nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2016‒07‒09
27 papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. The Effect of Owning a Car on Travel Behavior: Evidence from the Beijing License Plate Lottery By Linn, Joshua; Yang, Jun; Liu, Antung A.; Qin, Ping
  2. Local House Price Growth Accelerations By Alexander N. Bogin; William M. Doerner; William D. Larson
  3. Agglomeration and Technological Spillovers: Firm-Level Evidence from China's Electric Apparatus Industry By He, Ming; Chen, Yang; Schramm, Ronald M.
  4. High School Track Choice and Financial Constraints: Evidence from Urban Mexico By Avitabile, Ciro; Bobba, Matteo; Pariguana, Marco
  5. The Importance of School Systems: Evidence from International Differences in Student Achievement By Woessmann, Ludger
  6. Is there trickle-down from tech? Poverty, employment and the high-technology multiplier in US cities By Lee, Neil; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés
  7. The Effect of Monetary Policy on Housing Tenure Choice as an Explanation for the Price Puzzle By Dias, Daniel A.; Duarte, Joao B.
  8. Measuring School and Teacher Value Added in Charleston County School District, 2014-2015 School Year By Alexandra Resch; Jonah Deutsch
  9. The Political Economy of Underfunded Municipal Pension By Brinkman, Jeffrey; Coen-Pirani, Daniele; Sieg, Holger
  11. To Introduce or Not To Introduce Monetary Bonuses: The Cost of Repealing Teacher Incentives By Yusuke Jinnai
  12. The (Non-) Effect of Violence on Education: Evidence from the "War on Drugs" in Mexico By Perez-Arce, Francisco; Marquez-Padilla, Fernanda; Rodriguez-Castelan, Carlos
  13. Gender Performance Gaps: Quasi-Experimental Evidence on the Role of Gender Differences in Sleep Cycles By Lusher, Lester; Yasenov, Vasil
  14. Institutions vs. ‘First-Nature’ Geography – What Drives Economic Growth in Europe’s Regions? By Tobias Ketterer; Andrés Rodríguez-Pose
  15. The impact of immigration on output and its components: A sectoral analysis for Italy at regional level By Etzo, Ivan; Massidda, Carla; Piras, Romano; Mattana, Paolo
  16. Estimation of Spillover Effects from Large Scale Adoption of Transgenic (Bt) Corn in the Philippines By Brown, Zachary; Connor, Lawson; Rejesus, Rod; Jose, Yorobe
  17. Visual Analysis of Hidden State Dynamics in Recurrent Neural Networks By Hendrik Strobelt; Sebastian Gehrmann; Bernd Huber; Pfister, Hanspeter; Alexander M. Rush
  18. Finance and System of Provision of Housing. The Case of Istanbul, Turkey By Ozlem Celik; Aylin Topal; Galip Yalman
  19. The cost of travel time variability: three measures with properties By Engelson, Leonid; Fosgerau, Mogens
  20. Do Principals' Professional Practice Ratings Reflect Their Contributions to Student Achievement? Evidence from Pennsylvania's Framework for Leadership By Moira McCullough; Stephen Lipscomb; Hanley Chiang; Brian Gill
  21. The first debt ceiling crisis By Garbade, Kenneth D.
  22. Ability tracking and social capital in China's rural secondary school system By Fan Li; Prashant Loyalka; Hongmei Yi; Yaojiang Shi; Natalie Johnson; Scott Rozelle
  23. Research on Practical Issues of the Revised Basic Act on Disaster Control Measures in Local Governments By Fumio Takeda; Kiyoshi Takeuchi; Takahisa Mizuyama; Hiroshi Ikeya
  24. The Impact of the Implementation of Council Directives on Labour Migration Flows from Third Countries to EU Countries By Tommaso Colussi
  25. Building functional cities By Vernon Henderson; Anthony J. Venables; Tanner Regan; Ilia Samsonov
  26. Evaluation Design Report for the Georgia Improving General Education Quality Project's School Rehabilitation Activity By Ira Nichols-Barrer; Caroline Lauver; Leigh Linden; Matt Sloan
  27. The economic geography of human capital in Twentieth-century Latin America in an international comparative perspective By Enriqueta Camps; Stanley Engerman

  1. By: Linn, Joshua (Resources for the Future); Yang, Jun; Liu, Antung A.; Qin, Ping
    Abstract: To reduce pervasive problems of traffic congestion and air pollution, many cities in developing countries have considered restricting vehicle ownership. There is no empirical evidence on these programs’ efficacy and costs, but other prior work suggests that not having a car increases the cost of commuting and limits the set of job opportunities. However, these prior studies do not address the endogeneity of car ownership. We leverage a unique policy, the Beijing license plate lottery, to estimate the effect of restricting vehicles on distance traveled and commuting time, while addressing the endogeneity of car ownership. We find that adding a car has little impact on total distance traveled or time spent traveling, but a large impact on mode of travel. While reducing car ownership by 20 percent and car travel distance by 10 percent in Beijing, this policy has not added significantly to overall distances traveled or commute times.
    Date: 2016–05–20
  2. By: Alexander N. Bogin (Federal Housing Finance Agency); William M. Doerner (Federal Housing Finance Agency); William D. Larson (Federal Housing Finance Agency)
    Abstract: We document real house price growth accelerations in U.S. ZIP codes between 1975 and 2015. Acceleration episodes, which are defined to include relatively extreme periods of price growth, tend to exhibit temporal clustering and occur with greater frequency in large versus small cities. We exploit within-city variation in price dynamics to provide evidence that growth accelerations initially overshoot sustainable price levels but, in some areas, may reflect positive underlying economic fundamentals. Price levels post-acceleration are most sustainable in large cities, especially near city centers. Dynamics are generally consistent with empirical mean-reversion models and theories regarding the effects of traffic congestion and the elasticity of housing supply on house price gradients within the city.
    Keywords: house price cycles, Great Recession, real estate, boom, bust, house price index
    JEL: E32 R30
    Date: 2016–06
  3. By: He, Ming (Division of Economics, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University); Chen, Yang (Division of Economics, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University); Schramm, Ronald M. (Division of Economics, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University)
    Abstract: We use a spatial autoregressive model to study the determinants of firm-level productivity growth using longitudinal data on China's electric apparatus industry over the period of 1999-2007. Factors considered include technological spillover, R&D and export behavior, agglomeration economies, and public expenditure. We propose modifications to Kelejian and Prucha's (1998) FE-2SLS procedure and Mutl and Pfaffermayr's (2011) RE-FG2SLS procedure to cope with the technical difficulties with our unbalanced panel. Statistical evidence strongly favors the fixed effects model over the random effects model. According to our estimates, there are large and signiffcant technological spillovers among firms. Individually, firms benefit from their own R&D and export activities. Market competition and public expenditure in the local and neighboring jurisdictions are found to be important determinants to productivity. Our model also provides direct evidence that the technological spillover effects attenuate rapidly in spatial distance. Finally, the inter-regional spillover effects are found to be more pronounced and more significant on urban districts or jurisdictions with smaller geographical areas. Geographic proximity to neighbors and special administrative role jointly contribute to this observation.
    Date: 2016–03–03
  4. By: Avitabile, Ciro; Bobba, Matteo; Pariguana, Marco
    Abstract: This paper examines the role of liquidity constraints in shaping curricular choices in upper secondary education. In the context of the centralized school assignment sys- tem in Mexico City, we study how a large household income shock affects sorting of relatively disadvantaged youth over high school tracks exploiting the discontinuity in the assignment of the welfare program, Oportunidades. The in-cash transfer is found to significantly increase the probability of selecting the vocational track as the most preferred option vis-a-vis other more academically-oriented education modalities. The observed change in stated preferences affects admission outcomes within the school assignment system, thereby suggesting the scope for longer term impacts on schooling and labor market trajectories.
    Keywords: school choice, tracking, financial constraints, vocational education, returns to education, regression discontinuity design.
    JEL: D83 I21 I24 J24
    Date: 2016–06
  5. By: Woessmann, Ludger (Ifo Institute for Economic Research)
    Abstract: Students in some countries do far better on international achievement tests than students in other countries. Is this all due to differences in what students bring with them to school – socio-economic background, cultural factors, and the like? Or do school systems make a difference? This essay argues that differences in features of countries' school systems, and in particular their institutional structures, account for a substantial part of the cross-country variation in student achievement. It first documents the size and cross-test consistency of international differences in student achievement. Next, it uses the framework of an education production function to provide descriptive analysis of the extent to which different factors of the school system, as well as factors beyond the school system, account for cross-country achievement differences. Finally, it covers research that goes beyond descriptive associations by addressing leading concerns of bias in cross-country analysis. The available evidence suggests that differences in expenditures and class size play a limited role in explaining cross-country achievement differences, but that differences in teacher quality and instruction time do matter. This suggests that what matters is not so much the amount of inputs that school systems are endowed with, but rather how they use them. Correspondingly, international differences in institutional structures of school systems such as external exams, school autonomy, private competition, and tracking have been found to be important sources of international differences in student achievement.
    Keywords: student achievement, international comparison, education production function, schools, education, institutions, external exams, autonomy, competition, private schools, tracking, educational expenditure, teachers, instruction time, TIMSS, PISA
    JEL: I21 H52 L38 J24 D02
    Date: 2016–06
  6. By: Lee, Neil; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés
    Abstract: High-technology industries are seen as important in helping urban economies thrive, but at the same time they are often considered as potential drivers of relative poverty and social exclusion. However, little research has assessed how high-tech affects urban poverty and the wages of workers at the bottom of the pyramid. This paper addresses this gap in the literature and investigates the relationship between employment in high-tech industries, poverty and the labor market for non-degree educated workers using a panel of 295 Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in the United States between 2005 and 2011. The results of the analysis show no real impact of the presence of high-technology industries on poverty and, especially, extreme poverty. Yet there is strong evidence that tech-employment increases wages for non-degree educated workers and, to a lesser extent, employment for those without degrees. These results suggest that while tech employment has some role in improving welfare for non-degree educated workers, tech-employment alone is not enough to reduce poverty.
    Keywords: cities; employment; High-technology industries; poverty; wages
    JEL: R11 R12 R58
    Date: 2016–06
  7. By: Dias, Daniel A.; Duarte, Joao B.
    Abstract: In this paper we provide an alternative explanation for the price puzzle (Sims 1992) based on the effect of monetary policy on housing tenure choice and the weight of the shelter component in overall CPI. In the presence of nominal or financial frictions, when interest rates increase, the real cost of owning a house increases, and this increase may make some people prefer to rent instead of buying. This change in consumption behavior increases the price of rents relative to other goods. Starting in 1983, homeownership costs are based on a measure of implied owner equivalent rent, which is calculated using observed house rents. This change implies that, directly and indirectly, prices in the rental market almost entirely command the shelter component of CPI, which weighs around 30% in the overall index. When we take these two pieces into account and use CPI net of shelter services as a measure of inflation, we obtain impulse responses of prices to a monetary contraction shock more in line with what is predicted by theory. In addition, our results also suggest that inflation is much less persistent than what is implied by analyses using a measure of inflation that includes shelter services. Our results pass a long list of robustness check exercises and compare well against other explanations of the price puzzle.
    Keywords: Price puzzle ; Housing tenure choice ; Monetary policy ; SVAR
    JEL: E31 E43 R21
    Date: 2016–06
  8. By: Alexandra Resch; Jonah Deutsch
    Keywords: Teacher value added, Charleston County School District, education
    JEL: I
  9. By: Brinkman, Jeffrey (Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia); Coen-Pirani, Daniele (University of Pittsburgh); Sieg, Holger (University of Pennsylvania and NBER)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the determinants of underfunding of local government’s pension funds using a politico-economic overlapping generations model. We show that a binding down payment constraint in the housing market dampens capitalization of future taxes into current land prices. Thus, a local government’s pension funding policy matters for land prices and the utility of young households. Underfunding arises in equilibrium if the pension funding policy is set by the old generation. Young households instead favor a policy of full funding. Empirical results based on cross-city comparisons in the magnitude of unfunded liabilities are consistent with the predictions of the model.
    Keywords: Unfunded Liabilities; Political Economy; Land Prices; Capitalization
    JEL: E6 H3 H7 R5
    Date: 2016–05–27
  10. By: Daniele Di Gennaro (Sapienza, University of Rome); Guido Pellegrini (Sapienza, University of Rome)
    Abstract: During the last decades SUTVA has represented the "gold standard" for the identification and evaluation of causal effects. However, the presence of interferences in causal analysis requires a substantial review of the SUTVA hypothesis. This paper proposes a framework for causal inference in presence of spatial interactions within a new spatial hierarchical Difference-in-Differences model (SH-DID). The novel approach decomposes the ATE (Average Treatment Effect), allowing the identification of direct (ADTE) and indirect treatment effects. In addition, our approach permits the identification of different indirect causal impact both on treated (AITET) and on controls (AITENT). The performance of the SH-DID are evaluated by a Montecarlo Simulation. The results confirm how omitting the presence of interferences produces biased parameters of direct and indirect effects, even though the estimates of the ATE in the traditional model are correct. Conversely, the SH-DID provides unbiased estimates of both total, direct and indirect effects. In addition, this model is the more efficient compared both to the traditional and a Spatial modified Difference-in-Differences estimator.
    Keywords: Causal Inference, Spatial Interferences, Hierarchical Model, Montecarlo Simulation.
    JEL: C15 C21 C19 C33
    Date: 2016
  11. By: Yusuke Jinnai (International Univeristy of Japan)
    Abstract: Teacher performance pay programs form the foundation of recent reforms in public education. Although existing research has found monetary bonuses for teachers increase student achievement, no studies have examined the potentially negative effects of repealing such incentives. Using novel data from North Carolina, where the state government first reduced and finally repealed its teacher incentive program, this paper shows that student achievement at the lowest-performing schools significantly decreased after the reduction in bonuses and further decreased after the repeal of the incentive program. These findings illustrate that once incentives are introduced it is not cost-free to reduce or remove them.
    Keywords: School accountability, Performance pay, Teacher incentives
    JEL: I21 H4
    Date: 2016–01
  12. By: Perez-Arce, Francisco; Marquez-Padilla, Fernanda; Rodriguez-Castelan, Carlos
    Abstract: There is a growing interest in economic literature on the pervasive effects of violence exposure on human capital accumulation. However, this literature has come short on disentangling the direct effects of violence on individuals' schooling decisions from the indirect effects related to the destruction of infrastructure which inevitably accompanies armed conflict. In this paper we study the sharp increase in violence experienced in Mexico after 2006, known as "The War on Drugs" and its effects on human capital accumulation. This upsurge in violence is expected to have direct effects on individuals' schooling decisions but not indirect effects as severe destruction of infrastructure was absent. In addition, the fact that the marked increases in violence were concentrated in some municipalities (and not in others) allows us to implement a fixed effects methodology to study the effects of violence on education outcomes. Differently to several recent studies that have found significant negative effects of violence on economic outcomes in Mexico, we find evidence that this is not the case, at least in terms of human capital accumulation. By using several sources of data we show that at most very small effects on total enrollment exist. We also show that these small effects on enrollment may be driven by some students being displaced from high violence municipalities to low violence municipalities; but the education decisions of individuals do not seem to be highly impacted. We also discard the possibility that the effects on enrollment of young adults appear small due to a counteracting effect from ex-workers returning to school (i.e. we discard the possibility that crime reduced labor force participation, and those affected enrolled in school). These results stand in contrast with recent evidence of the negative effects of crime on short-term economic growth since minimal to null effects of violence on human capital accumulation today should have little to none adverse effects on long-term growth outcomes in Mexico.
    Keywords: crime, education, fixed effects, Mexico
    JEL: C23 D74 H75 I21 O54
    Date: 2015–02
  13. By: Lusher, Lester (University of California, Davis); Yasenov, Vasil (University of California, Davis)
    Abstract: Sleep studies suggest that girls go to sleep earlier, are more active in the morning, and cope with sleep deprivation better than boys. We provide the first causal evidence on how gender differences in sleep cycles can help explain the gender performance gap. We exploit over 240,000 assignment-level grades from a quasi-experiment with a community of middle and high schools where students' schedules alternated between morning and afternoon start times each month. Relative to girls, we find that boys' achievement benefits from a later start time. For classes taught at the beginning of the school day, our estimates explain up to 16% of the gender performance gap.
    Keywords: gender performance gap, gender difference in sleep cycles, school start time
    JEL: H52 I20 I21
    Date: 2016–06
  14. By: Tobias Ketterer; Andrés Rodríguez-Pose
    Abstract: The debate on whether institutions or geography prevail in driving economic growth has been rife (e.g. Sachs 2003 vs. Rodrik et al. 2004). Most of the empirical analyses delving into this debate have focused on world countries, whose geographical and institutional conditions differ widely. Subnational analyses considering groups of countries with, in principle, more similar institutional and geographical conditions have been limited and tended to highlight that geography is more important than institutions at subnational level. This paper aims to address whether this is the case by investigating how differences in institutional and ‘first-nature’ geographical conditions have affected economic growth in Europe’s regions in the period 1995-2009. In the analysis we use a newly developed dataset including regional quality of government indicators and geographical charactersitics and employ 2-SLS and IV-GMM estimation techniques with a number of regional historical variables as instruments. Our results indicate that at a regional level in Europe institutions rule. Regional institutional conditions – and, particularly, government effectiveness and the fight against corruption – play an important role in shaping regional economic growth prospects. This does not imply, however, that geography is irrelevant. There is evidence of geographical factors affecting regional growth, although their impact is dwarfed by the overriding influence of institutions.
    Keywords: Regional economic growth, institutions, geography, quality of government, NUTS-2 regions, Europe
    JEL: R11 O11 O43
    Date: 2016–06
  15. By: Etzo, Ivan; Massidda, Carla; Piras, Romano; Mattana, Paolo
    Abstract: This paper studies how immigrants impact on Italian economy. The issue is addressed following the channel output decomposition approach by means of which the effect of immigration is measured with respect to per capita value added and its components. The investigation is carried out at sector level during the 2008–2011 time period. The results show that the main channel through which migration impacts on value added varies on sectoral basis. While at aggregate level, in Manufacturing and in Other Services the impact goes mainly through capital intensity, in the Construction and in the Commerce sectors the principal channel is via total factor productivity.
    Keywords: channel output decomposition approach, immigrants.
    JEL: F22 F62 J61
    Date: 2016–05
  16. By: Brown, Zachary; Connor, Lawson; Rejesus, Rod; Jose, Yorobe
    Abstract: This paper proposes the application of an econometric methodology developed in the environmental and urban economics literatures for studying spatial congestion and agglomeration to the context of agricultural pest control and technology adoption. The methodology allows the identification of spillover effects, either from bioeconomic feedbacks or social interactions, in discrete choice econometric models. We apply this framework to study area-level adoption and potential feedbacks from individuals’ decisions to adopt pesticidal transgenic corn, using a panel dataset from the Philippines. In a conceptual model, we show that a bioeconomic feedback through pest suppression will manifest as congestion effect. Identification in the econometric model is achieved by combining fixed effect conditional logit estimation with instrumental variable (IV) methods. Applying this econometric approach, we find evidence for a congestion spillover associated with the adoption of transgenic corn in the Philippines.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, Industrial Organization, Risk and Uncertainty,
    Date: 2016
  17. By: Hendrik Strobelt; Sebastian Gehrmann; Bernd Huber; Pfister, Hanspeter; Alexander M. Rush
    Abstract: Recurrent neural networks, and in particular long short-term memory networks (LSTMs), are a remarkably effective tool for sequence modeling that learn a dense black-box hidden representation of their sequential input. Researchers interested in better understanding these models have studied the changes in hidden state representations over time and noticed some interpretable patterns but also significant noise. In this work, we present LSTMVis a visual analysis tool for recurrent neural networks with a focus on understanding these hidden state dynamics. The tool allows a user to select a hypothesis input range to focus on local state changes, to match these states changes to similar patterns in a large data set, and to align these results with domain specific structural annotations. We further show several use cases of the tool for analyzing specific hidden state properties on datasets containing nesting, phrase structure, and chord progressions, and demonstrate how the tool can be used to isolate patterns for further statistical analysis.
    Date: 2016–01
  18. By: Ozlem Celik (Middle East Technical University (METU), Department of Political Science and Public Administration); Aylin Topal (Middle East Technical University (METU), Department of Political Science and Public Administration); Galip Yalman (Middle East Technical University (METU), Department of Political Science and Public Administration)
    Abstract: This paper outlines a theorisation of the systems of provision approach (sop) and illustrates the relation between financialisation and housing by applying the sop framework in the case of Istanbul. The interest of different segments of capitalist interests in urban space has been gradually growing in Turkey, and in Istanbul particularly over the last decade, with a special emphasis on the construction sector in general and housing, in particular. The housing provision in Istanbul has been changing in terms of the role of the state, the expansion and increase in construction sector in relation to the integration to global capitalism, moments of resistance in different neighbourhoods against gentrification, the expectations of consumers from different classes, and the changing role of labour. The paper shows that the role and impact of finance and financialisation is evident in the case of Istanbul in terms of revealing the tensions, conflicts and congruencies among different developers, different classes, between the state, developers and consumers.
    Date: 2016–04–30
  19. By: Engelson, Leonid; Fosgerau, Mogens
    Abstract: This paper explores the relationships between three types of measures of the cost of travel time variability: measures based on scheduling preferences and implicit departure time choice, Bernoulli type measures based on a univariate function of travel time, and mean-dispersion measures. We characterise measures that are both scheduling measures and mean-dispersion measures and measures that are both Bernoulli and mean-dispersion. There are no measures that are both scheduling and Bernoulli. We consider the impact of requiring that measures are additive or homogeneous, proving also a new strong result on the utility rates in an additive scheduling measure. These insights are useful for selecting cost measures to use in applications.
    Keywords: value; travel time; variability; reliability
    JEL: D1 D8 R4
    Date: 2016
  20. By: Moira McCullough; Stephen Lipscomb; Hanley Chiang; Brian Gill
    Abstract: We examined Pennsylvania’s Framework for Leadership (FFL), a tool for measuring and evaluating principals’ professional practices. Using data on more than 300 principals, we find that FFL evaluation scores are significantly and positively correlated with estimates of principals’ contributions to student achievement. This is the first study to find evidence that ratings of principals’ professional practice are correlated with credible measures of principals’ contributions to student achievement.
    Keywords: principal evaluation, educator effectiveness, principal value-added
    JEL: I
  21. By: Garbade, Kenneth D. (Federal Reserve Bank of New York)
    Abstract: In the second half of 1953 the United States, for the first time, risked exceeding the statutory limit on Treasury debt. This paper describes how Congress, the White House, and Treasury officials dealt with the looming crisis—by deferring and reducing expenditures, monetizing “free” gold that remained from the devaluation of the dollar in 1934, and, ultimately, raising the debt ceiling.
    Keywords: debt ceiling; monetization of gold; U.S. Treasury
    JEL: E42 H63 N22
    Date: 2016–06–01
  22. By: Fan Li; Prashant Loyalka; Hongmei Yi; Yaojiang Shi; Natalie Johnson; Scott Rozelle
    Abstract: The goal of this paper is describe and analyze the relationship between ability tracking and student social capital, in the context of poor students in developing countries. Drawing on the results from a longitudinal study among 1,436 poor students across 132 schools in rural China, we find a significant lack of interpersonal trust and confidence in public institutions among poor rural young adults. We also find that there is a strong correlation between ability tracking during junior high school and levels of social capital. The disparities might serve to further widen the gap between the relatively privileged students who are staying in school and the less privileged students who are dropping out of school. This result suggests that making high school accessible to more students would improve social capital in the general population.
    Keywords: ability tracking, social capital, interpersonal trust, confidence in public institutions, rural secondary schooling
    Date: 2016–06
  23. By: Fumio Takeda (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies); Kiyoshi Takeuchi (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies); Takahisa Mizuyama (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies); Hiroshi Ikeya (Sabo and Landslide Techinical Center)
    Abstract: The Basic Act on Disaster Control Measures was revised in 2012 and 2013. As those were major revisions since its enactment, it seems that there are many practical issues required to local governments for proper operation of the amended act. This paper aims to reveal the reality of local governments' current situation, efforts, recognition, and so on as practical issues in local governments responsible for the main operation of the legislation such as the Basic Act on Disaster Control Measures and to propose desirable future policy.
    Date: 2016–06
  24. By: Tommaso Colussi
    Abstract: This paper is part of the joint project between the Directorate General for Migration and Home Affairs of the European Commission and the OECD’s Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs on “Review of Labour Migration Policy in Europe”. This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The views expressed herein can in no way be taken to reflect the official opinion of the European Union. Grant: HOME/2013/EIFX/CA/002 / 30-CE-0615920/00-38 (DI130895) A previous version of this paper (DELSA/ELSA/MI(2015)4) was presented and discussed at the OECD Working Party on Migration in June 2015. The paper assesses the impact of three European Directives – Student Directive, Researcher Directive and the Blue Card Directive – on migration flows from third countries to the EU. Using a difference-in-difference empirical strategy and data from the EU-LFS and Eurostat database on work permits to non-EU workers, it estimates the effect of each Directive on the inflow of targeted third country nationals. Overall, the econometric analysis does not provide evidence of a direct impact of the implementation of either of the Directives on the inflow of targeted groups. Most member states did experience an increase in the inflow of non-EU high skilled workers after the adoption of the Blue Card Directive; however, this increase can be almost entirely explained by positive pre-existing trends in the inflow of this type of immigrants. Similarly, despite the increase in the number of permits issued to students and researchers from third countries in Europe, difference-in-differences estimates do not provide evidence of a direct effect of the implementation of the Student and Researcher Directive on changes in this type of inflows. The absence of a measurable impact of the three Directives analysed may be due to delayed effects of policy changes, which take time to filter into perception and thus affect immigrant inflows to Europe.
    JEL: F22 J61 K37 R23
    Date: 2016–06–24
  25. By: Vernon Henderson; Anthony J. Venables; Tanner Regan; Ilia Samsonov
    JEL: Q15
    Date: 2016
  26. By: Ira Nichols-Barrer; Caroline Lauver; Leigh Linden; Matt Sloan
    Keywords: Georgia Improving General Education Quality , School Rehabilitation Activity, international
    JEL: F Z
  27. By: Enriqueta Camps; Stanley Engerman
    Abstract: In this paper we present results for educational achievement in the different economic regions of Latin America (Big countries: Mexico and Brazil; Southern Cone; Andean countries; Central America; and others) during the twentieth century. The variables we use to measure education are average years of education, literacy, average years in primary school, average years in secondary school, and average years in university. To attain a broader perspective on the relationship of education with human capital and with welfare and wellbeing we relate the educational measures to life expectancy and other human capital variables and GDP per capita. We then use regressions to examine the impact of race and ethnicity on education, and of education on economic growth and levels of GDP per capita. The most significant results we wish to emphasize are related to the importance of race and racial fractionalization in explaining regional differences in educational achievement. Southern Cone countries, with a higher density of white population, present the highest levels of education in average terms, while countries from Central America and Brazil, with a higher proportion of Indigenous Americans and/or blacks, have the lowest levels. In most countries the major improvements in educational achievement are: the expansion of primary education during the first half of the twentieth century, and the expansion of secondary education after 1950. In all cases, average years in university are low, despite improvements in university quality during the last decades of the century when professors exiled during dictatorships returned to their countries of origin. International comparisons (continental averages for years of education weighted by country population size) place twentieth-century Latin America in an intermediate position between the USA and Europe at the top, and countries from Asia and Africa at the bottom.
    Keywords: LA, regional educational achievement, welfare, race and ethnicity, economic growth.
    Date: 2016–06

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