployment of around 0.7 percentage points after the closures of coal-fired power stations, an effect that tends to persist beyond the months immediately after closure. The findings raise questions about appropriate policy responses for dealing with local structural adjustment issues facing coal-reliant communities.
    JEL: J65 E24 L94
    Date: 2018–09

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