nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2017‒09‒24
forty-six papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. Interregional Migration, Human Capital Externalities and Unemployment Dynamics: Evidence from Italian Provinces By Basile, Roberto; Girardi, Alessandro; Mantuano, Marianna; Russo, Giuseppe
  2. Punishment and Inequality at an Early Age: Exclusionary Discipline in Elementary School By Wade Jacobsen; Garrett Pace; Nayan Ramirez
  3. Macroeconomic effects of varied mortgage instruments studied using agent-based model simulations By Thorir Bjarnason; Einar Jón Erlingsson; Bulent Ozel; Hlynur Stefánsson; Jón Thor Sturluson; Marco Raberto
  4. European R&D networks: A snapshot from the 7th EU Framework Programme By Sara Amoroso; Alex Coad; Nicola Grassano
  5. Creativity and the City: Testing the Attenuation of Agglomeration Economies fo r the Creative Industries in Barcelona By Coll Martínez, Eva
  6. Agent Intermediation and Racial Price Differentials By Adam Nowak; Patrick Smith
  7. Alternative Land Price Indexes for Commercial Properties in Tokyo By Diewert, Erwin; SHIMIZU, Chihiro
  8. The impact of the mortgage interest and capital deduction scheme on the Belgian mortgage market By Annelies Hoebeeck; Koen Inghelbrecht
  9. Time-Varying Role of Macroeconomic Shocks on House Prices in the US and UK: Evidence from Over 150 Years of Data By Vasilios Plakandaras; Rangan Gupta; Constantinos Katrakilidis; Mark E. Wohar
  10. The Great Recession and Public Education By Wagner, Kathryn L.
  11. Chinese Superstition and Real Estate Prices: Transaction-level Evidence from the US Housing Market By Brad R. Humphreys; Adam Nowak; Yang Zhou
  12. Bullied because younger than my mates? The effect of age rank on victimization at school By Ballatore, Rosario Maria; Paccagnella, Marco; Tonello, Marco
  13. Some Remarks on Real Estate Pricing By Cocker Liu; Adam Nowak; Patrick Smith
  14. The Rise of Non-Regulated Financial Intermediaries in the Housing Sector and its Macroeconomic Implications By Hélène Desgagnés
  15. Homeowner Preferences after September 11th, a Microdata Approach By Adam Nowak; Juan Sayago-Gomez
  16. Impact of Very High-Speed Broadband on Local Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence By Hasbi, Maude
  17. Access to Long-Term Care After a Wealth Shock: Evidence from the Housing Bubble and Burst By Joan Costa Font; Richard Frank; Katherine Swartz
  18. Jobs, News and Re-offending after Incarceration By Galbiati, Roberto; Ouss, Aurélie; Philippe, Arnaud
  19. The Mortgage Rate Conundrum By Alejandro Justiniano; Giorgio E. Primiceri; Andrea Tambalotti
  20. Incarcerate one to calm the others? Spillover effects of incarceration among criminal groups By Philippe, Arnaud
  21. Increasing Teachers’ Compensation or Building New Schools: How Do Different Types of School Expenditures Affect the Educational Attainment of Students? By Ali Enami
  22. The Sources of Segregation By Florent Dubois
  23. Segregation and the Perception of the Minority By Florent Dubois; Christophe Muller
  24. Decomposing Well-being Measures in South Africa: The Contribution of Residential Segregation to Income Distribution By Florent Dubois; Christophe Muller
  25. Information heterogeneity, housing dynamics and the business cycle By Guo, Zi-Yi
  26. Peer effects on perseverance By Buechel, Berno; Mechtenberg, Lydia; Petersen, Julia
  27. Measuring the Spillovers of Venture Capital By Schnitzer, Monika; Watzinger, Martin
  28. Adjustment Costs and Factor Demand: New Evidence From Firms’ Real Estate By A. Bergeaud; S.Ray
  29. Profiling Multidimensional Poverty and Inequality in Kenya and Zambia at Sub-National Levels By Muna Shifa; Murray Leibbrandt
  30. Who Defaults on Their Mortgage, and Why? Policy Implications for Reducing Mortgage Default By Ohanian, Lee E.
  31. The Accident Externality from Trucking By Lucija Muehlenbachs; Stefan Staubli; Ziyan Chu
  32. The Property Ladder after the Financial Crisis: The First Step is a Stretch but Those Who Make It Are Doing OK By John Simon; Tahlee Stone
  33. Helping State and Local Workforce Agencies Better Serve Customers (About Us) By Mathematica Policy Research
  34. Where Are Migrants from? Inter- vs. Intra-Provincial Rural-Urban Migration in China By Su, Yaqin; Tesfazion, Petros; Zhao, Zhong
  35. Fuel poverty and indoor pollution: Providing financial support vs. combatting poor housing? By DorothŽe Charlier; Berang re Legendre; Anna Risch
  36. The Impact of a Rise in the Real Estate Transfer Taxes on the French Housing Market By Guillaume Bérard; Alain Trannoy
  37. Reforming housing rental market in a life-cycle model By Michal Rubaszek
  38. The Effects of Marijuana Liberalizations: Evidence from Monitoring the Future By Angela K. Dills; Sietse Goffard; Jeffrey Miron
  39. The Effects of Graduation Requirements on Risky Health Behaviors of High School Students By Zhuang Hao; Benjamin W. Cowan
  40. Different interpretations of the automotive industry and its role in three semi-peripheral regions of the EU By Gábor Túry
  41. Direct Propagation of a Fiscal Shock: Evidence from Italy's Stability Pact By Decio Coviello; Immacolata Marino; Tommaso Nannicini; Nicola Persico
  42. Circular causality in aviation and tourism demand By Tay-Ryang Koo; Christine Lim; Frédéric Dobruszkes
  43. Being online daters or not: Effects of individual factors, peers influence, and social reality By Peng, Kun; Cao, Bolin
  44. Beyond average energy consumption in the French residential housing market: A household classification approach By Emmanuel Hache; Déborah Leboullenger; Valérie Mignon
  45. Pathways to Careers Employer Case Study: Davis School District By Noelle Denny-Brown; Marisa Shenk
  46. Is Lecture Capture benefiting (all) HE students? An Empirical Investigation By Carlos Cortinhas

  1. By: Basile, Roberto; Girardi, Alessandro; Mantuano, Marianna; Russo, Giuseppe
    Abstract: We analyze the effect of interregional migration on regional unemployment in Italy. With the help of a simple two-region model adapted to the main features of the Italian NorthSouth dualism, we illustrate the effects of labor mobility with and without human capital externalities. Using longitudinal data over the years 2002-2011 for 103 NUTS-3 Italian regions, we document that net outflows of human capital from the South to the North have increased the unemployment rate in the South, while it did not affect the unemployment rate in the North. Our analysis contributes to the literature on interregional human capital mobility suggesting that reducing human capital flight from Southern regions should be a priority.
    Keywords: Unemployment,Migration,Human Capital,Exernalities,Italian Regions
    JEL: C23 R23 J61
    Date: 2017
  2. By: Wade Jacobsen (Pennsylvania State University); Garrett Pace (University of Michigan); Nayan Ramirez (Pennsylvania State University)
    Abstract: We fill an important gap in prior research by assessing (1) the prevalence of exclusionary discipline in elementary school; (2) racial disparities in exclusionary discipline in elementary school; and (3) the association between exclusionary discipline and aggressive behavior in elementary school. Using the Fragile Families Study, we estimate that more than 1 in 10 children born 1998-2000 in large US cities were suspended or expelled by age nine (most in third grade). We also find extreme racial disparity; upwards of 30% of non-Hispanic black males were suspended or expelled, compared to 8% of non-Hispanic white or other-race males. Disparities are largely due to differences in children’s school and home environments rather than to behavior problems. Furthermore, we find suspension or expulsion associated with increased aggressive behavior in elementary school. These results are robust to a rich set of covariates, within-individual fixed-effects, matching methods, and sensitivity checks for reverse causality and selection. Our results imply that school discipline policies relying heavily on exclusionary punishment may be fostering childhood inequality.
    JEL: I21 I24 I29
    Date: 2017–03
  3. By: Thorir Bjarnason (School of Science and Engineering, Reykjavik University, Iceland); Einar Jón Erlingsson (School of Science and Engineering, Reykjavik University, Iceland); Bulent Ozel (LEE and Department of Economics, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain); Hlynur Stefánsson (School of Science and Engineering, Reykjavik University, Iceland); Jón Thor Sturluson (School of Science and Engineering, Reykjavik University, Iceland); Marco Raberto (DIME-University of Genoa, Italy)
    Abstract: Mortgage instruments differ in many respects. Their microeconomic effects might be easily calculated but their effects on a macroeconomic level are not always easily understood. Agent-based models can be used to study the macroeconomic effects that emerge from the microeconomic behavior of multiple interacting agents. Using a macroeconomic model of a credit network economy we have found that inflation-indexed mortgages can mislead households’ expectations of risk, encouraging them to buy more housing due to their low initial amortizations which, in turn, stimulates housing prices. The results further hint that in long-run inflation-indexed mortgages create relatively more uneven housing wealth distribution in between households. We also find that the effectiveness of standard monetary policy tools is diminished when inflation-indexed mortgages are used. Banks partake in the interest rate risk with fixed rate mortgages but bear little or no risk with adjustable rate or inflation-indexed mortgages. We have seen in this study that mortgage types, macroprudential tools and other policy tools can be experimented on, give insights into the interplay between agents and insight into the effects that certain policy settings may have on a macroeconomic level.
    Keywords: Credit cycles, mortgage, housing market, agent-based model, inflation-indexation
    JEL: C63 E25 G21 R31 R38
    Date: 2017
  4. By: Sara Amoroso (European Commission - JRC); Alex Coad (CENTRUM Católica Graduate Business School, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima, Perú); Nicola Grassano (European Commission – JRC)
    Abstract: Recent empirical studies have investigated the territorial impact of Europe’s research policies, in particular the contribution of the European Framework Programmes to the integration of a European Research Area. This paper deepens the analysis on the integration and participation of peripheral regions, by focusing on the differences in intensity and determinants of inter-regional collaborations across three groups of collaborations. We consider collaborations among more developed regions, between more and less developed regions, and among less developed regions. Building on the recent spatial interaction literature, this paper investigates the effects of physical, institutional, social and technological proximity on the intensity of inter-regional research collaboration across heterogeneous European regions. We find that the impact of disparities in human capital and technological proximity on regional R&D cooperation is relevant and differs across subgroups of collaborations. Moreover, despite the efforts of integrating marginal actors, peripheral regions have lower rates of collaborations.
    Keywords: European Research Area, spatial interaction modelling, R&D collaboration, regional integration
    JEL: O38 L14 F15 R15
    Date: 2017–07
  5. By: Coll Martínez, Eva
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to infer the spatial extent of agglomeration economies for the creative service industries (SCI) in Barcelona and its relationship with firms’ performance. Using data from Mercantile Register (SABI) that provides micro-geographic data of firms between 2006 and 2015 I estimate the effect of intra-industry and inter-industry agglomeration in rings around location on productivity in Barcelona. Main results are that, (1) for CSI, at a micro-spatial level, localisation economies are not so relevant, although much work still remains to be done on this issue ; (2) while for Non-SCI having creative workers in the near proximity (250 metres) seems to enhance their productivity; and (3) for the symbolic - based CSI localisation economies – mainly understood as networking and knowledge externalities – have positive effects on TFP at shorter distances (less than 250 metres), while for the two other knowledge based CSI (i.e., synthetic and analytical) localisation economies seem not to be so relevant. These results strongly suggest the importance of networking or information spillovers in CIs, which are strongly concentrated in the largest cities. Keywords: creative industries, agglomeration economies, distance - based methods, micro-geographic data, Barcelona
    Keywords: Creativitat en els negocis -- Barcelona, 33 - Economia,
    Date: 2017
  6. By: Adam Nowak (West Virginia University, Department of Economics); Patrick Smith (San Diego State University)
    Abstract: In most housing transactions the home buyer and seller do not meet, in which case the buyer's race is not revealed and the seller cannot discriminate against them. Despite this fact, previous studies estimate racial price differentials based on the race of the home buyer. In this study we identify the dimensions along which differential treatment occurs in housing markets. We show that home buyers disproportionately hire real estate agents of the same race and that the race of the agent, not the home buyer, is the primary mechanism of discrimination. The results of this study have important implications for fair housing policy.
    Keywords: Housing, agent intermediation, racial discrimination, price differentials
    Date: 2017–09
  7. By: Diewert, Erwin; SHIMIZU, Chihiro
    Abstract: The SNA (System of National Accounts) requires separate estimates for the land and structure components of a commercial property. Using transactions data for the sales of office buildings in Tokyo, a hedonic regression model (the Builder’s Model) was estimated and this model generated an overall property price index as well as subindexes for the land and structure components of the office buildings. The Builder’s Model was also estimated using appraisal data on office building REITs for Tokyo. These hedonic regression models also generated estimates for net depreciation rates which can be compared. Finally, the Japanese Government constructs annual official land prices for commercial properties based on appraised values. The paper compares these official land prices with the land prices generated by the hedonic regression models based on transactions data and on REIT data. The results revealed that commercial property indexes based on appraisal and assessment prices lag behind the indexes based on transaction prices.
    Keywords: Commercial property price indexes, System of National Accounts, the builder’s model, transaction-based indexes, appraisal prices
    JEL: C2 C23 C43 D12 E31 R21
    Date: 2017–09–11
  8. By: Annelies Hoebeeck (Department Public Governance, Management and Finance, Department Financial Economics, Ghent University); Koen Inghelbrecht (Department Financial Economics, Ghent University)
    Abstract: In 2005, mortgage interest, capital deductions and insurance premiums (MICPD) were assembled into one single deduction package to further stimulate home ownership in Belgium. Former research has shown that the MICPD did not raise the probability of becoming a home owner, due to its capitalisation into higher house prices. The objective of this paper is to investigate how the transmission of the capitalisation takes place. The analysis is based on data extracted from the Household Finance and Consumption Survey. The mortgage amount, the mortgage maturity, the interest rate and the house price are estimated simultaneously using a 3-SLS approach. The results suggest that the mortgage deduction does not result in more affordable housing by shortening the mortgage maturity. Most likely, the mortgage deduction results in larger amounts being borrowed, which in turn may indirectly push up house prices, the mortgage maturity and the interest rate as well. Although our estimation sample is rather small, these results suggest that the MICPD might be more beneficial for sellers and mortgage-granting institutions than for home owners.
    Keywords: Mortgages, tax policy, house prices, mortgage interest deduction, household borrowing
    JEL: G21 H24 H31
    Date: 2017–09
  9. By: Vasilios Plakandaras (Department of Economics, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece); Rangan Gupta (University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa); Constantinos Katrakilidis (Department of Economics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece); Mark E. Wohar (College of Business Administration, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, USA and School of Business and Economics, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK)
    Abstract: In this paper, we study the effect of macroeconomic shocks in the determination of house prices. Focusing on the U.S. and the U.K. housing market, we employ time-varying Vector Autoregression models using Bayesian methods covering the periods of 1830-2016 and 1845-2016 respectively. We consider real house prices, output growth, short-term interest rates and inflation as input variables in order to unveil the effect of macroeconomic shocks on house prices. From the examination of the impulse responses of house prices on macroeconomic shocks, we find that technology shocks dominate in the U.S. real estate market, while their effect is unimportant in the U.K. In contrast, monetary policy drives most of the evolution of the U.K. house prices, while transitory house supply shocks are unimportant in either country. These findings are further corroborated with the analysis of conditional volatilities and correlations to macroeconomic shocks. Overall, we are able to better understand the dynamic linkages in the relationship of the macro economy and house prices. Over time, we analyze the variations in economic events happening at the imposition of the shock and uncover characteristics missed in the time-invariant approaches of previous studies.
    Keywords: time-varying VAR, house prices, macroeconomic shocks
    JEL: C32 R30
    Date: 2017–09
  10. By: Wagner, Kathryn L. (Department of Economics Marquette University)
    Abstract: We examine the impact of the Great Recession on K-12 education finance and employment and generate five key results. First, nearly 300,000 school employees lost their jobs. Second, schools that were heavily dependent financially on state governments were particularly vulnerable to the recession. Third local revenues from the property tax actually increased during the recession, primarily because millage rates rose in response to declining property values. Fourth, inequality in school spending rose sharply during the Great Recession. Fifth, the federal government’s efforts to shield education from some of the worst effects of the recession achieved their major goal.
    Keywords: great recession, public education, education finance, education employment
    JEL: I22 I24 I28
    Date: 2017–01
  11. By: Brad R. Humphreys (West Virginia University, Department of Economics); Adam Nowak (West Virginia University, Department of Economics); Yang Zhou (West Virginia University, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: We investigate the impact of Chinese superstition on prices paid by Chinese home buyers in Seattle, Washington. Chinese consider 8 lucky and 4 unlucky. Empirical results indicate Chinese buyers pay a 1-2% premium for addresses including an 8 and a 1% discount for addresses including a 4. These results are unrelated to unobserved property quality: no premium exists when Chinese sell to non-Chinese. Absent explicit identifiers for Chinese individuals, we develop a binomial name classifier using methods from the biomedical and document classification literature, allowing for falsification tests using other ethnic groups and mitigating ambiguity attributable to transliteration of Chinese characters into the Latin alphabet.
    Keywords: Superstition; supervised learning; hedonic price model; name matching
    JEL: D03 R21 R30
    Date: 2017–09
  12. By: Ballatore, Rosario Maria; Paccagnella, Marco; Tonello, Marco
    Abstract: Using census data on three cohorts of 5th grade Italian students we investigate how the ordinal rank in the within-school age distribution affects the probability of being bullied. Identification is achieved by exploiting within-school between-cohort variation in the age composition of different school cohorts, and through an IV strategy based on the discontinuity in the probability of enrolling in a given school year generated by an end-of-year cut-off rule. We find that being in the upper part of the school age distribution reduces the probability of being bullied: a one-decile increase in the within-school rank decreases the probability of being victimized by about one percentage point. The effects are stronger for females, children from disadvantaged backgrounds, and children spending the entire day at school; they do not depend on the choice of the reference group, as defined according to socio-demographic characteristics.
    Keywords: bullying,ordinal rank,relative age,school violence
    JEL: I21 J24 Z13
    Date: 2017
  13. By: Cocker Liu (Cornell University); Adam Nowak (West Virginia University, Department of Economics); Patrick Smith (San Diego State University)
    Abstract: This paper develops a framework for addressing the omitted variable bias that plagues most real estate research. We incorporate qualitative information from text to control for property attributes that are generally unobserved. The textual information is entered by real estate agents for every property sold on a Multiple Listing Service (MLS). The agents, who arguably have the most local market and property specific knowledge, use the unstructured text to highlight important information that is not clearly conveyed in other areas of the listing. Although the framework can be applied universally in real estate research, we demonstrate its effectiveness in the estimation of agent-owned sales premiums. Similar to previous studies, we find agent-owned premiums between 2% to 6% when no textual information is included. When we include the textual information the agent-owned premiums dissipate. The results suggest that the market distortions reported in Rutherford et al. [2005] and Levitt and Syverson [2008] do not exist.
    Keywords: Omitted variable bias, textual analysis, agent-owned, agency problem
    JEL: R00 R33
    Date: 2017–09
  14. By: Hélène Desgagnés
    Abstract: I examine the impact of non-regulated lenders in the mortgage market using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model. My model features two types of financial intermediaries that differ in three ways: (i) only regulated intermediaries face a capital requirement, (ii) non-regulated intermediaries finance themselves by selling securities and cannot accept deposits, and (iii) non-regulated intermediaries face a more elastic demand. This last assumption is based on empirical evidence for Canada revealing that non-regulated intermediaries issue loans at a lower interest rate. My results suggest that the non-regulated sector contributes to stabilize the economy by providing an alternative source of capital when the regulated sector in unable to fulfill the demand for credit. As a result, an economy with a large non-regulated sector experiences a smaller downturn after an adverse financial shock.
    Keywords: Business fluctuations and cycles, Economic models, Financial system regulation and policies, Housing
    JEL: E32 E44 E47 E60 G21 G23 G28
    Date: 2017
  15. By: Adam Nowak (West Virginia University, Department of Economics); Juan Sayago-Gomez (West Virginia University, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: The existence of homeowner preferences - specifically homeowner preferences for neighbors - is fundamental to economic models of sorting. This paper investigates whether or not the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11) impacted local preferences for Arab neighbors. We test for changes in preferences using a differences-in-differences approach in a hedonic pricing model. Relative to sales before 9/11, we find properties within 0.1 miles of an Arab homeowner sold at a 1.4% discount in the 180 days after 9/11. The results are robust to a number of specifications including time horizon, event date, distance, time, alternative ethnic groups, and the presence of nearby mosques. Previous research has shown price effects at neighborhood levels but has not identified effects at the micro or individual property level, and for good reason: most transaction level data sets do not include ethnic identifiers. Applying methods from the machine learning and biostatistics literature, we develop a binomial classifier using a supervised learning algorithm and identify Arab homeowners based on the name of the buyer. We train the binomial classifier using names from Summer Olympic Rosters for 221 countries during the years 1948-2012. We demonstrate the flexibility of our methodology and perform an interesting counterfactual by identifying Hispanic and Asian homeowners in the data; unlike the statistically significant results for Arab homeowners, we find no meaningful results for Hispanic and Asian homeowners following 9/11.
    Keywords: house prices, ethnicity, homeowner preferences, terrorism, September 11th
    JEL: R21 R23 R31 J15
    Date: 2017–09
  16. By: Hasbi, Maude
    Abstract: I estimate the impact of very high-speed broadband networks on some measures of local economic growth in France. I use panel data estimations with time- and municipal-fixed effects. I show that municipalities with a very high-speed broadband network tend to be more attractive for companies. I find a positive impact on the number of companies of all non-farm market sectors operating locally, along with a positive impact on company creation. In addition, municipalities with a very high-speed broadband network provide a more favorable environment for entrepreneurship, as it has a positive effect on the creation of sole proprietorships. The estimation results also show a positive impact on unemployment reduction.
    Keywords: Fiber,Very High-Speed Broadband,Local Economic Growth,Company Creation
    JEL: L13 L50 L96
    Date: 2017
  17. By: Joan Costa Font; Richard Frank; Katherine Swartz
    Abstract: Home equity is the primary self-funding mechanism for long term services and supports (LTSS). Using data from the relevant waves of the Health and Retirement Study (1996-2010), we exploit the exogenous variation in the form of wealth shocks resulting from the value of housing assets, to examine the effect of wealth on use of home health, unpaid help and nursing home care by older adults. We find a significant increase in the use of paid home health care and unpaid informal care but no effect on nursing home care access. We conduct a placebo test on individuals who do not own property; their use of LTSS was not affected by the housing wealth changes. The findings suggest that a wealth shock exerts a positive and significant effect on the uptake of home health and some effect on unpaid care but no significant effect on nursing home care.
    JEL: I18 J14
    Date: 2017–09
  18. By: Galbiati, Roberto; Ouss, Aurélie; Philippe, Arnaud
    Abstract: We study how local labor market conditions and information about jobs affect recidivism among former inmates. Our identification strategy exploits daily variations on new job vacancies and news coverage of job openings and closings at the county level, merged with individual-level administrative data on inmates released from French prisons. Overall job creations do not affect recidivism, but inmates released when more jobs in manufacturing are created are less likely to recidivate. We also show that media coverage of job creation reduces recidivism, beyond actual employment opportunities, suggesting implications for crime-control policies: information about employment contributes to reduce recidivism.
    Date: 2017–09
  19. By: Alejandro Justiniano; Giorgio E. Primiceri; Andrea Tambalotti
    Abstract: We document the emergence of a disconnect between mortgage and Treasury interest rates in the summer of 2003. Following the end of the Federal Reserve expansionary cycle in June 2003, mortgage rates failed to rise according to their historical relationship with Treasury yields, leading to significantly and persistently easier mortgage credit conditions. We uncover this phenomenon by analyzing a large dataset with millions of loan-level observations, which allows us to control for the impact of varying loan, borrower and geographic characteristics. These detailed data also reveal that delinquency rates started to rise for loans originated after mid 2003, exactly when mortgage rates disconnected from Treasury yields and credit became relatively cheaper.
    JEL: E32 E44 E52
    Date: 2017–09
  20. By: Philippe, Arnaud
    Abstract: This paper documents the effect of peers’ incarceration on an individual’s criminal activity within small criminal groups. Using established criminal groups, I built a 48-month panel that records the criminal status, Individual imprisonment status and imprisonment status of group members. Panel regressions with individual fixed effects allows me to document five facts. First, the incarceration of a peer is associated with a 5 per cent decrease in the arrest rate among groups composed of two persons. No effect is observed among bigger groups. Second, this effect is present even for incarceration following lone crimes, ruling out an explanation based on common shocks. Third, the probability of committing a group crime strongly decreases, and there is no shift to crime with other peers or lone crimes. Four, this general effect hides significant within-group heterogeneity. The results are consistent with the idea that ‘leaders’ are not affected by the incarceration of ‘followers’. Five, the effect seems to be driven by lower risky behaviour among offenders who remain free, and not by ‘criminal capital’ loss or deterrence.
    Date: 2017–09
  21. By: Ali Enami (Department of Economics, Tulane University)
    Abstract: Does the enormous variation in financial resources available to local schools affect student achievement? There is an intense debate over the inequality of opportunity in public schools due to differences in financial resources, but there is little empirical evidence that sheds light on this issue. The main purpose of this paper is to measure the impact of various types of school expenditures (i.e. operating, minor capital, and major capital expenditures) on the short- and long-term educational achievement of students. This paper also looks at various channels (i.e. class size, attendance, discipline, and teachers’ compensation) through which each type of expenditure could affect the performance of students. I use a dynamic regression discontinuity design that relies upon the exogenous variation in public school funding in Ohio that is created by marginally approved or failed local referenda to fund school districts. I find that only one type of expenditure, the approval of additional operating expenditures, has a positive effect in the short-term on the math proficiency of students subject to Ohio high school graduation tests, i.e. about 0.033 standard deviation (0.27 percentage points) for every additional $1000 extra per pupil operating expenditure. I also find that the subsequent increase in the average expenditure on instructional staff is the only channel that can explain this effect. I do not find any long-term effect for any type of school expenditures.
    Keywords: public school funding, operating expenditure, minor and major capital expenditures, student achievement, school district referendum.
    JEL: I20 H75 R51
    Date: 2017–09
  22. By: Florent Dubois (Aix-Marseille Univ. (Aix-Marseille School of Economics), CNRS, EHESS and Centrale Marseille)
    Abstract: Few studies tried to quantify the relative importance of each determinants of residential segregation. This mainly comes from a reverse causality problem which hampers the identification of the quantity of interest. In this paper, we decompose the whole change in segregation between 2001 and 2011 in South Africa by using segregation curves. We show that, even without an experimental setting (which might be impossible to obtain), identification of the causal effects can still be achieved by using the dynamics of the phenomenon. The provision of basic public services appears to be one of the main explanation of the gap observed, while differences in sociodemographic characteristics play a minor role only for the least segregated neighborhoods. Housing market is responsible for an important part only among neighborhoods intermediately integrated, while past segregation and income influence moderately segregation throughout more than half of the South African neighborhoods.
    Keywords: post-apartheid South Africa, generalized decompositions, residential segregation, causal inference
    Date: 2017
  23. By: Florent Dubois (Aix-Marseille Univ. (Aix-Marseille School of Economics), CNRS, EHESS and Centrale Marseille); Christophe Muller (Aix-Marseille Univ. (Aix-Marseille School of Economics), CNRS, EHESS and Centrale Marseille)
    Abstract: In his seminal work, Schelling (1971) shows that even individual preferences for integration across groups may generate high levels of segregation. However, this theoretical prediction does not match the decreasing levels of segregation observed since the 1970s. We construct a general equilibrium model in which preferences depends on the number of peers and unlike individuals, but also on the benefit (or loss) they attribute to the economic and social life that a minority member brings with him, which we call their “perception of the minority”. In this framework, there always exists a structure of the preferences for which integrated equilibria emerge and are stable. Even when individuals are all prejudiced against other groups, there is still a level of the perception of the minority for which integration is a stable outcome. We then propose an econometric specification in which the structural preference parameters can be identified. In the case of South Africa, our estimates of preferences provide evidence for a dynamics toward increasing integration as the effect of the perception of the minority is found positive and significant, and overcome both racism and homophily by between roughly one and four times.
    Keywords: post-apartheid South Africa, residential segregation, racial preferences, structural estimation
    Date: 2017–05
  24. By: Florent Dubois (Aix-Marseille Univ. (Aix-Marseille School of Economics), CNRS, EHESS and Centrale Marseille); Christophe Muller (Aix-Marseille Univ. (Aix-Marseille School of Economics), CNRS, EHESS and Centrale Marseille)
    Abstract: Despite the influential work of Cutler and Glaeser [13], whether ghettos are good or bad is still an open and debatable question. In this paper, we provide evidence that, in South Africa, ghettos can be good or bad for income depending on the studied quantile of the income distribution. Segregation tends to be beneficial for rich Whites while it is detrimental for poor Blacks. Even when we find it to be also detrimental for Whites, it is still more detrimental for Blacks. We further show that the multitude of results fuelling this debate can come from misspecification issues and selecting the appropriate sample for the analysis. Finally, we quantify the importance of segregation in the income gap between Blacks and Whites in the post-Apartheid South Africa. We find that segregation can account for up to 40 percent of the income gap at the median. It is even often a larger contribution than education all across the income distribution.
    Keywords: post-apartheid South Africa, generalized decompositions, income distribution, residential segregation
    Date: 2017–05
  25. By: Guo, Zi-Yi
    Abstract: Empirical evidence shows that house prices are highly volatile and closely correlated with the business cycle, and the fact is at odds with the evidence that rental prices are relatively stable and almost uncorrelated with the business cycle. To explain the fact, we introduce information heterogeneity into a standard dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model with financial frictions. Agents are endowed with heterogeneous shocks, and rationally extract information from market activities. Since agents are confused by changes in average private signals about future fundamentals, the model generates an amplified effect of technology shocks on house prices, which accounts for the disconnect between house prices and the discounted sum of future rents. In addition, the model provides insights for the lead-lag relationship between residential and nonresidential investment over the business cycle. The solution method developed in this paper can be applied in other DSGE models with heterogeneous information.
    Date: 2017
  26. By: Buechel, Berno; Mechtenberg, Lydia; Petersen, Julia
    Abstract: Successful performance – be it in school, at the job, or in sports activities – requires perseverance, i.e., persistent work on a demanding task. We investigate in a controlled laboratory experiment how an individual’s social environment affects perseverance. We find evidence for two kinds of peer effects: being observed by a peer can serve as a commitment device, while observing a peer can be informative. In particular, we show that successful peers affect perseverance positively if they communicate their success in a motivating way and negatively otherwise, while perseverance is unaffected by unsuccessful peers. Our experimental results suggest that peers affect perseverance indirectly, via influencing self-confidence. We turn to field data from an educational setting and find that students seem to be able to harness the power of peer effects, by selecting into groups that help them reach their goals.
    Keywords: Self-control; Peer Effects; Social Networks; Experiment
    JEL: C91 D90 I21 J24
    Date: 2017–09–16
  27. By: Schnitzer, Monika (LMU München); Watzinger, Martin (LMU München)
    Abstract: We provide the first measurement of knowledge spillovers from venture capital-financed companies onto the patenting activities of other companies. On average, these spillovers are nine times larger than those generated by the R&D investment of established companies. Spillover effects are larger in complex product industries than in discrete product industries. Start-ups with experienced inventors holding a patent at the time of receiving the first round of investment produce the largest spillovers, indicating that venture capital fosters the commercialization of technologies. Methodologically, we contribute by developing a novel definition of the spillover pool, combining citation-based and technological proximity-based approaches.
    Keywords: venture capital, spillovers, innovation;
    JEL: G24 O30 O31 O32
    Date: 2017–09–13
  28. By: A. Bergeaud; S.Ray
    Abstract: Adjustment costs impair the optimal allocation of production factor across firms. In this paper, we use the cost associated with corporate relocation to explore the effect of the adjustment costs of the premises size on factor demand. We rely on the tax on realized capital gains on real estate asset, which entails varying real estate adjustment costs across firms, to empirically study the effect of these frictions on firms' behaviour. We develop a general equilibrium model, with heterogeneous firms, that sheds light on the implication of the level of the fixed costs associated with the adjustment of real estate on the change in firms' labor demand following productivity shocks. This model predicts that employment growth of firms facing positive productivity shocks shrinks with the level of the frictions. Confronting these results using French firm-level data over the period 1994-2013, we find that higher adjustment costs constrain relocation and reduce job creation of the most dynamic firms. The highlighted frictions have noticeable macroeconomic effects.
    Keywords: Corporate real estate; Firms' relocation; Adjustment costs; Misallocation of resources.
    JEL: D21 D22 H25 J21 O52 R30
    Date: 2017
  29. By: Muna Shifa (Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit, University of Cape Town); Murray Leibbrandt (Southern Africa Labour and Development Research Unit, University of Cape Town)
    Abstract: Persistent spatial disparities in poverty remain prevalent in most developing and transition economies. However, spatial analyses of poverty in poor countries are generally limited to rural-urban or provincial breakdowns. In addition, despite the fact that poverty is a multidimensional phenomenon, existing sub-national level poverty analyses mainly use money metric indicators of individual welfare. In this study, we use census data to estimate multidimensional poverty at lower levels of geographic disaggregation in Zambia and Kenya. Our results show that, in general, the extent of multidimensional poverty is significantly higher in rural areas than urban areas in both countries. However, although deprivation levels in access to basic services are relatively lower in large urban centres such as Nairobi and Mombasa in the case of Kenya, and Lusaka, Livingstone, and Ndola in Zambia, these urban centres are also areas where deprivation levels have increased significantly over time. These findings suggest that the extent of provision of basic services in urban centres do not match to the extent required to accommodate the rapid urban growth that has occurred over the last few decades in both countries. Furthermore, there are large differences in poverty within urban areas and even within cities. For instance, constituency level estimates show that within Nairobi city, the incidence of poverty varies from 20% in Westland constituency to 41% in Langata constituency. In the case of Zambia, within Lusaka city, the incidence of poverty ranges widely, from 17% in Kabwata constituency to 53-55% in Chawama and Kanyama constituencies. An examination of inequality, measured either with the Gini coefficient for income and the variance for multiple deprivation levels, reveals important variations in intra-regional inequities across regions. This inequality picture cuts across the poverty status of regions. These results highlight the importance of sufficient level of geographic disaggregation in poverty analysis in order to identify disadvantaged areas within rural and urban regions of a country.
    Date: 2017
  30. By: Ohanian, Lee E. (Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis)
    Abstract: To design mortgage modification policies that successfully stem default and allow borrowers to keep their homes, policymakers need to understand why borrowers default. Is it because they’re truly unable to pay, or are they able to pay but have negative equity? {{p}} New research finds that both motives were important during the Great Recession, but that ability to pay plays the greater role, accounting for over 60 percent of defaults. Moreover, the analysis—which matches borrowers’ income, employment, and assets with their mortgage characteristics and payment status—shows that cash-strapped borrowers are more than seven times as likely to default as borrowers with strong ability to pay. {{p}} These findings indicate that when borrowers suffer an income reduction, mortgage modification policies that reduce monthly payments to an affordable range are likely to be effective in preventing future defaults.
    Date: 2017–09–13
  31. By: Lucija Muehlenbachs; Stefan Staubli; Ziyan Chu
    Abstract: How much risk does a heavy truck impose on highway safety? To answer this question, we look at the rapid influx of trucks during the shale gas boom in Pennsylvania. Using quasi-experimental variation in truck traffic, we isolate the effect of adding a truck to the road. We find an additional truck raises the risk of a truck accident—and, at an even higher rate, the risk of nontruck accidents. These accidents pose an external cost in cases in which the truck is not found liable, not fully insured, or not directly involved. We show this external cost is capitalized in the insurance market: car insurance premiums of other road users increase when trucks are added to the road.
    JEL: G22 H23 I18 Q58 R41
    Date: 2017–09
  32. By: John Simon (Reserve Bank of Australia); Tahlee Stone (Reserve Bank of Australia)
    Abstract: The global financial crisis (GFC) focused attention on household debt in dramatic fashion. While Australia escaped much of the immediate fallout, concerns over the level of household debt have become more entwined in policy deliberations in recent years. Parallel concerns, flowing from the rapid growth in housing prices in Australia and focusing on first home buyers, have also emerged. Some are concerned that this rapid growth is shutting a generation out of the home ownership market. Others are worried that those who do manage to buy a first home are taking on inadvisable levels of debt to do so. This paper investigates how things have changed since the GFC for those stepping onto the property ladder. Is 'generation rent' an important trend? Are people buying first homes taking on 'too much' debt? And what implications does this have for our understanding of the growing level of aggregate household debt? We find that fewer people are making the transition from renters to owners than prior to the crisis. Those that do, however, are more financially stable than earlier cohorts. Thus, 'generation rent' is an important trend but a consequence is that those who do step onto the property ladder are, on average, better placed to pay off their loans. We attribute much of this change to the increase in housing prices and the associated hurdle that deposit requirements represent. While saving a deposit is a stretch, it is also a sign of financial discipline that is associated with fewer subsequent difficulties.
    Keywords: home ownership; first home buyers; household debt; housing prices; housing affordability; housing accessibility
    JEL: D10 R21
    Date: 2017–09
  33. By: Mathematica Policy Research
    Abstract: Describes uses of behavioral science to help state and local workforce agencies improve approaches to providing services.
    Keywords: behavioral science, behavioral insights
    JEL: J
  34. By: Su, Yaqin; Tesfazion, Petros; Zhao, Zhong
    Abstract: Using a representative sample of rural migrants in cities, this paper investigates where the migrants in urban China come from, paying close attention to intra-provincial vs. inter-provincial migrants, and examining the differences in their personal attributes. We find that migrants who have come within the province differ significantly from those who have come from outside of the province. Using a nested logit model, we find that overall, higher wage differentials, larger population size, higher GDP per capita, and faster employment growth rate are the attributes of a city that attract migrants from both within and outside province. In addition, moving beyond one’s home province has a strong deterrent effect on migration, analogous to the “border effect” identified in international migration studies. We also explore the role of culture, institutional barrier, and dialect in explaining such a pronounced “border effect”.
    Keywords: Rural-urban migration,Inter- vs. intra-provincial migration,Border effect,China
    JEL: J62 O15
    Date: 2017
  35. By: DorothŽe Charlier (IAE Savoie Mont Blanc); Berang re Legendre (IAE Savoie Mont Blanc); Anna Risch (UniversitŽ Grenoble Alpes)
    Abstract: In this paper, we study the causal effect of two social policies on fuel poverty. The potential spillover effects of such policies on pollution are also considered. We apply matching methods to assess the impact of social energy tariff and social housing on fuel poverty. We show that social housing, probably by impacting the housing energy efficiency, allows reducing fuel poverty by about 5.9%. On the contrary, the price based policy Ð the social energy tariff- has no impact on fuel poverty. By demonstrating that fuel poor households emit significantly more pollutant gazes, we foresee then the potential spillover effects of policies decreasing fuel poverty: developing social housing could lead to reduce pollution and improve public health. The present research opens up space for a public debate on the image of social housing, which needs clearly to be rehabilitated in France.
    Keywords: Fuel Poverty, Social housing, social energy tariff, indoor pollution, matching method
    JEL: Q41 C52 Q51
    Date: 2017–09
  36. By: Guillaume Bérard (Aix-Marseille Univ. (Aix-Marseille School of Economics), CNRS, EHESS and Centrale Marseille); Alain Trannoy (Aix-Marseille Univ. (Aix-Marseille School of Economics), CNRS, EHESS and Centrale Marseille)
    Abstract: This paper estimates the effects of an increase in the real estate transfer taxes (RETT) rate from 3.80% to 4.50%, following an optional reform implemented in March 2014 by French départements. Not all the départements implemented the RETT increase, which is the starting point for a natural experiment: using a difference-in-differences design, we estimate two main effects. (1) An anticipation effect a month before the implementation of the reform in order to avoid the RETT increase (timing response). The total tax base increased by 28% just the month before. (2) The classic depressing effect of a tax on the equilibrium quantity (extensive margin response) is estimated to be 7% on average from March 2014 to October 2015. All in all, the average net effect corresponds to a drop of the transactions of 4.6% over a period of ten months following the implementation date. Furthermore, we estimate that the elasticity of the tax revenue to the tax increase is about 0.65, meaning that départements’ tax revenues are still on the increasing side of the Laffer curve.
    Keywords: local government, real estate market, transfer taxes, Natural experiment, anticipation
    JEL: H71 R21 R31 R51
    Date: 2017–09
  37. By: Michal Rubaszek
    Abstract: Housing rental market share in most countries around the world is low. We explore the reasons behind this underdevelopment with a survey conducted among a representative group of 1005 Poles. It turns out that strong tenure preferences of households toward owning can be attributed to both economic and psychological factors. Building on these findings, we develop a life-cycle model and evaluate the effect of the following reforms aimed at improving the functioning of the rental market: (i) changing the quality of rental services, (ii) reducing the risk of investment in rental housing and (iii) removing fiscal incentives for owning. The results indicate that the reforms, if introduced simultaneously, significantly increase the rental market share.
    Keywords: Housing rental market, survey data, life-cycle model, heterogenous agent model.
    JEL: D91 E21 R21
    Date: 2017–09
  38. By: Angela K. Dills; Sietse Goffard; Jeffrey Miron
    Abstract: By the end of 2016, 28 states had liberalized their marijuana laws: by decriminalizing possession, by legalizing for medical purposes, or by legalizing more broadly. More states are considering such policy changes even while supporters and opponents continue to debate their impacts. Yet evidence on these liberalizations remains scarce, in part due to data limitations. We use data from Monitoring the Future’s annual surveys of high school seniors to evaluate the impact of marijuana liberalizations on marijuana use, other substance use, alcohol consumption, attitudes surrounding substance use, youth health outcomes, crime rates, and traffic accidents. These data have several advantages over those used in prior analyses. We find that marijuana liberalizations have had minimal impact on the examined outcomes. Notably, many of the outcomes predicted by critics of liberalizations, such as increases in youth drug use and youth criminal behavior, have failed to materialize in the wake of marijuana liberalizations.
    JEL: K14
    Date: 2017–09
  39. By: Zhuang Hao; Benjamin W. Cowan
    Abstract: Previous studies have shown that years of formal schooling attained affects health behaviors, but little is known about how the stringency of academic programs affects such behaviors, especially among youth. Using national survey data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS), we study the effects of mathematics and science high-school graduation requirements (HSGR) on high school students’ risky health behaviors--specifically on drinking, smoking, and marijuana use. We find that an increase in mathematics and science HSGR has significant negative impacts on alcohol consumption among high-school students, especially males and non-white students. The effects of math and science HSGR on smoking and marijuana use are also negative but generally less precisely estimated. Our results suggest that curriculum design may have potential as a policy tool to curb youth drinking.
    JEL: I12 I24
    Date: 2017–09
  40. By: Gábor Túry (Institute of World Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences)
    Abstract: The paper investigates the role of the automotive industry in the Baltic, Visegrád and Iberian region, summarizing the relevant literature. In the analysis of each country, the study discusses the importance of the automotive industry in the national economy and the role of individual countries in the global trade. Based on the literature there are different approaches regarding the activities belonging to the automotive industry. The vehicle production is vertically integrated, therefore the industry involves many other activities that sell their products to other industries as well. On the other hand economic contribution of the automotive industry can be interpreted in a broad way including downstream activities related to the use of the motor vehicle, and the socioeconomic employment as well. The broader definition of automotive industry in this paper is based on this previous approach. The study defines the automotive spillovers on the basis of the NACE nomenclature to show how these activities contribute to employment, production and value added in the examined countries.
    Keywords: automotive industry, spillovers, external trade, Baltic countries, Central Europe, Iberian countries
    JEL: F1 L62
    Date: 2017–08
  41. By: Decio Coviello (HEC, Montreal); Immacolata Marino (Università di Napoli Federico II and CSEF); Tommaso Nannicini (Università Bocconi); Nicola Persico (Northwestern University)
    Abstract: This paper documents: the channels through which local governments propagate a fiscal shock; and the corresponding reaction by firms in the affected upstream sector (municipal procurement). The shock is provided by an Italian fiscal rule, called Patto di stabilita' dei comuni, which was tightened unexpectedly in 2008 and applied only to municipalities with population greater than 5,000. Using a difference-indifference identification strategy, we estimate that this shock led to a 13-20% reduction of infrastructure spending in treated municipalities, or equivalently, an 80% reduction in the average municipality. In contrast, current expenditure was not affected. In the upstream sector, i.e., the infrastructure procurement sector, firms reacted to the demand shock by cutting capital rather than labor. In both cases, then, the capital/investment sector is found to be a pre-eminent channel of direct shock propagation. In addition, the fiscal demand shock is found to propagate disproportionately through those private-sector firms which are most exposed to the shocked sector. This finding suggests that direct shock transmission depends on the higher moments of the exposure distribution, beyond the average sectoral exposure that is represented by the input-output linkages. Using procurement-market data we rule out the possibility that our estimates are attenuated by spillover effects operating through competition in the procurement market.
    Keywords: fiscal rules, industry dynamics, firm dynamics.
    JEL: D44 D72 D73 H57 H70
    Date: 2017–09–13
  42. By: Tay-Ryang Koo; Christine Lim; Frédéric Dobruszkes
    Abstract: Unlike income or relative prices, air transport attributes and tourism demand on a given route can be endogenous. Using instrumental variables, this study attempted to account for the circular causality in estimating the effect of direct air service on tourism demand. Although we foundevidence of endogeneity, the nature of the circular causation is context-specific; while direct air service can be regarded as an exogenous variable in one direction, it can have an endogenous relationship on the other. Findings emphasise the need to explicate information about the network nature of transportation and its endogenous relations with tourism.
    Date: 2017
  43. By: Peng, Kun; Cao, Bolin
    Abstract: This study aimed to bolster knowledge regarding the factors affecting adoption behaviors of online dating sites. We held the view that the adoption of online dating sites is not only a diffusion of innovation process but also an outcome of the interactions among individual, peers and society. Using the data collected from a telephone interview by the Pew Research Center’s Internet and American Life Project in U.S., this study explored the role of perceived usefulness, perceived peer influence and perceived social reality in the adoption process. As a result, perceived usefulness of online dating sites was found to be the principal factor in influencing one’s choice of online dating sites. Also, perceived peer influence had been considered as another influential factor in this adoption process. However, perceived social reality had shown no impacts towards this adoption decision.
    Keywords: online dating sites (ODS),adoption,perceived usefulness,peer influence,social reality
    Date: 2017
  44. By: Emmanuel Hache (IFPEN - IFP Energies nouvelles); Déborah Leboullenger (BPCE - BPCE, CEPII - Centre d'Etudes Prospectives et d'Informations Internationales - Centre d'analyse stratégique, EconomiX - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Valérie Mignon (EconomiX - UPN - Université Paris Nanterre - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, CEPII - Centre d'Etudes Prospectives et d'Informations Internationales - Centre d'analyse stratégique)
    Abstract: In a new environment marked by the growing importance of Green House Gas emissions, fuel poverty, and energy efficiency in the different national agendas, the comprehension of energy demand factors appears to be crucial for the effectiveness of energy policies. We consider the latter could be improved by targeting specific household groups rather than looking to follow a single energy consumption level target. This article explores the scope of having a disaggregated energy consumption market to design policies aimed at curbing residential energy consumption or lowering its carbon intensity. Using a clustering method based on the CHAID (Chi Square Automatic Interaction Detection) methodology, we find that the different levels of energy consumption in the French residential sector are related to socio-economic, dwelling and regional characteristics. Then, we build a typology of energy-consuming households where targeted groups (fuel poor, high income and high consuming households) are clearly and separately identified through a simple and transparent set of characteristics. This classification represents an efficient tool for energy efficiency programs and energy poverty policies, but also for potential investors, which could provide specific and tailor made financial tools for the different consumer groups. Furthermore, our approach helps designing some energy efficiency score that could reduce the rebound effect uncertainty for each identified household group.
    Keywords: Energy consumption,Residential sector,Clustering method,France
    Date: 2017
  45. By: Noelle Denny-Brown; Marisa Shenk
    Abstract: The SourceAmerica Pathways to Careers (Pathways) program helps people with intellectual or developmental disabilities and people with autism spectrum disorder obtain competitive integrated employment aligned with their skills, interests, strengths, and abilities.
    Keywords: customized employment, intellectual or development disabilities, employment supports, employment outcomes
    JEL: I J
  46. By: Carlos Cortinhas (Department of Economics, University of Exeter)
    Abstract: The arguments for and against lecture capture have been going for some time and the debate is far from being settled definitely either way. Most of the existing research about the impact of lecture capture on student attainment seems to show negligible or little effects while examples of a negative relationship between lecture capture and learning outcomes abound. The main purpose of this study is to add to the existing literature by conducting a large scale investigation (involving more than 2400 students in 26 modules offered by the economics department of a major British university) on whether lecture capture improves student performance. A secondary objective is to determine whether some groups of students use lecture capture more than others and whether lecture capture can lead to differing benefits for students in different types of subjects. The data shows, in line with previous studies, that certain groups of students use lecture recordings significantly more than their peers (e.g. female students, international students, students from a low socio-economic background and ethnic minorities). Other results were unexpected. Notably, disabled students (including the sub-group of dyslexic students) and mature students were found not to not use lecture recordings more than others. Also, students taking quantitative modules and students doing economics majors were found to use lecture recordings significantly less. The regression analysis showed that lecture recordings yielded (at most) a small positive effect on student performance.
    Keywords: hlecture capture, patterns of usage of lecture capture, online education.
    JEL: A20 I21 I24
    Date: 2017

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