nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2019‒09‒09
fifty-five papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. Residential Property Price Indexes: Spatial Coordinates versus Neighbourhood Dummy Variables By Diewert, Erwin; Shimizu, Chihiro
  2. Spatial Dependence, Social Networks, and Economic Structures in Regional Labor Migration By Murayama, Koji; Nagayasu, Jun
  3. Deregulating Teach Labor Markets By Simon Burgess; Ellen Greaves; Richard Murphy
  4. Growth and Activity Diversification: the impact of financing non-traditional local activities By Thiago Christiano Silva; Benjamin Miranda Tabak
  5. Pandemics, Places, and Populations: Evidence from the Black Death By Remi Jedwab; Noel D. Johnson; Mark Koyama
  6. Instruction Time, Information, and Student Achievement: Evidence from a Field Experiment By Andersen, Simon Calmar; Guul, Thorbjørn Sejr; Humlum, Maria Knoth
  7. Crime and Networks: 10 Policy Lessons By Lindquist, Matthew J.; Zenou, Yves
  8. Factors determining enterprise location choice in Russia By Natalia Davidson; Oleg Mariev
  9. Old Sins Cast Long Shadows: The Long-Term Impact of the Resettlement of the Sudetenland on Residential Migration By Guzi, Martin; Huber, Peter; Mikula, Stepan
  10. Housing sector and optimal macroprudential policy in an estimated DSGE model for Luxembourg By Ibrahima Sangaré
  11. Natural amenities and the spatial distribution of Swiss income By Joséphine Leuba
  12. Trashing Johannesburg: Ponte City-as-archive of everyday loss By Charlton, Ed
  13. How Do Foreclosures Exacerbate Housing Downturns? By Adam M. Guren; Timothy J. McQuade
  14. The Health-Related Consequences to Police Stops as Pathways to Risks in Academic Performance for Urban Adolescents By Juan Del Toro; Alvin Thomas; Ming-Te Wang; Diane Hughes
  15. Skill, Innovation and Wage Inequality: Can Immigrants be the Trump Card? By Gouranga Gopal Das; Sugata Marjit; Mausumi Kar
  16. Housing Prices, Inter-generational Co-residence, and “Excess” Savings by the Young: Evidence using Chinese Data By Mark Rosenzweig; Junsen Zhang
  17. Does Light Touch Cluster Policy Work? Evaluating the Tech City Programme By Max Nathan
  18. Assessing the Cost of Free Primary Education Policy in Nigeria and the Question of Sustainability By Wilfred IGUODALA
  19. Does Eviction Cause Poverty? Quasi-Experimental Evidence from Cook County, IL By John Eric Humphries; Nicholas Mader; Daniel Tannenbaum; Winnie van Dijk
  20. Culture and local development: maximising the impact: A guide for local governments, communities and museums By OECD; ICOM
  21. Using Behavioral Insights to Improve Truancy Notifications By Lasky-Fink, Jessica; Robinson, Carly; Chang, Hedy; Rogers, Todd
  22. Museums and local development in the autonomous province of Trento, Italy By OECD
  23. How teachers update their teaching skills to cope with the rapidly changing world By OECD
  24. Formal Employment and Organized Crime: Regression Discontinuity Evidence from Colombia By Gaurav Khanna; Carlos Medina; Anant Nyshadham; Jorge A. Tamayo
  25. Perceived Immigration And Voting Behavior. By Bellucci, Davide; Conzo, Pierluigi; Zotti, Roberto
  26. Low Emission Zones for Better Health: Evidence from German Hospitals By Pestel, Nico; Wozny, Florian
  28. Racial Disparities in Voting Wait Times: Evidence from Smartphone Data By M. Keith Chen; Kareem Haggag; Devin G. Pope; Ryne Rohla
  29. The Effects of Chess Instruction on Academic and Non-Cognitive Outcomes: Field Experimental Evidence from a Developing Country By Islam, Asadul; Lee, Wang-Sheng; Nicholas, Aaron
  31. Tracking Phenomenon of Physical Development during elementary School By Yusaku Ogura; Katsunori Fujii; Yuzuru Naito; Kohsuke Kasuya; Yuki Takeyama; Nozomi Tanaka
  32. Identifying Bikeshare Station Locations to Improve Underserved Communities’ Accessibility By Qian, Xiaodong; Niemeier, Deb
  33. Emergence of an Urban Traffic Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram By Abhishek Ranjan; Mogens Fosgerau; Erik Jenelius
  34. Fiscal Windfall Curse By Simon Berset; Mark Schelker
  35. The Current State of Financial Education in Japanese Senior High Schools -A Summary of the Results from a 2019 Survey Conducted Among Senior High School Teachers- By Nobuyoshi Yamori; Hitoe Ueyama; Mitsuyoshi Yanagihara
  36. International knowledge flows between industry inventors and universities: The role of multinational companies By Fassio, Claudio; Geuna, Aldo; Rossi, Federica
  37. Pirate Attacks and the Shape of the Italian Urban System By Antonio Accetturo; Michele Cascarano; Guido de Blasio
  38. Does Halting Refugee Resettlement Reduce Crime? Evidence from the United States Refugee Ban By Masterson, Daniel; Yasenov, Vasil
  39. Is Early Start a Better Start? Evaluating California State University's Early Start Remediation Policy By Kurlaender, Michal; Lusher, Lester; Case, Matthew
  40. The Effect of Resource Wealth on Regional Economic Development in China By Zuo, Na; Zhong, Hua
  41. The economics of minority language use: theory and empirical evidence for a language game model By Stefan Sperlich; Jose-Ramon Uriarte
  42. Cross-task spillovers in workplace teams: Motivation vs. learning By Steven Jacob Bosworth; Simon Bartke
  43. Accounting for Attribute Non-Attendance in Three Previously-Published Choice Studies of Coastal Resources By Petrolia, Daniel R.; Hwang, Joonghyun
  44. How Do Landfills Impact Surrounding Property Values: A Difference-in-Differences Model Analysis By Saha, Bijeta Bijen
  45. Granular Search, Market Structure, and Wages By Jarosch, Gregor; Nimczik, Jan Sebastian; Sorkin, Isaac
  46. Household precariousness and youth living arrangements in Spain: evidence for a complete business cycle By Olga Cantó; Inmaculada Cebrián; Gloria Moreno
  47. On the road to integration? Immigrant’s demand for informal (& formal) education By Coniglio, Nicola D.; Hoxhaj, Rezart; Jayet, Hubert
  48. Does inequality reduce mobility? The Great Gatsby Curve and its mechanisms By Brandén, Gunnar
  49. Hierarchical and Circular Flow Structure of the Interfirm Transaction Network in Japan By KICHIKAWA Yuichi; IINO Takashi; IYETOMI Hiroshi; INOUE Hiroyasu
  50. Does Parental Out-migration Benefit Left-behind Children’s Schooling Outcomes? – Evidence from Rural China By Luo, Xiaoman
  51. The Early Life Influences of Teachers' Genders on Later Life Charitable Giving: Evidence from the Natural Disasters in Japan By Yamamura, Eiji; Powdthavee, Nattavudh
  52. The Impact of Exposure to Missionaries on the English Language Proficiency and Earnings of Immigrants in the USA By Larsen, Nicholas; Chiswick, Barry R.
  53. Education Reform in Zimbabwe: A Pseudo-Panel Approach By Zhang, Zeya; Alwang, Jeffrey
  54. Preschool Quality and Child Development By Alison Andrew; Orazio Attanasio; Raquel Bernal; Lina Cardona Sosa; Sonya Krutikova; Marta Rubio-Codina
  55. Effect of Absent Landlords on the Land Rental Market in India By Maertens, Annemie; Khamis, Melanie

  1. By: Diewert, Erwin; Shimizu, Chihiro
    Abstract: The paper addresses the following question: can satisfactory residential property price indexes be constructed using hedonic regression techniques where location effects are modeled using local neighbourhood dummy variables or is it necessary to use spatial coordinates to model location effects. Hill and Scholz (2018) addressed this question and found, using their hedonic regression model, that it was not necessary to use spatial coordinates to obtain satisfactory property price indexes for Sydney. However, their hedonic regression model did not estimate separate land and structure price indexes for residential properties. In order to construct national balance sheet estimates, it is necessary to have separate land and structure price indexes. The present paper addresses the Hill and Scholz question in the context of providing satisfactory residential land price indexes. The spatial coordinate model used in the present paper is a modification of Colwell’s (1998) spatial interpolation method. The modification can be viewed as a general nonparametric method for estimating a function of two variables.
    Keywords: Residential property price indexes, System of National Accounts, Balance Sheets, methods of depreciation
    JEL: C2 C14 C21 C23 C25 C43 E31 R21
    Date: 2019–09–05
  2. By: Murayama, Koji; Nagayasu, Jun
    Abstract: This study empirically analyzes the determinants of regional labor migration in Japan, where small towns are disappearing due to the shortage of labor. Using spatial models of origin-destination flows and considering network effects of labor and economic structures, we obtain results more consistent with the standard migration theory than previous studies. First, unlike previous studies, we find that migration decisions in Japan are based on economic motivations consistent with economic theories. Particularly, unemployment rates in origins and destinations and income in origins are found to be the determinants of labor migration. Second, we report that network effects, which help reduce migration costs, have encouraged relocation of labor. Third, considering spatial weights based on distance, goods flow, and economic structures, we show that neighbors can be most appropriately defined with economic structures; migration patterns are alike in regions with similar economic structures.
    Keywords: labor migration; spatial models; regional economy; economic structures; network effects
    JEL: J61 R23
    Date: 2019–08
  3. By: Simon Burgess; Ellen Greaves; Richard Murphy
    Abstract: A common feature of public sector labor markets is the use of pay scales. This paper examines how the removal of pay scales impacts productivity, by exploiting a reform that compelled all schools in England to replace pay scales with school-designed performance related pay schemes. We find that schools in labor markets with better outside options for teachers saw relatively higher increases in teacher pay. Schools in these areas relatively increase their spending on teachers, have higher teacher retention and larger improvements in student tests scores. These effects are largest in schools with the high proportions of disadvantaged students. We conclude that the pay rigidities in the form of centralized pay schedules result in a misallocation of resources, by preventing such schools from retaining their teachers.
    Keywords: Pay Scales, Teachers, Performance Related Pay, Productivity
    Date: 2019–08–26
  4. By: Thiago Christiano Silva; Benjamin Miranda Tabak
    Abstract: We study how financing non-traditional local activities, conceived here as a proxy for activity diversification, associates with economic growth. We use municipality-level data from Brazil, a country that provides an ideal experimental setup due to the large geographical, social, and economic disparities observed across its more than 5,500 cities. We find that financing non-traditional local activities matters to cities development and such association is stronger at their earlier stages of development. We use the centrality in the network of intercity economic flows as a proxy for the municipality stage of development. The centrality encodes the overall importance of the city in terms of economic intermediation to the entire network structure of business activities. The network is constructed using every observed intercity wire transfers registered in the Brazilian Payments System. Cities more nearby (geographic closeness) and that transact more (economic closeness) with advanced centers have higher growth rates, suggesting the existence of positive spillovers. Economic spillovers are more critical than geographic spillovers for growth. Using natural disasters as sources of unexpected negative events, we also find that the inverted U-shaped association of financial development variables with growth commonly documented in the finance-growth literature breaks down. In addition, the association between financing non-traditional local activities and economic growth becomes negative in times of distress. Our results suggest that cities should restrengthen their traditional activities when adverse conditions befall.
    Date: 2019–08
  5. By: Remi Jedwab (George Washington University); Noel D. Johnson (George Mason University); Mark Koyama (George Mason University)
    Abstract: The Black Death killed 40% of Europe’s population between 1347-1352, making it one of the largest shocks in the history of mankind. Despite its historical importance, little is known about its spatial effects and the effects of pandemics more generally. Using a novel dataset that provides information on spatial variation in Plague mortality at the city level, as well as various identification strategies, we explore the short-run and long-run impacts of the Black Death on city growth. On average, cities recovered their pre-Plague populations within two centuries. In addition, aggregate convergence masked heterogeneity in urban recovery. We show that both of these facts are consistent with a Malthusian model in which population returns to high-mortality locations endowed with more rural and urban fixed factors of production. Land suitability and natural and historical trade networks played a vital role in urban recovery. Our study highlights the role played by pandemics in determining both the sizes and placements of populations.Creation-Date: 2019-03
    Keywords: Pandemics; Black Death; Mortality; Path Dependence; Cities; Urbanization; Malthusian Theory; Migration; Growth; Europe
    JEL: R11 R12 O11 O47 J11 N00 N13
  6. By: Andersen, Simon Calmar (Aarhus University); Guul, Thorbjørn Sejr (Aarhus University); Humlum, Maria Knoth (Aarhus University)
    Abstract: Prior research has shown that time spent in school does not close the achievement gap between students with low and high socioeconomic status (SES). We examine the effect of combining increased instruction time with information to teachers about their students' reading achievements by using a randomized controlled trial. We find that the teachers' baseline beliefs are more important for low-SES students' academic performance, that the intervention makes the teachers update these beliefs, and—not least—that the intervention improves the reading skills of low-SES students and thereby reduces the achievement gap between high- and low-SES students. The results are consistent with a model in which the teachers' beliefs about the students' reading skills are more important to low- than high-SES students, while at the same time, the teachers' beliefs are subject to information friction and Bayesian learning.
    Keywords: information, learning, field experiment
    JEL: I24 I28 D83
    Date: 2019–08
  7. By: Lindquist, Matthew J. (SOFI, Stockholm University); Zenou, Yves (Monash University)
    Abstract: Social network analysis can help us understand more about the root causes of delinquent behavior and crime and provide practical guidance for the design of crime prevention policies. To illustrate these points, we first present a selective review of several key studies and findings from the criminology and police studies literature. We then turn to a presentation of recent contributions made by network economists. We highlight 10 policy lessons and provide a discussion of recent developments in the use of big data and computer technology.
    Keywords: co-offending, crime, criminal networks, social networks, peer effects, key player
    JEL: A14 K42 Z13
    Date: 2019–08
  8. By: Natalia Davidson (Graduate School of Economics and Management, Ural Federal University); Oleg Mariev (Graduate School of Economics and Management, Ural Federal University)
    Abstract: This paper studies determinants of enterprise location decisions in Russia, such as agglomeration levels, home market potential, transport infrastructure and institutional environment. Results confirm that agglomeration levels and home market potential affect foreign firms? location choice and probability that national firms will work in a city. Urbanization economies and home market potential positively affect location choice; localization economies have an inverted U shape. Estimation shows that foreign enterprises are interested in large demand. Under assumption that there are more innovations in diversified cities and cities with favourable business climate, strategic asset seeking might be present. The study confirms negative impact of regional business environment risks on foreign firms? location choice. Results will be useful for regional policy aimed at business development and attracting foreign direct investment.
    Keywords: enterprise location choice, cities, agglomeration economies, home market potential, business environment, foreign direct investment, Russia
    JEL: O12 R12 F21
    Date: 2019–07
  9. By: Guzi, Martin (Masaryk University); Huber, Peter (WIFO - Austrian Institute of Economic Research); Mikula, Stepan (Masaryk University)
    Abstract: We analyze the long-term impact of the resettlement of the Sudetenland after World War II on residential migration. This event involved expulsion of ethnic Germans and almost complete depopulation of an area of a country and its rapid resettlement by 2 million Czech inhabitants. Results based on nearest neighbor matching and regression discontinuity design show a higher population churn in resettled areas that continues today. The populations in resettled areas and in the remainder of the country share similar values and do not differ statistically in terms of their propensity to give donations, attend social events, and participate in voluntary work. However, we observe that resettled settlements have fewer local club memberships, lower turnout in municipal elections, and less frequently organized social events. This finding indicates substantially lower local social capital in the resettled settlements that is likely to have caused higher residential migration. This explanation is consistent with theoretical models of the impact of social capital on migration decisions.
    Keywords: migration, social capital, Sudetenland
    JEL: N44 Z10 R23 J15
    Date: 2019–08
  10. By: Ibrahima Sangaré
    Abstract: This study investigates the optimal macroprudential policies for Luxembourg using an estimated closed-economy DSGE model. The model features a monopolistically competitive banking sector, a collateral constraint and an explicit differentiation between the flow and the stock of household mortgage debt. Based on a welfare-oriented approach and in a context of easy monetary policy environment, we first find that the non-joint optimal loan-to-value (LTV) and risk weighted capital requirement (RW) ratios for Luxembourg seem to be 90% and 30%, respectively, while the joint optimal ratios are found to be 100% and 10% respectively. Our results from the combination of instruments suggest that the policy scenario that provides better stabilization effects on mortgage credits isn’t necessarily the one that is welfare improving. In other words, we find a complementarity between LTV and RW in terms of welfare, while their optimal combination diminishes the stabilization effects on mortgage debt and house prices. However, the time-varying and endogenous rules for LTV and RW improve the social welfare and better stabilizes mortgage loans and house prices compared to their static exogenous ratios. We further find that the optimal interactions between LTV and RW ratios in our modelling framework exhibit a convex shape. It should be recalled that the results are conditional on the model’s specific assumptions.
    Keywords: LTV, Risk weights, optimal macroprudential policy, combination of macroprudential instruments
    JEL: E32 E44 R38
    Date: 2019–07
  11. By: Joséphine Leuba
    Abstract: The present article describes how the spatial distribution of income in Switzerland is related to natural amenities. We explore the link between inequalities in Swiss municipalities and the presence of lakes, rivers, mountains, good accessibility and green amenities. By using fiscal data on average income, Gini index and density of taxpayers in different income brackets, we confirm that a larger variety of landscape is associated with larger spatial income differentials. We also show that inequalities are more pronounced within municipalities located in a particularly nice environment.
    Keywords: Spatial income distribution, natural amenities, income sorting, inequality
    JEL: D30 J31 J61 R12 R23
    Date: 2019–08
  12. By: Charlton, Ed
    Abstract: Trash is rarely just trash. As cultural geography regularly insists, it is also often relational and resourceful, poetic even. It is, in short, a material of rich aesthetic and political value. But what of this relational geography is left when a space is cleaned up? What is lost? In Johannesburg, a city that has long prospered, spatially at least, through habitual cycles of rubbish and renewal, the impulse towards the sanitary has historically betrayed its tendency towards racial exclusion and erasure. As the city labours once again to clean up its self-image, I explore the everyday absence this pattern produces as well as the aesthetic interventions that this geography otherwise enables. In Mikhael Subotzky and Patrick Waterhouse’s part-visual, part-textual exhibition Ponte City (2014), I locate a mode of melancholy representation that gives creative, specifically archival form to the ordinary loss imposed upon Johannesburg’s tallest residential tower as part of its aborted redevelopment in 2007. In this, I attempt to reorient cultural geography’s attention away from the materiality of trash, reflecting, instead, on the allied abundance of its absence.
    Keywords: Johannesburg; melancholy; photography; Ponte City; urban archive
    JEL: Q15
    Date: 2019–08–23
  13. By: Adam M. Guren; Timothy J. McQuade
    Abstract: This paper uses a structural model to show that foreclosures played a crucial role in exacerbating the recent housing bust and to analyze foreclosure mitigation policy. We consider a dynamic search model in which foreclosures freeze the market for non-foreclosures and reduce price and sales volume by eroding lender equity, destroying the credit of potential buyers, and making buyers more selective. These effects cause price-default spirals that amplify an initial shock and help the model fit both national and cross-sectional moments better than a model without foreclosure. When calibrated to the recent bust, the model reveals that the amplification generated by foreclosures is significant: Ruined credit and choosey buyers account for 25.4 percent of the total decline in non-distressed prices and lender losses account for an additional 22.6 percent. For policy, we find that principal reduction is less cost effective than lender equity injections or introducing a single seller that holds foreclosures off the market until demand rebounds. We also show that policies that slow down the pace of foreclosures can be counterproductive.
    JEL: E30 R31
    Date: 2019–08
  14. By: Juan Del Toro (University of Pittsburgh); Alvin Thomas (University of Wisconsin – Madison); Ming-Te Wang (University of Pittsburgh); Diane Hughes (New York University)
    Abstract: Several heuristic models posited that environmental stress disrupt adolescents' engagement and performance in school, but few studies have identified police as a source of such stress. We examined whether police stops, direct and vicarious instances, predicted decrements in adolescents' grades via their psychological (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms) and health(i.e., sleep problems and self-rated health statuses) stress responses. We also examined whether the observed correlates varied across ethnic-racial and gender groups. To do so, we used two waves of longitudinal survey data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study.Children completed surveys when they were, on average, ages 9 and 15. Results illustrated that direct and vicarious police stops at age 15 predicted lower grades contemporaneously,controlling for adolescents’ self-rated health, sleep, and performance on the Woodcock-Johnson tests at age 9. Psychological distress, sleep problems, and self-rated health at age 15 partially mediated the relations between police stops and grades. The negative consequences of vicarious police stops were specific to the boys and girls of color; vicarious police contact did not predict adolescents' grades for White boys and White girls. We discussed the implications of our results as they pertain to policing and adolescent development.
    Keywords: ethnicity-race, gender, policing, health, academic achievement
    JEL: K42 I24 I29 I14
    Date: 2019
  15. By: Gouranga Gopal Das; Sugata Marjit; Mausumi Kar
    Abstract: With the ensuing immigration reform in the US, the paper shows that targeted skilled immigration into the R&D sector that helps low-skilled labor is conducive for controlling inequality and raising wage. Skilled talent-led innovation could have spillover benefits for the unskilled sector while immigration into the production sector will always reduce wage, aggravating wage inequality. In essence, we infer: (i) if R&D inputs contributes only to skilled sector, wage inequality increases in general; (ii) for wage gap to decrease, R&D sector must produce inputs that goes into unskilled manufacturing sector; (iii) even with two types of specific R&D inputs entering into the skilled and unskilled sectors separately, unskilled labor is not always benefited by high skilled migrants into R&D-sector. Rather, it depends on the importance of migrants’ skill in R&D activities and intensity of inputs. Inclusive immigration policy requires inter-sectoral diffusion of ideas embedded in talented immigrants targeted for innovation. Empirical verification using a VAR regression model in the context of the USA confirms the conjectures, and the empirical results substantiates our policy-guided hypothesis that skilled immigration facilitates innovation with favorable impact on reducing wage-gap.
    Keywords: H1B, immigration, innovation, wage gap, skill, R&D, policy, RAISE Act, VAR
    JEL: F22 J31 O15
    Date: 2019
  16. By: Mark Rosenzweig; Junsen Zhang
    Abstract: In many countries of the world the co-residence of young adults aged 25-34 with their parents is not uncommon and in some countries the savings rates of these age groups exceed those of the middle-aged contrary to the standard model of life-cycle savings. In this paper we examine the role of housing prices in affecting the living arrangements of adult family members and their individual savings rates by age. Using unique data from China that enable the re-construction of whole families and identify individual savings regardless of who within the family co-resides in the same household, and exploiting the Chinese government rules determining the supply of land for residential housing, we find that increases in housing prices significantly increase inter-generational co-residence and elevate the savings rates of the young relative to the middle-aged, conditional on income, in part due to the subsidies to the young from sharing housing with parents. Based on our estimates of the effects of housing prices on co-residence and the effects of co-residence on individual savings, we find that the savings rates of the young in China would be 21% lower if housing prices were at the same ratio to disposable incomes as that observed in the United States.
    JEL: J12 R31
    Date: 2019–08
  17. By: Max Nathan
    Abstract: Despite academic scepticism, cluster policies remain popular with policymakers. This paper evaluates the causal impact of a flagship UK technology cluster programme. I build a simple framework and identify effects using difference-in-differences and synthetic controls on rich microdata. I further test for timing, cross-space variation, scaling and churn channels. The policy grew and densified the cluster, but has had more mixed effects on tech firm productivity. I also find most policy 'effects' began before rollout, raising questions about the programme's added value.
    Keywords: cities, clusters, technology, economic development, synthetic controls
    JEL: L53 L86 O31 R30 R50
    Date: 2019–08
  18. By: Wilfred IGUODALA (University of Benin)
    Abstract: The cost of implementing free and compulsory primary education policy in Nigeria and the question of sustainability were respectively assessed in the paper. The observed poor quality of primary school leavers and scarcity of all production inputs in the school system motivated the study that raised three (3) research questions to guide investigation. The entire primary school system including the 707,124 teachers across the 622,841 available primary schools constituted the study population. A convenient number of 35,356(i.e 5 percent) teachers randomly selected from the schools using the multi-stage sampling technique made up the study sample. Documentary evidences of allocated funds from relevant government Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs) and a questionnaire title: Free and Compulsory Primary School Attendance Policy Sustenance Questionnaire (FRECOPRISUQUE) was validated, pilot-tested (N=50, r= 0.77) and administered by the researchers assisted by 37 chair persons of Nigeria Union of Teachers (NUT), each from every state of the federation including the FCT. Data collected to answer the research questions were descriptively analysed with means, percentages and standard deviation. Based on data analysis, the following findings emerged. First, the money required to adequately fund the free and compulsory primary education policy per pupil is N255,000.00. Second, it is only about 3 percent of the required money that government allocates to fund primary education. Thirdly, the perception of stakeholders particularly teachers is that government lacks the ability to implement the policy in Nigeria. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that government should admit its inability to adequately fund the policy and through legislation invite parents and corporate organizations to contribute money to sustain the policy.
    Keywords: Free, Compulsory, Primary Education, Policy, Cost, Sustainability
    JEL: I22 I28
    Date: 2019–06
  19. By: John Eric Humphries; Nicholas Mader; Daniel Tannenbaum; Winnie van Dijk
    Abstract: Each year, more than two million U.S. households have an eviction case filed against them. Many cities have recently implemented policies aimed at reducing the number of evictions, motivated by research showing strong associations between being evicted and subsequent adverse economic outcomes. Yet it is difficult to determine to what extent those associations represent causal relationships, because eviction itself is likely to be a consequence of adverse life events. This paper addresses that challenge and offers new causal evidence on how eviction affects financial distress, residential mobility, and neighborhood quality. We collect the near-universe of Cook County court records over a period of seventeen years, and link these records to credit bureau and payday loans data. Using this data, we characterize the trajectory of financial strain in the run-up and aftermath of eviction court for both evicted and non-evicted households, finding high levels and striking increases in financial strain in the years before an eviction case is filed. Guided by this descriptive evidence, we employ two approaches to draw causal inference on the effect of eviction. The first takes advantage of the panel data through a difference-in-differences design. The second is an instrumental variables strategy, relying on the fact that court cases are randomly assigned to judges of varying leniency. We find that eviction negatively impacts credit access and durable consumption for several years. However, the effects are small relative to the financial strain experienced by both evicted and non-evicted tenants in the run-up to an eviction filing.
    Keywords: evictions, financial distress, poverty
    JEL: J01 H00 R38 I30
    Date: 2019
  20. By: OECD; ICOM
    Abstract: This Guide provides a roadmap for local governments, communities and museums on how to define together a local development agenda. It considers five dimensions: 1. Leverage the power of museums for local economic development, 2. Build on the role of museums for urban regeneration and community development, 3. Catalyse culturally aware and creative societies, 4. Promote museums as spaces for inclusion, health and well-being, 5. Mainstream the role of museums in local development.
    Date: 2019–09–05
  21. By: Lasky-Fink, Jessica (University of California, Berkeley); Robinson, Carly (Harvard University); Chang, Hedy (Attendance Works); Rogers, Todd (Harvard Kennedy School)
    Abstract: Many states mandate districts or schools notify parents when students have missed multiple unexcused days of school. We report a randomized experiment (N = 131,312) evaluating the impact of sending parents truancy notifications modified to target behavioral barriers that can hinder effective parental engagement. Modified truancy notifications that used simplified language, emphasized parental efficacy, and highlighted the negative incremental effects of missing school reduced absences by 0.07 days compared to the standard, legalistic, and punitively-worded notification--an estimated 40% improvement. This work illustrates how behavioral insights and randomized experiments can be used to improve administrative communications in education.
    Date: 2019–08
  22. By: OECD
    Abstract: This report considers the role of the MUSE network of museums for local development in the Autonomous Province of Trento, Italy. It considers the five dimensions of local development featured in the OECD-ICOM Guide for Local Governments, Communities and Museums: Economic development; Urban regeneration; Education and creativity; Inclusion, health and well-being; and Mainstreaming the role of museums in local development.
    Date: 2019–09–06
  23. By: OECD
    Abstract: Continuous professional development (CPD) is crucial for teacher’s professionalism, and affects teaching practices in the classroom. In addition, teachers’ self-efficacy and job satisfaction are higher when professional development has a positive impact on their work. Lifting barriers to participation in professional development by providing incentives and support structures, such as allocated time, as well as offering relevant professional development opportunities that meet teachers’ needs, are crucial for making CPD accessible and purposeful for teachers. Education systems could also build on effective forms of professional development, such as active learning and collaborative approaches, to improve the overall quality of professional development offered to the teaching workforce. These efforts can help teachers become lifelong learners and grow in their profession.
    Date: 2019–09–05
  24. By: Gaurav Khanna; Carlos Medina; Anant Nyshadham; Jorge A. Tamayo
    Abstract: Canonical models of crime emphasize economic incentives. Yet, causal evidence of sorting into criminal occupations in response to individual-level variation in incentives is limited. We link administrative socioeconomic microdata with the universe of arrests in Medellín over a decade. We exploit exogenous variation in formal-sector employment around a socioeconomic-score cutoff, below which individuals receive benefits if not formally employed, to test whether a higher cost to formal-sector employment induces crime. Regression discontinuity estimates show this policy generated reductions in formal-sector employment and a corresponding spike in organized crime, but no effects on crimes of impulse or opportunity.
    JEL: J24 K42
    Date: 2019–08
  25. By: Bellucci, Davide; Conzo, Pierluigi; Zotti, Roberto (University of Turin)
    Abstract: A growing number of studies have found significant effects of inflows of migrants on electoral outcomes. However, the role of perceived immigration, which in many European countries is above official migration statistics, is overlooked. This paper investigates the effects of perceived threat of immigration on voting behavior, by looking at whether local elections in Italy were affected by sea arrivals of refugees before the election day. While, upon arrival, refugees cannot freely go to the destination municipality, landing episodes were discussed in the media especially before the elections, thereby influencing voters’ perceptions about the arrivals. We develop an index of exposure to arrivalsthat varies over time and across municipalities depending on the nationality of the incoming refugees. This index captures the impact of perceived immigration on voting behavior, on top of the effects of real immigration as proxied for by the stock of immigrants and the presence of refugee centers. Results show that, in municipalities where refugees are more expected to arrive, participationdecreases, whereas protest votes and support for extreme-right, populist and anti-immigration parties increase. Since these effects are driven by areas with fast broadband availability, we argue that antiimmigration campaigns played a key role.
    Date: 2019–06
  26. By: Pestel, Nico (IZA); Wozny, Florian (IZA)
    Abstract: This paper studies health effects from restricting the access of high-emission vehicles to innercities by implementing Low Emission Zones. For identification, we exploit variation in the timing and the spatial distribution of the introduction of new Low Emission Zones across cities in Germany. We use detailed hospitalization data combined with geo-coded information on the coverage of Low Emission Zones. We find that Low Emission Zones significantly reduce levels of air pollution in urban areas and that these improvements in air quality translate into population health benefits. The number of diagnoses related to air pollution is significantly reduced for hospitals located within or in close proximity to a Low Emission Zone after it becomes effective. The results are mainly driven by reductions in chronic cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.
    Keywords: Low Emission Zone, air pollution, health, Germany
    JEL: I18 Q52 Q53
    Date: 2019–08
  27. By: Agnieszka Herdan (University of Greenwich, Business School,); Magdalena Maria Stuss (Jagiellonian University, Institute of Economics, Finance and Management)
    Abstract: It is a well-known fact that undergraduate students have to be equipped with relevant types of key competencies in order to be successful in the job market. Complex challenges that companies face in today?s world and the fast development of technology shift employer?s expectation for knowledge towards competency and abilities to use skills and talents (European Commission, 2010). Higher Education Institutions need to create a curriculum that will support students to develop a correct set of life long competencies. However, in many cases students struggle to recognize the importance of developing key competencies during their time at University and only focus on key knowledge. That is why Higher Education Institutions struggle to convince students of the value of certain activities which take place within the curriculum. The aim of this paper is to investigate the perception of Business School Students of key competencies of lifelong learning. The applied research procedure combines analysis of the literature with empirical research and is based upon searching for the answer to the questions about how Business School students view the importance of lifelong learning competencies.The research shows that the most desired lifelong learning competencies by business programme students are experience, industry expertise, certificates, awards confirming completion of studies/programs/skills, followed by technology competencies and cultural awareness.
    Keywords: higher education, competences, employment, unemployment, job market
    JEL: A23 E24 J24
    Date: 2019–06
  28. By: M. Keith Chen; Kareem Haggag; Devin G. Pope; Ryne Rohla
    Abstract: Equal access to voting is a core feature of democratic government. Using data from millions of smartphone users, we quantify a racial disparity in voting wait times across a nationwide sample of polling places during the 2016 US presidential election. Relative to entirely-white neighborhoods, residents of entirely-black neighborhoods waited 29% longer to vote and were 74% more likely to spend more than 30 minutes at their polling place. This disparity holds when comparing predominantly white and black polling places within the same states and counties, and survives numerous robustness and placebo tests. Our results document large racial differences in voting wait times and demonstrates that geospatial data can be an effective tool to both measure and monitor these disparities.
    Date: 2019–08
  29. By: Islam, Asadul (Monash University); Lee, Wang-Sheng (Deakin University); Nicholas, Aaron (Deakin University)
    Abstract: We conduct a randomized field experiment to investigate the benefits of an intensive chess training program undertaken by primary school students in a developing country context. We examine the effects on academic outcomes, and a number of non-cognitive outcomes: risk preferences, patience, creativity and attention/focus. Our main finding is that chess training reduces the level of risk aversion almost a year after the intervention ended. We also find that chess training improves math scores, reduces the incidence of time inconsistency and the incidence of non-monotonic time preferences. However, these (non-risk preference) results are less conclu-sive once we account for multiple hypothesis testing. We do not find any evidence of significant effects of chess training on other academic outcomes, creativity, and attention/focus.
    Keywords: chess training, math, non-cognitive outcomes, risk, randomized experiment
    JEL: C93 D80 I21
    Date: 2019–08
  30. By: Paramjeet Kaur Mangat (Smt. Jawala Devi College of Education)
    Abstract: The study aimed to examine the Academic Procrastination among High School students in relation to their Peer Pressure. Descriptive survey method of research was employed for this study. Data was collected by randomization technique of sampling from a sample of 400 high school students of Punjab state, out of which 200 students were from government school and 200 students were from private schools. Tools used in this study were Academic Procrastination Scale: A. K. Kalia and Manju Yadav and Peer Pressure Scale [PPS-SS] by Saini and Singh. The data was analyzed by employing descriptive statistics like Mean, Median, Mode, SD, Skewness, Kurtosis, t-ratio and Karl Pearson?s coefficient of correlation. On the bases of data analyzed, no significant difference has been found in academic procrastination and peer pressure of government and private high school students. Further no significant difference has been found in academic procrastination of male and female high school students. Further no significant relationship has been found in academic procrastination and peer pressure of total high school students.
    Date: 2019–06
  31. By: Yusaku Ogura (Graduate School of Business Administration and Computer Science, Aichi Institute of Technology); Katsunori Fujii (Graduate School of Business Administration and Computer Science, Aichi Institute of Technology); Yuzuru Naito (Graduate School of Business Administration and Computer Science, Aichi Institute of Technology); Kohsuke Kasuya (Graduate School of Business Administration and Computer Science, Aichi Institute of Technology); Yuki Takeyama (Graduate School of Business Administration and Computer Science, Aichi Institute of Technology); Nozomi Tanaka (Tokai Gakuen University)
    Abstract: The method generally used to assess motor ability in elementary school is the 10-step assessment in the new physical fitness test advocated by the by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan. However, no method of assessing physical fitness and motor ability has been established that considers changes with age in schoolchildren, who are in the growth stage. Specifically, no method to evaluate physical longitudinal data for individual children has been created. In this study, we constructed an aging span evaluation chart of motor ability using the wavelet interpolation method and applied it to longitudinal development data for motor ability in the physical ability of first to sixth grade elementary school students. Motor ability tracking was then examined with the application of this evaluation method. The results confirmed that motor ability tracked closely in first to sixth grade elementary school students. Therefore, this suggests that there is a trend for individuals with high motor ability in childhood to follow the same high level course afterward. Also, children with poor motor ability in particular may need early educational attention.
    Keywords: Tracking phenomenon, Motor ability, Wavelet Interpolation Method, elementary schoolchildren
    JEL: I00 I10 I19
    Date: 2019–07
  32. By: Qian, Xiaodong; Niemeier, Deb
    Abstract: Bikeshare programs are increasingly popular in the United States, and they are an important part of sustainable transportation systems. They offer an alternative mode choice for many types of last-mile trips. Most of the current research on bikeshare focuses on benefits (e.g., how to replace auto trips with bike trips and reduce greenhouse gas emissions) and system management (e.g., bike repositioning between stations). Far less attention has been paid to the potential for bikeshare programs to provide greater access to jobs and essential services for underserved communities. To date, there is virtually no quantitative research aimed at designing bikeshare systems for underserved communities. To address this research gap, this study of two cities (Chicago and Philadelphia) first, examines whether bikeshare systems have targeted specific populations, and second, quantitatively assesses the potential for bikeshare systems to provide greater accessibility for underserved communities. View the NCST Project Webpage
    Keywords: Engineering, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Accessibility, Bicycle facilities, Bicycles, Capital investments, Demographics, Equity (Justice), Location, Socioeconomic factors, Vehicle sharing
    Date: 2019–08–01
  33. By: Abhishek Ranjan (Technical University of Denmark); Mogens Fosgerau (Department of Economics, University of Copenhagen, Denmark); Erik Jenelius (KTH Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: This paper establishes mild probability-theoretical conditions under which observations of space-averaged speed and occupancy in some area concentrate with low scatter around a well-defined curve. These conditions are validated against empirical data from Stockholm and Geneva. No equilibrating process is required to be in operation.
    Keywords: Congestion; Macroscopic Fundamental diagram
    JEL: R4 C18
    Date: 2019–04–08
  34. By: Simon Berset; Mark Schelker
    Abstract: We study the impact of a one-off exogenous fiscal windfall on local public finances in the canton of Zurich in Switzerland. The windfall was due to the IPO of Glencore on the London Stock Exchange in 2011. As a result, its CEO paid an extraordinary tax bill of approximately CHF 360 million. About CHF 238 million of that extra tax revenue entered the municipal resource equalization scheme and rained down on the municipalities of the canton of Zurich. This quasi-experimental setup and our unusually rich dataset allow us to estimate the causal effect of this one-off windfall on all municipal accounting positions. We show that it triggered large expenditure increases targeting particular groups (e.g., salaries of public employees) at the same time as general tax cuts and user charge hikes (e.g., nursing home fees). The resulting imbalances caused a 7.5-fold increase in gross debt relative to the windfall. This massive overreaction hints at a substantial fiscal windfall curse.
    Keywords: local public finance, fiscal windfalls, fiscal policy
    JEL: D70 H11 H71 H72
    Date: 2019
  35. By: Nobuyoshi Yamori (Research Institute for Economics and Business Administration, Kobe University, Japan); Hitoe Ueyama (Faculty of Economics, Nagoya Gakuin University, Japan); Mitsuyoshi Yanagihara (Graduate School of Economics, Department of Socio-Economic System Socio-Environmental System, Nagoya University, Japan)
    Abstract: In the next version of the senior high school curriculum guidelines officially announced by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) in 2018, it is indicated that financial education will be made more substantial. However, the reality is that whether financial education is adequately conducted in senior high schools or not is dependent on the views of senior high school teachers. Accordingly, we carried out a survey in December 2018 among 1,000 teachers at senior high schools (including not only teachers of subjects such as social studies and home making course that are strongly related to financial education, but also teachers of all subjects). The purpose of this paper is to report the summary results of that survey.
    Keywords: Financial Literacy, Financial Education, Senior High School Curriculum
    Date: 2019–09
  36. By: Fassio, Claudio; Geuna, Aldo; Rossi, Federica (University of Turin)
    Abstract: We investigate the determinants of industry researchers’ interactions with universities in different localities, distinguishing between local and international universities. We analyze the extent to which local and international interactions are enabled by different types of individual personal networks (education, career based), and by their access to different business networks through their employer companies (local vs. domestic or international multinational company networks). We control for selection bias and numerous other individual and firm-level factors identified in the literature as important determinants of interaction with universities. Our findings suggest that industry researchers’ personal networks play a greater role in promoting interactions with local universities (i.e. in the same region, and other regions in the same country) while researcher employment in a multinational is especially important for establishing interaction with universities abroad.
    Date: 2019–07
  37. By: Antonio Accetturo; Michele Cascarano; Guido de Blasio
    Abstract: rom the sixteenth to the early nineteenth century, coastal areas of Italy (especially, in the south-west) were subject to attacks by pirates launched from the shores of Northern Africa. This paper documents that, in order to protect themselves, residents of coastal locations moved inland to mountainous and rugged areas. It also shows that such relocation constrained local economic development for a long period after the piracy threat had subsided. By hampering the growth of major urban centers, the attacks may have also had aggregate consequences on Italy’s post-WWII development.
    Keywords: City size distribution, Historical shocks, Local development, Aggregate effects
    JEL: R1 N9 O1
    Date: 2019
  38. By: Masterson, Daniel (Stanford University); Yasenov, Vasil (University of California, Berkeley)
    Abstract: Many countries have reduced refugee admissions in recent years, in part due to fears that refugees and asylum seekers increase crime rates and pose a national security risk. Existing research presents ambiguous expectations about the consequences of refugee resettlement on crime. We leverage a natural experiment in the United States, where an Executive Order by the president in January 2017 halted refugee resettlement. This policy change was sudden and significant – it resulted in the lowest number of refugees resettled on US soil since 1977 and a 66% drop in resettlement from 2016 to 2017. We find that there is no discernible effect on county-level crime rates. These null effects are consistent across all types of crime and precisely estimated. Overall, the results suggest that crime rates would have been similar had refugee arrivals continued at previous levels.
    Keywords: refugees, immigration, crime
    JEL: F22 J15 K42
    Date: 2019–08
  39. By: Kurlaender, Michal (University of California, Davis); Lusher, Lester (University of Hawaii at Manoa); Case, Matthew (California State University)
    Abstract: Remediation has long been a costly way to address the misalignment between K-12 and higher education. In 2011, the California State University (CSU), the nation's largest public four-year university system, enacted Early Start, requiring students needing remediation to enroll in such courses in the summer before their freshmen year. We estimate the impact of Early Start summer remediation relative to both traditional fall remediation and relative to no remediation at all. Our results suggest Early Start summer remediation has not improved student performance or persistence relative to either alternative. As many states move away from remedial courses altogether, there is continued need for both innovation and for evidence in policy and practice to improve college readiness and success.
    Keywords: higher education, remediation, state policy
    JEL: I20 I23 I28
    Date: 2019–08
  40. By: Zuo, Na; Zhong, Hua
    Keywords: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2019–06–25
  41. By: Stefan Sperlich; Jose-Ramon Uriarte
    Abstract: Language and cultural diversity is a fundamental aspect of the present world. We study three modern multilingual societies -- the Basque Country, Ireland and Wales -- which are endowed with two, linguistically distant, official languages: $A$, spoken by all individuals, and $B$, spoken by a bilingual minority. In the three cases it is observed a decay in the use of minoritarian $B$, a sign of diversity loss. However, for the "Council of Europe" the key factor to avoid the shift of $B$ is its use in all domains. Thus, we investigate the language choices of the bilinguals by means of an evolutionary game theoretic model. We show that the language population dynamics has reached an evolutionary stable equilibrium where a fraction of bilinguals have shifted to speak $A$. Thus, this equilibrium captures the decline in the use of $B$. To test the theory we build empirical models that predict the use of $B$ for each proportion of bilinguals. We show that model-based predictions fit very well the observed use of Basque, Irish, and Welsh.
    Date: 2019–08
  42. By: Steven Jacob Bosworth (Department of Economics, University of Reading); Simon Bartke (M. M. Warburg & CO (AG & Co.) KGaA)
    Abstract: We study an experimental setting designed to measure non-strategic behavioural spillovers and elucidate their mechanisms. In our setup a principal can observe the individual efforts of two agents in one task but can only observe team effort in another. We vary the availability of piece rate, tournament, team piece rate, and fixed wage contracts for the individually observable task while holding fixed the use of a team pay contract for the task where only team output is observable. We find tournament incentives unexpectedly induce high voluntary effort in the unobservable task, but that this is exclusively driven by cross-task advantageous learning overriding its deleterious effects on pro-social motivation. We therefore see our study as integrating diverse findings into a coherent explanation: Competitive incentives crowd out pro-social motivation, team incentives promote pro-social motivation, but setting a high effort precedent may be more important when employees perceive tasks as related.
    Keywords: motivation, learning, multi-tasking, cooperation
    JEL: C92 D83 M52
    Date: 2019–08–31
  43. By: Petrolia, Daniel R.; Hwang, Joonghyun
    Abstract: We revisit three recently-published papers that apply discrete-choice experiment methods to coastal and marine ecosystem goods and services, in light of attribute non-attendance (AN-A). We find that accounting for AN-A does not always improve model fit, but when it does, the improvement can be substantial. Estimated price and attribute coefficients change, but these changes do not follow a consistent pattern, either in direction or magnitude. Mean attribute increment value (i.e., willingness to pay, WTP) estimates change, but also with no discernible pattern. However, in several cases, generally in those cases where accounting for AN-A improves model fit, we observe substantial improvements in the confidence intervals on WTP, i.e., accounting for AN-A appears to produce much more precise WTP estimates. In short, we find that accounting for AN-A is not always warranted, but when it is, the key payoff appears to be more precise WTP estimates.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods
    Date: 2019–09–04
  44. By: Saha, Bijeta Bijen
    Keywords: Resource/ Energy Economics and Policy
    Date: 2019–06–25
  45. By: Jarosch, Gregor (Princeton University); Nimczik, Jan Sebastian (European School of Management and Technology (ESMT)); Sorkin, Isaac (Stanford University)
    Abstract: We build a model where firm size is a source of labor market power. The key mechanism is that a granular employer can eliminate its own vacancies from a worker's outside option in the wage bargain. Hence, a granular employer does not compete with itself. We show how wages depend on employment concentration and then use the model to quantify the effects of granular market power. In Austrian micro-data, we find that granular market power depresses wages by about ten percent and can explain 40 percent of the observed decline in the labor share from 1997 to 2015. Mergers decrease competition for workers and reduce wages even at non-merging firms.
    Keywords: market power, labor share, search and matching
    JEL: J31 J42
    Date: 2019–08
  46. By: Olga Cantó; Inmaculada Cebrián; Gloria Moreno (Universidad de Alcalá)
    Abstract: Economic difficulties during recessions affect young individuals’ life projects and may delay emancipation and childbearing. For a period of persistent growth, previous analyses on emancipation in Spain found a key role of the “adapting to circumstances” attitude in youth cohabiting living arrangements: a large number of young individuals reduce their poverty risk by remaining at their parental homes if both parents are employed, and at the same time, a significant number of households reduce their poverty risk by adding cohabiting young workers’ wages to their disposable income. Using individual and household employment deprivation information from an extensive dataset, we study the evolution and determinants of youth living arrangements for a complete business cycle. Our results show that in addition to individual labor market status, the employment deprivation levels of other active household members are important determinants of youth emancipation decisions along the cycle.
    Keywords: living arrangements, precariousness, poverty, Great Recession.
    JEL: D1 J12 I3
    Date: 2019–07
  47. By: Coniglio, Nicola D.; Hoxhaj, Rezart; Jayet, Hubert
    Abstract: In this paper we study the allocation of time devoted to informal learning and education, i.e. those activities carried out during leisure time and outside formal education courses which boost individuals’ human and social capital. For immigrants the private investment in these activities is likely to have relevant external effects as informal learning and education enhances the likelihood of greater socio-economic integration in the host society. We first develop a simple theoretical framework, which allows us to highlight the different constrains/opportunity costs faced by immigrants as compared with natives. Then, we empirically investigate the determinants of participation in informal education using the American Time Use Data (ATUS; period 2003-2015) which contains detailed information on daily time budgets of a large sample of immigrants and natives in the US. Consistently with a theoretical model of time allocation we find evidence that immigrants are more likely to engage in informal education and, conditionally on participation, they allocate more time to these activities. Over time, immigrants show a higher degree of assimilation into the host society. Our results also highlight heterogeneous patterns across gender.
    Keywords: immigrants,time use,education,human capital
    JEL: J15 J22 I20
    Date: 2019
  48. By: Brandén, Gunnar (Umeå University)
    Abstract: A body of evidence has emerged in the literature on intergenerational mobility documenting that countries with large income differences also have less intergenerational mobility: a relationship known as the Great Gatsby Curve. In this paper, I estimate the Great Gatsby Curve within Sweden exploiting both cross-sectional and longitudinal variation. I find that men who grew up in regions or periods with high levels of income inequality experienced less intergenerational mobility as adults, thereby confirming the existence of a Great Gatsby Curve in Sweden. I also present new evidence on the underlying mechanisms of the Great Gatsby Curve. By decomposing intergenerational mobility into separate transmission channels, I find that the mediating effects that educational attainment and cognitive and non-cognitive skills have on the persistence of socioeconomic status across generations drive the Great Gatsby Curve.
    Keywords: Intergenerational mobility; equality of opportunity; inequality
    JEL: D31 I24 J62 R00
    Date: 2019–09–04
  49. By: KICHIKAWA Yuichi; IINO Takashi; IYETOMI Hiroshi; INOUE Hiroyasu
    Abstract: The objective of this study is to shed new light on the industrial flow structure embedded in microscopic supplier-buyer relations. We first construct directed networks from actual data from interfirm transaction relations in Japan; as one example, the dataset compiled by the Tokyo Shoko Research, Ltd. in 2016 contains five million links between one million firms. Then, we analyze the industrial flow structure of such a large-scale network with a special emphasis on its hierarchy and circularity. The Helmholtz-Hodge decomposition enables us to break down the flow on a directed network into two flow components: gradient flow and circular flow. The gradient flow between a pair of nodes is given by the difference of their potentials obtained by the Helmholtz-Hodge decomposition. The gradient flow runs from a node with higher potential to a node with lower potential; hence, the potential of a node shows its hierarchical position in a network. On the other hand, the circular flow component illuminates feedback loops built in a network. The potential values averaged over firms classified by the major industrial category describe hierarchical characteristics of sectors. The ordering of sectors according to the potential agrees well with the general idea of the supply chain. We also identify industrially integrated clusters of firms by applying a flow-based community detection method to the extracted circular flow network. We then find that each of the major communities is characterized by its main industry, forming a hierarchical supply chain with feedback loops by complementary industries such as transport and services.
    Date: 2019–08
  50. By: Luo, Xiaoman
    Keywords: Labor and Human Capital
    Date: 2019–06–25
  51. By: Yamamura, Eiji (Seinan Gakuin University); Powdthavee, Nattavudh (University of Warwick)
    Abstract: What determines human beings' decisions to donate money to a charity? Using a nationally representative survey of the Japanese population, we demonstrate that having been taught by a female teacher in their first year of school makes individuals more likely to donate to charities following natural disasters. The findings are robust in controlling for lessons on prosocial behaviors, such as group learning. We tested our results separately for men and women, as well as on prosocial attitude outcomes. Overall, our results suggest potential prosocial implications may arise from teacher-student gender matching.
    Keywords: charitable giving, gender, prosocial, Japan, natural disaster, donation
    JEL: D64 I20
    Date: 2019–08
  52. By: Larsen, Nicholas; Chiswick, Barry R.
    Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how potential exposure to missionary activity impacts both English language proficiency and labor market earnings of male and female immigrants to the United States. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study uses the pooled files of the American Community Survey (2005-09). To estimate the relationship between the missionary activity of both Protestants and Catholics on an immigrant’s English language proficiency using a linear probability model and their labor market earnings using the human capital earnings function that is estimated with an ordinary least squares model. Among other relevant variables, the analysis controls for the colonial heritage of the immigrant’s country of origin. Findings: Overall, and within colonial heritages, our results indicate that male and female immigrants from countries with a higher concentration of Protestant missionaries tend to exhibit higher levels of English language proficiency and earnings, and those from countries with a greater concentration of Catholic missionaries exhibit lower levels of both, compared to countries with lower concentrations of missionaries. Furthermore, a greater proficiency in English enhances earnings. One of the important implications of the findings in this paper is that a “missionary variable” often used in other studies is too aggregate and may mask important findings because of strikingly different effects of Protestant and Catholic activities and characteristics of the missionaries. Originality/value: This study explores for the first time how, through a missionary concentration variable, potential exposure to missionary activity impacts the English language proficiency and earnings of immigrants.
    Keywords: Immigrants,Protestant,Catholic,Missionaries,Earnings,Schooling,English Language,Proficiency,American Community Survey
    JEL: F22 J61 J31 J24
    Date: 2019
  53. By: Zhang, Zeya; Alwang, Jeffrey
    Keywords: International Development
    Date: 2019–06–25
  54. By: Alison Andrew; Orazio Attanasio; Raquel Bernal; Lina Cardona Sosa; Sonya Krutikova; Marta Rubio-Codina
    Abstract: Global access to preschool has increased dramatically yet preschool quality is often poor. We use a randomized controlled trial to evaluate two approaches to improving the quality of Colombian preschools. We find that the first, which was rolled out nationwide and provides additional resources for materials and new staff, did not benefit children’s development and, unintentionally, led teachers to reduce their involvement in classroom activities. The second approach additionally trains teachers to improve their pedagogical methods. We find this addition offset the negative effects on teacher behavior, improved the quality of teaching and raised children’s cognition, language and school readiness.
    JEL: H43 I10 I20 J13
    Date: 2019–08
  55. By: Maertens, Annemie; Khamis, Melanie
    Keywords: International Development
    Date: 2019–06–25

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