nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2014‒06‒14
forty-five papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. Assessing Polycentric Urban Systems in the OECD: Country, Regional and Metropolitan Perspectives By Monica Brezzi; Paolo Veneri
  2. Unemployment Dispersion and City Configurations: Beyond the Bid Rent Theory By Vincent Boitier
  3. Knowledge, innovation and space By Karlsson, Charlie; Johansson, Börje; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi; Stough, Roger R.
  4. How diverse can spatial measures of cultural diversity be? Results from Monte Carlo simulations of an agent-based model By Daniel Arribas-Bel; Peter Nijkamp; Jacques Poot
  5. What Makes Cities More Productive? Evidence on the Role of Urban Governance from Five OECD Countries By Rudiger Ahrend; Emily Farchy; Ioannis Kaplanis; Alexander C. Lembcke
  6. Private school participation in Pakistan By Nguyen, Quynh; Raju, Dhushyanth
  7. Infrastructure and the international export performance of Turkish regions By Celbis M.G.; Nijkamp P.; Poot J.
  8. Disentangling Peer Influence On Multiple Levels By Valeria Ivaniushina; Daniel Alexandrov
  9. Value-Added Models for the Pittsburgh Public Schools, 2012-13 School Year. By Dana Rotz; Matthew Johnson; Brian Gill
  10. Urbanization and spatial patterns of internal migration in India By S. Chandrasekhar; Ajay Sharma
  11. Determinants of congestion pricing acceptability By Hamilton, Carl J.; Eliasson, Jonas; Brundell-Freij, Karin; Raux, Charles; Souche, Stephanie; Kiiskilää, Kati; Tervonen, Juha
  12. Property taxation, bounded rationality and housing prices By Elinder, Mikael; Persson, Lovisa
  13. Urban transport : can public-private partnerships work ? By Engel, Eduardo; Galetovic, Alexander
  14. Ecological Barriers and Convergence: a Note on Geometry in Spatial Growth Models By Giorgio FABBRI
  15. Relatedness in eco-technological development in European regions By Martijn van den Berge; Anet Weterings
  16. Location of the Poor: Neighborhood versus Household Characteristics. The Case of Bogotá By Juliana Aguilar; Tito Yepes
  17. Income Inequality, Social Mobility, and the Decision to Drop Out of High School By Melissa S. Kearney; Phillip B. Levine
  18. Private non-state sector engagement in the provision of educational services at the primary and secondary levels in South Asia : an analytical review of its role in school enrollment and student achievement By Dahal, Mahesh; Nguyen, Quynh
  19. Housing for Youth Aging Out of Foster Care. By Robin Dion; Amy Dworsky; Jackie Kauff; Rebecca Kleinman
  20. Ten Years Later: Examining the Long-Term Impact of the California Safe Routes to School Program By Ragland, David R; Pande, Swati; Bigham, John; Cooper, Jill F
  21. Case Studies of Schools Receiving School Improvement Grants: Findings After the First Year of Implementation. By Kerstin Carlson Le Floch; Beatrice Birman; Jennifer O'Day; Steven Hurlburt; Diana Mercado-Garcia; Rose Goff; Karen Manship; Seth Brown; Susan Bowles Therriault; Linda Rosenberg; Megan Hague Angus; Lara Hulsey
  22. News, Housing Boom-Bust Cycles, and Monetary Policy By Birol Kanik; Wei Xiao
  23. Macroprudential Policy Implementation in a Heterogeneous Monetary Union By Margarita Rubio
  24. Gender gaps in primary school achievement. A decomposition into endowments and returns to IQ and non-cognitive factors By Golsteyn B.H.H.; Schils T.
  25. InnovationCity Ruhr: A prime example for social and technological innovation By Adrian Götting
  26. Peer effects and social preferences in voluntary cooperation By Simon Gächter; Christian Thöni
  27. Does Participation in 4-H Improve Schooling Outcomes? Evidence from Florida By Flores-Lagunes, Alfonso; Timko, Troy
  28. Making the Most of Opportunities to Learn What Works: A School District's Guide. By Lauren Akers; Alexandra Resch; Jillian Berk
  29. Forecasting US Real Private Residential Fixed Investment Using a Large Number of Predictors By Goodness C. Aye; Rangan Gupta; Stephen M. Miller; Mehmet Balcilar
  30. The Family Unification Program: A Housing Resource for Youth Aging Out of Foster Care. By M. Robin Dion; Rebecca Kleinman; Jackie Kauff; Amy Dworsky
  31. Selective schooling systems increase inequality By Simon Burgess; Matt Dickson
  32. Improving the Implementation and Effectiveness of Out-of-School-Time Tutoring By Carolyn J. Heinrich; Patricia Burch; Annalee Good; Rudy Acosta; Huiping Cheng; Marcus Dillender; Christi Kirshbaum; Hiren Nisar; Mary Stewart
  33. Impacts of New Leaders on Student Achievement in Oakland. By Kevin Booker; Jaime Thomas
  34. Transferring Ownership of Public Housing to Existing Tenants: A Mechanism Design Approach By Andersson, Tommy; Ehlers, Lars; Svensson, Lars-Gunnar
  35. New economic geography and the city By Carl Gaigné; Jacques-François Thisse
  36. The Role of Government Institutions for Smart Specialisation and Regional Development By Andres RODRIGUEZ-POSE; Marco DI CATALDO; Alessandro RAINOLDI
  37. The impact of retail mergers on food prices: evidence from France By Marie-Laure Allain; Claire Chambolle; Stéphane Turolla; Sofia Villas-Boas
  38. The Impact of Parents Migration on the Well-being of Children Left Behind: Initial Evidence from Romania By Botezat, Alina; Pfeiffer, Friedhelm
  39. Urbanization and impact on sustainability of agrifood systems. By Carl Gaigné
  40. Regional development policy in context of Europe 2020 Strategy By Antonescu, Daniela
  41. The mountain regions in context of 2020 Strategy By Antonescu, Daniela
  42. Staying or Leaving? Gender, Job opportunities, and Poor Law Administration in Nineteenth-Century England By Chiaki Yamamoto
  43. Online networks and subjective well-being By Sabatini, Fabio; Sarracino, Francesco
  44. Natural Disasters, Land Price, and Location of Firms: Evidence from Thailand By NAKATA Hiroyuki; SAWADA Yasuyuki; SEKIGUCHI Kunio
  45. Urban Labor Markets in Sub-Saharan Africa By De Vreyer, Philippe; Roubaud, François

  1. By: Monica Brezzi; Paolo Veneri
    Abstract: Contemporary urban systems in OECD countries are structured around functional regions, which often overcome established city boundaries. Reading space in terms of functional regions allows assessing changes in urban hierarchies and spatial structures, including the polycentricity of urban systems at national, regional and metropolitan scale. By using a harmonised definition of functional urban areas in OECD countries, this paper first provides a sound definition of polycentricity at each spatial scale, highlighting for each of them the different links with policy. Second, it provides measures of polycentricity and explores the economic implications of different spatial structures. Results show that relatively more monocentric regions have higher GDP per capita than their more polycentric counterparts. At country level, on the other hand, polycentricity is associated with higher GDP per capita.
    Keywords: Spatial structure, polycentricity, urban system
    JEL: R11 R12 R14 R58
    Date: 2014–04–14
  2. By: Vincent Boitier (UP1 UFR02 - Université Paris 1, Panthéon-Sorbonne - UFR d'Économie - Université Paris I - Panthéon-Sorbonne - PRES HESAM)
    Abstract: In the present article, I provide a simple urban theory where agents do not bid for land. In absence of this baseline mechanism, I show that the spatial allocation of agents is governed by a Nash equilibrium. I underline the role of asymmetric local congestion effects in insuring the existence and the uniqueness of such an equilibrium. I then use this new framework to account for spatial variation in unemployment within big cities. Namely, applying this setting in an urban search model, I demonstrate that the obtained framework can generate a large number of new city configurations in which the local unemployment rate behaves differently. I also determine conditions for which each configuration may appear. I finally prove, the existence and the uniqueness of a labor market equilibrium for each urban pattern and I draw a link between the latter and the allocation of workers throughout space.
    Keywords: Matching models; Local congestion effects; Unemployment dispersion; Segregation; Bid rent theory
    Date: 2014–06–03
  3. By: Karlsson, Charlie (CESIS, Jönköping International Business School); Johansson, Börje (CESIS, Jönköping International Business School); Kobayashi, Kiyoshi (Kyoto University); Stough, Roger R. (George Mason University)
    Abstract: This paper provides an overview of relevant topics in contemporary research concerned with global, national, regional and local knowledge and innovation dynamics. In particular, we highlight how the global scene is changing in the contemporary world economy that we char-acterize as a knowledge economy. We show how knowledge and knowledge dynamics is driving innovation in the large urban agglomerations in the old and in new industrialized countries with their concentrations of abilities and resources and their superior intra-regional and international geographical proximities. In relation to the large urban agglomerations we stress the role of (i) density and proximity externalities, (ii) the physical and cultural resource base of large cities, and (iii) the interactive dynamics related to learning and creativity.
    Keywords: Knowledge; innovation; space; agglomeration; proximity; learning; creativity; social networks
    JEL: O30 R11
    Date: 2014–06–11
  4. By: Daniel Arribas-Bel (University of Birmingham); Peter Nijkamp (, VU University Amsterdam); Jacques Poot (University of Waikato)
    Abstract: Cultural diversity is a complex and multi-faceted concept. Commonly used quantitative measures of the spatial distribution of culturally-defined groups – such as segregation, isolation or concentration indexes – are often only capable of identifying just one aspect of this distribution. The strengths or weaknesses of any measure can only be comprehensively assessed empirically. This paper provides evidence on the empirical properties of various spatial measures of cultural diversity by using Monte Carlo replications of agent-based modeling (MC-ABM) simulations with synthetic data assigned to a realistic and detailed geographical context of the city of Amsterdam. Schelling’s classical segregation model is used as the theoretical engine to generate patterns of spatial clustering. The data inputs include the initial population, the number and shares of various cultural groups, and their preferences with respect to co-location. Our MC-ABM data generating process produces output maps that enable us to assess the performance of various spatial measures of cultural diversity under a range of demographic compositions and preferences. We find that, as our simulated city becomes more diverse, stable residential location equilibria are only possible when people, particularly minorities, become more tolerant. We test whether observed measures can be interpreted as revealing unobserved preferences for co-location of individuals with their own group and find that the segregation and isolation measures of spatial diversity are shown to be non-decreasing in increasing preference for within-group co-location, but the Gini coefficient and concentration measures are not.
    Keywords: cultural diversity, spatial segregation, agent-based model, Monte Carlo simulation
    JEL: C63 J15 R23 Z13
    Date: 2014–06
  5. By: Rudiger Ahrend; Emily Farchy; Ioannis Kaplanis; Alexander C. Lembcke
    Abstract: This paper estimates agglomeration benefits based on city productivity differentials across five OECD countries (Germany, Mexico, Spain, United Kingdom, and United States). It highlights the relationship between cities’ governmental fragmentation and productivity, and represents the first empirical analysis of how metropolitan governance structures affect this relationship. The comparability of results in a multi-country setting is supported through the use of Functional Urban Areas – an internationally harmonised definition of cities based on economic linkages rather than administrative boundaries. In line with the previous literature, the analysis confirms that city productivity tends to increase with city size; doubling city size is found to be associated with an increase in productivity of between two and five percent. What is more, city productivity is positively associated with the population size of nearby cities. On the governance side, the paper finds that cities with fragmented governance structures tend to have lower levels of productivity. For a given population size, a metropolitan area with twice the number of municipalities is associated with around six percent lower productivity; an effect that is mitigated by almost half by the existence of a governance body at the metropolitan level.
    Keywords: productivity, governance, cities, agglomeration economies
    JEL: H73 R12 R23 R50
    Date: 2014–05–16
  6. By: Nguyen, Quynh; Raju, Dhushyanth
    Abstract: Private schooling is an important feature of the educational landscape in Pakistan and is increasingly a topic of public and government discourse. This study uses multiple rounds of national household sample surveys to examine the extent and nature of private school participation at the primary and secondary levels in Pakistan. Today, one-fifth of children -- or one-third of all students -- go to private school in Pakistan. Private school students tend to come from urban, wealthier, and more educated households than do government school students and especially out-of-school children. Important differences exist across Pakistan’s four provinces with respect to the characteristics of private school students relative to government school students, as well as in the composition of private school students. Private schooling is highly concentrated, with a few districts (situated mainly in northern Punjab province) accounting for most of the private school students. Private school participation among children varies largely from one household to another, rather than within households, and to a greater extent than does government school participation. The spatial patterns of private school supply are often strongly correlated with the spatial patterns of private school participation. In the 2000s, private school participation rates grew in Punjab, Sindh, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces and across socioeconomic subgroups, contributing in particular to the growth in overall school participation rates for boys, children from urban households, and children from households in the highest wealth quintile. Nevertheless, the composition of private school students has become less unequal over time. This trend has been driven mainly by Punjab province, which has seen declines in the shares of private school students from urban households and households in the highest wealth quintile.
    Keywords: Education For All,Primary Education,Tertiary Education,Disability,Secondary Education
    Date: 2014–05–01
  7. By: Celbis M.G.; Nijkamp P.; Poot J. (UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: We estimate the Anderson and van Wincoop model of trade by using the data on the bilateral export flows from 26 Turkish regions to 180 countries for the years 2002 through to 2010. Regional transportation and communication infrastructure capacity, the positioning of point infrastructure in a region, and geography are explicitly accounted for. Our results highlight that land infrastructure, air transport capacity, and private maritime infrastructure presence, together with the distance of regional economies to exit nodes such as ports and airports, are important determinants of export performance. Based on our preferred regression where multilateral resistance terms are accounted for, we estimate that increases in the current land infrastructure, air transport capacity, and number of private ports of 1 per cent increases exports approximately by 0.38 per cent, 0.14 per cent, and 0.045 per cent respectively. Keywords Infrastructure; trade; regions; transportation costs
    Keywords: Empirical Studies of Trade; Economic Development: Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure; Development Planning and Policy: Trade Policy; Factor Movement; Foreign Exchange Policy; General Regional Economics (includes Regional Data); Transportation Systems: General; Regional Development Planning and Policy;
    JEL: F14 O18 O24 R10 R40 R58
    Date: 2014
  8. By: Valeria Ivaniushina (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Daniel Alexandrov (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: In this study we focus on the influence of peers on adolescents academic achievement. Specifically, how the learning motivation of peers is related to a student's school grades. We use multilevel regression to analyze the influence of peers on different levels of social circles: school, class, personal network, and compare the effects of "assigned friends" and "chosen friends". The methods of social network analysis are used to define the personal network of a student in different ways: cliques, complete ego networks, and mutual ego networks. We demonstrate that the model improves considerably when the level of personal networks is included between individual and class levels. The learning motivation of a student's friends (defined as a clique or ego network) has an important influence on the student’s school performance, net of student’s personal characteristics.
    Keywords: social network analysis, schools, peer influence, ego networks, cliques
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2014
  9. By: Dana Rotz; Matthew Johnson; Brian Gill
    Keywords: Education, VAM, Value-Added Models, Pittsburgh Public Schools
    JEL: I
    Date: 2014–05–05
  10. By: S. Chandrasekhar (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research); Ajay Sharma (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research)
    Abstract: With an urbanization level of 31.16 percent in 2011, India is the least urbanized country among the top 10 economies of the world. In addition, unlike other countries, the transition of workforce out of agriculture is incomplete. This coupled with jobless growth in recent years has contributed to an increase in certain migration streams. While rural-rural migration continues to be the largest in terms of magnitude, we also document an increase in two-way commuting across rural and urban areas. Further, there are a large number of short term migrants and an increase in return migration rate is also observed.
    Keywords: Internal migration streams, Short term migration, Commuting, Return migration, Regional labour mobility
    JEL: R23 J61 O1
    Date: 2014–05
  11. By: Hamilton, Carl J. (KTH); Eliasson, Jonas (KTH); Brundell-Freij, Karin (WSP); Raux, Charles (Laboratoire d'Economie des Transports, Lyon); Souche, Stephanie (Laboratoire d'Economie des Transports, Lyon); Kiiskilää, Kati (Sito Ltd, Finland); Tervonen, Juha (JT-Con, Finland)
    Abstract: We explore what variables influence public attitudes towards congestion charges using a survey carried out in Stockholm, Helsinki and Lyon, three European cities with many similarities but with different experiences and discourses with respect to congestion charging. We find that self-interest matters in the expected way, with lower support in groups with higher expected payments and lower value of travel time savings. However, self-interest variables only contribute 20-50% to total explained variation in attitudes. The rest is explained by differences in respondents’ attitudes to environment, trust in public agencies, and views about the fairness of pricing policies in general. What issues are associated to congestion charges are similar in all the cities, but the strength of the associations seems to vary depending on how congestion pricing is framed in the specific local discourse. The most important factor seems to be experience of congestion pricing, which increases support substantially.
    Keywords: Congestion charges; Transport pricing; Acceptability; Attitudes
    JEL: H23 H54 R41 R48
    Date: 2014–06–09
  12. By: Elinder, Mikael (Department of Economics); Persson, Lovisa (Department of Economics)
    Abstract: In 2008, the Swedish property tax was reformed and a cap on yearly tax liabilities was introduced. A large fraction of owner occupied houses was subject to a substantial decrease in the tax. When the reform was announced, most analysts projected - in line with tax capitalization theory - that the tax decrease would lead to significant increases in house prices. We estimate price responses and capitalization degrees, using various DID strategies, in which the price dynamics of houses that were subject to a generous tax reduction are compared to the price dynamics of houses with a more modest reduction. Our results are largely inconsistent with capitalization theory. For the majority of properties, we find no evidence that the tax cut led to increases in house prices. However, we find evidence of partial capitalization in sub-markets with highly valued properties, highly educated citizens and were it is especially difficult to increase supply. We argue that theories of bounded rationality can help explain why house buyers may fail to take a tax decrease into account in the valuation of houses.
    Keywords: announcement effects; capitalization; financial literacy; housing market; inattention; saliency
    JEL: D01 D03 D04 D12 H22 H24 R21 R38
    Date: 2014–05–18
  13. By: Engel, Eduardo; Galetovic, Alexander
    Abstract: Cities exist, grow, and prosper because they take advantage of scale economies and specialization wrought by agglomeration. But output growth inevitably stresses transport infrastructure because production requires space and mobility. To prevent congestion from crowding out agglomeration benefits and to expand the supply of urban land, cities must invest in transport infrastructure. Yet balancing the growing demand for infrastructure with its supply is often difficult. In particular, many cities lack the funding to maintain and expand streets and urban highways. Also problematic is that roads are managed like a social service rather than subjected to market discipline. This leads to the central question of this chapter: Can public-private partnerships (PPPs) deal with these problems better than conventional public provision and ensure proper maintenance, timely expansion, and less congestion? And if so, how? To answer these questions, the paper examines what PPPs can do and what they need to work, focusing in particular on the role of institutions. This is followed by an investigation of common PPP pitfalls and the ways in which they can be avoided. The paper concludes with a case study of a successful transportation PPP in Chile that emphasizes the importance of planning.
    Keywords: Transport Economics Policy&Planning,Public Sector Economics,Debt Markets,Public Sector Management and Reform,Infrastructure Economics
    Date: 2014–05–01
  14. By: Giorgio FABBRI (EPEE et Department d'Economie, Université d'Evry - Val d'Essonne)
    Abstract: We introduce an AK spatial growth model with a general geographical structure. The dynamics of the economy is described by a partial differential equation on a Riemannian manifold. The morphology interacts with the spatial dynamics of the capital and is one determinant of the qualitative behavior of the economy. We characterize on the geographical structure the conditions that guarantee, in the long run, the convergence of the detrended capital across locations and those inducing spatial capital agglomeration
    Keywords: Dynamical spatial model; growth; agglomeration; convergence; infinite dimensional optimal control problems; Riemannian manifolds
    JEL: R1 O4 C61
    Date: 2014–05–30
  15. By: Martijn van den Berge; Anet Weterings
    Abstract: Within the smart specialisation programme, the European Commission urges regional policy-makers to assess their regional innovation potential and consider investing in the areas of eco-technologies taking into account the regions’ specific strengths and weaknesses. In evolutionary economic geography, several studies have shown that regional innovation is a path dependent process whereby new technologies develop out of the existing regional knowledge base. In this paper, we examine to what extent this is also the case for eco-innovation; if so, the existing technological structure of a region would be an important source of information for regional policymakers with respect to designing their eco-innovation policy agenda. Our results show that in EU-regions both the probability of developing eco-innovations and the number of patents in this field depends on the patents that have been developed in related fields in the region in prior years.
    Keywords: relatedness, technology space, regional branching, eco-technologies, EU
    JEL: C23 R11 Q55
    Date: 2014–06
  16. By: Juliana Aguilar; Tito Yepes
    Abstract: Latin American cities are characterized by a high correlation between the location chosen by poor households and their income level. However, it is difficult to identify to what extent they live there by choice –because it maximizes the returns to their efforts- or by restrictions that pull them to locations that make them poorer. We define the former case as unrestricted sorting in the urban economics context, while the latter is assumed to be the commonly used definition of segregation. Distinguishing between these alternatives is difficult because of the circular relationship between poverty and location. People can freely choose a location that makes them poor or they can choose a location because they are poor. This circular causation or endogeneity puts policy making in a complicated spot since it questions the reach of placed-based policies to alleviate poverty and exposes the need to prioritize between these actions and those directed to improving households’ portable assets. Hence, there is a trade-off between investing in education or any other portable asset and investing in local infrastructure. This paper begins establishing a Mincerian profile of households’ income level as the result of its portable assets and their returns. Then an Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition of the income equation over two locations –a periphery and the rest of the city- is used. Based on differences in returns to individual characteristics between the two alternative locations, the impact of space is separated from the impact of portable assets. The main hypothesis is that segregation exists when these returns vary across space. That is when households cannot profit equally across space even if they have comparable characteristics. Results show that segregation, as opposed to individual characteristics, explains one fourth to one third of the mean income difference between locations in Bogotá-Colombia. Further estimations show that access has a major role explaining the impact of location while housing and neighborhood characteristics play a relatively minor role. As such, results question the emphasis that local social policies pay to improve spaces while they could have a greater impact on welfare conditions giving more relevance to the portable assets of the poor.
    Keywords: Income levels, locations, segregation, Bogotá.Niveles de ingreso, locaciones, segregación.
    JEL: J31 J78 J62
    Date: 2014–04–30
  17. By: Melissa S. Kearney; Phillip B. Levine
    Abstract: This paper considers the role that high levels of income inequality and low rates of social mobility play in driving the educational attainment of youth in low-income households in the United States. Using high school degree status from five individual-level surveys, our analysis reveals that low-socioeconomic status (SES) students, and particularly boys, who grow up in locations with greater levels of lower-tail income inequality and lower levels of social mobility are relatively more likely to drop out of high school, conditional on other individual characteristics and contextual factors. The data indicate that this relationship does not reflect alternative characteristics of the place, such as poverty concentration, residential segregation, or public school financing. We propose that the results are consistent with a class of explanations that emphasize a role for perceptions of one’s own identity, position in society, or chances of success. In the end, our empirical results indicate that high levels of lower-tail income inequality and low levels of social mobility hinder educational advancement for disadvantaged youth.
    JEL: D31 I24 J24
    Date: 2014–06
  18. By: Dahal, Mahesh; Nguyen, Quynh
    Abstract: Private (non-state) sector engagement in the provision of educational services at the primary and secondary levels in South Asia has recently undergone remarkable growth. This type of education comes in various forms, such as schools financed and managed by the private sector, schools financed by the government and managed by the private sector, private school vouchers, and tutoring outside the classroom. According to recent household survey data, almost one-third of school-goers aged 6 to 18 years in South Asia go to private schools, with a high concentration in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan. Data for India, Nepal, and Pakistan show that on average, private schools perform at least as well as government schools on student test scores, after controlling for socioeconomic factors, and they do so at significantlylower costs to society. However, student achievement varies greatly across schools of each type, with many weak private schools as well as strong government schools. Substantial, albeit indirect, evidence points to teacher behavior and accountability as an important driver of the effectiveness of private schools. In the long run, however, many factors may play important roles in sustaining the private sector's advantage. Another risk is that overall poor quality in a large government sector may set a low benchmark for the private sector. The findings cast doubt on the effectiveness of government regulations for private schools, given weak institutional capacity. Public-private partnerships with effective accountability mechanisms could leverage both equity and efficiency. Finally, it appears important to understand and customize teaching to the child's individual level.
    Keywords: Tertiary Education,Primary Education,Education For All,Secondary Education,Teaching and Learning
    Date: 2014–06–01
  19. By: Robin Dion; Amy Dworsky; Jackie Kauff; Rebecca Kleinman
    Keywords: Housing, Youth Aging out of Foster Care, Family Support
    JEL: I
    Date: 2014–05–30
  20. By: Ragland, David R; Pande, Swati; Bigham, John; Cooper, Jill F
    Abstract: California was the first state to legislate a Safe Routes to School (SR2S) program under Assembly Bill AB 1475 (1999). SR2S funds construction projects that make it safer for children to walk/bicycle to school and encourage a greater number of children to choose these modes of travel for the school commute. The main goal of this project was to assess the long-term impact of program-funded engineering modifications on walking/bicycling levels and on safety. Evaluation of improvements was determined using a targeted method of determining the countermeasures to result in safety and mode shift. Major results indicate that safety of pedestrians increased within 250 feet of an infrastructure improvement, such as a sidewalk. There was also evidence of mode shift near improvements, as well. Positive results for safety and mobility, as well as improved data collection for funded programs, should make Safe Routes to School programs competitive among other transportation needs. 
    Keywords: Engineering, Medicine and Health Sciences
    Date: 2014–01–14
  21. By: Kerstin Carlson Le Floch; Beatrice Birman; Jennifer O'Day; Steven Hurlburt; Diana Mercado-Garcia; Rose Goff; Karen Manship; Seth Brown; Susan Bowles Therriault; Linda Rosenberg; Megan Hague Angus; Lara Hulsey
    Keywords: School Improvement Grants, SIG, Education
    JEL: I
    Date: 2014–05–30
  22. By: Birol Kanik; Wei Xiao
    Abstract: We explore the possibility that a housing market boom-bust cycle may arise when public beliefs are driven by news shocks. News, imperfect and noisy by nature, may generate expectations that are overly optimistic or pessimistic. Over-optimism easily leads to excessive accumulation of housing assets, and creates a housing boom that is not based on fundamentals. When the news is found false or inaccurate, investors revert their actions, and a downturn in the housing market follows. By altering agents’ net worth conditions, a housing cycle can have significant repercussions in the aggregate economy. In this paper, we construct a dynamic general equilibrium model that can give rise to a news-driven housing boom-bust cycle, and we consider how monetary policies should respond to it.
    Keywords: Business cycle; News; Monetary policy.
    JEL: E3 E4 E5
    Date: 2014
  23. By: Margarita Rubio
    Abstract: I develop a two-country new Keynesian general equilibrium model with housing and collateral constraints to explore how macroprudential policies should be conducted in a heterogeneous monetary union. I consider four types of cross-country heterogeneity: asymmetric shocks, di¤erent loan-to-value ratios (LTV), different proportion of borrowers, and mortgage contract heterogeneity (…xed and variable rates). As a macroprudential tool, I propose a Taylor-type rule for the LTV which responds to deviations in output and house prices. This policy can be applied at a national or union level. Results show that asymmetries matter for the implementation of macroprudential policies, especially when the heterogeneity delivers di¤erences in economic and …nancial volatilities. A centralized macroprudential policy is preferred if there is an asymmetric shock, to balance out the cross-country di¤erent …nancial volatilities. For the mortgage contract heterogeneity, the economy is better o¤ with a decentralized policy that compensates the lack of effectiveness of monetary policy in the …xed-rate country. For the LTV asymmetry and the di¤erent proportion of borrowers, conducting the macroprudential policy at a national or union level produces similar welfare gains.
    Keywords: Macroprudential, Housing market, LTV, monetary union, Â…nancial stability
    Date: 2014
  24. By: Golsteyn B.H.H.; Schils T. (ROA)
    Abstract: In elementary school, girls typically outperform boys in languages and boys typically outperform girls in math. The determinants of these differences have remained largely unexplored. Using rich data from Dutch elementary schools, we decompose the differences in achievement into gender differences in endowments and returns to IQ and non-cognitive factors. This descriptive analysis is a thought experiment in which we show the consequences for school performance if girls and boys would have similar resources and take similar advantage of these resources. Our findings indicate that gender differences in resources with respect to social and instrumental skills and need for achievement can explain part of the differences in performance. Boys seem to be better equipped with these resources. Additionally, boys and girls employ their skills differently. Girls take more advantage of their IQ than boys. Yet, the largest part of this parameter effect is left unexplained by IQ and non-cognitive factors.
    Keywords: Analysis of Education; Education and Inequality;
    JEL: I21 I24
    Date: 2014
  25. By: Adrian Götting (IET/CESNOVA, FCT-Universidade Nova de Lisboa and University Duisburg-Essen)
    Abstract: The project “InnovationCity Ruhr” deals with the reconstruction of the city of Bottrop with regard to energy saving measures. The aim is to make the city more environmental friendly in order to create a model for other industrial cities. Until the conclusion of the project in the year 2020, it is planned to change the surface of Bottrop in several positive ways. This paper focuses on the description of the project to give the reader an example of what exactly is done within the scope of InnovationCity Ruhr. Besides that, the link to the subject of sociology shall be given in order to show that the project is a prime example for social innovation.
    Keywords: Innovation, Innovation City, Ruhr, social innovation, model city Bottrop, energy efficiency
    JEL: O32 O38 R58
    Date: 2014–03
  26. By: Simon Gächter (School of Economics, University of Nottingham); Christian Thöni (Centre Walras-Pareto, University of Lausanne)
    Abstract: Social preferences and social influence effects (“peer effectsâ€) are well documented, but little is known about how peers shape social preferences. Settings where social preferences matter are often situations where peer effects are likely too. In a gift-exchange experiment with independent payoffs between two agents we find causal evidence for peer effects. Efforts are positively correlated but with a kink: agents follow a low-performing but not a high-performing peer. This contradicts major theories of social preferences which predict that efforts are unrelated, or negatively related. Some theories allow for positively-related efforts but cannot explain most observations. Conformism, norm following and social esteem are candidate explanations.
    Keywords: social preferences, voluntary cooperation, peer effects, reflection problem, gift-exchange; conformism; social norms; social esteem, experiments.
    Date: 2014–03
  27. By: Flores-Lagunes, Alfonso (Binghamton University, New York); Timko, Troy (affiliation not available)
    Abstract: We examine the effect of participation in 4-H, the largest youth development program in the United States, on standardized test scores. We do this by utilizing grade-level longitudinal data on Florida's school districts from the Florida Department of Education combined with 4-H participation statistics from Florida 4-H. Specifically, we analyze the effect of the extent of 4-H participation for third through tenth grade on the mathematics and reading subtests of the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT). We use a difference-in-difference-in-differences (DDD) approach to control for potential confounders of the causal relationship at the level of school districts, grades, and years. Our results indicate that the extent of 4-H participation at the district-grade-year level is positively and significantly related to several measures of performance on the FCAT test.
    Keywords: 4-H program, Florida, standardized test scores
    JEL: I21 I28 H52
    Date: 2014–06
  28. By: Lauren Akers; Alexandra Resch; Jillian Berk
    Keywords: School District, Random Assignment, Education
    JEL: I
    Date: 2014–06–30
  29. By: Goodness C. Aye (University of Pretoria); Rangan Gupta (University of Pretoria); Stephen M. Miller (University of Nevada, Las Vegas and University of Connecticut); Mehmet Balcilar (Eastern Mediterranean University)
    Abstract: This paper employs classical bivariate, factor augmented (FA), slab-and-spike variable selection (SSVS)-based, and Bayesian semi-parametric shrinkage (BSS)-based predictive regression models to forecast US real private residential fixed investment over an out-of-sample period from 1983:Q1 to 2011:Q2, based on an in-sample estimates for 1963:Q1 to 1982:Q4. Both large-scale (188 macroeconomic series) and small-scale (20 macroeconomic series) FA, SSVS, and BSS predictive regressions, as well as 20 bivariate regression models, capture the influence of fundamentals in forecasting residential investment. We evaluate the ex-post out-of-sample forecast performance of the 26 models using the relative average Mean Square Error for one-, two-, four-, and eight-quarters-ahead forecasts and test their significance based on the McCracken (2004, 2007) MSE-F statistic. We find that, on average, the SSVS-Large model provides the best forecasts amongst all the models. We also find that one of the individual regression models, using house for sale (H4SALE) as a predictor, performs best at the four- and eight-quarters-ahead horizons. Finally, we use these two models to predict the relevant turning points of the residential investment, via an ex-ante forecast exercise from 2011:Q3 to 2012:Q4. The SSVS-Large model forecasts the turning points more accurately, although the H4SALE model does better toward the end of the sample. Our results suggest that economy-wide factors, in addition to specific housing market variables, prove important when forecasting in the real estate market.
    Keywords: Private residential investment, predictive regressions, factor-augmented models, Bayesian shrinkage, forecasting
    JEL: C32 E22 E27
    Date: 2014–05
  30. By: M. Robin Dion; Rebecca Kleinman; Jackie Kauff; Amy Dworsky
    Keywords: Youth Aging out of Foster Care, Housing, Family Unification, Family Support
    JEL: I
    Date: 2014–05–30
  31. By: Simon Burgess; Matt Dickson
    Abstract: We investigate the impact on earnings inequality of a selective education system in which school assignment is based on initial test scores. We use a large, representative household panel survey to compare adult earnings inequality of those growing up under a selective education system with those educated under a comprehensive system. Controlling for a range of background characteristics and the current location, the wage distribution for individuals who grew up in selective schooling areas is quantitatively and statistically significantly more unequal. The total effect sizes are large: 14% of the raw 90-10 earnings gap and 18% of the conditional 90-10 earnings gap can be explained by differences across schooling systems.
    Keywords: selective schooling, inequality, wages
    JEL: I24 J31
    Date: 2014–05
  32. By: Carolyn J. Heinrich (University of Texas at Austin); Patricia Burch (University of Southern California); Annalee Good (University of Wisconsin-Madison); Rudy Acosta (University of Southern California); Huiping Cheng (University of Wisconsin-Madison); Marcus Dillender (W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research); Christi Kirshbaum (University of Texas at Austin); Hiren Nisar (Abt Associates); Mary Stewart (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
    Keywords: tutoring, out-of-school time, education, inequality, No Child Left Behind
    JEL: I21 I24
  33. By: Kevin Booker; Jaime Thomas
    Keywords: New Leaders, Student Achievement, Oakland, Education
    JEL: I
    Date: 2014–05–19
  34. By: Andersson, Tommy (Department of Economics, Lund University); Ehlers, Lars (Département de sciences économiques, Université de Montréal); Svensson, Lars-Gunnar (Department of Economics, Lund University)
    Abstract: This paper explores the situation when tenants in public houses, in a specific neighborhood, are given the legislated right to buy the houses they live in but can choose to remain in their houses and pay the regulated rent. This type of legislation has been passed in many European countries in the last 30-35 years (U.K. Housing Act 1980 is a leading example). The main objective with this type of legislation is to transfer the ownership of the houses from the public authority to the tenants. To achieve this goal, the selling prices of the public houses are typically heavily subsidized. The legislating body then faces a trade-off between achieving the goals of the legislation and allocating the houses efficiently. This paper investigates this specific trade-off and identifies an allocation rule that is individual rational, equilibrium selecting, and group non-manipulable in a restricted preference domain that contains "almost all" preference profiles. In this restricted domain, the identified rule is the equilibrium selecting rule that transfers the maximum number of ownerships from the public authority to the tenants. This rule is also weakly preferred to the current U.K. system by both the existing tenants and the public authority. Finally, a dynamic process that finds the outcome of the identified rule, in a finite number of steps, is provided.
    Keywords: Public housing; existing tenants; equilibrium; minimum equilibrium prices; maximum trade; group non-manipulability; dynamic price process
    JEL: C71 C78 D71 D78
    Date: 2014–06–08
  35. By: Carl Gaigné (Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires, INRA); Jacques-François Thisse (Center for Operations Research and Econometrics)
    Abstract: New economic geography (NEG) has proven to be very useful in dealing with a large number of issues. Yet, in this paper we do not discuss the canonical NEG models and their vast number of extensions. Rather, we provide an overview of recent developments in the NEG literature that build on the idea that the difference in the economic performance of regions is explained by the behavior and interactions between households and firms located within them. This means that we consider NEG models which take into account land markets, thereby the internal structure and industrial mix of urban agglomerations.
    Abstract: La Nouvelle Economie Géographique (NEG) s'est avéré être très adapté pour traiter un grand nombre de questions. Dans cet article, nous ne discutons pas des modèles canoniques de la NEG et de leurs nombreuses extensions. Nous présentons un aperçu des récents développements de cette littérature qui s'appuient sur l'idée que la différence dans la performance économique des régions s'explique par le comportement et les interactions entre les ménages et les entreprises. Cela signifie que nous considérons des modèles NEG qui prennent en compte les marchés fonciers, ainsi que la structure interne et la composition industrielle des agglomérations urbaines.
    Keywords: villelocalisation des entreprises
    Date: 2013
  36. By: Andres RODRIGUEZ-POSE (London School of Economics); Marco DI CATALDO (London School of Economics); Alessandro RAINOLDI (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: Research and innovation strategies for smart specialisation (RIS3) are trying to introduce a new vision of innovation policy in European regions. However, the success of RIS3 policy measures is closely dependent on the capacity of regional government institutions to act as coordinators or facilitators of the interventions. The way in which institutional mechanisms govern innovation processes and provide incentives for the interaction between regional actors remains a largely unexplored area of scientific research. This policy note discusses the importance of sound institutional frameworks for the effectiveness of smart specialisation, presenting an econometric study that investigates the link between government institutions and innovation. The empirical results confirm the key role played by governance structures for technological advances at the regional level, suggesting that the greatest gains in innovative capacity from institutional reforms would be obtained in peripheral territories where the initial level of government quality is lower. This analysis has important implications for the identification of the necessary pre-requisites for successful RIS3 strategies in EU regions.
    Keywords: European cohesion policy, Structural Funds, smart specialisation, Innovation Union, Regional Policy, Institutional Framework, Coordination, Governance Structures
    Date: 2014–03
  37. By: Marie-Laure Allain (Ecole Nationale Polytechnique); Claire Chambolle (Alimentation et Sciences Sociales); Stéphane Turolla (Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires, INRA); Sofia Villas-Boas (ARE, University of California, Berkeley)
    Abstract: Using consumer panel data, we analyze the impact of a merger in the retail sector on food prices in France. In order to capture the local dimension of retail competition, we define local markets as catchment areas around each store. We develop a difference-in-differences analysis to compare price changes in local markets where the merger did modify the ownership structure (treated group) to price changes in local markets where the merger did not affect the ownership structure (control group). We find that prices of competing firms in areas where the merger occurred (treated group) increased significantly relative to the control areas where existing firms were not affected by a merger. In fact, our findings suggest that the merger significantly raised the competitors' prices. These results are consistent with a combination of local concentration and a decrease in differentiation.
    Keywords: Ex-post merger evaluation, Retail grocery sector, Difference-in-differences, commerce de detail, prix à la consommation, marché local, enquêtealimentation, compétitivitéconsommateurfrance
    JEL: K21 L11 L66
    Date: 2013
  38. By: Botezat, Alina (Romanian Academy); Pfeiffer, Friedhelm (ZEW Mannheim)
    Abstract: Many children grow up with parents working abroad. Economists are interested in the achievement and well-being of these "home alone" children to better understand the positive and negative aspects of migration in the sending countries. This paper examines the causal effects of parents' migration on their children left home in Romania, a country where increasingly more children are left behind in recent years. Using samples from a unique representative survey carried out in 2007 instrumental variable and bivariate probit estimates have been performed. Our initial evidence demonstrates that in Romania home alone children receive higher school grades, partly because they increase their time allocation for studying. However, they are more likely to be depressed and more often suffer from health problems especially in rural areas.
    Keywords: parent migration, home alone children, well-being, Romania
    JEL: I12 I21 J13
    Date: 2014–05
  39. By: Carl Gaigné (Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires)
    Keywords: système agroalimentaireurbanisationalimentation durable
    Date: 2013
  40. By: Antonescu, Daniela
    Abstract: The regional development promotes the balanced development of the European Union and, similarly, in all member state is treated as an integral factor of the state economic and social policy. Also, it promotes the growth model proposed by the future Europe 2020 Strategy, including the necessity of meeting the societal challenges, and those related to employment in the regions and in the Member-States. The appraisal of the implementation of the regional policy, whose goals and priorities were defined in the national and European strategic documents, calls for a general and specific objectives and financial instruments of that policy. This article contains information’s and elements about the next programming period and future regional policy of the European Union, in context of economic and social cohesion and convergence. From the perspective of the Europe 2020 Strategy, the regions shall continue to attract differentiated support depending on their economic development level (GDP/per capita), as a clear distinction is made between “less developed” and “most developed” regions.
    Keywords: regional policy; region; Structural Fund
    JEL: F0 F00 R1 R11 R15
    Date: 2013–10–11
  41. By: Antonescu, Daniela
    Abstract: The mountain regions in European Union represent a special territory of interest, with a huge economic, social, environmental and cultural potential. More, mountain area is considerate a natural-economic region and constitutes an important objective for regional development policy. The main sectors of mountain area are presented in agriculture and tourism fields that lead the key role in safeguarding the sensitive eco-system and thereby maintaining the general living and working space. Mountain areas should have a specific policy defined by the sustainable development principle, which meets the needs of the present without compromising the opportunities of future generations. The specific mountain policy aims to reduce the imbalance between favored and disadvantaged mountain regions, permanently marked by natural, economic, social, cultural and environmental constraints. In previous programming period, mountain regions among have profited from the intensive regional support, in specially, for constructing of and connecting them to fresh water and waste water networks, in particular for increasing of life quality. In context of 2020 Strategy, the Member States will concentrate investments on a small number of thematic objectives. In advanced regions, 60 % of funds will used for only two of these objectives (competitiveness of SME and research/innovation). The all less developed regions will received about 50% of Structural Funds In Romania, mountain representing 29.93% out of the total national surface and 20.14% from UAA (Utilised Agricultural Area) of total national. The mountain territory has around 20% of the national population and is overlapping almost 100% with the Carpathian Mountains. Due to these conditions, Romania's regional development policy must take into account the specificities of mountain area, the problems they faced, and the requirements of 2020 Strategy. This paper presents the main aspects to be taken into account for sustainable development of mountain areas in Romania, in context of 2020 Strategy.
    Keywords: regional development, territorial policy, mountain regions, 2020 Strategy, economic and social cohesion
    JEL: Q0 Q01 Q2 Q23 Q28 R1 R11
    Date: 2014–05–30
  42. By: Chiaki Yamamoto (Graduate School of Economics, Osaka University)
    Abstract: English agriculture in the first half of the nineteenth century was characterised by the ehigh-wage north and low-wage southf pattern. The serious problem of rural unemployment in southern England is also widely acknowledged for this period. The question then remains: Why did agricultural labourers stay in the south? Why did they not move to the industrial north where more job opportunities were available? In answer to this question, I propose that; the wage rate in the south was high enough, if income-in-kind is taken into consideration, and that in-kind income, especially in the form of drink allowance, was more prevalent in the south. This paper also attempts to estimate regional unemployment rates directly. While unemployment in the south has been well recognised, the perceptions are largely based on indirect evidence such as per capita poor law expenditure, or descriptive information derived from contemporary writings. However, poor law expenditure is likely to have been affected by the actual practice of poor relief in the local context, and it is almost impossible to use contemporary remarks for systematic regional comparison. Therefore, I attempt to estimate unemployment rates more directly, in percentage terms. The second aim of this paper is to estimate regional real wages inclusive of income-in-kind. The Rural Query of the 1834 Poor Law Report, the main source for this paper, asked the rate of male wages with or without beer or cider. I used this information to estimate real wages. Thirdly, I estimate female wages and consider job opportunities for women, to calculate annual family income in a regional perspective.
    Keywords: the Industrial Revolution; income-in-kind; food/drink allowances; regional wage gaps; migration.
    JEL: N13 N33 N53
    Date: 2014–06
  43. By: Sabatini, Fabio; Sarracino, Francesco
    Abstract: Does Facebook make people lonely and unhappy? Empirical studies have produced conflicting results about the effect of social networking sites (SNS) use on individual welfare. We use a representative sample of the Italian population to investigate how actual and virtual networks of social relationships influence subjective well-being (SWB). We find a significantly negative correlation between online networking and self-reported happiness. We address endogeneity in online networking by exploiting technological characteristics of the pre-existing voice telecommunication infrastructures that exogenously determined the availability of broadband for high-speed Internet. We try to further disentangle the direct effect of SNS use on well-being from the indirect effect possibly caused by the impact of SNS’s on trust and sociability in a SEM analysis. We find that online networking plays a positive role in SWB through its impact on physical interactions. On the other hand, SNS use is associated with lower social trust, which is in turn positively correlated with SWB. The overall effect of networking on individual welfare is significantly negative.
    Keywords: social participation; online networks; Facebook; social trust; social capital; subjective well-being; hate speech; broadband; digital divide.
    JEL: C36 D85 O33 Z1 Z13
    Date: 2014–06–03
  44. By: NAKATA Hiroyuki; SAWADA Yasuyuki; SEKIGUCHI Kunio
    Abstract: This paper reviews the impacts of natural disasters on firm location choice and real estate prices. More specifically, we first study if awareness of possible natural disasters affects location choice. Then, we investigate the impacts of natural disasters on land prices. We collect a unique micro dataset from firms operating in central Thailand, where firms located in the Chao Phraya flood plains incurred direct losses during the 2011 floods. The empirical evidence suggests that more firms located in the Chao Phraya flood plains were unaware of the flooding risk before the 2011 floods than those located elsewhere. The 2011 floods have substantially affected awareness among firms—in particular, firms incurred direct losses, and the changes in land prices suggest that an increasing number of firms have been choosing locations outside the flood plains in the aftermath of the 2011 floods.
    Date: 2014–06
  45. By: De Vreyer, Philippe; Roubaud, François
    Abstract: The population of Sub-Saharan Africa stood at 854 million in 2010. Annual population growth averaged 2.5 percent, with a relatively high sustained fertility rate, fostered by the fact that two-thirds of the population is under 25. The region has the highest proportion of poor people in the world, with 47.5 percent of its population living on less than $1.25 a day, as measured in terms of purchasing power parity in 2008. It is also the only region in which the number of poor is still rising. This book contributes to knowledge on the functioning of urban labor markets in Sub-Saharan Africa by investigating following questions: which individuals lack access to employment or are employed beneath their capacities; does education improve working conditions?; what opportunities does the labor market offer to climb the social ladder?; is the lack of good-quality jobs for adults and the poverty it implies one of the reasons for the prevalence of child labor?; do women and ethnic minorities have the same access to the labor market as everyone else?; how does the formal sector live alongside the informal sector?; what role does migration play in the functioning of labor markets?;and are there traits common to all urban labor markets in Africa, or is each country different? This book attempts to answer these questions by studying 11 cities in 10 countries (table O.1). Comparative studies are often based on disparate measurement instruments, which risk marring the validity of the findings. This study is based on a set of perfectly comparable surveys. The study also covers a number of topics (migration, child labor, job satisfaction, discrimination, and work after retirement) in addition to the topics covered by Lachaud (unemployment, access to employment and mobility, segmentation, labor supply, and poverty). This book is divided in five parts. The first is comparative analysis of urban labor markets in Sub-Saharan Africa; second is job quality and labor market conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa; third is dimensions of labor market inequalities; fourth is the key coping mechanisms and private responses; and fifth is moving forward.
    Keywords: Marché du travail; Politique du travail; Afrique noire; Labor & Employment Law; Labor Markets; Labor Policies; Youth and Governance;
    JEL: O55 O17 O15 I32 J21
    Date: 2013

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