nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2015‒03‒27
34 papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. Urban Social Structure, Social Capital and Spatial Proximity By Patacchini, Eleonora; Picard, Pierre M; Zenou, Yves
  2. Analyzing patterns of spatial distribution for girls' high schools in districts of Burydah city – Saudi Arabia By Mohammed Aldagheiri;
  3. Migration Externalities in Chinese Cities By Pierre-Philippe Combes; Sylvie Démurger; Shi Li
  4. A quantitative analysis of the u.s. housing and mortgage markets and the foreclosure crisis By Chatterjee, Satyajit; Eyigungor, Burcu
  5. What Have They Been Thinking? Home Buyer Behavior in Hot and Cold Markets -- A 2014 Update By Karl E. Case; Robert J. Shiller; Anne K. Thompson
  6. Analysing and Managing Urban Sprawl and Land Take By BENCARDINO, Massimiliano; IOVINO, Giorgia
  7. Who benefits from state corporate tax cuts? A local labour markets approach with heterogeneous firms By Juan Carlos Suárez Serrato; Owen Zidar
  8. Urban system and administrative-territorial organization of Croatia By Dražen NjegaÄ; Aleksandar Toskić; Zoran Curić
  9. An Extrapolative Model of House Price Dynamics By Edward L. Glaeser; Charles G. Nathanson
  10. Is There "White Flight" into Private Schools? Evidence from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey By Fairlie, Robert
  11. Why do children differ in mathematical competencies? The experience of a standardized test in the primary school of Canton Ticino, Switzerland. By Giovanna Zanolla
  12. The Effects of Polish Special Economic Zones on Employment and Investment: Spatial Panel Modelling Perspective. By Cizkowicz, Piotr; Cizkowicz-Pekala, Magda; Pekala, Piotr; Rzonca, Andrzej
  13. Housing finance and financial stability: evidence from Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore By Hanifa, Mohamed Hisham; Masih, Mansur
  14. Classroom practice in schools achieving high results at national tests in Norway By Kitt Lyngsnes
  15. The rescue of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac By Frame, W. Scott; Fuster, Andreas; Tracy, Joseph; Vickery, James
  16. The Migrant Network Effect: An empirical analysis of rural-to-urban migration in South Africa By Caroline Stapleton
  17. Urban Sprawl By Maryam Davodi-Far
  18. The impact of admission criteria and English proficiency on medical students' academic performance in the pre-clinical phase By Najwa Al-Mously
  19. Network formation with value heterogeneity: centrality, segregation and adverse effects By Andreas Bjerre-Nielsen
  20. Evaluation of Activities Related to Beautify, Maintenance and Repair of School and Its Environment within the Scope of Community Service Implementations* By Zühal Çubukçu; AyÅŸe Dönmez; Elif Aydoğdu-Özoğlu; Zeynep Akın-Demircan
  21. Correlating Social Mobility and Economic Outcomes By Güell, Maia; Pellizzari, Michele; Pica, Giovanni; Rodríguez Mora, José Vicente
  22. Why are higher skilled workers more mobile geographically?: the role of the job surplus By Michael Amior
  23. A cost-benefit analysis of judicial foreclosure delay and a preliminary look at new mortgage servicing rules By Cordell, Lawrence R.; Lambie-Hanson, Lauren
  24. Estimating the marginal costs of road wear By Nilsson, Jan-Eric; Svensson , Kristin; Haraldsson, Mattias
  26. The Impacts of Structural Transformation and Industrial Upgrading on Regional Inequality in China By Tsun Se Cheong; Yanrui Wu
  27. A nested recursive logit model for route choice analysis By Mai, Tien; Frejinger, Emma; Fosgerau, Mogens
  28. The Early Growth of the Engineering Industry in Italy’s Regions By Carlo Ciccarelli; Stefano Fenoaltea
  29. Evaluation of the teacher training experience teaching in schools. Faculty of Education Loei Rajabhat University. By Thirasak . Uppamaiathichai
  30. Poverty and Homelessness in Athens: Governance and the Rise of an Emergency Model of Social Crisis Management By Vassilis Arapoglou, Kostas Gounis
  31. Convergence and Transitional Dynamics of China's Industrial Output: A County-Level Study Using a New Framework of Distribution Dynamics Analysis By Tsun Se Cheong; Yanrui Wu
  32. Job mobility as a new explanation for the immigrant-native wage gap : a longitudinal analysis for the German labor market By Brenzel, Hanna; Reichelt, Malte
  33. Assessment of the public's perceptions about the transport services in Oman By Abdelaziz Mahrez; Sami Said Al Wahibi
  34. The importance of social networks’ weak ties in business development By Alexandra Ioanid; Mihai Svasta; Maria Hermel-Stanescu

  1. By: Patacchini, Eleonora; Picard, Pierre M; Zenou, Yves
    Abstract: We develop a theoretical model where the existence and intensity of dyadic contacts depend on location. We show that agents tend to interact more with agents that are highly central in the network of social contacts and that are geographically closer. Using a unique geo-coded dataset of friendship networks in the United States, we find evidence consistent with this model. The main empirical challenge, which is the possible endogenous network formation, is tackled by employing a Bayesian methodology that allows to estimate simultaneously network formation and intensity of network contacts.
    Keywords: Bayesian estimation; endogenous network formation; geographical space; Social interactions; social space
    JEL: R1 R23 Z13
    Date: 2015–03
  2. By: Mohammed Aldagheiri (Qassim University);
    Abstract: The increase of population growth rate witnessed in Buraidah city in particular and the accompanying urban development have generated a great need for educational services offered to society. These services, however, have not responded to the increasing demands of the population due to the lack of early planning and preparation. There is an urgent need for planners, decision makers, and concerned development authorities to take the necessary measures that ensure even distribution of educational services. This paper aims at studying the spatial characteristics of public high schools for girls in Buraidah city in terms of the available spatial distribution models used district wise , the distance between these high schools, and the number of schools in each district.
    Keywords: Services Geography, Spatial Distribution, Saudi Arabia.
    Date: 2014–07
  3. By: Pierre-Philippe Combes (Groupement de Recherche en Économie Quantitative d'Aix-Marseille); Sylvie Démurger (CNRS); Shi Li
    Abstract: We analyse the impact of internal migration in China on natives’ labour market outcomes. We find evidence of a large positive correlation of the city share of migrants with natives’ wages. Using different sets of control variables and instruments suggests that the effect is causal. The large total migrant impact (+10% when one moves from the first to the third quartile of the migrant variable distribution) arises from gains due to complementarity with natives in the production function (+6.4%), and from gains due to agglomeration economies (+3.3%). Finally, we find some evidence of a stronger effect for skilled natives than for unskilled, as expected from theory. Overall, our findings support large nominal wage gains that can be expected from further migration and urbanisation in China.
    Keywords: migration; urban development; agglomeration economies; wage disparities; China.
    Date: 2015–03
  4. By: Chatterjee, Satyajit (Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia); Eyigungor, Burcu (Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia)
    Abstract: We present a model of long-duration collateralized debt with risk of default. Applied to the housing market, it can match the homeownership rate, the average foreclosure rate, and the lower tail of the distribution of home-equity ratios across homeowners prior to the recent crisis. We stress the role of favorable tax treatment of housing in matching these facts. We then use the model to account for the foreclosure crisis in terms of three shocks: overbuilding, financial frictions, and foreclosure delays. The financial friction shock accounts for much of the decline in house prices, while the foreclosure delays account for most of the rise in foreclosures. The scale of the foreclosure crisis might have been smaller if mortgage interest payments were not tax deductible. Temporarily higher inflation might have lowered the foreclosure rate as well.
    Keywords: Leverage; Foreclosures; Mortgage crisis
    JEL: E21 E32 E44 G21 H24
    Date: 2015–03–01
  5. By: Karl E. Case (Dept. of Economics, Wellesley College); Robert J. Shiller (Cowles Foundation, Yale University); Anne K. Thompson (Dodge Data and Analytics)
    Abstract: Questionnaire surveys undertaken in 1988 and annually from 2003 through 2014 of recent homebuyers in each of four U.S. metropolitan areas shed light on their expectations and reasons for buying during the recent housing boom and subsequent collapse. They also provide insight into the reasons for the housing crisis that initiated the current financial malaise. We find that homebuyers were generally well informed, and that their short-run expectations if anything underreacted to the year-to-year change in actual home prices. More of the root causes of the housing bubble can be seen in their long-term (10-year) home price expectations, which reached abnormally high levels relative to mortgage rates at the peak of the boom and have declined sharply since. The downward turning point, around 2005, of the long boom that preceded the crisis was associated with changing public understanding of speculative bubbles.
    JEL: R30
    Date: 2012–09
  6. By: BENCARDINO, Massimiliano (CELPE - Centre of Labour Economics and Economic Policy, University of Salerno - Italy); IOVINO, Giorgia (CELPE - Centre of Labour Economics and Economic Policy, University of Salerno - Italy)
    Abstract: In this paper «land take» and its drivers within the urbanization process is studied with a focus on recent developments in Italy. Several sources of information, recently made available by national and European agencies, are used to highlight the main characteristics of land take, its determinants, its spatial pattern and its evolutionary trends. Finally, after a short review of initiatives, actions and policies designed and implemented at different institutional levels (local, national, European) to tackle the question of urban sprawl and land take, we focus on some critical issues such as: reliability of measurement, scale of spatial planning, policy coordination and re-distributional aspects arising from the regulation of land property and rent.
    Keywords: Land take; Urban sprawl; Spatial planning; Italy
    JEL: Q01 Q24 Q28
    Date: 2014–12–30
  7. By: Juan Carlos Suárez Serrato (Duke University); Owen Zidar (The University of Chicago,Booth School of Business)
    Abstract: This paper estimates the incidence of state corporate taxes on the welfare of workers, landowners, and firm owners using variation in state corporate tax rates and apportionment rules. We develop a spatial equilibrium model with imperfectly mobile firms and workers. Firm owners may earn profits and be inframarginal in their location choices due to differences in location-specific productivities. We use the reduced-form effects of tax changes to identify and estimate incidence as well as the structural parameters governing these impacts. In contrast to standard open economy models, firm owners bear roughly 40% of the incidence, while workers and landowners bear 30-35% and 25-30%, respectively.
    JEL: H22 H25 H32 H71 R30 R23 R58 J32 F22 F23
    Date: 2015
  8. By: Dražen NjegaÄ (University of Zagreb, Faculty of Science, Department of Geography); Aleksandar Toskić (University of Zagreb, Faculty of Science, Department of Geography); Zoran Curić (University of Zagreb, Faculty of Science, Department of Geography)
    Abstract: This work deals with the necessity of reforming the administrative-territorial organization considering the characteristics of the urban system and settlement structure of Croatia. Up until the 1990s the basic unit of administrative-territorial organization in Croatia was the municipality – in total approximately one hundred of them. During the thirty years period (1963-1992) of their existence, the municipalities became autonomous political and economic units. Such municipal system influenced spatial structures and processes and had an impact on the development of Croatia’s urban system. Municipal centers (mainly small and medium sized cities) became spontaneous centers of polarized development on the local levels. After the political and economic changes in the 1990s, a new administrative-territorial organization was introduced. Today Croatia consists of two levels of administrative units - counties (21 higher level units) and municipalities (556 lower level units, with reduced jurisdictions as opposed to previous ones; their average size is around 102 km2 and population around 7700). This new administrative-territorial organization, based on the considerably greater jurisdiction of larger – regional territorial units, in which the smaller, local ones no longer have the opportunity of economic decision-making, modified the basic character of the impact the administrative-territorial organization had on spatial structures and processes, and thereby on the urban system and regional development. In such circumstances the smaller cities (apart from county seats) no more have the importance they had before. As the counties have become the basic planning units and were given the jurisdiction for balancing and improving economic and social development in their large territories, even some of the smaller county seats are not strong enough to support such development. Therefore it is necessary to increase the importance of municipalities by reducing their total number at least by half and increasing their territory as well as jurisdictions by giving them opportunities to autonomously plan their development.
    Keywords: Urban system, administrative-territorial organization, regional development, county, municipality, Croatia
    JEL: R58
    Date: 2014–05
  9. By: Edward L. Glaeser; Charles G. Nathanson
    Abstract: A modest approximation by homebuyers leads house prices to display three features that are present in the data but usually missing from perfectly rational models: momentum at one-year horizons, mean reversion at five-year horizons, and excess longer-term volatility relative to fundamentals. Valuing a house involves forecasting the current and future demand to live in the surrounding area. Buyers forecast using past transaction prices. Approximating buyers do not adjust for the expectations of past buyers, and instead assume that past prices reflect only contemporaneous demand, as with a capitalization rate formula. Consistent with survey evidence, this approximation leads buyers to expect increases in the market value of their homes after recent house price increases, to fail to anticipate the price busts that follow booms, and to be overconfident in their assessments of the housing market.
    JEL: D03 G02 R21
    Date: 2015–03
  10. By: Fairlie, Robert
    Abstract: Using a recently released confidential dataset from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES), we find some evidence of "white flight" from public schools into private schools partly in response to minority schoolchildren. We also examine whether "white flight" is from all minorities or only from certain minority groups, delineated by race or income. We find that white families are fleeing public schools with large concentrations of poor minority schoolchildren. In addition, the clearest flight appears to occur from poor black schoolchildren. The results for "white flight" from Asians and Hispanics are less clear.
    Keywords: Business, Education, Social and Behavioral Sciences, education, private school, white flight, Latino flight
    Date: 2015–03–25
  11. By: Giovanna Zanolla (University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Southern Switzerland)
    Abstract: Standardized tests are, as it is well known, a highly controversial and widely debated topic. On the one side they are considered a relatively objective tool for measuring student achievement that consumes little class time and produces useful information on which teachers, school administrators and policy makers can rely in order to assess and improve their classes or schools (Crescentini and Zanolla, 2013). On the other side, according to some authors, they only reveal students’ knowledge during the very short timeframe in which the tests are administered (Boaler, 2003), the results are influenced by factors such as anxiety or time pressure (Buck, Ritter, Jenson & Rose, 2010) and reflect the inequities that already exist within schools and end up advantaging the students from higher socioeconomic statuses (Vigdor and Clotfelter 2003; Alon, 2010). Despite all the criticism, a recent project aimed at producing and administering a standardized test to evaluate mathematical competencies in the fourth class of primary school in Ticino, an Italian-speaking region of Switzerland, has brought some interesting findings about the pupils’ weaknesses and strengths and the overall school system. The paper is aimed at presenting this test, which has involved almost 3,000 pupils, and at examining the main determinants of the results obtained by the pupils. The analysis of the impact of environmental, school, class, teacher, individual and household factors reveals that children’s scores differ considerably in relation to the district where the school is located (in Ticino there are 9 districts, each of which is a geographical area with its own inspector who is responsible for the quality of teaching), the family socioeconomic status, the nationality and the age of the pupil and the Math’s grade given by the teacher. While factors such as the school’s size, the urban/rural location of the community, the attendance of a multi-class, the teacher’s and the pupil’s gender exert a significant effect only on a part of the competencies that have been considered, class size, seems to be overall irrelevant.
    Keywords: standardized test, determinants of learning, evaluation of competencies, primary school
    JEL: I24 I29
    Date: 2014–07
  12. By: Cizkowicz, Piotr; Cizkowicz-Pekala, Magda; Pekala, Piotr; Rzonca, Andrzej
    Abstract: We estimate the set of panel and spatial panel data models of employment and investments for 379 Polish counties over the period 2003-2012. We take advantage of a unique firm-level dataset for Polish Special Economic Zones (SSEs), which includes about 30,000 observations. We find that SSEs have substantial positive effects on employment: jobs in a given SSE create jobs outside the SSE in hosting county and even more jobs in neighbouring counties. Effect of SSEs on investments is weaker, but still positive. Investments in a given SSE neither crowd out nor crowd in investments outside the SSE. Thereby, they add one to one to capital stock in hosting county. Our findings are robust to changes in estimation methods, sample composition, set of explanatory variables and spatial weight matrix.
    Keywords: special economic zones, regional economic development, economic policy tools, panel data models, spatial panel data models
    JEL: C21 C23 H25 H32 R15
    Date: 2015–03–20
  13. By: Hanifa, Mohamed Hisham; Masih, Mansur
    Abstract: This paper discusses current housing finance practices in three emerging economies such as, Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore, as well as the impact of those practices on financial stability. National authorities and policymakers may find this analysis helpful as they reassess the structure and health of their housing finance systems, with particular attention given to those factors that have contributed to a stable housing finance system. The methodology used to determine the factors was panel cointegration and dynamic OLS. The country-specific housing finance systems vary significantly and have sometimes been shaped by pivotal historic events. Today’s housing finance systems are determined by a range of factors, including the products offered to investors (floating or fixed interest rates over various maturities); the use of prepayment penalties; funding (deposits versus capital markets); the degree of lender recourse to defaulted borrowers’ other assets and income; and government participation, including tax breaks. While different systems can work well to provide stable housing finance, a number of best practices emanate from the discussion and empirical analyses. They are enhanced underwriting and supervision; better calibrated government participation; and betteraligned incentives in capital-market mortgage funding. The paper concludes with a number of policy recommendations to encourage more stable housing finance system.
    Keywords: housing finance, financial stability, panel cointegration, dynamic OLS
    JEL: C22 C58 G2
    Date: 2013–08–20
  14. By: Kitt Lyngsnes (Nord-Trondelag University College, Department of Teacher Education.)
    Abstract: Standardised testing have become a common practice in most schools systems. In Norway, national tests are held in the 5th, 8th, and 9th grade in reading literacy, numeracy and English. Research point to the extensive focus on the tests, and how these testing regimes effect teaching and classroom activity (Berliner, 2011; Biesta, 2009). School achievement as in such standardised tests can often be explained by factors related to socioeconomic standards. Despite this, some schools in lower socioeconomic areas manage to achieve good results as well. The study presented in this paper, took its starting point in schools in lower socioeconomic areas where pupils, during the last three years, had achieved good results in the national tests. This might imply that these schools have succeeded in developing a classroom practice, which gives a good learning outcome for multiple pupils. The aim of the project was:•to describe and analyse classroom practice in schools which, over time, have succeeded in achieving good results in national tests•to identify conditions in such schools which are significant for the teachers’ classroom practice and, thereby, in the learning outcome of the pupils.Taking the point of departure in Kemmis’ (2009) theoretical concept ‘practice architecture’, the project studied the practice itself, the understanding which is woven into the practice and the conditions for practice that exist in the school.The research strategy was case studies where each school constituted a case (Yin, 2009). Data collection methods were classroom observations and interviews with headmasters, teachers and pupils in seven schools in four provinces. The key results of the study show that these schools do not “teach to testâ€. Test results are used to develop classroom practice through a collective oriented school culture characterized by collaboration, reflection and a strong and motivating leadership.ReferencesBerliner, D. (2011). Rational responses to high stakes testing: the case of curriculum narrowing and the harm that follows. Cambridge Journal of Education, 41(3), 287-302. Biesta, G. (2009). Good education in an age of measurement : on the need to reconnect with the question of purpose in education. Educational Assessment Evaluation and Accountability, 21(1), 33 - 46. Kemmis , S. (2009). Understanding professional practice: a synoptic framework. In B. Green (Ed.), Understanding and Researching Professional Practice (pp. 19-28). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.Yin, R. K. (2009). Case study research: design and methods. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage.
    Keywords: national tests, classroom practice, case study
    Date: 2014–10
  15. By: Frame, W. Scott (Federal Reserve Bank of New York); Fuster, Andreas (Federal Reserve Bank of New York); Tracy, Joseph (Federal Reserve Bank of New York); Vickery, James (Federal Reserve Bank of New York)
    Abstract: We describe and evaluate the measures taken by the U.S. government to rescue Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac in September 2008. We begin by outlining the business model of these two firms and their role in the U.S. housing finance system. Our focus then turns to the sources of financial distress that the firms experienced and the events that ultimately led the government to take action in an effort to stabilize housing and financial markets. We describe the various resolution options available to policymakers at the time and evaluate the success of the choice of conservatorship, and other actions taken, in terms of five objectives that we argue an optimal intervention would have fulfilled. We conclude that the decision to take the firms into conservatorship and invest public funds achieved its short-run goals of stabilizing mortgage markets and promoting financial stability during a period of extreme stress. However, conservatorship led to tensions between maximizing the firms’ value and achieving broader macroeconomic objectives, and, most importantly, it has so far failed to produce reform of the U.S. housing finance system.
    Keywords: Fannie Mae; Freddie Mac; housing finance; financial crisis; government intervention
    JEL: G01 G21 H12
    Date: 2015–03–01
  16. By: Caroline Stapleton
    Abstract: Recent empirical migration literature in South Africa suggests that access to physical and human capital, in the way of finance and education respectively, are key factors in increasing one’s probability of migrating. This paper attempts to extend this literature by directly measuring the extent to which social capital, broadly defined as one’s access to a migrant network, affects the probability of rural-to-urban migration. Using the first nationally representative panel dataset in South Africa, the National Income Dynamics Study, I estimate a standard model of migration choice with the inclusion of one’s connection to a migrant network. This connection is measured by being part of a household in the baseline wave that contains somebody with current or recent experience as a labour migrant. In line with international migration literature, the empirical results suggest that access to a migrant network increases the likelihood of becoming a migrant (by between 2-3 percentage points). These findings are robust to the inclusion of various controls and therefore suggest that social capital does indeed play a role along with physical and human capital in determining who migrates in South Africa.
    Keywords: Empirical migration, South Africa
    JEL: D1 I3 J1 J6
    Date: 2015
  17. By: Maryam Davodi-Far (National University)
    Abstract: Prior to the 19th and 20th centuries, the idea and/or concept of urban sprawl had not existed. The term urban sprawl was generated around the second half of the 20th century due to the accelerated growth of suburban areas. Although loosely defined; by general definition urban sprawl is known as “The unplanned, uncontrolled spreading of urban development into areas adjoining the edge of a city†Still, urban sprawl has become a controversial issue raising numerous concerns due to the negative impacts it creates on a person’s health, the environment, wildlife habitat, and racial and economic disparity among several other issues. Nonetheless, because all cities are unique in design and services, each will have to establish policies and procedures regarding sprawl that fit their specific needs. Civilizing our current development tools and strategies is essential to achieving successful end results.
    Keywords: Urban renewal, urban development, sustainability
    JEL: N90
    Date: 2014–05
  18. By: Najwa Al-Mously (Faculty of Medicine, King Fahad medical City,King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences)
    Abstract: The correlation of medical schools preadmission criteria and subsequent student academic performance of undergraduate medical students have been investigated in several studies. This performance can also be affected by the use of English language as a medium of instruction for the non-native speaker students. In Saudi Arabia, medical students face learning difficulties due to the adoption of English language as a medium of education, although schooling is mostly in Arabic. Language barrier is considered one of the important challenges in our region. To assess medical students' performance during the pre-clinical phase based on their scores in preadmission tests and premedical English. Also, to evaluate if these factors can identify students that may be at risk of poor academic performance. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine, King Fahad medical City (KFMC/KSAU-HS). Students' scores of preadmission tests (High school average, National Aptitude and Achievement test), final premedical English, and preclinical grade point average (GPA) were collected. Students included in the study were (n=110)) second year, and (n=87) third year medical school. Those with a medical school GPA <3 were considered poor performers. T-test, Pearson correlation, and linear regression test were used for analyses. Results: An intermediate correlation was observed between High school scores and GPA for both cohorts (p<0.05). Similar but a stronger correlation was obtained with premedical English scores. National Achievement test showed significant correlation with GPA of the 2nd year cohort only. For Aptitude test, there was no significant correlation with GPA for both cohorts (p>0.05). A prominent influence of premedical English scores on GPA was indicated by the regression analyses. Poor performers' GPA was significantly correlated with English for both cohorts. Although two of three preadmission tests showed a correlation with academic performance of Saudi medical students, they failed to have a predicative impact. However, premedical English language scores presented as a significant predictor of academic performance. Therefore, we suggest that there is a need to introduce other valid and reliable tools for admission to medical schools such as English proficiency test and well structured mini-interviews.
    Keywords: Medical students, Academic performance, Preadmission criteria, English proficiency.
    Date: 2014–05
  19. By: Andreas Bjerre-Nielsen
    Abstract: We investigate formation of economic and social networks where agents may form or cut ties. The novelty is combining a setup where agents are heterogeneous in their talent for generating value in the links they form and value may also accrue from indirect ties. We provide sufficient conditions for assortative matching: agents of greater talent have partners of greater talent. A novel feature is that agents with higher talent are more central in networks. Another novel feature is degree assortativity: partnered agents have a similar number of partners. Two suboptimal network structures are noteworthy. One network displays excess assortativity as high and low talented types fail to connect, and thus inefficient due to payoff externalities despite otherwise obeying the conditions of Becker (1973). In another suboptimal network an agent of low talent becomes excessively central.
    Date: 2015–03
  20. By: Zühal Çubukçu (EskiÅŸehir Osmangazi University); AyÅŸe Dönmez (EskiÅŸehir Osmangazi University); Elif Aydoğdu-Özoğlu (EskiÅŸehir Osmangazi University); Zeynep Akın-Demircan (EskiÅŸehir Osmangazi University)
    Abstract: Some of knowledge, skills, competences are tried to transfer to students in schools with the education and training programs; students' physical, mental, spiritual growth are provided as a holistic perspective. The function of the school is not only to transfer information; is to provide the development of students in many ways. In this respect, the community service implementations are intended to develop student confidence and a sense of responsibility, to create new interests, to improve some skills. Community service implementation contained in Primary and Secondary Schools Social Activities Regulation that was published in 2005 by Ministry of National Education is a reflection of this idea. When examining the related literature, there wasn’t sufficient number of academic studies about community service activities applied in primary and secondary schools in Turkey. The studies were conducted mostly within the scope of "Community Service Implementations" course in universities. In this context, this study can be seen as a guide or sample for activities about community service will be practice in secondary schools involved in the stage of primary education.The purpose of this study is to develop activities about acquisition B which is one of the 14 acquisitions included in relevant legislation and to determine the opinions of students and teachers about these activities. Acquisition B included in relevant legislation is about "making activities about beautify, maintenance and repair of school and ıts environment " In line with this acquisition, three activities were planned and implemented. This study was designed with a qualitative approach. The typical case sampling was used. In this context, students and teachers who study in the classes that activity is done at a secondary school located in the center of Eskisehir are included to study. Data to determine students' opinions were collected by questionnaire consisting of open-ended questions. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with teachers. In addition, researchers took field notes about the implementation process as a participant observer in the classroom. The analysis of the data obtained three key themes has emerged as cognitive, affective and psychomotor qualifications gained by students. In addition, participants were offered some suggestions for the activities. All teachers who participate in activities have stated that community service implementations are important and useful and raise awareness of the students about the related issues.
    Keywords: community service implementations, social awareness, social responsibility, sensitivity
    JEL: I00
    Date: 2014–10
  21. By: Güell, Maia; Pellizzari, Michele; Pica, Giovanni; Rodríguez Mora, José Vicente
    Abstract: We apply a novel measure of intergenerational mobility (IM) developed by Güell, Rodríguez Mora, and Telmer (2014) to a rich combination of Italian data allowing us to produce comparable measures of IM of income for 103 Italian provinces. We then exploit the large heterogeneity across Italian provinces in terms of economic and social outcomes to explore how IM correlates with a variety of outcomes. We find that (i) higher IM is positively associated with a variety of “good” economic outcomes, such as higher value added per capita, higher employment, lower unemployment, higher schooling and higher openness and (ii) that also within Italy the “the Great Gatsby Curve” exists: in provinces in which mobility is lower cross-sectional income inequality is larger. We finally explore the correlation between IM and several socio-political outcomes, such as crime and life expectancy, but we do not find any clear systematic relationship on this respect.
    Keywords: cross-sectional data analysis; intergenerational mobility; Surnames
    JEL: C31 E24 R10
    Date: 2015–03
  22. By: Michael Amior
    Abstract: The skill gap in geographical mobility is entirely driven by workers who report moving for a new job. A natural explanation lies in the large expected surplus accruing to skilled job matches. Just as large surpluses ease the frictions which impede job search in general, they also help overcome those frictions (specifically moving costs) which plague cross-city matching in particular. I reject the alternative hypothesis that mobility differences are driven by variation in the moving costs themselves, based on PSID evidence on self-reported willingness to move. Evidence on wage processes also supports my claims.
    Keywords: internal migration; job search; education; skills
    JEL: J24 J61 J64
    Date: 2015–03
  23. By: Cordell, Lawrence R. (Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia); Lambie-Hanson, Lauren (Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia)
    Abstract: Since the start of the financial crisis, we have seen an extraordinary lengthening of foreclosure timelines, particularly in states that require judicial review to complete a foreclosure but also recently in nonjudicial states. Our analysis synthesizes findings from several lines of research, updates results, and presents new analysis to examine the costs and benefits of judicial foreclosure review. Consistent with previous studies, we find that judicial review imposes large costs with few, if any, offsetting benefits. We also provide early analysis of the new mortgage servicing rules enacted by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) and find that these rules are contributing to even longer timelines, especially in nonjudicial states.
    Keywords: Mortgage; Foreclosure; Regulation
    JEL: G21 G28 L85 R21
    Date: 2015–03–23
  24. By: Nilsson, Jan-Eric (VTI); Svensson , Kristin (Dalarna University); Haraldsson, Mattias (The Swedish Energy Agency)
    Abstract: Using a large set of data, including age, pavement type, traffic etc., on sections of the road network, this paper sets out to assess the marginal cost of using the road infrastructure. It suggests a strategy for identifying major differences in marginal costs across the road network, and provides evidence that not only heavy vehicles but also cars contribute to road quality deterioration. The hypothesis is that this is due to the widespread use of studded tires in countries with regular freeze-thaw cycles. No indication of deterioration due to time per se is found.
    Keywords: Marginal costs; Wear and tear; Road reinvestment; Weibull model
    JEL: R40
    Date: 2015–03–23
  25. By: İbrahim Karagöl (Ege University); Sinan Bekmezci (Celal Bayar University)
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between academic achievements and critical thinking dispositions of teacher candidates in Faculty of Education and to find out whether critical thinking dispositions and academic achievements scores of teacher candidates differ according to gender, field of the study, income level of parents, type of high school. The population consists of the teacher candidates at the Department of Primary School Teaching, Social Scinece Teaching, Turkish Teaching and Science Teaching at Ege University and Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Education. The study group is determined by convenience sampling method. Scores of teacher candidates obtained through “Critical Thinking Dispositions Inventory†developed by Akbıyık (2002) and students’ overall grade point avarage are used in the study. SPSS 17.00 program is used for analysis of the data. Research design is survey and correlational model.
    Keywords: academic achievement, critical thinking disposition, teacher candidates
    Date: 2014–10
  26. By: Tsun Se Cheong (University of Western Australia); Yanrui Wu (University of Western Australia)
    Abstract: China has achieved unprecedented success in economic growth since the initiation of economic reforms. The high growth could partly be attributed to the success in structural transformation of the economy. Another contributing factor may be the industrial upgrading of the manufacturing sector towards high value-added products. However, regional inequality in China has increased considerably behind the scenes. In order to have sustainable economic growth, it is thus crucial to investigate both the impacts of structural transformation and industrial upgrading on regional inequality. This paper contributes to the literature in the analysis of the structural transformation by employing a database at the county-level. Decompositions are performed for different spatial groupings so as to provide a clear view of evolution of regional inequality. In addition, the contributions of the major industries to inequality in industrialization are examined by using a database of value-added at the provincial level. The results may have important policy implications for the formulation of a comprehensive and coherent strategy in managing inequality while promoting structural transformation and industrial upgrading.
    Date: 2014
  27. By: Mai, Tien; Frejinger, Emma; Fosgerau, Mogens
    Abstract: We propose a route choice model that relaxes the independence from irrelevant alternatives property of the logit model by allowing scale parameters to be link specific. Similar to the the recursive logit (RL) model proposed by Fosgerau et al. (2013), the choice of path is modelled as a sequence of link choices and the model does not require any sampling of choice sets. Furthermore, the model can be consistently estimated and efficiently used for prediction. A key challenge lies in the computation of the value functions, i.e. the expected maximum utility from any position in the network to a destination. The value functions are the solution to a system of non-linear equations. We propose an iterative method with dynamic accuracy that allows to efficiently solve these systems. We report estimation results and a cross-validation study for a real network. The results show that the NRL model yields sensible parameter estimates and the fit is significantly better than the RL model. Moreover, the NRL model outperforms the RL model in terms of prediction.
    Keywords: route choice modelling; nested recursive logit; substitution patterns; value iterations; maximum likelihood estimation; cross-validation
    JEL: C25
    Date: 2015–03–23
  28. By: Carlo Ciccarelli; Stefano Fenoaltea
    Abstract: The reconstruction of the historical national accounts for post-Unification Italy is proceeding. The national time series most recently compiled are those for the all-important engineering industry; this paper presents their regional counterparts. The engineering industry is very unevenly documented in the historical sources. Data abound for the shipbuilding and railway-vehicles industries, where public procurement, subsidies, and regulation produced a regular stream of reports; the national and regional estimates for these two sectors have been presented elsewhere. This paper presents the complementary regional estimates for the other, poorly documented components of the engineering industry, and the resulting regional aggregates. The regional engineering-industry estimates, like their national counterparts, distinguish the fabricated-metal (hardware) industry, three general-equipment industries (shipbuilding, railwayvehicles, and the residual, covering other metal vehicles, agricultural and industrial machinery, and structural components), two precision-equipment industries (precision instruments; clocks and watches), and the precious-metal-products industry. For all but the last maintenance activity is distinguished from new production. At Unification Italy’s engineering industry was dominated by the fabricated-metal industry, in essence the manufacture and maintenance of tools and other hardware by traditional smiths. The general-equipment industry then involved little more than (wood) shipbuilding; but it grew rapidly, and overtook the fabricated-metal industry early in the twentieth century. The precision-engineering and precious-metal-products industries were ever relatively small. The estimated regional value added series are collected in Table 1. Again like their national counterparts, these series are all at 1911 prices, in essence physical quantity series weighted by unit value added in 1911. This is the best that can be done with the evidence so far recovered; as has been pointed out elsewhere, with respect to the proper measures at a constant price level they suffer from two distortions that must be kept in mind. The minor one is that the use of constant prices tends to overstate industry’s growth, though less so with late-year prices used here than with earlyyear prices (which is the only kernel of truth in the widely misunderstood "Gerschenkron effect"); the major one is that as one goes back in time the weight of technologically stagnant production (maintenance, save for ships and railway vehicles) is increasingly overstated next to that of technologically progressive production (ship and railway vehicle maintenance, all new production). The regional series allocate the corresponding national totals with sector- and activityspecific regional value added shares. In general, and with the exceptions noted below, these are estimated initially for 1911, using the labor-force data in that year’s demographic census, and the (partial) data on employment and power in use, by shop size, in the contemporaneous industrial census. The regional maintenance value added (and employment) shares are then extrapolated to 1861-1913, using the sector-specific indicators recalled below. Regional new production shares are then estimated initially for the further benchmark years 1871, 1881, and 1900, using the census labor force data net of estimated employment in maintenance (and assuming that the differences in value added per new-production worker calculated in 1911 were less marked in earlier years); in the other years, finally, the estimated shares of new production are obtained by simple (linear) extrapolation or interpolation.
    Keywords: engineering, Italy, regions
    JEL: E01 N63 N93
    Date: 2014
  29. By: Thirasak . Uppamaiathichai (Faculty of Education Loei Rajabhat University)
    Abstract: This research Aims to study Evaluation of the teacher training experience teaching in schools. Faculty of Education Loei Rajabhat University.Using survey research The population in this research area.Students may experience the teachers teaching in schools in year 5. University's Faculty of Education268 people Tools used to gather data. questionnaire The statistics used in data analysis were percentage, mean, standard deviation.The results showed that the1 ) Most of the population in the study were male , 78 were female, 29.1 percent were 190 persons or 70.9 percent .2)the professional experiences of the teachers teaching in schools. Faculty of Education Loei Rajabhat University In general, there is much work all aspects mean 4.78 , standard deviation 0.22 when considering each side. Found to be the most practical level . The desirable one . The second is the car for me to teach. And operational features of the previous teachers respectively.
    Keywords: Evaluation, teacher, training experience teaching
    JEL: I23
    Date: 2014–10
  30. By: Vassilis Arapoglou, Kostas Gounis
    Abstract: This paper presents findings from the study “Caring for the homeless and the poor in Greece: implications for the future of social protection and social inclusion”. First, we offer an overview on the types of existing provisions for the homeless and the poor in Athens. Second, a wider concern of this paper is to discuss whether changes in social and urban policies in Greece enhance or inhibit access of the poor to secure housing, employment, and good quality of care. We identify key elements of an ‘emergency’ model for managing the social crisis associated with the sovereign debt crisis and austerity, offer some interpretation about the processes of its formation, and highlight its criticisms and alternatives suggested by service providers and civil society organizations.
    Date: 2015–03
  31. By: Tsun Se Cheong (Business School, University of Western Australia); Yanrui Wu (Business School, University of Western Australia)
    Abstract: Many scholars have argued that the huge increase in regional inequality in China can be attributed greatly to the disparity in industrialization. This paper contributes to the literature by providing empirical evidence on the transitional dynamics of industrial output by employing a new framework of distribution dynamics analysis, namely the Mobility Probability Plot (MPP), and a database compiled at the county-level. The new framework can address several inadequacies of the traditional display tools in the distribution dynamics literature, while the database is made up of counties and county-level cities in 22 provinces in China. Stochastic kernel analyses are performed for the nation, the economic zones and the provinces individually so as to provide an in-depth understanding of the evolution and convergence of industrial output. This study fills the gap in the literature and provides information on mobility of the county-level units, which can greatly aid the policy making process.
    Date: 2014
  32. By: Brenzel, Hanna (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Reichelt, Malte (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany])
    Abstract: "Theoretically, wage gaps between migrants and natives can be explained by human capital theory through either depreciation in human capital with migration or differences in endowments. However, even after considering human capital measures, an unexplained difference remains. We assume that differences in the employment trajectories of migrants and natives contribute to wages that diverge after labor market entrance. Utilizing a rich longitudinal data set (ALWA-ADIAB), we analyze the job mobility of migrants and natives in Germany and distinguish among voluntary, involuntary, internal and other job changes. Indeed, we find evidence for differences in transition patterns and - using several fixed-effects regressions - are able to explain a substantial part of the gap between migrants' and natives' hourly wages by differences in job change behavior." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    JEL: J61 J31 J62 J15
    Date: 2015–03–19
  33. By: Abdelaziz Mahrez (Sohar univeristy); Sami Said Al Wahibi (Sohar University)
    Abstract: The transport sector is having a great attention from governments around the world, especially because of the increasing population, its importance and its necessity for community life. Recently, many countries in the Middle East have turned their attention towards developing and improving their public transport systems, as problems such as traffic congestions in cities, low mobility and high individual costs of transport. This study aims to assess and understand the public’s perception about the situation of the existing transport services in the Sultanate of Oman and indentifies the reasons or ways to boost this sector. The findings of this study showed a positive response from the citizens about public transport and its use. The unavailability of suitable modes of public transport options, their inadequacy in terms of numbers and frequency, and the low level of people’s exposure and awareness of different transport modes have constrained people to use personal vehicles. There is a growing need to introduce newer public transport services in Oman and bolster these services as well as the existing infrastructure to stimulate economic development, increase road safety, and to combat environmental problems. It is recommended to develop innovative solutions and awareness programs to increase individual and collective consciousness about public transport and to encourage people to adopt and use public transport.
    Keywords: Public transport,Public Perception, Oman transport
    Date: 2014–05
  34. By: Alexandra Ioanid (University “Politehnica†of Bucharest); Mihai Svasta (University “Politehnica†of Bucharest); Maria Hermel-Stanescu (University “Politehnica†of Bucharest)
    Abstract: This paper aims to present the importance of weak ties in social networks for sharing information at personal level, across departments in a company, as well as between managers that seek business opportunities. Also, the paper shows that complex knowledge requires strong ties in order to be properly shared and used. Weak ties between departments in a company make information diffusion faster only if the knowledge shared is simple, otherwise if the information is complex, the communication between departments and the development of projects will encounter difficulties.The article analyses the structure and the dynamic of business social networks starting from Granovetter's theory and Burt’s social capital theory and offers practical examples of how to develop a business using the weak ties in social networks, such as the well-known Facebook platform or the professional oriented LinkedIn platform.
    Keywords: social networks, business development, weak ties, strong ties, social capital, Facebook, LinkedIn
    JEL: M39 Z19 A13
    Date: 2014–10

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