nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2014‒08‒25
forty-one papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. Does Culture Affect Local Productivity and Urban Amenities? By Brahim Boualam; ;
  2. Urban Freight and Port Cities By Edgar E. Blanco
  3. Spatial Methods By Steve Gibbons; Henry G. Overman; Eleonora Patacchini
  4. Cities as Drivers of Growth along the Silk Road By Souleymane Coulibaly
  5. Sweden’s school choice reform and equality of opportunity By Edmark, Karin; Frölich, Markus; Wondratschek, Verena
  6. Tight credit conditions continue to constrain the housing recovery By Rappaport, Jordan; Willen, Paul S.
  7. The ins and arounds in the U.S. housing market By Bachmann, Rudiger; Cooper, Daniel
  8. The Effects of "Girl-Friendly" Schools: Evidence from the BRIGHT School Construction Program in Burkina Faso. By Harounan Kazianga; Dan Levy; Leigh L. Linden; Matt Sloan
  9. District Governance and Student Learning in Indonesia By Pradhan, Menno; de Ree, Joppe
  10. “Phantom of the Opera” or “Sex and the City”? – Historical Amenities as Sources of Exogenous Variation By Thomas K. Bauer; Philipp Breidenbach; Christoph M. Schmidt
  11. Romania : Transport Sector Rapid Assessment By World Bank
  12. Government Support to Public Private Partnerships : 2011 Highlights By Alexander Nicholas Jett; Militaru Andreea; Robbert van Eerd
  13. Regional productivity in a multi-speed Europe By Don J. Webber; Min-Hua Jen; Eoin O'Leary
  14. Positional Preferences for Housing: Income Taxation as a Second-Best Policy? By Aronsson, Thomas; Mannberg, Andrea
  15. Labour Market Integration, Human Capital Formation, and Mobility By Alexander Haupt; Silke Übelmesser
  16. Integrating border regions : connectivity and competitiveness in South Asia By Cali, Massimiliano; Farole, Thomas; Kunaka, Charles; Wagle, Swarnim
  17. Revisiting Class-Size Effects: Where They Come From and How Long They Last By Simone Balestra; Uschi Backes-Gellner
  18. Long-Term Neighborhood Effects on Low-Income Families: Evidence from Moving to Opportunity By Ludwig, Jens; Duncan, Greg J; Gennetian, Lisa A; Katz, Lawrence F.; Kessler, Ronald; Kling, Jeffrey R; Sanbonmatsu, Lisa
  19. Export performance and geography in Croatia By Artuc, Erhan; Iootty, Mariana; Pirlea, Ana Florina
  20. The Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011-2020 : Lessons from Argentina By Veronica Raffo; Tony Bliss
  22. Indirect Job Creation and the Informal Sector in Mexico By Mariana Pereira-López
  23. Bhutan Transport 2040 Integrated Strategic Vision By Asian Development Bank (ADB); ; ;
  24. Costs and benefits of railway urban logistics: a prospective social cost benefit analysis By Jesus Gonzalez-Feliu
  25. Toward an Urban Sector Strategy : Georgia's Evolving Urban System and its Challenges By World Bank
  26. The Henry George Theorem in a second-best world By Kristian Behrens; Yoshitsugu Kanemoto; Yasusada Murata
  27. Book Review – Rethinking Housing Bubbles By Bell, Peter Newton
  28. Competitive Search with Moving Costs By KAWATA Keisuke; NAKAJIMA Kentaro; SATO Yasuhiro
  29. Indonesia : Evaluation of the Urban Community Driven Development Program, Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Mandiri Perkotaan By World Bank
  30. The role of universities in regional development: conceptual models and policy institutions in the UK, Sweden and Austria By Trippl, Michaela; Sinozic, Tanja; Lawton Smith , Helen
  31. Nominal Rigidities in the Market for Housing Rentals in Turkey By Cevriye Aysoy; Cem Aysoy; Semih Tumen
  32. Immigration, Diversity and the Labour Market Outcomes of Native Workers: Some Recent Developments By Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano
  33. Industry space and skill-relatedness of economic activities : comparative case studies of three eastern German automotive regions By Otto, Anne; Weyh, Antje
  34. What Drives the High Price of Road Freight Transport in Central America? By Theresa Osborne; Maria Claudia Pachon; Gonzalo Enrique Araya
  35. Politics Before Pupils? Electoral Cycles and School Resources in India By Fagernäs, Sonja; Pelkonen, Panu
  36. Private Investment in Transport Increases in 2011, Focusing on the Road and Rail Sectors By Andreea Militaru
  37. Can firms learn by observing? Evidence from cross-border M&As By Francis, Bill B.; Hasan, Iftekhar; Sun, Xian; Waisman , Maya
  38. Can Scholarships Help Keep Kids in School? By World Bank
  39. Is Preschool Good for Kids? By World Bank
  40. Local Governance and Education Performance : A Survey of the Quality of Local Education governance in 50 Indonesian Districts By Samer Al-Samarrai
  41. Romania : Urban Sector Rapid Assessment By World Bank

  1. By: Brahim Boualam; ;
    Abstract: Does a better cultural milieu make a city more livable for residents and improve its business environment for firms? I compute a measure of cultural specialization for 346 U.S. metropolitan areas and ask if differences in cultural environment capitalize into housing price and wage differentials. Simple correlations replicate standard results from the literature: cities that are more specialized in cultural occupations enjoy higher factor prices. Estimations using time-series data, controlling for city characteristics and correcting for endogeneity weaken the magnitude of this effect. Even though the arts and culture might be appealing to some people and firms, such determinants are not strong enough to affect factor prices at the city level.
    Keywords: Urban economics, location choice, local amenities, culture.
    Date: 2014–01
  2. By: Edgar E. Blanco
    Keywords: Communities and Human Settlements - Urban Housing and Land Settlements Transport Economics Policy and Planning National Urban Development Policies and Strategies Transport and Trade Logistics Industry - Common Carriers Industry Transport Urban Development
    Date: 2014–01
  3. By: Steve Gibbons; Henry G. Overman; Eleonora Patacchini
    Abstract: This paper is concerned with methods for analysing spatial data. After initial discussion on the nature of spatial data, including the concept of randomness, we focus most of our attention on linear regression models that involve interactions between agents across space. The introduction of spatial variables in to standard linear regression provides a flexible way of characterising these interactions, but complicates both interpretation and estimation of parameters of interest. The estimation of these models leads to three fundamental challenges: the reflection problem, the presence of omitted variables and problems caused by sorting. We consider possible solutions to these problems, with a particular focus on restrictions on the nature of interactions. We show that similar assumptions are implicit in the empirical strategies - fixed effects or spatial differencing - used to address these problems in reduced form estimation. These general lessons carry over to the policy evaluation literature.
    Keywords: Spatial analysis, spatial econometrics, neighbourhood effects, agglomeration, weights matrix
    JEL: R C1 C5
    Date: 2014–08
  4. By: Souleymane Coulibaly
    Keywords: Public Sector Management and Reform Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Subnational Economic Development Communities and Human Settlements - Urban Slums Upgrading Transport Economics Policy and Planning Urban Development - City Development Strategies Public Sector Development Transport
    Date: 2013–01
  5. By: Edmark, Karin (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN)); Frölich, Markus (University of Mannheim); Wondratschek, Verena (Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW))
    Abstract: This study analyses whether the Swedish school choice reform, enacted in 1992, had different effects on students from different socio-economic backgrounds. We use detailed geographical data on students’ and schools’ locations to construct measures of the degree of potential choice. This allows us to study the effects of choice opportunities among public schools, whereas previous studies have focused on newly opened private schools. Our results suggest small positive or no effects of choice opportunities, depending on specification and outcome. We find no strong evidence of differences between subgroups; if anything, effects tend to be slightly more positive for disadvantaged groups, such as students from low-income families. Taken together, the results indicate that students from a socio-economically disadvantaged or immigrant background were not harmed by the reform.
    Keywords: School choice; school competition; treatment evaluation; cognitive and non-cognitive skills
    JEL: C21 I24
    Date: 2014–08–04
  6. By: Rappaport, Jordan (Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City); Willen, Paul S. (Federal Reserve Bank of Boston)
    Abstract: The expansion of Federal Housing Administration lending has let households with imperfect credit or the inability to make a large down payment maintain access to mortgage borrowing. Rather than excluding such households, lenders have been applying strict underwriting conditions on all borrowers. Clarifying what constitutes approved lending may help relax credit conditions with minimal increase in risk.
    JEL: E66
    Date: 2014–07–07
  7. By: Bachmann, Rudiger (Goethe University Franfurt); Cooper, Daniel (Federal Reserve Bank of Boston)
    Abstract: In the United States, 15 percent of households change residence in a given year. This result is based on data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics on gross flows within and between the two segments of the housing market — renter-occupied properties and owner-occupied properties. The gross flows between these two segments are four times larger than the net flows. From a secular perspective, housing turnover exhibits a hump-shaped pattern between 1970 and 2000, which this paper attributes to changes in the age composition of the U.S. population. At higher frequencies, housing turnover is procyclical and tends to lead the business cycle and real house prices. By taking a two-segment view of the U.S. housing market and by carefully documenting the empirics of turnover within and between these segments, the paper provides important moments for and gives empirical guidance to the design, calibration, and evaluation of micro-founded, dynamic, and quantitative models of the U.S. housing market.
    Keywords: housing market; PSID; turnover; net and gross flows
    JEL: E30 E32 R21
    Date: 2014–07–21
  8. By: Harounan Kazianga; Dan Levy; Leigh L. Linden; Matt Sloan
    Abstract: This article evaluates a program that constructed high quality “girl-friendly†primary schools in Burkina Faso. After 2.5 years, the program increased enrollment by 19 percentage points and increased test scores by 0.41 standard deviations. Girls’ enrollment increased by 5 percentage points more than boys’ enrollment, but test scores were the same for boys and girls.
    Keywords: BRIGHT School Construction, Girl-Friendly Schools, Burkina Faso, International, Education
    JEL: F Z
    Date: 2013–07–30
  9. By: Pradhan, Menno (VU University Amsterdam); de Ree, Joppe (World Bank consultant)
    Abstract: We document the likely importance of district governance and teacher management policies in relation to student learning in Indonesian primary schools. As the responsibility to deliver primary education has been decentralized to district governments, we expect district specific variations in teacher management policies. Consequently, we also expect variations in learning trajectories across districts. We document substantial heterogeneity in learning gains across districts. Furthermore, we show that schools with more active teacher working groups and higher-qualified teachers achieve better learning gains. However, teacher management policy variables, including school budgets, participation rates in teacher working groups, or student–teacher ratios, can explain only a fraction of the differences in learning across districts. It is likely that the “quality” of operation matters. More detailed measurement is needed to further understanding of the heterogeneity in performance.
    Keywords: education; school governance; student learning
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2014–06–01
  10. By: Thomas K. Bauer; Philipp Breidenbach; Christoph M. Schmidt
    Abstract: Using the location of baroque opera houses as a natural experiment, Falck et al. (2011) claim to document a positive causal effect of the supply of cultural goods on today’s regional distribution of talents. This paper raises serious doubts on the validity of the identification strategy underlying these estimates, though. While we are able to replicate the original results, we proceed to show that the same empirical strategy also assigns positive causal effects to the location of historical brothels and breweries. These estimated effects are similar in size and significance to those of historical opera houses. We document that all these estimates reflect the importance of institutions for longrun economic growth, and that the effect of historical amenities on the contemporary local share of high skilled workers disappears upon controlling for regions’ historical importance.
    Keywords: Human capital; historical amenities; regional competiveness
    JEL: R11 H42 J24
    Date: 2014–07
  11. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Environment - Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Climate Change Economics Roads and Highways Transport Economics Policy and Planning Urban Development - Transport in Urban Areas Transport
    Date: 2014–01
  12. By: Alexander Nicholas Jett; Militaru Andreea; Robbert van Eerd
    Keywords: Public Sector Management and Reform Governance - Regional Governance Finance and Financial Sector Development - Debt Markets Housing and Human Habitats Urban Development - Urban Governance and Management Communities and Human Settlements Public Sector Development
    Date: 2012–09
  13. By: Don J. Webber (University of the West of England, Bristol); Min-Hua Jen (Imperial University); Eoin O'Leary (University College Cork)
    Abstract: This paper examines productivity dynamics at different spatial scales across European countries. Application of non-parametric simultaneous estimation techniques to a hierarchical dataset permits us to consider explicitly the extent to which the national-level is important for understanding regional-level productivity variation. The results show considerable national and regional level productivity variation which is not constant and evolves over time. There is divergence at all spatial scales and groups of regions that follow different growth trajectories with group membership not being confined by national borders. The results imply that policymakers need to take cognizance of the multi-layered economic geographies in which they are located. There are also group dynamics that challenge the dominance of the national economic positions and should be considered when shaping policy.
    Keywords: Multi-level modelling; Regional productivity; Groups
    JEL: R11 O47
    Date: 2014–01–08
  14. By: Aronsson, Thomas (Department of Economics, Umeå School of Business and Economics); Mannberg, Andrea (Department of Economics, Umeå School of Business and Economics)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes whether marginal taxation of labor and capital income might be useful second best instruments for internalizing the externalities caused by conspicuous housing consumption, when the government is unable to implement a first best corrective tax on housing wealth. The rationale for studying income taxation in this particular context is that first best taxes on housing wealth may be infeasible (at least in a shorter time perspective), while income taxes indirectly affect both the level and composition of accumulated wealth. We show that a suboptimally low tax on housing wealth provides an incentive for the government to subsidize financial saving and tax labor income at the margin.
    Keywords: Relative consumption; housing; taxation; behavioral economics
    JEL: D62 H21 H23
    Date: 2014–08–19
  15. By: Alexander Haupt (Plymouth University and CESifo); Silke Übelmesser (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, and CESifo)
    Abstract: In this paper, we analyse the implications of labour market integration in a two-region model with local human capital externalities and congestion eects. We show that integration can be a double-edged sword. Integration and the ensuing agglomeration of skilled labour can reduce 'real' income in both regions. Even if there is a 'winning' region, human capital and real income in the two regions together might decline (but need not). However, integration can increase total real income even if it depresses human capital formation. We further explore how the degree of labour mobility and the strength of the congestion eects shape the impact of integration on human capital and income.
    Keywords: Human capital, migration, labour market integration, agglomeration
    JEL: F22 R23 J24 R12
    Date: 2014–08–19
  16. By: Cali, Massimiliano; Farole, Thomas; Kunaka, Charles; Wagle, Swarnim
    Abstract: Deeper regional integration can be beneficial especially for regions along international borders. It can open up new markets on opposite sides of borders and give consumers wider access to cheaper goods. This paper uses data from five contiguous districts of India, Nepal, and Bangladesh in the northeast of the subcontinent to measure the degrees of trade complementarity between districts. The paper illustrates that the regions are underexploiting the potential of intraregional commerce. Price wedges of up to 90 percent in some important consumption products along with measures of complementarity between households'production and consumption suggest the potential for relatively large gains from deeper trade integration. Furthermore, an examination of a specific supply chain of tea highlights factors that help industries scale up, aided by institutions such as an organized auction and decent physical and legal infrastructure. However, districts alike in geography but located across international boundaries face different development prospects, suggesting that gains from reduced"thickness of borders"would not accrue automatically. Much rests on developing intrinsic industry competitiveness at home, including the reform of regulatory and business practices and infrastructural bottlenecks that prevent agglomeration of local economies.
    Keywords: Transport Economics Policy&Planning,Markets and Market Access,Economic Theory&Research,Regional Economic Development,Emerging Markets
    Date: 2014–07–01
  17. By: Simone Balestra (Department of Business Administration, University of Zurich); Uschi Backes-Gellner (Department of Business Administration, University of Zurich)
    Abstract: Using data from the Tennessee Student/Teacher Achievement Ratio experiment and subsequent follow-up surveys, we estimate unconditional quantile treatment eects of being assigned to a small-size class and a regular-size class with an aide, compared to regular-size one. Results show that mid-achievers prot the most from being assigned to a small class. Students at the bottom or top of the achievement distribution experience almost no gain. The analysis also reveals a positive and signicant eect of a regular class with teacher's aide for students at the bottom of the achievement distribution, an effect stronger for boys and disadvantaged pupils. In line with previous research, we show that being assigned to a small class during K-3 grades has a positive eect test scores in later grades, on the likelihood of on-time high school graduation, and on taking the ACT/SAT exam. However, these positive eects are driven mostly by students who were high achievers during Project STAR, suggesting that the long-term benets of being in a small class shrink very quickly for low- and mid-achieving students.
    Keywords: Keywords: class size, project STAR, unconditional quantile regression.
    JEL: C31 I21
    Date: 2014–08
  18. By: Ludwig, Jens; Duncan, Greg J; Gennetian, Lisa A; Katz, Lawrence F.; Kessler, Ronald; Kling, Jeffrey R; Sanbonmatsu, Lisa
    Abstract: We examine long-term neighborhood effects on low-income families using data from the Moving to Opportunity (MTO) randomized housing-mobility experiment. This experiment offered to some public-housing families but not to others the chance to move to less-disadvantaged neighborhoods. We show that ten to 15 years after baseline, MTO: (i) improves adult physical and mental health; (ii) has no detectable effect on economic outcomes or youth schooling or physical health; and (iii) has mixed results by gender on other youth outcomes, with girls doing better on some measures and boys doing worse. Despite the somewhat mixed pattern of impacts on traditional behavioral outcomes, MTO moves substantially improve adult subjective well-being.
    Date: 2013
  19. By: Artuc, Erhan; Iootty, Mariana; Pirlea, Ana Florina
    Abstract: This paper uses the gravity model to analyze whether the varying export performance of Croatian counties can be explained by their proximity to border gates, ports, and other county-specific characteristics. The analysis finds that longer distances to border gates increase trade frictions significantly for many product categories, although these frictions have been decreasing between 2007 and 2012. The paper analyzes the county specific factors that are associated with variation in export performance, net of distance. Results show that exports are strongly and positively correlated with motorway and road density, the size of the labor force, low-skill ratio, and the number of patents. These variables are also associated with a greater diversity of exports in terms of products and destinations. Several general policy implications are highlighted. The significant association between motorway and road density and export volume, number of destinations, as well as the diversity of exported products may indicate that improvements in connectivity and facilitation of transport could still play a significant role in enhancing regional trade outcomes. Similarly, good performance in research and development may significantly help to spur competitiveness and allow local producers to enter new markets in products and destinations, which in turn can increase the level of diversification and boost resilience to global economic shocks.
    Keywords: Economic Theory&Research,Free Trade,Transport Economics Policy&Planning,Trade Policy,Tax Law
    Date: 2014–08–01
  20. By: Veronica Raffo; Tony Bliss
    Keywords: Transport - Airports and Air Services Roads and Highways Housing and Human Habitats Transport Economics Policy and Planning Road Safety Communities and Human Settlements
    Date: 2012–12
  21. By: Ida, Tomoya (Faculty of Economics); Wilhelmsson, Mats (Centre for Banking and Finance)
    Abstract: We empirically reexamine the dominance of tax externalities in Sweden for the period of 2000 through 2011. Where hierarchical governments share a mobile tax base, a tax externality can arise not only horizontally across the same level of government but also vertically between different levels of government. A horizontal externality shifts tax rates toward a level that is too low, whereas a vertical externality pushes them toward a level that is too high. The net outcome of these competing effects is theoretically unclear within benevolent federal government systems. Brülhart and Jametti (2006) implemented a pioneering empirical test of the issue using Swiss data. Their empirical setting, however, assumes a single tax instrument, which contradicts the fiscal system in Switzerland. This inconsistency would theoretically distort their estimation. By contrast, our study investigates the pure dominance of tax externality in a sample of Swedish jurisdictions that can tax only personal income. We find a vertical externality to be relatively dominant.
    Keywords: Interregional tax competition; Horizontal and vertical tax externalities; Benevolent governmental systems; Personal income taxes; Swedish tax system; Housing market
    JEL: H21 H24 H71 R39
    Date: 2014–04–28
  22. By: Mariana Pereira-López (Universidad Iberoamericana, Ciudad de México)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effects of localized labor demand shocks in the tradable sector, such as the establishment of a large tradable firm in a municipality, over nontradable formal and informal jobs in the case of Mexico. Results indicate that locations that experienced this shock have between 8 and 13 thousand more jobs than other municipalities over a ten-year period. Indirect job creation is similar in both the formal and the informal sectors, but informality appears to be more vulnerable to negative shocks. Furthermore, the effects of shocks are symmetric in the formal sector but not in the informal, where negative shocks have greater effects over nontradable employment.
    JEL: J23 R11 R12 R23
    Date: 2014–08–20
  23. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); (South Asia Department, ADB); ;
    Abstract: Bhutan, in 2040, will be very different from what it is today. The transport system then needs to respond to the changing needs and demands. The Transport Integrated Strategic Vision 2040 incorporates all existing transport related plans, policies, initiatives, and actions to create a long-term comprehensive strategy for the country. This publication draws largely from a report Bhutan Transport 2040 Integrated Strategic Vision, a subproject of a regional technical assistance on Development Partnership Program for South Asia, financed by the Government of Australia through the Australian Agency for International Development. This was the first study in Bhutan to integrate sustainable transport vision and strategies.
    Keywords: adb, asian development bank, asdb, asia, pacific, poverty asia, bhutan, himalayas, south asia, bhutan transport, rail, train, roads, buses, freight, Road Network, civil aviation, urban transport, regional connectivity, transport 2040, Transport Integrated Strategic Vision, Bhutan Transport 2040, aeroplanes, road safe
    Date: 2013–06
  24. By: Jesus Gonzalez-Feliu (LET - Laboratoire d'économie des transports - CNRS : UMR5593 - École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État [ENTPE] - Université Lumière - Lyon II)
    Abstract: This paper presents a general framework to assess urban rail logistics suitability via a socio-economic cost benefit analysis. Firstly, we propose an overview on the basic notions of CBA and SCBA. Secondly, we identify and present the main types of costs and benefits or railway urban logistics services and the related final delivery services using low emission road vehicles to serve customers where the rail systems cannot. Thirdly, as an example of application, we propose to assess a scenario of deployment of a freight tramway in Paris, in a possible configuration. The results show the potential of those approaches but also show that it is important to contextualize them and inform the different users about their real capacities.
    Keywords: combined transport; urban logistics; evaluation; socio-economic cost benefit analysis; simulation
    Date: 2014
  25. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Banks and Banking Reform Urban Development - City Development Strategies National Urban Development Policies and Strategies Housing and Human Habitats Health, Nutrition and Population - Population Policies Finance and Financial Sector Development Communities and Human Settlements
    Date: 2013–02
  26. By: Kristian Behrens (Université du Québec à Montréal(UQAM)); Yoshitsugu Kanemoto (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies); Yasusada Murata (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies)
    Abstract: The Henry George Theorem (HGT) states that, in first-best economies, the fiscal surplus of a city government that finances the Pigouvian subsidies for agglomeration externalities and the costs of local public goods by a 100% tax on land is zero at optimal city sizes. We extend the HGT to distorted economies where product differentiation and increasing returns are the sources of agglomeration economies and city governments levy property taxes. Without relying on specific functional forms, we derive a second-best HGT that relates the fiscal surplus to the excess burden expressed as an extended Harberger formula.
    Date: 2014–08
  27. By: Bell, Peter Newton
    Abstract: Review of the book titled 'Rethinking Housing Bubbles The Role of Household and Bank Balance Sheets in Modeling Economic Cycles' by Steven D. Gjerstad and Vernon L. Smith. Published by Cambridge University Press in May 2014.
    Keywords: Housing, Bubble, Balance Sheet, Cycles
    JEL: B53 E02 E44 E58 E65 G00 G01 G1 G10 G20 N10 N2 N20 R20
    Date: 2014–08–19
  28. By: KAWATA Keisuke; NAKAJIMA Kentaro; SATO Yasuhiro
    Abstract: We developed a competitive search model involving multiple regions, geographically mobile workers, and moving costs. Equilibrium mobility patterns were analyzed and characterized, and the results indicate that shocks to a particular region, such as a productivity shock, can propagate to other regions through workers' mobility. Moreover, equilibrium mobility patterns are not efficient because of the existence of moving costs, implying that they affect social welfare because not only are they costs but also they distort equilibrium allocation. By calibrating our framework to Japanese regional data, we demonstrate the extent to which changes in moving costs affect unemployment and social welfare.
    Date: 2014–08
  29. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Communities and Human Settlements - Urban Slums Upgrading Governance - Governance Indicators Social Development - Community Development and Empowerment Housing and Human Habitats Poverty Monitoring and Analysis Poverty Reduction
    Date: 2013–01
  30. By: Trippl, Michaela (CIRCLE, Lund University); Sinozic, Tanja (Institute for Multilevel Governance and Development, Vienna University of Economics and Business); Lawton Smith , Helen (Department of Management; Birkbeck, University of London)
    Abstract: The literature on universities’ contributions to regional development is broad and diverse. A precise understanding of how regions can potentially draw advantages from various university activities and the role of public policy institutions (imperatives and incentives) in promoting such activities is still missing. The aim of this paper is to advance a more nuanced view on universities’ contributions to regional economic and societal development. We identify and review four conceptual models: (i) the entrepreneurial university model, (ii) the regional innovation system model, (iii) the mode 2 university model, and (iv) the engaged university model. The paper demonstrates that these four models emphasise very different activities and outputs by which universities are seen to benefit their regions. We also find that these models differ markedly with respect to the policy implications that can be drawn. Analysing public policy imperatives and incentives in the UK, Austria and Sweden the paper highlights that in the UK national policies encourage and have resulted in all four university models. In Sweden and Austria policy institutions tend to privilege in particular the RIS university model, whilst at the same time there is some evidence for increasing support of the entrepreneurial university model.
    Keywords: universities; regional development; public policy; UK; Sweden; Austria
    JEL: I28 R10 R58
    Date: 2014–07–29
  31. By: Cevriye Aysoy; Cem Aysoy; Semih Tumen
    Abstract: [EN] Using a national panel of housing units, this paper analyzes the rate of nominal rigidities in housing rents in Turkey between 2008 and 2011. We find that, on average, 31.5 percent of the rents did not change from year to year in nominal terms. We then ask if the incidence of nominal rigidity depends on the turnover status of the housing unit. We show that 35.4 percent of the non-turnover units had rigid rents, while for only 17.1 percent of the turnover units rents did not change. We also present evidence that grid pricing is responsible for more than half of the observed nominal rigidities in housing rents. Implications of these results for monetary policy, inflation accounting, and asset prices are discussed. [TR] Bu çalýþmada, TÜÝK tarafýndan 2008-2011 yýllarý arasýnda uygulanan Gelir ve Yaþam Koþullarý Araþtýrmasý verisi kullanýlarak Türkiye’de konut kiralarýndaki katýlýðýn derecesi ölçülmektedir. Nominal kiralarýn yýllýk bazda ortalama yüzde 31,5’inin deðiþmediði bulunmuþtur. Sonraki aþamada, kiralardaki katýlýðýn kiracýlarýn ev deðiþtirme oranýyla iliþkisi incelenmiþtir. Katýlýk derecesi evlerinideðiþtirmeyen birimlerde yüzde 35,4’e kadar çýkarken, ev deðiþtirenlerde bu oran yüzde 17,1’e kadar düþmektedir. Bunun yanýsýra, kiralarda gözlenen katýlýðýn yarýsýndan fazlasýnýn da yuvarlama etkisinden kaynaklandýðý gösterilmiþtir. Ayrýca, para politikasý, enflasyon ve varlýk fiyatlamasýgibi konulardaki etkilerde tartýþýlmýþtýr.
    Date: 2014
  32. By: Gianmarco I. P. Ottaviano
    Abstract: This brief essay provides a selective discussion of how in recent years economists in the neoclassical tradition have addressed the questions whether and how immigration affects native workers' labour market outcomes. In particular, it discusses: the distinction between the displacement, productivity and amenity effects of immigration; the issues that arise in using wage changes to identify those effects; and the problem of assessing a causal link from immigration to natives' labour market outcomes.
    Keywords: Immigration, wages, productivity, cultural diversity
    JEL: F22 J31 J61
    Date: 2014–08
  33. By: Otto, Anne (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Weyh, Antje (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany])
    Abstract: "The resilience and growth prospects of a region depend crucially on the extent to which industry-specific human capital can be redeployed across the industries of a regional economy. To this end, we present a toolbox to analyse a region's industrial structure, development prospects and economic resilience. With the help of this toolbox human capital similarities, or skill-relatedness, among industries are highlighted. The core of these analyses is the so-called industry space, a network that connects industries with similar human capital requirements. For the time period 1999 to 2008, a regional comparative analysis of three eastern German automobile regions, namely south-west Saxony (SWS), Eisenach region (EIS) and Leipzig region (LEI), is conducted. The objective is to highlight similarities and differences in the composition of the general automobile-oriented knowledge bases between these regions. In addition, the region-specific growth prospects of economic activities, in general and with a closer look at car manufacturers and automotive suppliers, are scrutinized and evaluated in greater detail for each region. This regional comparison is complemented by an investigation of the regional and industrial origins of labour inflows and by a simulation of labour shifts between shrinking and growing industries to figure out as to what extent redundant labour can be reallocated between skillrelated pairs of industries in each region under examination." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    Keywords: Resilienz, Automobilindustrie, Regionalentwicklung, Qualifikationsstruktur, Wirtschaftszweige, Zulieferer, Netzwerk, Wirtschaftsstruktur, Innovation, Eisenach, Leipzig, Südwestsachsen, Sachsen, Thüringen, Bundesrepublik Deutschland
    Date: 2014–08–18
  34. By: Theresa Osborne; Maria Claudia Pachon; Gonzalo Enrique Araya
    Keywords: Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Markets and Market Access Transport Economics Policy and Planning Transport - Airports and Air Services Economic Theory and Research Roads and Highways
    Date: 2013–12
  35. By: Fagernäs, Sonja (University of Sussex); Pelkonen, Panu (University of Sussex)
    Abstract: Primary education in India is a development question of a unique magnitude, and the delivery of education by Indian states is often suspected to be marred by political haggling and corruption. Using rich administrative school-level panel data across Indian states, we test for electoral cycles in the provision of school resources. The effects are identified using staggered timing of state elections. We find that rulers allocate more primary school resources in the years preceding and following elections, but there is only weak evidence that resources are targeted to marginal constituencies. The resources affected are visible ones, namely free school uniforms, classrooms, toilets, ramps for the disabled and medical inspections. We also show that around election years, teachers spend more time on "non-teaching" activities. The political cycles are not inevitable, as they are present only in districts characterised by low voter turnout and low female literacy. Finally, we show that electoral cycles affect human capital accumulation: The phase of the electoral cycle in which pupils begin their primary schooling, affects their learning outcomes.
    Keywords: institutions, school resources, political cycle, public goods, voter turnout, India
    JEL: H75 I25 O15 P16
    Date: 2014–08
  36. By: Andreea Militaru
    Keywords: Law and Development - Corporate Law Roads and Highways Housing and Human Habitats Transport Economics Policy and Planning Finance and Financial Sector Development - Bankruptcy and Resolution of Financial Distress Communities and Human Settlements Transport
    Date: 2012–09
  37. By: Francis, Bill B. (Lally School of Management, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute); Hasan, Iftekhar (Fordham University and Bank of Finland); Sun, Xian (Johns Hopkins University); Waisman , Maya (Fordham University)
    Abstract: In the presence of high uncertainty and limited experience, can observing the actions of other acquiring predecessors help firms make better acquisition decisions? Using a sample of cross-border M&As conducted by US acquirers in developing countries, we document a positive and significant relationship between an acquirer’s performance and its predecessors’ acquisition activity. This relationship is especially pronounced in the prevalence of news events about the outcome of predecessors’ acquisitions, when predecessors consist of US peers from the same industry and/or when targets are based in culturally distant countries. Our findings shed light on one channel through which information spillovers across industries and acquiring firms could be a key driver of value creation in developing market cross-border M&As.
    Keywords: learning; observing; cross-border M&As performance
    JEL: D23 D83 G14 G32 G34
    Date: 2014–07–09
  38. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Education - Education For All Tertiary Education Secondary Education Teaching and Learning Education - Primary Education
    Date: 2013–02
  39. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Urban Development - Street Children Governance - Youth and Governance Education - Early Childhood Development Education - Education For All Education - Primary Education
    Date: 2013–04
  40. By: Samer Al-Samarrai
    Keywords: Access and Equity in Basic Education Governance - National Governance Gender - Gender and Education Education - Primary Education Education - Education For All
    Date: 2013–10
  41. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Environment - Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Climate Change Economics Transport Economics Policy and Planning Energy - Energy Production and Transportation Science and Technology Development - Science of Climate Change Transport
    Date: 2014–01

This nep-ure issue is ©2014 by Steve Ross. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.