nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2014‒02‒08
25 papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. Does Culture Affect Local Productivity and Urban Amenities? By Brahim Boualam
  2. The value of the greenbelt in Vienna: a spatial hedonic analysis By Johanna Choumert; Shanaka HERATH; Gunther MAIER
  3. Business Confidence and Forecasting of Housing Prices and Rents in Large German Cities By Konstantin A. Kholodilin; Boriss Siliverstovs
  4. How Urbanization Affects Employment and Social Interactions By Sato, Yasuhiro; Zenou, Yves
  5. Information, Market Incentives, and Student Performance By Camargo, Braz; Camelo, Rafael; Firpo, Sergio; Ponczek, Vladimir
  6. The impact of a comprehensive school reform policy for failing schools on educational achievement; Results of the first four years By Roel van Elk; Suzanne Kok
  7. Small banks and local economic development By Hakenes , Hendrik; Hasan, Iftekhar; Molyneux, Phil; Xie , Ru
  8. Race to the Debt Trap? Spatial Econometric Evidence on Debt in German Municipalities By Frank M. Fossen; Ronny Freier; Thorsten Martin
  9. Access to water as a determinant of rental values: A hedonic analysis in Rwanda By Johanna Choumert; Jesper STAGE; Claudine UWERA
  10. Are User Charges Underutilsed in Indian Cities? An Analysis for Delhi By Simanti Bandyopadhyay; Debraj Bagchi
  11. Do "Child-Friendly" Practices affect Learning? Evidence from Rural India By Sushmita Nalini Das
  12. "I wish I knew ..."– Misperceived Ability, School Track Counseling Services and Performances in Upper Secondary Education By Bernardi, Martino; Bratti, Massimiliano; De Simone, Gianfranco
  13. Directional imbalance of freight rates : evidence from Japanese inter-prefectural data By Tanaka, Kiyoyasu; Tsubota, Kenmei
  14. Ethnic Heterogeneity, Voting Partecipation and Local Economic Growth. The Case of Belgium By Alessandro Innocenti; Francesca Lorini; Chiara Rapallini
  15. A note on the extent of US regional income convergence By Mark J. Holmes; Jesus Otero; Theodore Panagiotidis
  16. Does Longer Compulsory Education Equalize Schooling by Gender and Rural/Urban Residence? By Kirdar, Murat G.; Dayioglu-Tayfur, Meltem; Koc, Ismet
  17. Local Systems’ Strategies Copying with Globalization: Collective Local Entrepreneurship By Covi, Giovanni
  18. Urban inequity in the performance of social health insurance system: evidence from Russian regions By Galina Besstremyannaya
  19. Determinants of local governments’ reelection: New evidence based on a Bayesian approach By Maria Teresa Balaguer-Coll; María Isabel Brun-Martos; Anabel Forte; Emili Tortosa-Ausina
  20. Quality of government and innovative performance in the regions of Europe By Andrés Rodríguez-Pose; Marco Di-Cataldo
  21. Boundedly Rational Opinion Dynamics in Directed Social Networks: Theory and Experimental Evidence By Pietro Battiston; Luca Stanca
  22. Conditionalities, School Performance and Progression of Bolsa Família Programme Recipients By Flavio Cireno; Joana Silva; Rafael Proença
  23. Spatial environmental efficiency indicators in regional waste generation: A nonparametric approach By Halkos, George; Papageorgiou, George
  24. Social norms, economic conditions and spatial variation of childbearing within cohabitation across Europe By Trude Lappegård; Sebastian Klüsener; Daniele Vignoli
  25. From age-friendly research to age-friendly city and age-friendly regional network: case of tuymazy and republic of Bashkortostan, Russian Federation By Gulnara A. Minnigaleeva

  1. By: Brahim Boualam
    Abstract: Does a better cultural milieu make a city more livable for residents and improve its business environment for firms? I compute a measure of cultural specialization for 346 U.S. metropolitan areas and ask if differences in cultural environment capitalize into housing price and wage differentials. Simple correlations replicate standard results from the literature: cities that are more specialized in cultural occupations enjoy higher factor prices. Estimations using time-series data, controlling for city characteristics and correcting for endogeneity weaken the magnitude of this effect. Even though the arts and culture might be appealing to some people and firms, such determinants are not strong enough to affect factor prices at the city level.
    Keywords: Urban economics, location choice, local amenities, culture.
    Date: 2014–01
  2. By: Johanna Choumert (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I); Shanaka HERATH (University of New South Wales - University of New South Wales - University of New South Wales); Gunther MAIER (Vienna University of Economics and Business - Vienna University of Economics and Business - Vienna University of Economics and Business)
    Abstract: This paper employs the hedonic price method (HPM) to examine whether the implicit value of the greenbelt is capitalized into apartment prices in the city of Vienna, Austria. We improve the traditional model using spatial econometric techniques and compare estimates from different spatial models, namely the spatial lag model (SAR), the spatial error model (SEM) and the spatial Durbin model (SDM). While our use of spatial models addresses the common problem of omitted variable bias, the SDM specifically allows for controlling possible nearby proximity effects (i.e., small-scale neighbourhood) that are rarely included in this type of analyses. Findings indicate that distance from the greenbelt is important in explaining apartment prices in Vienna: while the CBD exerts a centripetal force, the greenbelt, on the contrary, exerts a centrifugal force. The SDM is found to be the best performing model indicating existence of small-scale neighbourhood effects and presenting a solid case for consideration of this model in valuation of green amenities.
    Keywords: Greenbelt;open space;urban amenities;hedonic price valuation;Spatial econometrics;spatial Durbin model
    Date: 2014–01–30
  3. By: Konstantin A. Kholodilin; Boriss Siliverstovs
    Abstract: In this paper, we evaluate the forecasting ability of 115 indicators to predict the housing prices and rents in 71 German cities. Above all, we are interested in whether the local business confidence indicators can allow substantially improving the forecasts, given the local nature of the real-estate markets. The forecast accuracy of different predictors is tested in a framework of a quasi out-of-sample forecasting. Its results are quite heterogeneous. No single indicator appears to dominate all the others for all cities and market segments. However, there are several predictors that are especially useful, namely the business confidence at the national level, consumer confidence, and price-to-rent ratios. Given the short sample size, the combinations of individual forecast do not improve the forecast accuracy. On average, the forecast improvements attain about 20%, measured by reduction in RMSFE, compared to the naïve model. In separate cases, however, the magnitude of improvement is about 50%.
    Keywords: Housing prices, housing rents, forecasting, spatial dependence, German cities, confidence indicators, chambers of commerce and industry
    JEL: C21 C23 C53
    Date: 2014
  4. By: Sato, Yasuhiro (Osaka University); Zenou, Yves (Stockholm University)
    Abstract: We develop a model where the unemployed workers in the city can find a job either directly or through weak or strong ties. We show that, in denser areas, individuals choose to interact with more people and meet more random encounters (weak ties) than in sparsely populated areas. We also demonstrate that, for a low urbanization level, there is a unique steady-state equilibrium where workers do not interact with weak ties, while, for a high level of urbanization, there is a unique steady-state equilibrium with full social interactions. We show that these equilibria are usually not socially efficient when the urban population has an intermediate size because there are too few social interactions compared to the social optimum. Finally, even when social interactions are optimal, we show that there is over-urbanization in equilibrium.
    Keywords: weak ties, strong ties, social interactions, urban economics, labor market
    JEL: J61 R14 R23
    Date: 2014–01
  5. By: Camargo, Braz (Sao Paulo School of Economics); Camelo, Rafael (Sao Paulo School of Economics); Firpo, Sergio (Sao Paulo School of Economics); Ponczek, Vladimir (Sao Paulo School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper uses a discontinuity on the test score disclosure rules of the National Secondary Education Examination in Brazil to test whether test score disclosure affects student performance, the composition of students in schools, and school observable inputs. We find that test score disclosure has a heterogeneous impact on test scores, but only increases average test scores in private schools. Since test score disclosure has no impact on student composition and school observable inputs in both public and private schools, our results suggest that test score disclosure changes the behavior of teachers and school managers in private schools by affecting the market incentives faced by such schools. We also develop a model of school and student behavior to help explain our empirical findings.
    Keywords: test score disclosure, market incentives, public and private schools
    JEL: I20 I21
    Date: 2014–01
  6. By: Roel van Elk; Suzanne Kok
    Abstract: This CPB Discussion Paper estimates the effects of a comprehensive school reform program on high-stakes test scores in Amsterdam. The program implements a systematic and performance-based way of working within weakly performing primary schools and integrates measures such as staff coaching, teacher evaluations and teacher schooling, and the use of new instruction methods. Difference-in-differences estimates show substantial negative effects on test scores for pupils in their final year of primary school. The program decreased test scores with 0.17 standard deviations in the first four years after its introduction. A potential explanation for this finding is the intensive and rigorous approach that caused an unstable work climate with increased teacher replacement.
    JEL: E32 E52 E62
    Date: 2014–01
  7. By: Hakenes , Hendrik (University of Bonn & Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods & Centre for Economic Policy Research /CEPR)); Hasan, Iftekhar (Fordham University and Bank of Finland); Molyneux, Phil (Bangor Business School, Bangor University); Xie , Ru (Bangor Business School, Bangor University)
    Abstract: This paper discusses the effects of small banks on economic growth. We first theoretically show that small banks operating at a regional level can spur local economic growth. As compared with big interregional banks, small regional banks are more effective in promoting local economic growth, especially in regions with lower initial endowments and severe credit rationing. We then test the model predictions using a sample of German banks and corresponding regional statistics. We find that small regional banks are more important funding providers in regions with low access to finance. The empirical results support the theoretical hypotheses.
    Keywords: small banks; regional economic growth
    JEL: G21 O16 R11
    Date: 2014–01–29
  8. By: Frank M. Fossen; Ronny Freier; Thorsten Martin
    Abstract: Through an intertemporal budget constraint, jurisdictions may gain advantages in tax and spending competition by 'competing' on debt. While the existing spatial econometric literature focuses on tax and spending competition, very little is known about spatial interaction via public debt. This paper estimates the spatial interdependence of public debt among German municipalities using a panel on municipalities in the two largest German states from 1999 to 2006. We find significant and robust interaction effects between debt of neighboring municipalities, which we compare to spatial tax and spending interactions. The results indicate that a municipality increases its per capita debt by 16-33 Euro as a reaction to an increase of 100 Euro in neighboring municipalities.
    Keywords: public debt, tax and spending competition, municipality data, spatial interactions, spatial panel estimation
    JEL: C23 H63 H74 R12
    Date: 2014
  9. By: Johanna Choumert (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I); Jesper STAGE (Mid Sweden University - Mid Sweden University - Mid Sweden University); Claudine UWERA (University of Gothenburg - University of Gothenburg - University of Gothenburg)
    Abstract: In this paper, we study the determinants of rental values in urban housing markets in Kigali, Rwanda. In particular, we study the value of access to piped water; due to the high costs associated with installing new piped connections, renting a property with an existing connection is often the only way for low income households to access piped water. Our results indicate that extending the piped network to a new house will in many cases raise the rental value of the house enough to pay for the cost of installing the new connection in less than two years.
    Keywords: Africa;rwanda;water access;hedonic price;real estate;non-market valuation
    Date: 2014–01–30
  10. By: Simanti Bandyopadhyay (National Institute of Public Finance and Policy); Debraj Bagchi (Centre for Budget and Governance Accountability)
    Abstract: The Commissioner of Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) had recommended certain measures in December 2011 to improve the revenues of the corporation and thereby narrow the existing budget gap. These included introduction of congestion and conservancy charges and revision of rates for parking fees, one time parking charges, fees from mobile towers and property taxes, thus mainly focusing on the augmentation of the non-tax revenues. However, due to social resistance and lack of political will, none of these recommendations were implemented. In this paper we have attempted to quantify the potential revenue gains that may have resulted had the recommendations been accepted. Through a simple simulation based analysis, we find that with the implementation of the recommendations, increases in the own revenues could be between 10 per cent to 21 per cent while that in total revenue could be between 7 per cent to 15 per cent. We also find that with the reccommendations being implemented, own revenues would be able to cover about 77 per cent to 85 per cent of the revenue expenditure and total revenues would be able to account for about 74 per cent to 80 per cent of the total expenditure. Further, the share of non tax revenues in the total revenues would also rise which suggests that the corporation would be in a better position to exploit its potential for non tax revenues and move towards greater self reliance with lesser dependence on tax revenues. Finally, we find that the major share of gains would come from ‘one time parking charges’ followed by property taxes and other components.
    Keywords: Urban Finance, User Charges, Property Tax, Revenue Potential, Expenditure Requirements, Service Delivery.
    Date: 2013–12–18
  11. By: Sushmita Nalini Das (Department of Quantitative Social Science, Institute of Education, University of London)
    Abstract: This paper examines the effects of "child-friendly" practices on learning in rural India. These are a set of pedagogical practices intended to improve education outcomes by increasing children’s inclusion in their learning environment. They are widely promoted in international development circles, and are an increasingly important plank of Indian education policy. This paper offers the first quantitative evidence of their impact. Data is drawn from a survey of 12,576 primary school pupils in government schools in rural India. Incidence levels of six pedagogical practices, each representing a different aspect of child-friendliness described in Indian policy documents, are drawn from high-quality classroom observations. Estimates of their impact on low-stakes reading and maths test-scores are then generated using a school fixed effects value-added model. The main finding is that child-friendly practices, while well-intentioned, generally have insignificant effects on test-scores. Even in circumstances where the practices show some effects, they do not always have the positive impact which would be expected based on their popularity in policy discourse. Further, no strong evidence emerges that the practices differentially affect the test-scores of high and low ability pupil groups. These findings highlight substantial flaws in the content of the publically available evidence base which underlies important elements of Indian education policy, and the gains which could be made from more rigorous analysis at the policy formulation stage.
    Keywords: Child-Friendly practices, National Curriculum Framework, test-scores, primary education, value-added models, India
    JEL: I21 I28
    Date: 2014–02–06
  12. By: Bernardi, Martino (Fondazione Giovanni Agnelli); Bratti, Massimiliano (University of Milan); De Simone, Gianfranco (Fondazione Giovanni Agnelli)
    Abstract: Previous research shows that, in tracked school systems, enrollment decisions are strongly associated with future outcomes both in education and on the labour market. Yet few studies explicitly investigate whether students (and their parents) have all the relevant information they need to make proper decisions. We address this issue by exploiting the data collected within the Arianna Project, an independent school track counseling service run by the municipality of a large city in Northern Italy (Turin). Virtually all students in the final year of lower secondary education participate into the program and they receive advices based on standardized cognitive and non-cognitive tests. Our dataset is uniquely enriched by information on students' pre-test enrollment intentions, their final track choices and their performances in the upper secondary school. We show that students' enrollment intentions are very often inconsistent with their actual potential as revealed by Arianna. However, students (and their parents) are likely to revise their initial choice when new information on their true abilities is made available to them. Moreover, we find that students who eventually make track choices in line with Arianna's suggestions are less likely to be retained in the first year of the upper secondary education.
    Keywords: ability, information, school track choice, grade retention
    JEL: I21 I24
    Date: 2014–01
  13. By: Tanaka, Kiyoyasu; Tsubota, Kenmei
    Abstract: By analyzing a comprehensive dataset on transport transactions in Japan, we describe a directional imbalance in freight rates by transport mode and examine its potential sources, such as economies of density and directionally imbalanced transport flow. There are certain numbers of observed links which show asymmetric transport costs. Instrumental variable analysis is used to show that economies of density account for deviation from symmetric freight rates between prefectures. Our results show that a 10% increase in outbound transport flow relative to inbound transport flow leads to a 2.1% decrease in outbound freight rate relative to inbound freight rate.
    Keywords: Japan, Transportation, Costs, Economic geography, Freight rates, Directional imbalance, Economies of density
    JEL: F14 L91 R41
    Date: 2014–01
  14. By: Alessandro Innocenti; Francesca Lorini; Chiara Rapallini (Dipartimento di Scienza per l'Economia e l'Impresa)
    Abstract: The paper analyzes the case of Belgium to provide insight into the relationships among ethnic heterogeneity, voting participation and local economic growth. We find that heterogeneity, and external and internal mobility reduce immigrants’ voting participation, while we do not find support for the hypothesis that voting participation is related to local economic growth, with the exception of Flanders, which is the most ethnically homogeneous region of Belgium. This finding is interpreted as showing that an increase in ethnic heterogeneity prevails over other factors in determining local economic performance via a decline in social capital.
    Keywords: ethnic heterogeneity, voting, political participation, local economic growth, Tiebout model.
    JEL: D72 H4 H7 N4 R1
    Date: 2014
  15. By: Mark J. Holmes (Department of Economics, Waikato University Management School); Jesus Otero (Facultad de Economia, Universidad del Rosario); Theodore Panagiotidis (Department of Economics, University of Macedonia)
    Abstract: Long-run income convergence is investigated in the US context. We employ a novel pair-wise econometric procedure based on a probabilistic definition of convergence. The time-series properties of all the possible regional income pairs are examined by means of unit root and non-cointegration tests where inference is based on the fraction of rejections. We distinguish between the cases of strong convergence, where the implied cointegrating vector is [1,-1], and weak convergence, where long-run homogeneity is relaxed. To address cross-sectional dependence, we employ a bootstrap methodology to derive the empirical distribution of the fraction of rejections. We find supporting evidence of US states sharing a common stochastic trend consistent with a definition of convergence based on long-run forecasts of state incomes being proportional rather than equal. We find that the strength of convergence between states decreases with distance and initial income disparity. Using Metropolitan Statistical Areas data, evidence for convergence is stronger.
    Keywords: Panel data, cross-section dependence, pair-wise approach, income,convergence.
    JEL: C2 C3 R1 R2 R3
    Date: 2013–12
  16. By: Kirdar, Murat G. (Middle East Technical University); Dayioglu-Tayfur, Meltem (Middle East Technical University); Koc, Ismet (Hacettepe University)
    Abstract: This study examines the effects of the extension of compulsory schooling from 5 to 8 years in Turkey in 1997 – which involved substantial investment in school infrastructure – on schooling outcomes and, in particular, on the equality of these outcomes between men and women, and urban and rural residents using the Turkish Demographic and Health Surveys. This policy is peculiar because it also changes the sheepskin effects (signaling effects) of schooling, through its redefinition of the schooling tiers. The policy is also interesting due to its large spillover effects on post-compulsory schooling as well as its remarkable overall effect; for instance, we find that the completed years of schooling by age 17 increases by 1.5 years for rural women. The policy equalizes the educational attainment of urban and rural children substantially. The urban-rural gap in the completed years of schooling at age 17 falls by 0.5 years for men and by 0.7 to 0.8 years for women. However, there is no evidence of a narrowing gender gap with the policy. On the contrary, the gender gap in urban areas in post-compulsory schooling widens. The findings suggest that stronger sheepskin effects for men, resulting from their much higher labor-force participation rate, bring about this widening gender gap.
    Keywords: compulsory schooling, gender, rural and urban, equality in education, regression discontinuity design
    JEL: I21 I24 I28 J15 J16
    Date: 2014–01
  17. By: Covi, Giovanni
    Abstract: The paper aims at investigating the possible trajectories of regional clusters (industrial districts or local systems) in order to depict feasible strategies to cope with globalization. First, same relevant stylized facts on the new structure of global market are presented in order to illustrate the new competitive framework the SME must face. Second, the concept of ‘complete productive process’ is introduced to characterize the special setting is necessary for the survival of the regional systems of SME. Said briefly, a local cluster needs to co-produce values, capabilities, institutions: its very identity. Since local systems are essentially ‘cognitive systems’, they need to go global not as single firm but as a system. To accomplish this difficult task they must resort to a collective and cooperative behaviour. The paper tries to fill this gap introducing the concept of ‘Collective Local Entrepreneurship’, a reference point, a device to whom anchor the strategic pragmatism necessary to regional clusters to cope with globalization. The renewal of the local ‘ecosystems’ within the international networks (at all different levels) appears to be a general objective. A strong public-private partnership emerges as a strategic commitment. In this perspective the paper tries to capture, as a conclusion, the potential dynamics of the four evolutionary trajectories, which the regional clusters are called upon to deal with.
    Keywords: Industrial clusters; innovation; knowledge; industrial policy; entrepreneurship.
    JEL: L22 L26 O25 O31
    Date: 2014–01–31
  18. By: Galina Besstremyannaya (CEFIR)
    Abstract: The paper assesses the impact of urbanization on the quality related outcomes of social health insurance systems in 85 Russian regions in 2000-2006. The results of parametric and kernel regressions reveal that controlling for regional income is a significant determinant of infant and under-five mortality. Arguably, the influence of urbanization on health outcomes is due to latent processes (e.g. the development of infrastructure). The methods of provider reimbursement are related to infant and under-five mortality, which offers suggestive evidence for selective contracting. Yet, insurer competition might increase urban inequity.
    Keywords: Social determinants of health, urbanization, social health insurance, infant mortality, provider payment, kernel regression, health care systems
    JEL: I10 I18 C14 C26
    Date: 2014–01
  19. By: Maria Teresa Balaguer-Coll (Department of Finance and Accounting, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain); María Isabel Brun-Martos (Department of Finance and Accounting, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain); Anabel Forte (Department of Economics, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain); Emili Tortosa-Ausina (IVIE @ Department of Economics, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effect of public spending on the probability of municipal reelection of Spanish local governments during the 2000–2007 period, using Bayesian techniques. The results indicate that, in general, increases in local government spending positively impact on the chances of reelection of local governments. Moreover, the capital expenditure over the whole period affects positively to the reelection probability, although the pre-electoral one is preferred, and the electorate rewards increases in current expenditures only in the period before elections. The use of Bayesian techniques is particularly interesting, since results are not boiled down to a summary effect such as the average; on the contrary, it shows exactly how a given covariate affects the probability of being reelected.
    Keywords: Bayesian, election, local government, opportunistic policies
    JEL: D60 H71 H72 H74 H75
    Date: 2014
  20. By: Andrés Rodríguez-Pose; Marco Di-Cataldo
    Abstract: Although it has frequently been argued that the quality of institutions affects the innovative potential of a territory, the link between institutions and innovation remains a black box. This paper aims to shed light on how institutions shape innovative capacity, by focusing on how regional government quality affects innovative performance in the regions of Europe. By exploiting new data on quality of government (QoG), we assess how government quality and its components (control of corruption, rule of law, government effectiveness and government accountability) shape patenting capacity across the regions of the European Union (EU). The results of the analysis – which are robust to controlling for the endogeneity of institutions – provide strong evidence of a causal link between the quality of local governments and the capacity of territories to generate innovation. In particular, low quality of government becomes a fundamental barrier for the innovative capacity of the periphery of the EU, strongly undermining any potential effect of any other measures aimed at promoting greater innovation. The results have important implications for the definition of innovation strategies in EU regions.
    Keywords: Institutions, Quality of government, Innovation, Regions, Europe
    Date: 2014–02
  21. By: Pietro Battiston; Luca Stanca
    Abstract: This paper investigates opinion dynamics and social influence in directed communication networks. We study the properties of a generalized boundedly rational model of opinion formation in which individuals aggregate the information they receive by using weights that are a function of their neighbors' indegree. We then present an experiment designed to test the predictions of the model. We find that both Bayesian updating and boundedly rational updating à la DeMarzo et al. (2003) are rejected by the data. Consistent with our theoretical predictions, the social influence of an agent is positively and significantly affected by the number of individuals she listens to. When forming their opinions, agents do take into account the structure of the communication network, although in a sub-optimal way.
    Keywords: Social Networks, Learning, Social In uence, Bounded Rationality
    JEL: D85 D83 A14 L14 Z13
    Date: 2014–01
  22. By: Flavio Cireno (Ministry of Social Development and Fight against Hunger, Brazil); Joana Silva (World Bank); Rafael Proença (World Bank)
    Abstract: Cireno et al. (2013) compare the school performance and progression of recipients and non-recipients of the Programa Bolsa Família (PBF) using administrative data obtained from the Ministry of Education (MEC), specifically the Sistema Presença, which monitors the school attendance of PBF recipients, and the Prova Brasil (results of individual pupils from the 5th to 9th years). This information is cross-referenced to administrative data from the Single Registry of the Ministry of Social Development and Fight against Hunger (MDS). Based on this data set, we analysed data on PBF recipients and non-recipients and assessed how it relates to performance in the Prova Brasil, failure rates, school drop-out rates and age-grade distortion rates.
    Keywords: Conditionalities, School Performance and Progression of Bolsa Família Programme Recipients
    Date: 2013–12
  23. By: Halkos, George; Papageorgiou, George
    Abstract: This paper computes and analyses for the first time environmental efficiencies in waste generation of 160 European regions in NUTS 2 level in seven European countries. For this reason different Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model formulations are used modeling the pollutant in the form of waste generation as a regular output and as a regular input. In the latter case we also use the notion of eco-efficiency. The empirical findings reveal environmental inefficiencies among the regions indicating the lack of a uniform regional environmental policy among the European countries. This finding is observed not only between countries but also between regions in the same country, implying the need for implementation of appropriate municipal environmental policies in waste management.
    Keywords: Environmental efficiency; Waste generation; European regions; Data Envelopment Analysis
    JEL: C6 O13 O52 Q50 Q53 Q56 R11
    Date: 2014–02–03
  24. By: Trude Lappegård; Sebastian Klüsener (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Daniele Vignoli (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany)
    Abstract: Childbearing within cohabitation has gained considerable ground in recent decades, but existing explanations for this development are not coherent. Proponents of the Second Demographic Transition framework interpret it rather as a pattern of progress driven by processes such as emancipation from traditional social norms. Others see rises in childbearing in cohabitation being related to a “pattern of disadvantage” as they are often concentrated among individuals faced with blocked opportunities. In this paper we argue that these inconsistencies might stem from a gap in knowledge how the relevance of existing theories varies dependent on whether we look at variation in family formation behavior across individuals, subnational regions or countries. To test this hypothesis we revisit the existing theories by analyzing harmonized survey data from 16 European countries using a three-level hierarchical model. Our results suggest that the Second Demographic Transition framework is particularly important to understanding variation between countries, while pattern of disadvantage hypotheses seem more relevant to understanding variation between individuals and subnational regions.
    Keywords: Europe, cohabitation, economic conditions, family formation, fertility, social norms
    JEL: J1 Z0
    Date: 2014–01
  25. By: Gulnara A. Minnigaleeva (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper discusses the strategy and success factors of development of age-friendly programs in the City of Tuymazy and Republic of Bashkortostan, Russian Federation, as a part of the Global Age-Friendly Project of World Health Organization. A research followed by a small grass root initiative led to development of a large regional program with 21 municipalities involved. The key success factors included: creating an agency to trigger, promote and implement age-friendly practices; establishing partnerships with government and other organizations in the area; building and maintaining media and public relations; building on culture; expanding and encouraging civic engagement; starting small; providing recognition and credit. Building awareness and partnerships is vital for advancing age-friendly programs. With multiple stakeholders involved it is important to maintain regular communications conduct information sessions and stick to the planning and reporting schedule. For continuity and sustainability of a large scale project it is essential to hire paid staff
    Keywords: Age-friendly Cities, Ageing Policies, Nongovernmental Organizations, Community Development, Social Policies, Nonprofit-Government Partnerships, Municipalities, Quality of Life, Welfare, Russia
    JEL: H75 I31
    Date: 2014

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