nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2013‒12‒29
fifty-five papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. SPATIAL CLUSTERING OF ARTISTS By Andersson , Åke E.; Andersson , David E.; Daghbashyan, Zara; Hårsman, Björn
  2. Urban Renewal after the Berlin Wall By Gabriel M. Ahfeldt; Wolfgang Maennig; Felix J. Richter
  3. Mortgage Market Concentration, Foreclosures and House Prices By Giovanni Favara
  4. How Urbanization Affect Employment and Social Interactions By Yasuhiro Sato; Yves Zenou
  5. UK House Prices: Convergence Clubs and Spillovers By Montagnoli, Alberto; Nagayasu, Jun
  6. The influence of ethnic segregation and school mobility in primary education on high school dropout: Evidence from regression discontinuity at a contextual tipping point By Ong, Cheng Boon; De Witte, Kristof
  7. Real State as Housing and as Financial Investment: A First Assessment for Argentina By Ricardo Bebczuk; Maria Lorena Garegnani
  8. Inside a bubble and crash: Evidence from the valuation of amenities By Ronan C. Lyons
  9. Can non-interest rate policies stabilise housing markets? Evidence from a panel of 57 economies By Kenneth N Kuttner; Ilhyock Shim
  10. An Investigation of Housing Affordability in the UK Regions By Alberto, Montagnoli; Jun, Nagayasu
  11. House Prices, Household Leverage, and Entrepreneurship By Stefano Corradin
  12. Class-size Reduction Policies and the Quality of Entering Teachers By Steven, Dieterle
  13. Occupational Mobility and Living in Deprived Neighbourhoods: Housing Tenure Differences in 'Neighbourhood Effects' By van Ham, Maarten; Manley, David
  14. Which Types of Relatedness Matter in Regional Growth? -industry, occupation and education By Sofia Wixe; Martin Andersson
  15. To rent or to buy – analysis of housing tenure choice determined by housing policy By Hanna Augustyniak; Joanna Waszczuk; Krzysztof Olszewski; Jacek Łaszek
  16. The Spatial Distribution of Creative Industries and Cultural Heritage in The Netherlands By Karima Kourtit; Jan Möhlmann; Peter Nijkamp; Jan Rouwendal
  17. The Role of Knowledge Variety and Intensity for Regional Innovative Capability By Tavassoli, Sam; Carbonara , Nunzia
  18. Why are educated and risk-loving persons more mobile across regions? By Bauernschuster, Stefan; Falck, Oliver; Heblich, Stephan; Suedekum, Jens
  19. What Drives the Urban Wage Premium? Evidence along the Wage Distribution By Matano, Alessia; Naticchioni, Paolo
  20. A World of Cities: The Causes and Consequences of Urbanization in Poorer Countries By Edward L. Glaeser
  21. Can Tax Breaks Beat Geography? Lessons from the French Enterprise Zone Experience By Briant, Anthony; Lafourcade, Miren; Schmutz, Benoît
  22. A combined people-freight accessibility approach for urban retailing and leisure planning at strategic level By Jesus Gonzalez-Feliu; Aurélie Mercier
  23. Renovations and the Repeat-Sales House Price Index By James Bugden
  24. Mitigating Long-run Health Effects of Drought: Evidence from South Africa By Taryn Dinkelman
  25. Personal indebtedness, community characteristics and theft crimes By McIntyre, Stuart G
  26. Daily House Price Indexes: Construction, Modeling, and Longer-Run Predictions By Tim Bollerslev; Andrew J. Patton; Wang Wenjing
  27. Housing in consumer’s theory By Łaszek, Jacek
  28. House Prices, Consumption, and Government Spending Shocks By Hashmat Khan; Abeer Reza
  29. A Two Stage Approach to Spatiotemporal Analysis with Strong and Weak Cross-Sectional Dependence By Natalia Bailey; Sean Holly; M. Hashem Pesaran
  30. Poverty, Richness, and Inequality: Evidence for Portugal Using a Housing Comfort Index By Fernandes, Cristina; Crespo, Nuno; Simoes, Nadia
  31. House Prices Drive Current Accounts: Evidence from Property Tax Variations By Geerolf, François; Grjebine, Thomas
  32. Long-Run Effects of Catholic Schooling on Wages By Nilhil Jha; Cain Polidano
  33. Determinants of entrepreneurship. Is it all about the individual or the region? By Backman, Mikaela; Karlsson, Charlie
  34. The Geography of Sustainability Transitions: A Literature Review By Hansen , Teis; Coenen , Lars
  35. U.S. Border Enforcement and Mexican Immigrant Location Choice By Bohn, Sarah; Pugatch, Todd
  36. Beyond Intermediates: The Role of Consumption and Commuting in the Construction of Local Input-Output Tables By Kristinn, Hermannsson
  37. Strategic interactions in public R&D across European countries: A spatial econometric analysis By Hakim Hammadou; Sonia Paty; Maria Savona
  38. "The Gender Question in Economic Education: Is it the Teacher or the Test?" By CARLOS J. ASARTA; ROGER B. BUTTERS; ERIC THOMPSON
  39. Night Lights and Regional GDP By Frank Bickenbach; Eckhardt Bode; Mareike Lange; Peter Nunnenkamp
  40. Physical Planning in Place-Making through Design and Image Building By Madureira , Ana Mafalda
  41. Mortgages and Monetary Policy By Carlos Garriga; Finn E. Kydland; Roman Sustek
  42. Incarceration and Crime: Evidence from California's Public Safety Realignment Reform By Lofstrom, Magnus; Raphael, Steven
  43. Social Effects in the Diffusion of Solar Photovoltaic Technology in the UK By Laura-Lucia Richter
  44. Regional income inequality in Italy in the long run (1871–2001). Patterns and determinants By Emanuele Felice
  45. Economic reforms and industrial policy in a panel of Chinese cities By Simon Alder; Lin Shao; Fabrizio Zilibotti
  46. A model for estimation of the demand for on-street parking By Madsen, Edith; Mulalic, Ismir; Pilegaard, Ninette
  47. The Role of Knowledge Heterogeneity on the  Innovative Capability of Industrial Districts By Carbonara , Nunzia; Tavassoli, Sam
  48. Migration Patterns for Medicaid Enrollees 2005-2007. By David K. Baugh; Shinu Verghese
  49. Direct Certification in the National School Lunch Program: State Implementation Progress, School Year 2012-2013. By Quinn Moore; Kevin Conway; Brandon Kyler; Andrew Gothro
  50. Might electricity consumption cause urbanization instead? Evidence from heterogeneous panel long-run causality tests. By Liddle, Brantley; Lung, Sidney
  51. Different Models for Regional Integration: Lessons from Total Factor Productivity in Europe By Lee, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Doyeon
  52. The Polish Wage Curve: Micro Panel Data Analysis Based on the Polish Labor Force Survey By Baltagi, Badi H.; Rokicki, Bartlomiej
  53. Changing Eating Habits - A Field Experiment in Primary Schools By Michèle, Belot; Jonathan, James; Patrick, Nolen
  54. Has urban economic growth in Post-Reform India been pro-poor between 1993-94 and 2009-10? By Tripathi, Sabyasachi
  55. Market Area Analysis of Ports in Japan By Hidekazu Itoh

  1. By: Andersson , Åke E. (Department of Economics, Finance and Statistics, Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden); Andersson , David E. (Department of Economics and Quantitative Methods, Nottingham University Business School, University of Nottingham, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China); Daghbashyan, Zara (Department of Industrial Economics and Management, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm); Hårsman, Björn (Department of Industrial Economics and Management, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm)
    Abstract: Surveys of artists’ location choices show that they disproportionately reside in large cities. This paper introduces a model that attempts to explain this urban preference. The model includes four factors: access to other artists, access to consumers, access to service jobs, and housing affordability. These four factors are combined in a spatial equilibrium model. Subsequently, the model is used for an econometric estimation of factor effects. The results show that access to other artists and local access to service jobs are important localization factors. Educated labor used as a proxy for consumer demand has a significant effect on artists' location choices.
    Keywords: location choice; artists; clustering; knowledge externalities
    JEL: R12 R14 R15 R23 Z11
    Date: 2013–12–16
  2. By: Gabriel M. Ahfeldt; Wolfgang Maennig; Felix J. Richter
    Abstract: Urban renewal areas are popular but empirically understudied spatial planning instruments designed to prevent urban decline and induce renewal. We use a quasi-experimental research design to study the effects of 22 renewal areas implemented in Berlin, Germany, to increase housing and living quality in the aftermath of the city's division during the Cold War period. Our results suggest that the policy has helped reduce (increase) the number of buildings in poor (good) condition by 25% (10%). Property prices increased at an annual rate of 0.4-1.7% according to our preferred estimates. Evidence is weak at best, however, for positive housing externalities. More generally, our findings indicate that the efficiency of program evaluations for place based -policies using quasi-experimental methods increases with the number of targeted areas and areas that provide the counterfactual
    Keywords: Urban, renewal, revitalization, redevelopment, hedonic regression, quasi-experiment
    JEL: D62 H23 R21 R31
    Date: 2013–12
  3. By: Giovanni Favara (Federal Reserve Board)
    Abstract: In mortgage markets with low concentration, lenders have an excessive propensity to foreclose defaulting mortgages. Though rational, foreclosure decisions by individual lenders may increase aggregate losses because they generate a pecuniary externality that causes house price drops and contagious strategic defaults. In concentrated markets, instead, lenders internalize the adverse effects of mortgage foreclosures on local house prices and are more inclined to renegotiate defaulting mortgages. Thus, negative income shocks do not trigger strategic defaults, foreclosure rates are lower, and house prices less volatile. We provide empirical evidence consistent with the theory using U.S. counties during the 2007-2009 housing market collapse.
    Date: 2013
  4. By: Yasuhiro Sato (Graduate School of Economics, Osaka University); Yves Zenou (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm University)
    Abstract: We develop a model where unemployed workers in the city can find a job either directly or through weak or strong ties. We show that, in denser areas, individuals choose to interact with more people and meet more random encounters (weak ties) than in sparsely populated areas. We also demonstrate that, for a low urbanization level, there is a unique steady-state equilibrium where workers do not interact with weak ties, while, for a high level of urbanization, there is a unique steady-state equilibrium with full social interactions. We show that these equilibria are usually not socially efficient when the urban population has an intermediate size because there are too few social interactions compared to the social optimum. Finally, even when social interactions are optimal, we show that there is over-urbanization in equilibrium.
    Keywords: Weak ties, strong ties, social interactions, urban economics, labor market
    JEL: J61 R14 R23
    Date: 2013–12
  5. By: Montagnoli, Alberto; Nagayasu, Jun
    Abstract: This paper uses the log t test to analyse the convergence of house prices across UK regions and the presence of spillovers e ects. We nd that UK house prices can be grouped into four clusters. Moreover we document the dynamics of the house price spillovers across regions.
    Keywords: Regional house prices, Heterogeneity, Convergence, Spillovers,
    Date: 2013
  6. By: Ong, Cheng Boon (UNU-MERIT / MGSoG); De Witte, Kristof (Top Institute for Evidence Based Education Research, Maastricht University, and Faculty of Economics and Business, KU Leuven)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the influence of ethnic composition and school mobility at the primary school-level on the propensity to drop out of high school. Using rich school and neighbourhood administrative data, we observe that (i) frequent school movers have a 2.6 times higher likelihood of early school leaving; (ii) the relationship between the share of non-western minority students (in primary school) and early school leaving is non-linear; and (iii) the influence of non-western peers on early school leaving is moderated by the student's ethnicity. Using polynomial regression and regression discontinuity methods, we observe a 'contextual tipping point' in ethnic peer composition that is linked to a discontinuous break in the predicted probability of school dropout. The conditional probability of school dropout increases by 5.4 per cent points to 8.0 per cent if 'school stable' native Dutch students are enrolled in primary schools that exceed the contextual tipping point of 77.7 per cent non-western minority students.
    Keywords: ethnic segregation, school mobility, school dropout, regression discontinuity, tipping point
    JEL: I21 I22 J18 R20
    Date: 2013–12–17
  7. By: Ricardo Bebczuk; Maria Lorena Garegnani
    Abstract: There exists a widespread perception that Argentine households channel a large share of their savings into real state. However, no hard evidence has produced to date to measure how important this saving behavior is for the determination of housing prices vis-à-vis the traditional housing motive to buy property. In this light, this paper assesses for the first time whether housing prices in Argentina are mostly driven by housing or by investment motives. To this end, we devised a simple empirical test taking the form of an Equilibrium Correction model of apartment prices in Buenos Aires City on four explanatory variables that separately capture the housing motive (affordability and mortgage loans) and the investment motive (private bank deposits and income). It is found that private bank deposits and income have strong long and short run effects on housing prices behavior. Affordability only shows a short run effect, while mortgage loans turn out to be non-significant. These findings suggest, in line with the popular view on this topic, that real state fulfills a prominent role as a financial investment in Argentina.
    Keywords: Housing demand; Financial investment; Equilibrium Correction model.
    JEL: C32 G21 R21
  8. By: Ronan C. Lyons (Department of Economics, Trinity College Dublin)
    Abstract: Housing markets and their cycles are central to understanding macroeconomic fl uctuations. As housing is an inherently spatial market, an understanding of the economics of location-specific amenities is needed. This paper examines this topic, using a rich dataset of 25 primary location-specific characteristics and over 1.2 million sales and rental listings in Ireland, from the peak of a real estate bubble in 2006 to 2012 when prices had fallen by more than half. It finds clear evidence that the price effects of amenities are greater than rent effects, something that may be explained by either tenant search thresholds or buyers' desire to "lock in" access to fixed-supply amenities. Buyer lock-in concerns would be most prevalent at the height of a bubble and thus would be associated with pro-cyclical amenity pricing. Instead there is signicant evidence that the relative price of amenities is counter-cyclical. This suggests the Irish housing market bubble was characterized by "property ladder" effects, rather than "lock-in" concerns.
    Keywords: Housing markets; amenity valuation; search costs; market cycles
    JEL: R31 E32 H4 D62 H23
    Date: 2013–12
  9. By: Kenneth N Kuttner; Ilhyock Shim
    Abstract: Using data from 57 countries spanning more than three decades, this paper investigates the effectiveness of nine non-interest rate policy tools, including macroprudential measures, in stabilising house prices and housing credit. In conventional panel regressions, housing credit growth is significantly affected by changes in the maximum debt-service-to-income (DSTI) ratio, the maximum loan-to-value ratio, limits on exposure to the housing sector and housing-related taxes. But only the DSTI ratio limit has a significant effect on housing credit growth when we use mean group and panel event study methods. Among the policies considered, a change in housing-related taxes is the only policy tool with a discernible impact on house price appreciation.
    Keywords: House prices, housing credit, financial stability, macroprudential policy
    Date: 2013–11
  10. By: Alberto, Montagnoli; Jun, Nagayasu
    Abstract: The housing market has been extensively investigated in the literature; however there is a lack of understanding of the fundamentals a ffecting housing affordability across UK regions as measured by the price to income ratio. The aim of this paper is twofold; fi rstly we calculate the a ffordability ratio based on individuals' incomes. Second we set o f to ask which socio-economic factors could a affect this ratio. The analysis finds a strong influence coming from the mortgage rate, the residents' age and academic quali fications. We also report a positive and signifi cant e ffect from foreign capital coming to the UK. Finally, we record a non-negligible degree of heterogeneity across the twelve regions.
    Keywords: House market, a ffordability index,, heterogeneity, panel data,
    Date: 2013
  11. By: Stefano Corradin (European Central Bank)
    Abstract: This paper estimates the causal effect of changes in home equity and household leverage on entrepreneurship and business ownership. Using a large individual-level survey dataset, we show that higher home equity increases the probability of transition into entrepreneurship, while higher household leverage has a significantly positive effect on business equity ownership. These effects are stronger in "hot" housing markets where agents expect house prices to keep increasing in the future. Our results persist when we use the topological elasticity of housing supply to generate variation in home equity that is orthogonal to entrepreneurial choice.
    Date: 2013
  12. By: Steven, Dieterle
    Abstract: State-wide class-size reduction (CSR) policies have typically failed to produce large achievement gains. One explanation is that the introduction of such policies forces schools to hire relatively low-quality teachers. This paper uses data from an anonymous state to explore whether teacher quality suff ered from the introduction of CSR. We find that it did, but not nearly enough to explain the small achievement effects of CSR. The combined fall in achievement due to hiring lower quality teachers and more inexperienced teachers is small relative to the unrealized gains. Furthermore, between-school diff erences in the quality of incoming teachers cannot explain the poor estimated CSR performance from previous quasi-experimental treatment-control comparisons.
    Date: 2013
  13. By: van Ham, Maarten (Delft University of Technology); Manley, David (University of Bristol)
    Abstract: The literature on neighbourhood effects suggests that the lack of social mobility of some groups has a spatial dimension. It is thought that those living in the most deprived neighbourhoods are the least likely to achieve upward mobility because of a range of negative neighbourhood effects. Most studies investigating such effects only identify correlations between individual outcomes and their residential environment and do not take into account that selection into neighbourhoods is a non-random mechanism. This paper investigates occupational mobility between 1991 and 2001 for those who were employed in Scotland in 1991 by using unique longitudinal data from Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS). We add to the existing literature by investigating neighbourhood effects on occupational mobility separately for social renters, private renters and home owners. We find that 'neighbourhood effects' are strongest for home owners, which is an unexpected finding. We argue that the correlation between characteristics of the residential environment and occupational mobility can be explained by selection effects: homeowners with the least resources, who are least likely to experience upward mobility, are also most likely to sort into the most deprived neighbourhoods. Social housing tenants experience less selective sorting across neighbourhoods as other than market forces are responsible for the neighbourhood sorting mechanism.
    Keywords: neighbourhood effects, occupational mobility, deprivation, selective mobility, longitudinal data
    JEL: I30 J60 R23
    Date: 2013–12
  14. By: Sofia Wixe; Martin Andersson
    Abstract: This paper provides a conceptual discussion of relatedness, which suggests a focus on individuals as a complement to firms and industries. The empirical relevance of the main arguments are tested by estimating the effects of related and unrelated variety in education and occupation among employees, as well as in industries, on regional growth. We show that for regional productivity growth, occupational and educational related variety matter over and above industry relatedness. This supports the conceptual discussion put forward. The potential of productive interactions between employees in a region is thus greater when there is related variety in their ‘knowledge base’. We also find that related variety in industries is positive for employment growth but negative for productivity growth.
    Keywords: Relatedness, variety, occupation, education, regional growth
    JEL: R12 R23 J24
    Date: 2013–12
  15. By: Hanna Augustyniak (Economic Institute, Narodowy Bank Polski); Joanna Waszczuk (Economic Institute, Narodowy Bank Polski); Krzysztof Olszewski (Economic Institute, Narodowy Bank Polski); Jacek Łaszek (Warsaw School of Economics (SGH) and Economic Institute, Narodowy Bank Polski)
    Abstract: The article discusses the relatively large share of owner-occupied housing in the housing stock in selected European countries with relatively low per capita income and describes the underlying causes of this phenomenon. We identify the economic implications of the growing number of owner-occupied housing and poorly developed rental market. The paper analyses home purchase or rental decisions and explains the correlations between housing availability, consumption and households’ savings, as well as housing policy. The way in which the development of the rental market can affect the situation in the property market is presented on the basis of a simple model.
    Keywords: housing demand; home ownership; housing policy; financial regulations;
    JEL: R21 R38 O18
    Date: 2013
  16. By: Karima Kourtit (VU University Amsterdam); Jan Möhlmann (VU University Amsterdam); Peter Nijkamp (VU University Amsterdam); Jan Rouwendal (VU University Amsterdam)
    Abstract: This paper aims to investigate whether the spatial pattern of creative industries in the Netherlands has a relationship with the presence of cultural heritage or, in a more general sense, cultural capital. It first shows how the creative sector developed between 1994 – 2009 in relation to other Dutch sectors. Additionally, it analyses the urban dimension of the creative industry by focussing on the four large urban agglomerations in the Netherlands. And finally, it addresses the question whether a relationship exists between the share of the creative industry and the stock of cultural heritage at the level of municipalities. The paper concludes that local cultural heritage provides a statistically significant contribution to the presence of the creative industry at a municipality level.
    Keywords: creative industries; cultural heritage; cultural industry
    JEL: R1 R12
    Date: 2013–12–09
  17. By: Tavassoli, Sam (Industrial Economics, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden and CIRCLE, Lund University, Sweden); Carbonara , Nunzia (Dept of Mechanical and Management Engineering, Politecnico di Bari, Italy)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the effect of variety and intensity of knowledge on the innovative capability of regions. Employing data for Swedish functional regions, the paper tests the role of the variety (related and unrelated) and intensity of (i) internal knowledge generated within the region and also (ii) external knowledge networks flowing into the region in explaining regional innovative capability, as measured by patent applications. The empirical analysis provides robust evidence that both the variety and intensity of internal and external knowledge matter for regions’ innovative capability. When it comes to variety, related knowledge variety plays a superior role
    Keywords: Knowledge intensity; Knowledge variety; Related variety; Unrelated variety; Internal knowledge; External knowledge; Patent applications; Functional regions
    JEL: F14 O32 R12
    Date: 2013–12–18
  18. By: Bauernschuster, Stefan; Falck, Oliver; Heblich, Stephan; Suedekum, Jens
    Abstract: Why are better educated and more risk-friendly persons more mobile across regions? To answer this question, we use micro data on internal migrants from the German Socio- Economic Panel (SOEP) 2000 - 2006 and merge this information with a unique proxy for region-pair-specific cultural distances across German regions constructed from historical local dialect patterns. Our findings indicate that risk-loving and skilled people are more mobile over longer distances because they are more willing to cross cultural boundaries and move to regions that are culturally different from their homes. Other types of distance-related migration costs cannot explain the lower distance sensitivity of educated and risk-loving individuals. --
    Keywords: Migration,Culture,Distance,Human Capital,Risk Attitudes
    JEL: J61 R23 D81
    Date: 2013
  19. By: Matano, Alessia (University of Barcelona); Naticchioni, Paolo (University of Rome 3)
    Abstract: This paper aims at disentangling the role played by different explanations on the urban wage premium along the wage distribution. We analyze the wage dynamics of migrants from lower to higher density areas in Italy, using quantile regressions and individual data. The results show that unskilled workers benefit more from a wage premium accruing over time, while skilled workers enjoy a wage premium when they migrate as well as a wage increase over time. Further, we find that for unskilled workers the wage growth over time is mainly due to human capital accumulation, consistently with the "learning" hypothesis, while for skilled workers it is the "coordination" hypothesis that matters.
    Keywords: urban wage premium, human capital, spatial sorting, wage distribution, quantile fixed effects
    JEL: J31 J61 R23
    Date: 2013–12
  20. By: Edward L. Glaeser
    Abstract: Historically, urban growth required enough development to grow and transport significant agricultural surpluses or a government effective enough to build an empire. But there has been an explosion of poor mega-cities over the last thirty years. A simple urban model illustrates that in closed economies, agricultural prosperity leads to more urbanization but that in an open economy, urbanization increases with agricultural desperation. The challenge of developing world mega-cities is that poverty and weak governance reduce the ability to address the negative externalities that come with density. This paper models the connection between urban size and institutional failure, and shows that urban anonymity causes institutions to break down. For large cities with weak governments, draconian policies may be the only way to curb negative externalities, suggesting a painful tradeoff between dictatorship and disorder. A simple model suggests that private provision of infrastructure to reduce negative externalities is less costly when city populations are low or institutions are strong, but that public provision can cost less in bigger cities.
    JEL: R0
    Date: 2013–12
  21. By: Briant, Anthony; Lafourcade, Miren; Schmutz, Benoît
    Abstract: This paper demonstrates that geography matters to the effectiveness of place-based policies, using the French enterprise zone program as a case study. Using a series of indicators of spatial isolation for treated and non treated neighborhoods, we show that geographical heterogeneity determines the ability of the program to impact firms’ settlements, job creation and earnings. In particular, whereas a focus on the average impact of the program would lead to the conclusion that it mostly succeeded in displacing pre-existing firms, a lower level of spatial isolation was a clear determinant of the decision to create new firms from scratch.
    Keywords: enterprise zones; spatial isolation; transportation accessibility; urban severance
    JEL: H25 R34 R38 R58
    Date: 2013–12
  22. By: Jesus Gonzalez-Feliu (LET - Laboratoire d'économie des transports - CNRS : UMR5593 - École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État [ENTPE] - Université Lumière - Lyon II); Aurélie Mercier (LET - Laboratoire d'économie des transports - CNRS : UMR5593 - École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État [ENTPE] - Université Lumière - Lyon II)
    Abstract: Although accessibility is usually known by urban planners, it is often applied to only people transport. However, retailing deployment needs to relate accessibility and attractiveness to both people transport (for shopping purpose) and goods transport (for delivery purpose to retailers). This paper proposes an exploratory gravity accessibility analysis applied to urban goods transport in Lyon, France, to support public decision choices in terms of retailing land use. First, an overview of accessibility used in urban goods transport is made to motivate the proposed framework. Second, the indicator is presented and justified. Third, the analysis is applied to the current situation for the urban area of Lyon, presenting and discussing the main results. Finally, recommendations to public authorities for their land-use policy assessment in terms of impacts on freight transport are proposed.
    Keywords: retailing land-use; urban goods transport; accessibility; attractiveness
    Date: 2013–10–08
  23. By: James Bugden (School Economics, La Trobe University)
    Abstract: In the standard repeat-sales method, the maintained assumption is that the quality does not change between a house?s two sale dates. This assumption has been called into question. In particular quality changes from renovations carried out between a house?s two sales are not accounted for in the repeat-sales method. In this paper, I construct a novel way to incorporate renovations into the repeat-sales regression that controls for changes in housing quality between sales. The attractiveness of the method I propose is that it is consistent with the underlying hedonic theory, yet maintains the parsimony and simplicity of the repeat-sales method. Moreover, I am able to specify the exact way that ren- ovations enter the repeat-sales regression thus avoiding econometric problems related to mis-speci?cation of the functional form.
    Keywords: Price Indices, Repeat-Sales, Renovations, Housing
    JEL: R31 C43
    Date: 2013
  24. By: Taryn Dinkelman
    Abstract: Drought is Africa’s primary natural disaster and a pervasive source of income risk for poor households. This paper documents the long-run health effects of early life exposure to drought and investigates an important source of heterogeneity in these effects. Combining birth cohort variation in South African Census data with cross-sectional and temporal drought variation, I estimate long-run health impacts of drought exposure among Africans confined to homelands during apartheid. Drought exposure in early childhood significantly raises later life male disability rates by 4% and reduces cohort size. Among a subset of homelands – the TBVC areas – disability effects are double and negative cohort effects are significantly larger. I show that differences in spatial mobility restrictions that influence the extent of migrant networks across TBVC and non-TBVC areas contribute to this heterogeneity. Placebo checks show no differential disability impacts of drought exposure across TBVC and non-TBVC areas after the repeal of migration restrictions. The results show that although drought has significant long-run effects on health human capital, migrant networks in poor economies provide one channel through which families mitigate these negative impacts of local environmental shock.
    JEL: I15 J61 N37 O15
    Date: 2013–12
  25. By: McIntyre, Stuart G
    Abstract: Becker (1968) and Stigler (1970) provide the germinal works for an economic analysis of crime, and their approach has been utilised to consider the response of crime rates to a range of economic, criminal and socioeconomic factors. Until recently however this did not extend to a consideration of the role of personal indebtedness in explaining the observed pattern of crime. This paper uses the Becker (1968) and Stigler (1970) framework, and extends to a fuller consideration of the relationship between economic hardship and theft crimes in an urban setting. The increase in personal debt in the past decade has been significant, which combined with the recent global recession, has led to a spike in personal insolvencies. In the context of the recent recession it is important to understand how increases in personal indebtedness may spillover into increases in social problems like crime. This paper uses data available at the neighbourhood level for London, UK on county court judgments (CCJ's) granted against residents in that neighbourhood, this is our measure of personal indebtedness, and examines the relationship between a range of community characteristics (economic, socio-economic, etc), including the number of CCJ's granted against residents, and the observed pattern of theft crimes for three successive years using spatial econometric methods. Our results confirm that theft crimes in London follow a spatial process, that personal indebtedness is positively associated with theft crimes in London, and that the covariates we have chosen are important in explaining the spatial variation in theft crimes. We identify a number of interesting results, for instance that there is variation in the impact of covariates across crime types, and that the covariates which are important in explaining the pattern of each crime type are largely stable across the three periods considered in this analysis.
    Keywords: Spatial econometrics, Theft crime, Personal debt default, Economic conditions,
    Date: 2013
  26. By: Tim Bollerslev; Andrew J. Patton; Wang Wenjing
    Abstract: We construct daily house price indexes for ten major U.S. metropolitan areas. Our calculations are based on a comprehensive database of several million residential property transactions and a standard repeat-sales method that closely mimics the procedure used in the construction of the popular monthly Case-Shiller house price indexes. Our new daily house price indexes exhibit similar characteristics to other daily asset prices, with mild autocorrelation and strong conditional heteroskedasticity, which are well described by a relatively simple multivariate GARCH type model. The sample and model-implied correlations across house price index returns are low at the daily frequency, but rise monotonically with the return horizon, and are all commensurate with existing empirical evidence for the existing monthly and quarterly house price series. A simple model of daily house price index returns produces forecasts of monthly house price changes that are superior to various alternative forecast procedures based on lower frequency data, underscoring the informational advantages of our new more finely sampled daily price series.
    Keywords: real estate, price indices, repeat sales index, high frequency data
    JEL: C43 C22 R30
    Date: 2013
  27. By: Łaszek, Jacek
    Abstract: This article aims to deepen the knowledge on consumer choices from the microeco-nomic perspective so as to better understand the behaviour of home buyers and its impact on the housing market. First, we provide an analysis of housing understood as a consumer and investment good. We then discuss its market value and cost. This analysis helps to better understand the housing choices of consumers. Finally, we take a detailed look at the choice of housing as a heterogeneous good. Taking into account the conclusions derived from the above points, we demonstrate the complex choice of the housing demand structure in the form of savings and consumption.
    Keywords: housing demand; heterogeneous goods, housing consumption and investment;
    JEL: D0 D83 D91 R21
    Date: 2013
  28. By: Hashmat Khan (Department of Economics, Carleton University); Abeer Reza (Bank of Canada)
    Abstract: We highlight that a broad class of DSGE models with housing and collateralized borrowing predict a fall in both house prices and consumption following positive government spending shocks. By contrast, we show that house prices and consumption in the U.S. rise persistently after identified positive government spending shocks, using a structural vector autoregression methodology and accounting for anticipated effects. We clarify that modifying preferences alone, as previously suggested in the literature, does not help in obtaining the correct house price response. We then show that only when monetary policy strongly accommodates government spending shocks, the impact effects on house prices and total consumption are positive. The model, however, does not deliver the persistent rise in house prices and consumption as evident in the data. Properly accounting for the empirical evidence on government spending shocks and house prices using a DSGE model, therefore, remains a significant challenge.
    Keywords: House prices; Consumption; Government spending
    JEL: E21 E44 E62
    Date: 2013–12–20
  29. By: Natalia Bailey; Sean Holly; M. Hashem Pesaran
    Abstract: An understanding of the spatial dimension of economic and social activity requires methods that can separate out the relationship between spatial units that is due to the effect of common factors from that which is purely spatial even in an abstract sense. The same applies to the empirical analysis of networks in general. We are able to distinguish between cross-sectional strong dependence and weak dependence. Strong dependence in turn suggests that there are common factors. We use cross unit averages to extract common factors and contrast this to a principal components approach widely used in the literature. We then use a multiple testing procedure to determine significant bilateral correlations (signifying connections) between spatial units and compare this to an approach that just uses distance to determine units that are neighbours. We apply these methods to real house price changes at the level of Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the USA, and estimate a heterogeneous spatiotemporal model for the de-factored real house price changes and obtain significant evidence of spatial connections, both positive and negative.
    Keywords: firm entry institutions, firm heterogeneity, foreign competition, trade margins
    JEL: C31 E02 F12 F14 F15 F55
    Date: 2013–12–20
  30. By: Fernandes, Cristina; Crespo, Nuno; Simoes, Nadia
    Abstract: With data for Portugal we propose an index of housing comfort based on the Household Budget Survey. This index covers housing and durable goods grouped in two dimensions: basic comfort and complementary comfort. Taking this index as starting point we make two contributions. First we quantify the phenomena of poverty, richness, and inequality in housing comfort. Second, using an ordered probit model, we evaluate the determinants of housing comfort in Portugal. The results show significant rates of poverty (12.41%) and richness (22.03%). The evidence sustains that the differences between households derive mainly from complementary comfort and to a lesser extent from basic comfort items. Inequality in housing comfort, measured by the Gini coefficient, stands at 0.1263. The econometric study reveals that the region of residence of the household and the educational level and labor market state of the household reference person are among the most critical determinant factors of housing comfort.
    Keywords: Wealth, Portugal, Poverty, Richness, Inequality, Housing comfort.
    JEL: I30 I32
    Date: 2013
  31. By: Geerolf, François; Grjebine, Thomas
    Abstract: We study the causal link between house prices and current accounts. Across time and countries, we find a very large and significant impact of house prices on current accounts. In order to rule out endogeneity concerns, we instrument house prices for a panel of countries, using property tax variations. A 10% instrumented appreciation in house prices leads to a deterioration in the current account of 1.7% of GDP. These results are very robust to the inclusion of the determinants of current accounts. Following a house price increase, private savings decrease, through wealth effects rather than consumer-finance based mechanisms, while non-residential investment rises through a relaxation of financing constraints for firms.
    Keywords: current accounts
    JEL: F32 F36 F40
    Date: 2013–12
  32. By: Nilhil Jha (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne); Cain Polidano (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne)
    Abstract: Previous studies have linked Catholic schooling to higher academic achievement. We add to the literature on Catholic schooling by examining its effect on long-term wage rates in Australia, independent of effects on academic achievement. Using panel data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics Australia (HILDA) Survey and fixed effects estimation, we find that during the prime-time of a career, wage rates for Catholic school graduates progress with labor market experience at a greater rate, on average, than wage rates for public school graduates. Importantly, we find no evidence to suggest that these benefits are peculiar to Catholic schooling, with similar benefits estimated for graduates of independent private schools. These findings suggest that private schooling may be important in not only fostering higher academic achievement, but also in better preparing students for a working life.
    Keywords: Catholic schooling, wages
    JEL: I20 J31
    Date: 2013–11
  33. By: Backman, Mikaela (Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS), Jönköping International Business School, & Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE)); Karlsson, Charlie (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Jönköping International Business School)
    Abstract: It is well established at whatever spatial level studied that economic actors exhibit a strong tendency to cluster. Despite this fact many explanations to entrepreneurship only considers the personal characteristics of entrepreneurs. This is certainly not a satisfactory state-of-the-art. It is obvious that the influence of spatial factors must be considered carefully. In this pa¬per we illustrate empirically that variations in the rate of entrepreneurship are explained not only in terms of characteristics of entrepreneurs, such as education, sector of employment, occupation, experience and income but also by the characteristics of i) the localities where they worked before they became entrepreneurs, ii) the localities where they currently started their firm and iii) the regions where these localities are situated. The characteristics of locali¬ties include size, population density, firm density and type of locality (metropolitan, urban, semi-rural or rural). The estimations use a multi-level approach to decipher the how much of the variance that can be explained by the different levels (individual, locality and region). The data used in this study is micro-level data for Sweden provided by Statistics Sweden.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; individual attributes; regional attributes; networks; micro-level; multi-level
    JEL: C21 J24 L26 R12
    Date: 2013–12–17
  34. By: Hansen , Teis (CIRCLE, Lund University); Coenen , Lars (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: This review covers the recent literature on the geography of sustainability transitions which has recently expanded considerably. The first aim of the review is to clarify the position of geographical thought in different contributions which have adopted an explicitly geographical perspective to understand key spatial issues of sustainability transitions. The second aim is to take stock with the theoretical and empirical insights which have been achieved in this literature and their internal coherence. The review synthesises insights following from both contextual analyses of particular settings in which transitions are embedded and studies of the geography of inter-organisational linkages of importance for transition processes. In this way, the review introduces researchers with an interest in the field of geography of sustainability transitions to the theoretical and empirical results obtained up to now and it highlight those areas which need further work
    Keywords: Geography; sustainability transitions; space; scale; context; proximity
    JEL: O13 O33 Q01 Q55 R11
    Date: 2013–12–18
  35. By: Bohn, Sarah (Public Policy Institute of California); Pugatch, Todd (Oregon State University)
    Abstract: We provide the first evidence on the causal effect of border enforcement on the full spatial distribution of Mexican immigrants to the United States. We address the endogeneity of border enforcement with an instrumental variables strategy based on administrative delays in budgetary allocations for border security. We find that 1,000 additional border patrol officers assigned to prevent unauthorized migrants from entering a state decreases that state's share of Mexican immigrants by 21.9%. Our estimates imply that border enforcement alone accounted for declines in the share of Mexican immigrants locating in California and Texas of 11 and 6 percentage points, respectively, over the period 1994-2011, with all other states experiencing gains or no change.
    Keywords: unauthorized immigration, border enforcement, Mexico, residential location choice
    JEL: J15 J61
    Date: 2013–12
  36. By: Kristinn, Hermannsson
    Abstract: It is a well-established fact in the literature on simulating Input-Output tables that mechanical methods for estimating intermediate trade lead to biased results where cross-hauling is underestimated and Type-I multipliers are overstated. Repeated findings to this effect have led to a primary emphasis on advocating the accurate estimation of intermediate trade flows. This paper reviews previous research and argues for a qualification of the consensus view: When simulating IO tables, construction approaches need to consider spill-over effects driven by wage and consumption flows. In particular, for the case of metropolitan economies, wage and consumption flows are important if accurate Type-II multipliers are to be obtained. This is demonstrated by constructing an interregional Input-Output table, which captures interdependencies between a city and its commuter belt, nested within the wider regional economy. In addition to identifying interdependencies caused by interregional intermediate purchases, data on subregional household incomes and commuter flows are used to identify interdependencies from wage payments and household consumption. The construction of the table is varied around a range of assumptions on intermediate trade and household consumption to capture the sensitivity of multipliers.
    Keywords: Input-Outpu, Location Quotients, Commuting, Consumption, Glasgow, Scotland,
    Date: 2013
  37. By: Hakim Hammadou (EQUIPPE, University of Lille, France); Sonia Paty (Universite de Lyon 2, Universite de Lyon, France); Maria Savona (SPRU, University of Sussex, UK)
    Keywords: Public R&D expenditures; Strategic interactions in public spending; National Systems of Innovation; private R&D; EU countries; spatial dynamic panel data
    JEL: H5
    Date: 2013–12
  38. By: CARLOS J. ASARTA (Department of Economics,University of Delaware); ROGER B. BUTTERS (Department of Economics,University of Nebraska); ERIC THOMPSON (Department of Economics,University of Nebraska)
    Abstract: One of the most persistent, and controversial, empirical regularities in economic education research is the significant difference between the test scores of male and female students. Several possible explanations for this “Gender Gap” are well documented in the literature. Using a large sample of test scores from the Test of Economic Literacy (TEL), we seek to determine whether gender role-model effects influence these differentials or whether it is the result of biased testing materials. A model employing an educational production function exhibits no evidence of role-model effects for our two student cohorts, although some students perform better when taught by female teachers. We find no evidence to support the claim that the testing instrument is biased, and conclude that the gender gap observed in our data is not attributable to the teacher or the test.
    Keywords: Gender, Education, Assessment, Economics, K-12
    JEL: J16 I21 A21
    Date: 2013
  39. By: Frank Bickenbach; Eckhardt Bode; Mareike Lange; Peter Nunnenkamp
    Abstract: Night lights could be a valuable proxy of economic activity at the subnational level when GDP data are lacking or of poor quality. Supplementing Henderson et al.’s (2012) analysis at the national level, we assess the stability of the elasticity of GDP with regard to night lights across regions in Brazil, India, the United States, and Western Europe. The relationship between regional GDP and night lights proves to be unstable, not only where regional GDP data may be unreliable but also where such data are of high quality. This suggests that night lights tend to be a poor proxy of regional economic activity
    Keywords: night lights, regional GDP data, stability of lights elasticities, emerging markets, developed economies
    JEL: R11 E01
    Date: 2013–12
  40. By: Madureira , Ana Mafalda (CIRCLE, Lund University, and Blekinge Tekniska Högskola Sweden)
    Abstract: This paper discusses how physical planning works with place-making through urban design to support image creation in a municipality that aims to create a new image for its city. Two large-scale urban development projects in Sweden are analysed. The analysis focuses on official plans and documentation, and expert interviews. It distinguishes how place-making by physical planning happens through aestheticisation, the design of physical environments for specific groups of inhabitants, and by granting visual and symbolic coherence to an area aligned with the new image for the city. The construction of this image is kick-started by a flagship development, but requires that subsequent projects support complementing urban visions, so as to grant coherence to the perceptions of the new image. In the process, heterogeneity, variation and conflict are tamed and urbanity is framed for “creative classes”. The paper thus highlights potential dilemmas that place-making might create for the practice of physical planning in urban development, and contributes to the discussions on the transformation of public sector urban planning in contexts of urban entrepreneurialism..
    Keywords: Physical planning; Place-making; Urban entrepreneurialism
    JEL: O21
    Date: 2013–12–18
  41. By: Carlos Garriga; Finn E. Kydland; Roman Sustek
    Abstract: Mortgage loans are a striking example of a persistent nominal rigidity. As a result, under incomplete markets, monetary policy affects decisions through the cost of new mortgage borrowing and the value of payments on outstanding debt. Observed debt levels and payment to income ratios suggest the role of such loans in monetary transmission may be important. A general equilibrium model is developed to address this question. The transmission is found to be stronger under adjustable- than fixed-rate contracts. The source of impulse also matters: persistent inflation shocks have larger effects than cyclical fluctuations in inflation and nominal interest rates
    JEL: E32 E52 G21 R21
    Date: 2013–12
  42. By: Lofstrom, Magnus (Public Policy Institute of California); Raphael, Steven (University of California, Berkeley)
    Abstract: We evaluate the effect of perhaps the largest exogenous decline in a state's incarceration rate in U.S. history on local crime rates. We assess the effects of a recent reform in California that caused a sharp and permanent reduction in the state's incarceration rate. We exploit the large variation across California counties in the effect of this reform on county-specific prison incarceration rates. We find very little evidence of an effect of the large reduction in incarceration rates on violent crime and evidence of modest effects on property crime, auto theft in particular. These effects are considerably smaller than existing estimates in the literature based on panel data for periods of time when the U.S. incarceration rate was considerably lower. We corroborate theses cross-county results with a synthetic-cohort analysis of state crime rates in California. This state-wide analysis confirms our findings from the county-level analysis. In conjunction with existing published research, the results from this study support the hypothesis of a crime-prison effect that diminishes with the scale of incarceration.
    Keywords: crime, incapacitation, incarceration, prison, realignment, reform
    JEL: K40 K42 H11
    Date: 2013–12
  43. By: Laura-Lucia Richter
    Abstract: The main research question in this paper is whether the installation rate of solar PV technology is affected by social spillovers from spatially close households. The installed base, defined as the cumulative number of solar PV installations within a neighbourhood by the end of a particular month, serves as a measure for the social effects of interest. Motivated by the technology-specific time lag between the decision to adopt a solar PV panel and the completion of the installation, the third lag of the installed base serves as main regressor of interest in the panel data model employed. The results suggest small, but positive and significant social effects that can be exploited to promote adoption: at the average installation rate of 0.7 installations per 1,000 owner-occupied households, one more solar PV panel in the postcode district increases the installation rate three months later by one percent. At the average number of 6,629 owner-occupied households within a postcode district, this implies an increase in the number of new installations in the neighbourhood by 0.005. Projects involving a high number of installations could hence promote diffusion. A major limitation of the model is that social spillovers are assumed to spread within defined neighbourhoods, only. Spatial econometric methods could allow for social effects across these borders.
    Keywords: social effects, installed base, product adoption, diffusion, solar PV technology, micro-generation
    JEL: C19 D12 D83 Q21 Q42
    Date: 2013–07–12
  44. By: Emanuele Felice (Departament d'Economia i d'Història Econòmica, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona)
    Abstract: The chapter presents up-to-date estimates of Italy’s regional GDP, with the present borders, in ten-year benchmarks from 1871 to 2001, and proposes a new interpretative hypothesis based on long-lasting socio-institutional differences. The inverted U-shape of income inequality is confirmed: rising divergence until the midtwentieth century, then convergence. However, the latter was limited to the centrenorth: Italy was divided into three parts by the time regional inequality peaked, in 1951, and appears to have been split into two halves by 2001. As a consequence of the falling back of the south, from 1871 to 2001 we record s-divergence across Italy’s regions, i.e. an increase in dispersion, and sluggish ß-convergence. Geographical factors and the market size played a minor role: against them are both the evidence that most of the differences in GDP are due to employment rather than to productivity and the observed GDP patterns of many regions. The gradual converging of regional GDPs towards two equilibria instead follows social and institutional differences - in the political and economic institutions and in the levels of human and social capital - which originated in pre-unification states and did not die (but in part even increased) in postunification Italy.
    Keywords: Italy, regional convergence, long-run economic growth, geography, institutions
    JEL: O11 O18 O52 N13 N14
    Date: 2013–12
  45. By: Simon Alder; Lin Shao; Fabrizio Zilibotti
    Abstract: The process of economic reforms launched in 1978, and gradually extended until current days, has catapulted China into a stellar growth trajectory that has proven highly resilient. In this paper, we estimate the effect on economic development of China’s industrial policy, in particular, the establishment of Special Economic Zones (SEZ), a salient economic reform. We use data from a panel of 276 Chinese cities and prefectures from 1988 to 2010. Our difference-in-difference estimator exploits the variation in the establishment of SEZ across time and space. We find that the establishment of a state-level SEZ is associated with an increase in the level of GDP of about 20%, but not with a permanently steeper growth path. This finding is confirmed with alternative specifications and in a sub-sample of inland provinces, where the selection of cities to host the zones was based on administrative criteria. Decomposing the effect of SEZ on GDP into different channels shows that this worked mainly through the accumulation of physical capital, although there is some evidence of increasing productivity and human capital investments. Using light intensity as an alternative measure for economic activity confirms the positive effects of SEZ.
    Keywords: China, economic growth, economic reforms, difference-in-difference, industrial policy, investments, satellite light, total factor productivity, Special Economic Zones
    JEL: H72 L52 O25 O38 O53 P21 R11
    Date: 2013–11
  46. By: Madsen, Edith; Mulalic, Ismir; Pilegaard, Ninette
    Abstract: This paper presents a stylized econometric model for the demand for on-street parking with focus on estimation of the elasticity of demand with respect to the full cost of parking. The full cost of parking consists of a parking fee and the cost of searching for a vacant parking space (cruising). The cost of cruising is usually unobserved. Ignoring this issue implies a downward bias of the elasticity of demand with respect to the total cost of parking since the cost of cruising depends on the number of cars parked. We also demonstrate that, even when the cost of cruising is unobserved, the demand elasticity can be identified by extending the econometric model to include the spatial interaction between the parking facilities. We illustrate the model with on-street parking data from Copenhagen and find indications of a somewhat greater parking demand elasticity than is usually reported in the literature.
    Keywords: on-street parking, demand estimation.
    JEL: C51 L91 R41
    Date: 2013–12–16
  47. By: Carbonara , Nunzia (Dept of Mechanical and Management Engineering, Politecnico di Bari, Italy); Tavassoli, Sam (Industrial Economics, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden and CIRCLE, Lund University, Sweden)
    Abstract: This paper seeks to contribute to the ongoing debate concerning the role of heterogeneity for the innovative capability of industrial districts. With this aim, using a knowledge-based approach, the paper focuses on different sources of industrial district knowledge heterogeneity and studies how the different level of heterogeneity affects the innovative capability of industrial districts. Four theoretical hypotheses concerning the effects of knowledge and knowledge heterogeneity on the Industrial District innovativeness are formulated. To test the hypotheses, an econometric analysis on 32 Italian District Provinces is applied. Empirical results show that knowledge heterogeneity matter for increasing the innovative capability of industrial districts.
    Keywords: Industrial district; innovative capability; knowledge heterogeneity
    JEL: F14 O32 R12
    Date: 2013–12–18
  48. By: David K. Baugh; Shinu Verghese
    Keywords: MAX, Medicaid, Eligibility, Enrollment, Migration, Moving
    JEL: I
    Date: 2013–12–30
  49. By: Quinn Moore; Kevin Conway; Brandon Kyler; Andrew Gothro
    Keywords: Direct Certification, NSLP, National School Lunch Program, State Implementation Progress
    JEL: I0 I1
    Date: 2013–11–30
  50. By: Liddle, Brantley; Lung, Sidney
    Abstract: The share of a population living in urban areas, or urbanization, is both an important demographic, socio-economic phenomenon and a popular explanatory variable in macro-level models of energy and electricity consumption and their resulting carbon emissions. Indeed, there is a substantial, growing subset of the global modeling literature that seeks to link urbanization with energy and electricity consumption, as well as with carbon emissions. This paper aims to inform both modelers and model consumers about the appropriateness of establishing such a link by examining the nature of long-run causality between electricity consumption and urbanization using heterogeneous panel methods and data from 105 countries spanning 1971-2009. In addition, the analysis of the time series properties of urbanization has implications both for modelers and for understanding the urbanization phenomenon. We consider total, industrial, and residential aggregations of electricity consumption per capita, three income-based panels, and three geography-based panels for non-OECD countries. The panel unit root, cointegration, and causality tests used account for cross-sectional dependence, nonstationarity, and heterogeneity—all of which are present in the data set. We cannot reject pervasively Granger causality in the urbanization to electricity consumption direction. However, the causality finding that is both the strongest and most similar across the various panels is that of long-run Granger causality from electricity consumption to urbanization. In other words, the employment and quality of life opportunities that access to electricity afford likely encourage migration to cities, and thus, cause urbanization. Also, nearly all countries’ urbanization series contained structural breaks, and the most recent post-break annual change rates suggested that nearly all countries’ rates of urbanization change were slowing. Lastly, future modeling work on energy consumption or carbon emissions should consider subnational scales of analysis, and focus on measures of urban density or urban form rather than national urbanization levels.
    Keywords: urbanization and electricity; long-run panel Granger causality; panel unit roots; cross-sectional dependence; panel heterogeneity
    JEL: Q4
    Date: 2013
  51. By: Lee, Jeong Yeon (Asian Development Bank Institute); Kim, Doyeon (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: The European experience offers three possible models for regional integration: a free trade arrangement, a single market, and a common currency area. This paper examines the effect of regional integration on total factor productivity to assess the long-run growth implications of each model. The findings suggest that joining a regional grouping changes the way participating economies grow. Of the three models, the free trade arrangement is found to be the most effective in promoting intra-regional dependence on R&D spillovers. The other two models are associated with largely negative windfall effects on total factor productivity.
    Keywords: regional integration; economic growth; total factor productivity
    JEL: F02 O31 O40
    Date: 2013–12–16
  52. By: Baltagi, Badi H. (Syracuse University); Rokicki, Bartlomiej (Warsaw University)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the Polish wage curve using individual data from the Polish Labor Force Survey (LFS) at the 16 NUTS2 regions over the period 1999 - 2010. This survey does not gather information on wages of self-employed or paid family workers. After excluding the unemployed, inactive and missing observations, we are left with over 102,924 observations. We find evidence in favor of the Polish wage curve with an unemployment elasticity of -0.06. We also find that males in Poland are significantly more responsive to local unemployment rates (-0.08) than their female counterparts (-0.04). Moreover, if the lagged unemployment rate is used as an instrument for current unemployment rate, we find that the unemployment elasticity increases substantially for less experienced and temporary workers.
    Keywords: wage curve, fixed effects, regional labor markets
    JEL: C26 J30 J60
    Date: 2013–12
  53. By: Michèle, Belot; Jonathan, James; Patrick, Nolen
    Abstract: We conduct a field experiment in 31 primary schools in England to test whether incentives to eat fruit and vegetables help children develop healthier habits. The intervention consists of rewarding children with stickers and little gifts for a period of four weeks for choosing a portion of fruit and vegetables at lunch. We compare the effects of two incentive schemes (competition and piece rate) on choices and consumption over the course of the intervention as well as once the incentives are removed and six months later. We find that the intervention had positive effects, but the effects vary substantially according to age and gender. However, we find little evidence of sustained long term effects, except for the children from poorer socio‐economic backgrounds.
    Keywords: Incentives, Health, Habits, Child nutrition, Field experiment,
    Date: 2013
  54. By: Tripathi, Sabyasachi
    Abstract: This paper empirically tests whether urban economic growth has been pro-poor in the post reform India. The study uses data from the three rounds of quinquennial household survey of urban monthly per capita consumer expenditure (MPCE) carried out by National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) in 1993-94, 2004-05, and 2009-10. To empirically measure the propoorness of urban economic growth, this paper uses the framework developed by Duclos (2004) and also follows the methodological approach of Araar, Duclos, Audet, and Makdissi (2007, 2009). The study finds strong statistical evidence that India‘s urban economic growth has been absolutely pro-poor but relatively anti-poor between periods 1993-94 - 2004-05, 2004-05 - 2009- 10, and 1993-94 - 2009-10. The results indicate that more effective distributive policies are urgently required for urban poverty reduction in India.
    Keywords: Pro-poor Growth, Poverty, Inequality, Urban India
    JEL: D63 D64 R11
    Date: 2013–12
  55. By: Hidekazu Itoh (Kwansei Gakuin University - Kwansei gakuin University)
    Abstract: This study reviews port cargo flow structure on hinterland/foreland (i.e. shippers' port use propensity) in Japan to examine port policy. Port service areas are analysed by conducting fuzzy clustering for 47 prefectures in Japan. Container cargo flow survey data from 1988 to 2008 at five-year intervals are used. Clusters of shippers' use of ports are discussed; that is, shippers' groups are determined using export/import handling cargo data on the basis of weight, cross section, and time series. The share changes of major Japanese ports for handling international container cargo indicated that only the Kobe port experienced significant volume reduction. However, port market areas have greatly changed in the last 20 years. Major ports lost shares of neighbouring market areas and gained small shares of remote areas (i.e. from regional ports). In contrast, regional ports groups expanded their market area beyond their regional areas. These structural changes to port market area differ between export and import cargo. For example, the Kyushu ports group lost significant market area in the Kyushu region on import cargo, but expanded them on export cargo in some prefectures in the Kyushu region.
    Keywords: port market area, port use propensity, hinterland/foreland, fuzzy clustering, Japan
    Date: 2013–07–04

This nep-ure issue is ©2013 by Steve Ross. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.