nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2013‒11‒29
fifty-six papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. Assessing house prices in Germany: Evidence from an estimated stock-flow model using regional data By Kajuth, Florian; Knetsch, Thomas A.; Pinkwart, Nicolas
  2. Retention of and Access to Effective Teachers in DC Public Schools. By Elias Walsh
  3. Does medieval trade still matter? Historical trade centers, agglomeration and contemporary economic development By Wahl, Fabian
  4. City age and city size By Giesen, Kristian; Suedekum, Jens
  5. Regional Equilibrium Unemployment Theory at the Age of the Internet By Vanessa LUTGEN; Bruno VAN DER LINDEN
  6. Labour Market Dynamics in Spanish Regions: Evaluating Asymmetries in Troublesome Times By Sala, Hector; Trivín, Pedro
  7. Ethnic segregation and heterogeneous preferences of homeowners for housing and neighbourhood characteristics. Evidence from the Netherlands. By Ong, C.; De Witte, Kristof
  8. Transfer Incentives for High-Performing Teachers: Results from a Multisite Randomized Experiment. By Steven Glazerman; Ali Protik; Bing-ru Teh; Julie Bruch; Jeffrey Max
  9. An ex-post CBA for the Stockholm Metro By Börjesson, Maria; Jonsson, Daniel; Lundberg , Mattias
  10. Political determinants and impact analysis of using a cable system as a complement to an urban transport system By Escobar-Garcia, Diego; Garcia-Orozco, Francisco; Cadena-Gaitan, Carlos
  11. Treating schools to a new administration. The impact of South Africa’s 2005 provincial boundary changes on school performance By Martin Gustafsson; Stephen Taylor
  12. Spillover effects of studying with immigrant students; a quantile regression approach By Asako Ohinata; Jan C. van Ours
  13. Technological spillovers and industrial growth in Chinese regions By Wang, Lili; Meijers, Huub; Szirmai, Eddy
  14. Summarizing large spatial datasets: Spatial principal components and spatial canonical correlation By Bhupathiraju, Samyukta; Verspagen, Bart; Ziesemer, Thomas
  15. The Long Term Effects of Forcible Assimilation Policy: The Case of Indian Boarding Schools By Donna Feir
  16. People, Places and Public Policy: Some Simple Welfare Economics of Local Economic Development Programs By Patrick Kline; Enrico Moretti
  17. School inputs and skills: Complementarity and self-productivity By Cheti Nicoletti; Birgitta Rabe
  18. Basking in the glory of schools: school characteristics and the self-concept of students in mathematics By Ksenia Tenisheva; Daniel Alexandrov
  19. Migration Determinants at a Local Level By Arauzo Carod, Josep Maria; Liviano Solís, Daniel
  20. Spatial Exploration of Age Distribution in Catalan Municipalities By Liviano Solís, Daniel; Arauzo Carod, Josep Maria
  21. Business environment, economic agglomeration and job creation around the world By Clarke, George; Li, Yue; Xu, Lixin Colin
  22. Hedonic model with discrete consumer heterogeneity and horizontal differentiated housing By Masha Maslianskaia-Pautrel
  23. Analyzing the impact of labor market integration By Keisuke Kawata; Kentaro Nakajima; Yasuhiro Sato
  24. How social ties affect peer-group effects: a case of university students By Oleg Poldin; Dilyara Valeeva; Maria Yudkevich
  25. How big is the impact of infrastructure on trade? Evidence from meta-analysis By Celbis, Mehmet Güney; Nijkamp, Peter; Poot, Jacques
  26. Plant productivity dynamics and private and public R&D spillovers: Technological, geographic and relational proximity. By Belderbos, Rene; Ikeuchi, Kenta; Fukao, Kyoji; Kim, Young Gak; Kwon, Hyeog Ug
  27. How Does a Value-Added Model Compare to the Colorado Growth Model? By Elias Walsh; Eric Isenberg
  28. Does Higher Education Enhance Migration? By Haapanen, Mika; Böckerman, Petri
  29. Elementary School Data Issues: Implications for Research. By Eric Isenberg; Bing-ru Teh; Elias Walsh
  30. Smart Cities and a Stochastic Frontier Analysis: A Comparison among European Cities By Mundula, Luigi; Auci, Sabrina
  31. Voter Turnout and the Size of Government By Aggeborn, Linuz
  32. Positive Impacts of Playworks on Students' Healthy Behaviors: Findings from a Randomized Controlled Trial. By Jane Fortson
  33. Are clusters more resilient in crises? Evidence from French exporters in 2008-2009 By Philippe MARTIN; Thierry MAYER; Florian MAYNERIS
  34. Fostering and Measuring Skills: Interventions That Improve Character and Cognition By Heckman, James J.; Kautz, Tim
  35. "High"-School: The Relationship between Early Marijuana Use and Educational Outcomes By Deborah A. Cobb-Clark; Sonja C. Kassenboehmer; Trinh Le; Duncan McVicar; Rong Zhang
  36. The efficiency of enterprise zone programs Some conflicting results? By Florian MAYNERIS; Loriane PY
  37. Indonesia : Urban Poverty and Program Review By World Bank
  38. The Effectiveness of Secondary Math Teachers from Teach For America and the Teaching Fellows Programs. By Melissa Clark; Hanley chiang; Sheena McConnell; Tim Silva; Kathy Sonnenfeld; Anastasia Erbe; Mike Puma
  39. Cultural diversity and plant-level productivity By Trax, Michaela; Brunow, Stephan; Suedekum, Jens
  40. Interactive knowledge exchanges under complex social relations: A simulation model By Cowan, Robin; Kamath, Anant
  41. Technological competencies and firm performance: Analyzing the importance of internal and external competencies By Grillitsch, Markus; Nilsson , Magnus
  42. Improved Lagrange Multiplier Tests in Spatial Autoregressions By Peter M Robinson; Francesca Rossi
  43. Regional systems of innovation in the Arab region By Nour, Samia Satti Osman Mohamed
  44. Improved Tests for Spatial Correlation By Peter M Robinson; Francesca Rossi
  45. The Teacher-Student Data Link Project: First-Year Implementation. By Kristin Hallgren; Cassie Pickens Jewell; Celina Kamler
  46. Human capital, creative class and regional economic performance: A dynamic panel analysis By Esubalew Alehegn; Silvia Sacchetti; Ermanno Tortia
  47. Escaping from a human capital trap? Italy’s regions and the move to centralized primary schooling, 1861 - 1936 By Gabriele Cappelli
  48. Restaurant wars By Dakshina G. De Silva; C F Elliott; R Simmons
  49. On the determinants of local government debt: Does one size fit all? By Maria Teresa Balaguer-Coll; Diego Prior; Emili Tortosa-Ausina
  50. Redistribution at the Local Level: The Case of Public Childcare in Italy By Alessandro Bucciol; Laura Cavalli; Paolo Pertile; Veronica Polin; Alessandro Sommacal
  51. Residential satisfaction in place market segments By Kirill Rozhkov
  53. Equity as a Factor in Surface Transportation By Altshuler, Alan
  54. Parking Reform Made Easy By Willson, Richard
  55. The geography of income inequality in Italy By Paolo Acciari; Sauro Mocetti
  56. An Urban Legend?! Power Rationing, Fertility and its Effects on Mothers By Thiemo Fetzer; Oliver Pardo; Amar Shanghavi

  1. By: Kajuth, Florian; Knetsch, Thomas A.; Pinkwart, Nicolas
    Abstract: Based on a stock-flow model of the housing market we estimate the relationship of house prices and explanatory macroeconomic variables in Germany using a regional panel dataset for 402 administrative districts. Using regional data exploits the variation across local housing markets and overcomes time-series data limitations. We take the regression residuals as a measure for deviations of actual house prices from their fundamental equilibrium level. The model specification allows to aggregate district-level residuals for various regional subsets. During the past two years for Germany as a whole single-family house prices appeared to be in line with their fundamental equilibrium level, whereas apartment prices significantly exceeded the fundamental price suggested by the model. The overvaluation of apartments is higher in towns and cities and most pronounced in the major seven cities, while single-family houses in cities appear to be only moderately above their fundamental levels. --
    Keywords: fundamental house prices,regional house prices,housing demand and supply
    JEL: E32 R21 R31
    Date: 2013
  2. By: Elias Walsh
    Keywords: Teacher Retention, DC Public Schools, Education
    JEL: I
    Date: 2013–11–09
  3. By: Wahl, Fabian
    Abstract: This study empirically establishes a link between medieval trade, agglomeration and contemporary regional development in ten European countries. It documents a statistically and economically significant positive relationship between prominent involvement in medieval trade and commercial activities and regional economic development today. Further empirical analyses show that medieval trade positively influenced city development both during the medieval period and in the long run; they also reveal a robust connection between medieval city growth and contemporary regional agglomeration and industry concentration. A mediation analysis indicates that a long-lasting effect of medieval trade on contemporary regional development is indeed transmitted via its effect on agglomeration and industry concentration. This research thus highlights the long-run importance of medieval trade in shaping the development of cities as well as the contemporary spatial distribution of economic activity throughout Europe. The path-dependent regional development processes caused by medieval commercial activities help explain the observed persistent regional development differences across the European countries considered. --
    Keywords: Medieval Trade,Agglomeration,Regional Economic Development,Path-Dependency,New Economic Geography
    JEL: F14 N73 N93 O18 R12
    Date: 2013
  4. By: Giesen, Kristian; Suedekum, Jens
    Abstract: There has been vast interest in the distribution of city sizes in an economy, but this research has largely neglected that cities also differ along another fundamental dimension: age. Using novel data on the foundation dates of more than 10,000 American cities, we find that older cities in the US tend to be larger than younger ones. To take this nexus between city age and city size into account, we introduce endogenous city creation into a dynamic economic model of an urban system. The city size distribution that emerges in our economy delivers a close fit to different types of US city size data. This evidence can resolve several recent debates, and build a bridge between different views in the literature on city size distributions. --
    Keywords: Zipf's law,Gibrat's law,city size distributions,city age,DPLN distribution
    JEL: R11 R12
    Date: 2013
  5. By: Vanessa LUTGEN (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES)); Bruno VAN DER LINDEN (FNRS, UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES), IZA and CESifo)
    Abstract: This paper studies equilibrium unemployment in a two-region economy where homogeneous workers and jobs are free to move and the housing market clears. Because of the Internet, searching for a job in another region without first migrating there is nowadays much simpler than in the past. Search-matching externalities are amplified by this possibility and by the fact that some workers can simultaneously receive a job offer from each region. The rest of the framework builds on Moretti (2011). We study numerically the impacts of various local shocks in a stylized US economy. Contrary to what could be expected, increasing matching effectiveness in the other region yields growing regional unemployment rates. We characterize the optimal allocation and conclude that the Hosios condition is not sufficient to restore efficiency. In the efficient allocation, the regional unemployment rates are much lower than in the decentralized economy and nobody searches in the other region.
    Keywords: Matching; Search then move; Spatial equilibrium; Regional economics; Unemployment differentials
    JEL: J61 J64 R13 R23
    Date: 2013–10–28
  6. By: Sala, Hector (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona); Trivín, Pedro (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona)
    Abstract: The Spanish labour market disproportionately booms in expansions and bursts in recessions; meanwhile, its regions' relative position persists: those with the highest unemployment rates in 1996 were also in the worse position in 2012. To examine this twofold feature, we apply Blanchard and Katz's (1992) methodology and evaluate how the Spanish labour market reacts to regional employment shocks in a variety of cases. Shock responses are channelled via changes in unemployment, labour market participation, and spatial mobility. Our results provide evidence of asymmetric responses across business cycle phases (1996-2007 and 2008-2012). While changes in participation rates are the main adjustment mechanism in expansion, unemployment and spatial mobility become the central ones in recession. We also provide evidence of real wage rigidities in both periods, but strong asymmetries in house prices, which are sticky in recession but notably reactive in expansion. We conclude with a cluster analysis showing that high and low unemployment regions have similar responses in the short-run while, in the long-run, the former are more reactive in terms of spatial mobility. Overall, we provide evidence that people are more willing to migrate when a regional shock occurs in relatively worse economic contexts.
    Keywords: employment, unemployment, regional labour markets, Spain
    JEL: J20 E24 J61 R11
    Date: 2013–11
  7. By: Ong, C.; De Witte, Kristof
    Date: 2013
  8. By: Steven Glazerman; Ali Protik; Bing-ru Teh; Julie Bruch; Jeffrey Max
    Keywords: TTI, Teacher Transfer Incentives, High-Performing Schools, Multisite Randomized Experiment
    JEL: I
    Date: 2013–11–07
  9. By: Börjesson, Maria (KTH); Jonsson, Daniel (KTH); Lundberg , Mattias (KTH)
    Abstract: This paper performs an ex-post cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of the Metro system in Stockholm built in the 1950s. We find that the Metro was socially beneficial and that the largest benefit of the Metro is its capacity, making it possible for many people to travel to and from the city center. We also assess the significance of the wider economic impacts due to labor market distortions and the land-use effects in the case of the Stockholm Metro. The wider economic impacts increase the consumer surplus with 48%, and the yearly income in the county with 3.7%. A land-use model is used to analyze how the land-use has been influenced by the Metro over the years 1956-2006. The land-use model indicates that the historical centralized planning of housing along transit corridors has developed the region into a more dispersed region than if it had been planned according to the present inhabitants’ preferences. Moreover, we find that the land-use impacts from the investment itself seem to be small, but the land-use impacts from planning accompanying the decision to build the metro have been substantial.
    Keywords: Ex-post evaluation; Cost-benefit analysis; CBA; Appraisal; Land-Use modeling; Metro; Wider economic impacts; Rail investments
    JEL: C25 D61 J22 R41 R42
    Date: 2013–11–20
  10. By: Escobar-Garcia, Diego (Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Colombia); Garcia-Orozco, Francisco (Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Colombia); Cadena-Gaitan, Carlos (UNU-MERIT/MGSoG)
    Abstract: The construction of cable-propelled systems, fully integrated to urban public transport systems, has become an innovative trend in recent years for some Colombian cities. The most prominent examples include the cities of Medellin and Manizales, where these infrastructures have been built and running for several years. In fact, it should be highlighted that Manizales hosted, during the first half of the 20th century, the longest cable system in the world, which operated for nearly 40 years and was a cornerstone in the development of the region. This historic cable enabled the transportation of large shipments of coffee to the Magdalena River, to be exported across the world. In this paper we provide a thorough assessment of the current cable system in Manizales. We evaluate its costs in a comparative perspective against the impacts generated by the system, via time savings in daily travel. Due to its full integration with the public transport system, we also provide empirical evidence of the related passenger demand variability. Upon the implementation of the first cable system, additional similar projects have been initiated. We provide insights into a cable system designed and being built for recreation, and describe the planning process for the most recent public transport cable system being designed. All these systems are evaluated from the supply-side, measuring accessibility, from the demand-side, modelling the complete urban transport system for the city, and from the political side, describing the determinants of the decisions that ultimately stimulate the implementation of these projects in sustainable mobility. Based on the results obtained, we offer conclusions regarding the actual competitiveness of cable-propelled systems, arguing that they should be considered valid urban passenger transport solutions.
    Keywords: Accessibility, impact of transport modes, cable propelled system, transport innovation
    JEL: O33 R41 R42
    Date: 2013
  11. By: Martin Gustafsson (Department of Economics, University of Stellenbosch); Stephen Taylor (Department of Basic Education)
    Abstract: The impact that the systems and practices of the education authorities, as opposed to the management at the school, have on school performance is usually difficult to quantify. Provincial boundary changes occurring in South Africa after 2005 appear to create a quasi-experiment that lends itself to impact evaluation techniques. A total of 158 secondary schools experienced a switch in provincial administration and at least two types of switches, one from Limpopo to Mpumalanga and another from North West to Gauteng, were sufficiently common to make statistically significant trends a possibility. Various indicators of Grade 12 mathematics performance are explored which take into account passes at a low threshold, achievement at an excellent level and selection into mathematics. Models used and critically discussed include a simple value-added school production function, a difference-in-difference model and a fixed effects panel data analysis. The data include annual Grade 12 examination results for the period 2005 to 2012, which allow for lags in the impact to be explored. Spatial analysis is used to identify schools located close to switching schools to establish whether student commuting effects could have confounded the results. A key finding is that schools moving from North West to Gauteng appear to enjoy benefits associated with the treatment especially as far as the production of students excelling in mathematics is concerned. However, a strong caveat is that the finding depends heavily on just 2012 values and that 2013 examination data will have to be included in the analysis before the study can inform policy recommendations. A brief comparison of institutional aspects of the education authorities in the two provinces North West and Gauteng, drawing from publicly available plans and reports, is provided to help interpret the differences seen in the data. The paper ends with some tentative conclusions in relation to how governance responsibilities in education can be optimally spread across the national, provincial and local levels in South Africa.
    Keywords: South Africa, school improvement, mathematics education, impact evaluation
    JEL: C21 H11 I21
    Date: 2013
  12. By: Asako Ohinata (University of Leicester); Jan C. van Ours (Tilburg University)
    Abstract: We analyze how the share of immigrant children in the classroom affects the educational attainment of native Dutch children in terms of their language and math performance at the end of primary school. Our paper studies the spill-over effects at different parts of the test score distribution of native Dutch students using a quantile regression approach. We find no evidence of negative spillover effects of the classroom presence of immigrant children at the median of the test score distribution. In addition, there is no indication that these spill-over effects are present at other parts of the distribution.
    Keywords: Immigrant children, Peer effects, Educational attainment
    JEL: I21 J15
    Date: 2013–11
  13. By: Wang, Lili (UNU-MERIT/MGSoG); Meijers, Huub (School of Business and Economics, Maastricht University); Szirmai, Eddy (UNU-MERIT/MGSoG)
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the role of interregional technology spillovers in the process of industrial growth in Chinese regions in the period 1990-2005. Inflows of FDI increased rapidly from 1990 till 1998, slowing down thereafter. Domestic R&D investment accelerated after 1998. Regional industrial growth benefits from both interregional R&D spillovers and after 1998 from international FDI spillovers. However, in contrast to R&D spillovers, FDI spillovers contribute conditionally, mainly in areas where local R&D stocks are high enough. Interestingly, indirect interregional FDI spillover effects are negative. Foreign investment in one region attracts resources from regions with less FDI, thus having a negative influence on growth of industrial output in neighbouring regions.
    Keywords: Technological spillovers, Interregional spillovers, R&D, Foreign direct investment, Industrial growth, Regional growth, Chinese industry
    JEL: F43 O14 O33 R11 R12
    Date: 2013
  14. By: Bhupathiraju, Samyukta (UNU-MERIT/MGSoG); Verspagen, Bart (UNU-MERIT/MGSoG, and Maastricht University); Ziesemer, Thomas (UNU-MERIT/MGSoG, and Maastricht University)
    Abstract: We propose a method for spatial principal components analysis that has two important advantages over the method that Wartenberg (1985) proposed. The first advantage is that, contrary to Wartenberg's method, our method has a clear and exact interpretation: it produces a summary measure (component) that itself has maximum spatial correlation. Second, an easy and intuitive link can be made to canonical correlation analysis. Our spatial canonical correlation analysis produces summary measures of two datasets (e.g., each measuring a different phenomenon), and these summary measures maximize the spatial correlation between themselves. This provides an alternative weighting scheme as compared to spatial principal components analysis. We provide example applications of the methods and show that our variant of spatial canonical correlation analysis may produce rather different results than spatial principal components analysis using Wartenberg's method. We also illustrate how spatial canonical correlation analysis may produce different results than spatial principal components analysis.
    Keywords: spatial principal components analysis, spatial canonical correlation analysis, spatial econometrics, Moran coefficients, spatial concentration
    JEL: R10 R15 C10
    Date: 2013
  15. By: Donna Feir (Department of Economics, University of Victoria)
    Abstract: For decades in North America and Australia, indigenous children were forcibly removed from their homes and placed in boarding schools. These schools had the stated goal of cultural assimilation and are perceived to have been an educational failure. I offer the first causal evidence on the long run effects of these schools using the interaction of changes in Canadian national policy and variation in the power of the Catholic Church. I find that the average boarding school had substantial effects on both cultural and economic assimilation. However, I find suggestive evidence that highly abusive schools only affected cultural connection.
    Keywords: Assimilation, Boarding Schools, North American Indians
    JEL: I20 I24 I25 I28 I38 J01 J15 J18 Z00
    Date: 2013–11–19
  16. By: Patrick Kline; Enrico Moretti
    Abstract: Most countries exhibit large and persistent geographical differences in wages, income and unemployment rates. A growing class of "place based" policies attempt to address these differences through public investments and subsidies that target disadvantaged neighborhoods, cities or regions. Place based policies have the potential to profoundly affect the location of economic activity, along with the wages, employment, and industry mix of communities. These programs are widespread in the U.S. and throughout the world, but have only recently been studied closely by economists. We consider the following questions: Who benefits from place based interventions? Do the national benefits outweigh the costs? What sorts of interventions are most likely to be effective?To study these questions, we develop a simple spatial equilibrium model designed to characterize the welfare effects of place based policies on the local and the national economy. Using this model, we critically evaluate the economic rationales for place based policies and assess the latest evidence on their effects. We conclude with some lessons for policy and directions for future research.
    JEL: H1 H2 H3 H4 H7 J0 R0
    Date: 2013–11
  17. By: Cheti Nicoletti; Birgitta Rabe
    Abstract: Using administrative data on schools in England, we estimate an education production model of cognitive skills at the end of secondary school. We provide empirical evidence of self-productivity of skills and of complementarity between secondary school inputs and skills at the end of primary school. Our inference relies on idiosyncratic variation in school expenditure and child fixed effect estimation that controls for the endogeneity of past skills. The persistence in cognitive ability is 0.22 and the return to school expenditure is three times higher for students at the top of the past attainment distribution than for those at the bottom.
    Keywords: Education production function, test scores, school quality, complementarity
    JEL: I22 I24
    Date: 2013–11
  18. By: Ksenia Tenisheva (National Research University Higher School of Economics in Saint Petersburg, Sociology Edu-cation and Science Laboratory, Researcher); Daniel Alexandrov (National Research University Higher School of Economics in Saint Petersburg, Sociology Edu-cation and Science Laboratory, Director)
    Abstract: Our study contributes to the debate on the interaction between academic context, individual achievement, and mathematics self-concept in schools. It is known that high-achieving peers positively influence the individual achievements of all group members. At the same time, it has been shown that the self-concept of students tends to decrease in the presence of high-achieving peers, as individuals make relative judgments of their abilities vis-a-vis their peer group. Stu-dents with mediocre performance feel more confident about their abilities in a group of poor achievers (the Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect – BFLPE – introduced by H.Marsh). On the other hand, perceived prestige of a school enhances the self-confidence of students as people tend to “bask in the glory” of others (the “reflected glory” effect). We test the two effects mentioned above – BFLPE and the “reflected glory” effect. We hypothesize that both effects are stronger in highly stratified education systems where there is a stronger explicit difference between high- and poor-achieving students, and schools are ranked by their prestige. We compare the interac-tion of academic context, achievement, and mathematics self-concept in stratified (Russia and Czech Republic) and non-stratified (Norway and Sweden) educational systems on the TIMSS’07 database using HLM7. Our study shows: 1) an absence of BFLPE for all four countries, i.e. the achievement of others is positively related to an individual’s math self-concept; 2) strong support for the “reflected glory” effect is found only in stratified educational systems; and 3) greater pos-itive effect on self-concept for students with poor achievement who study in the best schools.
    Keywords: BFLPE, “reflected glory” effect, stratification, multilevel modeling, environmental effects.
    JEL: I21 C12
    Date: 2013
  19. By: Arauzo Carod, Josep Maria; Liviano Solís, Daniel
    Abstract: This paper is about determinants of migration at a local level. We use data from Catalan municipalities in order to understand what explains migration patterns trying to identify whether they are main explained by amenities or economic characteristics. We distinguish three typologies of migration in terms of distance travelled: short-distance, short-medium-distance and medium-distance and we hypothesize whether migration determinants vary across these groups. Our results show that, effectively, there are some noticeable differences, suggest that spatial issues must be taken into account and provide some insights for future research. Keywords: population dynamics, spatial econometrics. JEL codes: C21, R0, R23
    Keywords: Migració interna, Dinàmica de grups, Geografia humana -- Models matemàtics, 314 - Demografia, 32 - Política,
    Date: 2013
  20. By: Liviano Solís, Daniel; Arauzo Carod, Josep Maria
    Abstract: This paper takes the shelf and digs into the complex population’s age structure of Catalan municipalities for the year 2009. Catalonia is a very heterogeneous territory, and age pyramids vary considerably across different areas of the territory, existing geographical factors shaping municipalities’ age distributions. By means of spatial statistics methodologies, this piece of research tries to assess which spatial factors determine the location, scale and shape of local distributions. The results show that there exist different distributional patterns across the geography according to specific local determinants. Keywords: Spatial Models. JEL Classification: C21.
    Keywords: Anàlisi espacial (Estadística), 314 - Demografia, 32 - Política,
    Date: 2013
  21. By: Clarke, George; Li, Yue; Xu, Lixin Colin
    Abstract: Based on a comprehensive worldwide firm survey, this paper looks at how the business environment and economic agglomeration affect job creation, holding constant conventional determinants of firm growth, such as firm ownership, size, and age. The analysis finds that economic agglomeration is most important, especially modern telecommunications, access to export markets, concentration of economic activity in large cities, and capacity agglomeration (the concentration of large firms in a city). Although the business environment affects job growth less than agglomeration does, some elements of the business environment matter, such as labor flexibility, unionization, and local skill levels. There is strong heterogeneity in job creation across firm size and age.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics&Policies,Microfinance,Labor Markets,Private Participation in Infrastructure,Banks&Banking Reform
    Date: 2013–11–01
  22. By: Masha Maslianskaia-Pautrel
    Abstract: This paper investigates how the hedonic equilibrium is modified when discrete consumer heterogeneity with horizontal differentiated housing supply is assumed. Our results are threefold. First, discrete consumer heterogeneity leads to a segmentation of the hedonic price function at equilibrium and the discontinuity of the implicit price of environmental quality on the borders of the segments. Second, we demonstrate that horizontal differentiation can lead to a partial sorting of consumer demand for housing attributes at hedonic equilibrium. Finally, we show that according to model specification, the groupwise heterogeneity with horizontal differentiation can lead to modification of welfare assessment related to changes in environmental quality.
    Keywords: Hedonic model, Discrete consumer heterogeneity, Horizontal differentiation, Locational choice
    JEL: R21 R31 Q51
    Date: 2013–10–09
  23. By: Keisuke Kawata (Hiroshima University); Kentaro Nakajima (Tohoku University); Yasuhiro Sato (Osaka University)
    Abstract: We develop a competitive search model involving multiple regions, geographically mobile work- ers, and moving costs. Equilibrium mobility patterns are analyzed and characterized, indicating that shocks to a particular region, such as a productivity shock, can propagate to other regions through workersf mobility. Moreover, equilibrium mobility patterns are not efficient due to the existence of moving costs, implying that they affect social welfare not only because they are costs but also be- cause they distort equilibrium allocation. By calibrating our framework to Japanese regional data, we demonstrate that the impacts of eliminating migration costs are comparable to those of a 30% productivity increase.
    Keywords: geographical mobility of workers, competitive job search, moving costs, labor market inte- gration
    JEL: J61 J64 R23
    Date: 2013–11
  24. By: Oleg Poldin (Associate professor, National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE), 25/12 Bolshaja Pecherskaja Ulitsa, Nizhny Novgorod 603155, Russia, researcher at Center for Institutional Studies, HSE.); Dilyara Valeeva (Junior researcher, Center for Institutional Studies, HSE.); Maria Yudkevich ((Corresponding Author) Director, Center for Institutional Studies, HSE, Russia, 101000 Moscow, Myasnitskaya street, 20.)
    Abstract: Among the key issues of peer effects estimation is the correct identification of relevant peers. In this study, we explore how the individual performance of university students is influenced by characteristics and achievements of peers from individual’s social network. The analysis uses data from two directed networks: a network of friends and a network of study partners for thirdyear students at a top-tier Russian university. Data on network ties in randomly formed student groups enables us to address the endogeneity problem and disentangle the influence of peers’ performance from the effect that a peer’s background has on students. We show that both the GPA of peers and their ability measures are significant in the estimated regression model. A onepoint increase in the average GPA of peers is associated with an increase in an individual student’s own GPA of approximately one fourth. The regression on the data from the network of study partners has slightly greater explanatory power than the analys is based on data from the network of friends. No effect from a student’s classmates is found in the model that assumes group interactions occur between group mates
    Keywords: peer effects, higher education, student achievement, social networks.
    JEL: I23 I24
    Date: 2013
  25. By: Celbis, Mehmet Güney (UNU-MERIT / MGSoG, Maastricht University); Nijkamp, Peter (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam); Poot, Jacques (University of Waikato)
    Abstract: Low levels of infrastructure quality and quantity can create trade impediments through increased transport costs. Since the late 1990s an increasing number of trade studies have taken infrastructure into account. The purpose of the present paper is to quantify the importance of infrastructure for trade by means of meta-analysis and meta-regression techniques that synthesize various studies. The type of infrastructure that we focus on is mainly public infrastructure in transportation and communication. We examine the impact of infrastructure on trade by means of estimates obtained from 36 primary studies that yielded 542 infrastructure elasticities of trade. We explicitly take into account that infrastructure can be measured in various ways and that its impact depends on the location of the infrastructure. We estimate several meta-regression models that control for observed heterogeneity in terms of variation across different methodologies, infrastructure types, geographical areas and their economic features, model specifications, and publication characteristics. Additionally, random effects account for between-study unspecified heterogeneity, while publication bias is explicitly addressed by means of the Hedges model. After controlling for all these issues we find that a 1 per cent increase in own infrastructure increases exports by about 0.6 per cent and imports by about 0.3 per cent. Such elasticities are generally larger for developing countries, land infrastructure, IV or panel data estimation, and macro-level analyses. They also depend on the inclusion or exclusion of various common covariates in trade regressions
    Keywords: Infrastructure, Trade, Transportation, Communication, Public Capital, Public Goods, Meta-Analysis
    JEL: O18 F10 H54 R53 C10 F19 R49
    Date: 2013
  26. By: Belderbos, Rene; Ikeuchi, Kenta; Fukao, Kyoji; Kim, Young Gak; Kwon, Hyeog Ug
    Abstract: We examine the effects of R&D spillovers on total factor productivity in a large panel of Japanese manufacturing plants matched with R&D survey data (1987-2007). We simultaneously examine the role of public (university and research institutions) and private (firm) R&D spillovers, and examine the differential effects due to technological, geographic and relational (buyer-supplier) proximity. Estimating dynamic long difference models and allowing for gradual convergence in TFP and geographic decay in spillover effects, we find positive effects of technologically proximate private R&D stocks, which decay in distance and become negligible at around 500 kilometres. In addition to knowledge spillovers from technologically proximate R&D stocks, ‘relational’ spillovers from buyer and supplier R&D stocks exert positive effects on TFP growth that are similar in magnitude. The elasticity of TFP is highest for public R&D (corrected for industrial relevance), in particular for plants operated by R&D conducting firms. We do not find evidence of geographic decay in the impact of public and relational spillovers. Over time, declining R&D spillovers appear to be responsible for a substantial part of the decline in the rate of TFP growth. The exit of proximate plants operated by R&D intensive firms plays a notable role in this process and is an important phenomenon in major industrial agglomerations such as Tokyo, Osaka, and Kanagawa.
    Keywords: R&D; spillovers; plant productivity; distance;
    Date: 2013–11
  27. By: Elias Walsh; Eric Isenberg
    Keywords: Colorado, Value-Added, Growth, Model, Education
    JEL: I
    Date: 2013–10–30
  28. By: Haapanen, Mika (Jyväskylä University School of Business and Economics); Böckerman, Petri (Labour Institute for Economic Research)
    Abstract: This paper examines the causal impact of education on within-country migration. A major higher education reform took place in Finland in the 1990s. It gradually transformed former vocational colleges into polytechnics and expanded higher education to all regions. The reform created exogenous variation in the regional supply of higher education. Using the reform as an instrument, our estimation results show that polytechnic graduates have a 7.5 (13.7) percentage points higher migration probability during a three-year (six-year) follow-up period than vocational college graduates.
    Keywords: migration, higher education, vocational education, polytechnic education, school reform
    JEL: J10 J61 I20 R23
    Date: 2013–11
  29. By: Eric Isenberg; Bing-ru Teh; Elias Walsh
    Keywords: Elementary, School , Data Issues, Implications for Research, Education
    Date: 2013–10–30
  30. By: Mundula, Luigi; Auci, Sabrina
    Abstract: The level of interest in smart cities is growing, and the recent literature on this topic (Holland, 2008; Caragliu et al., 2009, Nijkamp et al., 2011 and Lombardi et al., 2012) identifies a number of factors that characterise a city as smart, such as economic development, environment, human capital, culture and leisure, and e-governance. Thus, the smartness concept is strictly linked to urban efficiency in a multifaceted way. A seminal research for European policy conducted by Giffinger et al. (2007) defines a smart city on the basis of several intangible indicators, such as a smart economy, smart mobility, smart environment, smart people, smart living, and smart governance. These authors’ methodology results in a ranking of 70 European cities in terms of their smartness. Our aim is to verify the robustness of these smartness indicators in explaining the efficiency of the same sample of European cities. Using the concept of output maximising, we built a stochastic frontier function in terms of urban productivity and/or urban efficiency by assessing the economic distance that separates cities from being smart. Moreover, this approach, which distinguishes between inputs and efficiency, allows us to incorporate the smartness indicators into the systematic component within the error term. As a result, our conclusions identify a different ranking of European cities with respect to Giffinger et al. (2007)’s analysis, thereby highlighting the need for a better and more robust definition of these indicators.
    Keywords: smart cities, stochastic frontier, technical inefficiency
    JEL: D63 Q01 R11
    Date: 2013–11–10
  31. By: Aggeborn, Linuz (Department of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the causal link between voter turnout and policy outcomes related to the size of government. Tax rate and public expenditures are the focal policy outcomes in this study. To capture the causal mechanism, Swedish and Finnish municipal data are used and a constitutional change in Sweden in 1970 is applied as an instrument for voter turnout in local elections. In 1970, Sweden moved from having separate election days for different levels of government, among other things, to a system with a single election day for political elections, thus reducing the cost associated with voting. This constitutional reform increased voter turnout in local elections in Sweden. The overall conclusion of this paper is that higher voter turnout yields higher municipal taxes and larger local public expenditures. Second, there is some evidence that higher turnout decreases the vote share for right-wing parties.
    Keywords: Voter Turnout; Size of government; Sweden; Finland; Local public finance; Instrumental variable regression
    JEL: D70 D72 H39
    Date: 2013–11–05
  32. By: Jane Fortson
    Keywords: Playworks, Student Healthy Behaviors, Randomized Controlled Trial, Education
    JEL: I
    Date: 2013–11–08
  33. By: Philippe MARTIN (Sciences-Po and CEPR); Thierry MAYER (Sciences-Po, CEPII and CEPR); Florian MAYNERIS (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches économiques et sociales (IRES) andCenter for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE))
    Abstract: Clusters have already been extensively shown to favor firm-level economic performance (productivity, exports, innovation etc.). However, little is known about the capacity of firms in clusters to resist economic shocks. In this paper, we analyze whether firms that agglomerate in clusters and firms that have been selected to benefit from the \competitiveness cluster" industrial policy, implemented in France in 2005, have performed better on export markets during the recent economic turmoil. We show that, on average, both agglomeration and the cluster policy are associated with a higher survival probability of firms on export markets, and conditioning on survival, a higher growth rate of their exports. However, these effects are not stronger during the 2008-2009 crisis; if anything, the opposite is true. We then show that this weaker resilience of competitiveness cluster firms is probably due to the fact that firms in clusters are more dependent on the fate of the \leader", i.e. the largest exporter in the cluster.
    Keywords: Clusters, Competitiveness clusters, Exports, Crisis, Resilience
    JEL: F1 R10 R11 R12 R15
    Date: 2013–09–19
  34. By: Heckman, James J. (University of Chicago); Kautz, Tim (University of Chicago)
    Abstract: This paper reviews the recent literature on measuring and boosting cognitive and noncognitive skills. The literature establishes that achievement tests do not adequately capture character skills – personality traits, goals, motivations, and preferences that are valued in the labor market, in school, and in many other domains. Their predictive power rivals that of cognitive skills. Reliable measures of character have been developed. All measures of character and cognition are measures of performance on some task. In order to reliably estimate skills from tasks, it is necessary to standardize for incentives, effort, and other skills when measuring any particular skill. Character is a skill, not a trait. At any age, character skills are stable across different tasks, but skills can change over the life cycle. Character is shaped by families, schools, and social environments. Skill development is a dynamic process, in which the early years lay the foundation for successful investment in later years. High-quality early childhood and elementary school programs improve character skills in a lasting and cost-effective way. Many of them beneficially affect later-life outcomes without improving cognition. There are fewer long-term evaluations of adolescent interventions, but workplace-based programs that teach character skills are promising. The common feature of successful interventions across all stages of the life cycle through adulthood is that they promote attachment and provide a secure base for exploration and learning for the child. Successful interventions emulate the mentoring environments offered by successful families.
    Keywords: character, achievement tests, skill development, interventions
    JEL: D01 I20 J24
    Date: 2013–11
  35. By: Deborah A. Cobb-Clark (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne; and Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)); Sonja C. Kassenboehmer (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne; and Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)); Trinh Le (Department of Economics, The University of Waikato); Duncan McVicar (Queen's University Management School, Queen's University, Belfast); Rong Zhang (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne)
    Abstract: We use unique survey data linked to nearly a decade of administrative welfare data to examine the relationship between early marijuana use (at age 14 or younger) and young people’s educational outcomes. We find evidence that early marijuana use is related to educational penalties that are compounded by high-intensity use and are larger for young people living in families with a history of welfare receipt. The relationships between marijuana use and both high school completion and achieving a university entrance score appear to stem from selectivity into the use of marijuana. In contrast, early marijuana use is associated with significantly lower university entrance score for those who obtain one and we provide evidence that this effect is unlikely to be driven by selection. Collectively, these findings point to a more nuanced view of the relationship between adolescent marijuana use and educational outcomes than is suggested by the existing literature.
    Keywords: Marijuana, cannabis, educational achievement, educational attainment, socio-economic disadvantage, welfare receipt
    JEL: I20 I24 I10 I18
    Date: 2013–10
  36. By: Florian MAYNERIS (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches économiques et sociales (IRES) and Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE)); Loriane PY (Banque de France et Institut des politiques publiques)
    Abstract: We propose in this paper a critical review of the literature on urban enterprise zones. The results that emerge from the papers published over the last twenty years vary a lot across studies. Several explanations can account for these apparently conflicting results. Technical tools and empirical methods for the evaluation of such policies have greatly improved since the 1990’s. Moreover, it seems that the efficiency of urban enterprise zones depends on zone characteristics, industrial sector and policy design. Further research in this area should try to better take into account general equilibrium effects, in order to provide a more accurate measure of the welfare implications of these policies.
    Keywords: Enterprise Zones, Littérature Review, Heterogeneous Effects
    JEL: R12 R38 R58
    Date: 2013–11–14
  37. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Health Monitoring and Evaluation Urban Development - Urban Poverty Poverty Reduction - Rural Poverty Reduction Urban Development - City Development Strategies Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Regional Economic Development Health, Nutrition and Population
    Date: 2013–01
  38. By: Melissa Clark; Hanley chiang; Sheena McConnell; Tim Silva; Kathy Sonnenfeld; Anastasia Erbe; Mike Puma
    Keywords: TFA, Teach For America, Teaching Fellows, Secondary Math Teachers
    JEL: I
    Date: 2013–11–08
  39. By: Trax, Michaela; Brunow, Stephan; Suedekum, Jens
    Abstract: Using comprehensive data for German establishments, we estimate plant-evel production functions to analyze if cultural diversity affects total factor productivity. We distinguish diversity in the establishment's workforce and in the aggregate labor force of the region where the plant is located. We find that a larger share of foreign workers . either in the establishment or in the region . does not affect productivity. However, there are spillovers associated with the degree of fractionalization of the group of foreigners into different nationalities. The aggregate level is, quantitatively, at least as important for productivity as the workforce composition inside the establishment. --
    Keywords: cultural diversity,plant-level productivity,knowledge spillovers
    JEL: R23 J21 J31
    Date: 2013
  40. By: Cowan, Robin (UNU-MERIT/MGSoG, Maastricht University, and BETA, Universite de Strassbourg); Kamath, Anant (UNU-MERIT/MGSoG)
    Abstract: This is a model of knowledge exchange by means of informal interaction among agents in low technology clusters. What this study seeks to do is to colour these exchanges by placing them in an environment of complex social relations, test whether the small-world network structure is the most favourable for knowledge exchanges in these environments, and explore the influence of social relations and network distance. These enquiries are the contribution of this model to the existing series of studies on efficient network structures for knowledge diffusion. We find that the small-world network structure may not be the best network structure for highest and most equitable knowledge distribution, when knowledge exchanges are undertaken in environments of complex social relations. Also, we confirm that the highest and most equitable knowledge distribution is achieved when there is perfect affinity among the agents.
    Keywords: Knowledge Exchanges, Small-Worlds, Social Networks, Complex Social Relations
    JEL: D85 O33 Z13
    Date: 2013
  41. By: Grillitsch, Markus (CIRCLE, Lund University); Nilsson , Magnus (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: In this paper, we analyze the relationship between technological competencies (TC) and firm performance. Theoretically, the importance of TC is well established and widely accepted. Therefore, it is surprising that a number of empirical studies have been unable to confirm a substantial positive relationship between TC and firm performance. We identify two major reasons for this: [i] affected by the availability and choice of indicators existing studies are often biased towards large firms; and [ii] they frequently do not consider both internal and potential access to firm-external TC. This paper discusses conceptually the interplay between firm-internal and firm-external TC as well as the mediating effect of firm size. These relationships are then analyzed empirically using Swedish micro data on 15,682 firms in 290 Swedish municipalities. Novel indicators based on occupational statistics are combined with measures of time-distance accessibility to study internal and external TC. The results provide evidence for a positive relationship between firm growth and TC. In particular, the combination of firm-internal and firm-external competencies seems to be conducive for growth. Lastly, our study suggests that firm size is an important factor to further our understanding about these relationships. Based on this we identify a number of future research questions to be addressed.
    Keywords: technological competencies; firm performance; accessibility; knowledge; innovation; geography
    JEL: L25 O18 O30
    Date: 2013–09–19
  42. By: Peter M Robinson; Francesca Rossi
    Abstract: For testing lack of correlation against spatial autoregressive alternatives, Lagrange multiplier tests enjoy their usual computational advantages, but the(2) first-order asymptotic approximation to critical values can be poor in small samples. We develop refined tests for lack of spatial error correlation in regressions, based on Edgeworth expansion. In Monte Carlo simulations these tests, and bootstrap ones, generally significantly outperform 2􀀀 based tests.
    Keywords: Spatial autocorrelation, Lagrange multiplier test, Edgeworth expansion, bootstrap, finite-sample corrections.
    JEL: C29
    Date: 2013–10
  43. By: Nour, Samia Satti Osman Mohamed (Faculty of Economic and Social Studies, Khartoum University, and UNU-MERIT/MGSoG)
    Abstract: This paper employs both the descriptive and comparative approaches and uses the definition of systems of innovation used in the literature to examine the existence, characteristics and implications of the regional systems of innovation in the Arab region. We examine three hypotheses, that the regional systems of innovation exist but are characterized by serious weaknesses in the Arab region compared with other world regions, that the structure of the economy has a significant effect in the performance of innovation systems in the Arab region, and that the poor Arab systems of innovation have serious implications in the Arab region. We explain two common characteristics of Arab regional systems of innovation concerning poor subsystems of education, S&T, R&D and ICT institutions in the Arab region and concentration of R&D activities within public and universities sectors and small contribution of the private sector in R&D activities. We find that the major implications are the poor performance of the Arab region in terms of S&T indicators, competitiveness indicators, technology achievement index and poor integration in the knowledge economy index. Therefore, it is essential for the Arab region to enhance the institutions of higher education, S&T, R&D and ICT to build the Arab regional systems of innovation and to achieve economic development in the Arab region.
    Keywords: Education, S&T, R&D, Systems of innovation, economic structure, Arab region
    JEL: O10 O11 O30
    Date: 2013
  44. By: Peter M Robinson; Francesca Rossi
    Abstract: We consider testing the null hypothesis of no spatial autocorrelation against the alternative of first order spatial autoregression. A Wald test statistic has good first order asymptotic properties, but these may not be relevant in small or moderate-sized samples, especially as (depending on properties of the spatial weight matrix) the usual parametric rate of convergence may not be attained. We thus develop tests with more accurate size properties, by means of Edgeworth expansions and the bootstrap. The finite-sample performance of the tests is examined in Monte Carlo simulations.
    Keywords: Spatial Autocorrelation, Ordinary Least Squares, Hypothesis Testing, Edgeworth Expansion, Bootstrap.
    JEL: C12 C21
    Date: 2013–05
  45. By: Kristin Hallgren; Cassie Pickens Jewell; Celina Kamler
    Keywords: Teacher Student Data Link, Education, Strategic Data Project
    Date: 2013–02–04
  46. By: Esubalew Alehegn; Silvia Sacchetti; Ermanno Tortia
    Abstract: Though the measurement and implication of human capital on economic growth has been well established since the works of Becker in the 1960s, recently Florida has argued that creative class is superior to human capital in explaining economic growth. The underlying difference between the two scholars is a measurement approach in which while Becker uses education as indicator of human capital Florida employs occupation as an identifier of the creative class. We exploit administrative data from the Institute for Employment Research (IAB) over the years 1998-2008 and employ system GMM to estimate and compare the effects on regional economic performance of human capital and creative class in Germany where economic performance is measured by GDP growth, employment growth and wage growth. The estimation unveils that analysis of regional economy through creative class in place of human capital can be used as an alternative approach yet the creative class, as has been praised by Florida, is not found to be superior to human capital in explicating economic performance of regions. Indeed, albeit the share of creative class (creative core and creative professionals) and university graduates have positive and robust impacts on GDP growth it is by no means the share of university graduates that have a far greater impact on economic growth. The opposite holds for employment growth and is inconclusive for wage growth. This finding may imply that the creative class driven economic development is directed towards more labor intensive forms of development whilst human capital is directed towards the form of development characterized by specialization and high capital intensity.
    Keywords: Creative class, human capital, economic performance and dynamic panel.
    JEL: R11 O31 O52
    Date: 2013–11–11
  47. By: Gabriele Cappelli
    Abstract: - The present paper explores the role of public policy in the development of Italy’s human capital in the late 19th century and the Interwar period. It aims at understanding whether a system of decentralized primary education slowed down regional convergence in schooling. This work puts forward the hypothesis that, under such a system, the country was subject to a human capital trap – since poor and backward areas could not afford to invest a suitable amount of resources in schooling. Additionally, it investigates whether a more centralized system, introduced in 1911, loosened up the trap, fostered the accumulation of human capital and reduced the country’s regional disparities. Original qualitative evidence and new data on schooling confirm the existence of such a trap, and underline the positive role of centralization in the Interwar period. The econometric model implemented strengthens these findings: poor regions could not improve the quality of education, which in turn would give rise to a vicious circle. Centralized primary education certainly fostered the development of Italy’s schooling in the Interwar period. However, human capital regional disparities across the country persisted, a result that calls for further research on the topic.
    JEL: I22 I25 I28 N33 N43 O15 O20
    Date: 2013–10
  48. By: Dakshina G. De Silva; C F Elliott; R Simmons
    Abstract: This paper investigates spatial competition and the price-quality relationship in the UK gourmet restaurant sector using a comprehensive panel data set compiled from the UK Good Food Guide. A positive relationship between meal prices and restaurant quality as assessed by the Guide is identified. Moreover, restaurants appear to raise prices when the number of restaurants in close proximity that offer similar cuisine increases. Yet restaurants are found to reduce prices in line with standard competitive market responses when there are a greater number of similar restaurants placed further apart.
    Date: 2013
  49. By: Maria Teresa Balaguer-Coll (Department of Finance and Accounting, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain); Diego Prior (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain & IESEG School of Management, Lille, France); Emili Tortosa-Ausina (Department of Economics, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the factors that directly influence levels of debt in Spanish local governments. Specifically, the main objective is to find out the extent to which indebtedness is originated by controllable factors that public managers can influence, or whether it hinges on other variables beyond managers’ control. The importance of this issue has intensified since the start of the crisis in 2007, due to the abrupt decline of revenues and, simultaneously, to the stagnation (or even increase) in the levels of costs facing these institutions face. Results can be explored from multiple perspectives, given that the set of explanatory factors is also multiple. However, the most interesting result relates to the varying effect of each covariate depending on each municipality’s specific debt level, which suggests that economic policy recommendations should not be homogeneous across local governments.
    Keywords: debt, local government, quantile regression
    JEL: D60 H71 H72 H74 H75
    Date: 2013
  50. By: Alessandro Bucciol (Department of Economics (University of Verona)); Laura Cavalli (Department of Economics (University of Verona)); Paolo Pertile (Department of Economics (University of Verona)); Veronica Polin (Department of Economics (University of Verona)); Alessandro Sommacal (Department of Economics (University of Verona))
    Abstract: We study the determinants of redistribution at the municipal level in the context of public childcare in Italy. Within a substantially homogeneous legislative framework, different municipalities autonomously define how participation fees vary with a compound indicator of income and wealth (ISEE), thus redistributing resources across households using the service. The nearly one hundred municipalities we take into account exhibit wide heterogeneity in redistributive attitudes. We find statistically significant correlations of these with a number of individual characteristics of policy-makers and municipalities, but not with those of the ex-ante distribution of income, which should be central according to both normative and positive theory. Since the price of public childcare is subsidized, resources are also redistributed from tax-payers to users. The evidence that we find is consistent with the hypothesis that this type of redistribution is a public good.
    Keywords: redistribution, progressivity, childcare
    JEL: H23 H42 H71
    Date: 2013–11
  51. By: Kirill Rozhkov (Higher School of Economics (Russia), Faculty of Management, Department of Company Marketing, professor)
    Abstract: The paper shows relationships between level of residential satisfaction and form of differentiation of marketing policy in place market segments. A combination of three criteria of place attractiveness (retention and attraction, conditions for natural growth, and settling) was chosen to classify place market segments, and distribution of residents by the level of satisfaction as a result of specific place marketing policy for all the segments were hypothesized. The results of the empirical study partially confirm developed theoretical typologies. The paper also demonstrates, that driver forces of the place marketing differentiation are related to both current activities of place marketers and external factors. Using the results of the study, it becomes possible to choose a relevant form of differentiation of place marketing policy and interpret its results adequately.
    Keywords: residential satisfaction, place marketing, differentiation, place market segment.
    JEL: J19 M31 O18 R00 R10 R23
    Date: 2013
  52. By: Casilda Lasso de la Vega (University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU); Oscar Volij (BGU)
    Abstract: It is possible to partially order cities with two ethnic groups according to the Lorenz criterion. Similarly, it is possible to partially order cities according to the informativeness of neighborhoods about the ethnic groups of its inhabitants. We show the equivalence of these two orders for the two-group case.
    Keywords: Segregation, informativeness, Lorenz
    JEL: C43 C81 D63
    Date: 2013
  53. By: Altshuler, Alan
    Keywords: Architecture, Arts and Humanities, Education, Engineering, Social and Behavioral Sciences
    Date: 2013–04–01
  54. By: Willson, Richard
    Keywords: Architecture, Education, Engineering, Law, Social and Behavioral Sciences
    Date: 2013–10–01
  55. By: Paolo Acciari (Ministero dellÂ’Economia e delle Finanze); Sauro Mocetti (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: This paper exploits the tax records to analyze the geography of income inequality in Italy. In 2011, the Gini coefficient, the most common measure of inequality, was 40 per cent at national level. In the South it was 3 percentage points higher than in the Centre-North, mainly because of a smaller share of income held by the lower tail of the distribution. Inequality is also greater in major metropolitan areas. The Gini index has been increasing during the Great Recession. This pattern has been driven by a reduction in incomes, which has been more pronounced for individuals below the median. Regional disparities have been increasing as well.
    Keywords: inequality, regional disparities
    JEL: D31 O15
    Date: 2013–10
  56. By: Thiemo Fetzer; Oliver Pardo; Amar Shanghavi
    Abstract: This paper answers the question whether extreme power rationing can induce changes in human fertility and thus, generate "mini baby booms". We study a period of extensive power rationing in Colombia that lasted for most of 1992 and see whether this has increased births in the subsequent year, exploiting variation from a newly constructed measure of the extent of power rationing. We find that power rationing increased the probability that a mother had a baby by 4 percent and establish that this effect is permanent as mothers who had a black out baby were not able to adjust their total long-run fertility. Exploiting this variation, we show that women who had a black-out baby find themselves in worse socio-economic conditions more than a decade later, highlighting potential social costs of unplanned motherhood.
    Keywords: Fertility, infrastructure, blackouts, unplanned parenthood
    JEL: J13 J16 O18 H41
    Date: 2013–11

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