nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2010‒03‒13
27 papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. Subprime mortgage lending in New York City: prevalence and performance By Ebiere Okah; James Orr
  2. Neighborhood Effects and Housing By Yannis M. Ioannides
  3. Homeowner-made Housing Price Bubbles - East Germany's Example - By Kristof Dascher
  4. Do Governments Tax Agglomeration Rents? By Hyun-Ju Koh; Nadine Riedel
  5. Three Cycles: Housing, Credit and Real Activity By Deniz Igan; Alain Kabundi; Francisco Nadal De Simone; Marcelo Pinheiro; Natalia Tamirisa
  6. The relative effectiveness of private and government schools in Rural India: Evidence from ASER data By Rob French; Geeta Kingdon
  7. Culture revisited - a geographic analysis of fertility decline in Prussia By Joshua R. Goldstein; Sebastian Klüsener
  8. Tracking can be more equitable than mixing: Peer effects and college attendance By Marisa Hidalgo-Hidalgo
  9. Does Global Climate Policy Promote Low-Carbon Cities? Lessons Learnt From The CDM By Sippel, Maike; Michaelowa, Axel
  10. Learning At The Boundaries In An “Open Regional Innovation System”: A Focus On Firms’ Innovation Strategies In The Emilia Romagna Life Science Industry By fiorenza belussi; silvia rita sedita; alessia sammarra
  11. Urban Settlement: Data, Measures, and Trends By Bloom, David E; Canning, David; Fink, Günther; Khanna, Tarun; Salyer, Patrick
  12. Foreclosures, Enforcement, and Collections under the Federal Mortgage Modification Guidelines By Casey B. Mulligan
  13. The Effect of Foreign Investments on European Regional Productivity By Davide Castellani; Fabio Pieri
  14. Agglomeration and Trade: State-Level Evidence from U.S. Industries By Hakan Yilmazkuday
  15. Technology transfer in a linear city with symmetric locations By Bouguezzi, Fehmi
  16. Optimisation of Central Asian and Eurasian Inter-Continental Land Transport Corridors By Emerson, Michael; Vinokurov , Evgeny
  17. The Effects of Central Grants on Decentralized Social Programs: Post]2005 School Expense Assistance in Japan By Masayoshi Hayashi; Yohei Kobayashi
  18. Economic impacts of SEZs: Theoretical approaches and analysis of newly notified SEZs in India By Aggarwal, Aradhna
  19. Effects of Regional Human Capital Structure on Business Entry: A Comparison of Independent Startups and New Subsidiaries in Different Industries By Kenta Ikeuchi; Hiroyuki Okamuro
  20. Contributions of Proposed Investment in the Northwest Tennessee Regional Port at Cates Landing to the Regional Economy By Murat Arik; David A. Penn
  21. Do firms benefit from being present in technology clusters? Evidence from a panel of biopharmaceutical firms. By Lecocq, Catherine; Leten, Bart; Kusters, Jeroen; Van Looy, Bart
  22. Fiscal decentralization and intergovernmental grants: the European regional policy and Spanish autonomous regions By Juan González Alegre
  23. Available Labor Force in Southern Middle Tennessee: An Underemployment Study By Murat Arik; David A. Penn
  24. What about local climate governance? A review of promise and problems By Sippel, Maike; Jenssen, Till
  25. The economic consequences of population and urbanization growth in Italy: from the 13th century to 1900. A discussion on the Malthusian dynamics By Bruno Chiarini
  26. Disabled or Young? Relative Age and Special Education Diagnoses in Schools By Dhuey, Elizabeth; Lipscomb, Stephen

  1. By: Ebiere Okah; James Orr
    Abstract: Subprime mortgage lending expanded in New York City between 2004 and mid-2007, and delinquencies on these subprime loans have been rising sharply. We use a rich, loan-level data set of the city's outstanding subprime loans as of January 2009 to describe the main features of this lending and to model the performance of these loans. These subprime loans represent a smaller share of total housing units in the city than is true nationwide. In addition, they are found to be clustered in neighborhoods where average borrower credit quality is low and, unlike prime mortgage loans, where African-Americans and Hispanics constitute relatively large shares of the population. We estimate a model of the likelihood that these loans will become seriously delinquent and find a significant role for credit quality of borrowers, debt-to-income and loan-to-value ratios at the time of loan origination, and estimates of the loss of home equity.
    Keywords: Subprime mortgage ; Financial risk management ; Consumer credit ; Demography
    Date: 2010
  2. By: Yannis M. Ioannides
    Abstract: This chapter presents a number of approaches that economists have used in studying neighborhood effects in housing markets. It emphasizes how individuals in effect choose neighborhood effects, or more generally social interactions, via their location decisions. The chapter looks constructively at neighborhood effects and rather than reviewing the role of neighborhood effects as mere externalities that might interfere with locational equilibrium, and focuses on what we have learned empirically about their role by observing locational decisions along with individual and group characteristics. It examines several classes of models which economists have relied upon in exploring the role and empirical significance of neighborhood effects that originate in housing markets. It takes the concept of neighborhood effects quite literally as arising in residential neighborhoods. For precisely this reason, the chapter emphasizes how we may detect empirically the presence of neighborhood effects when they may be priced by housing markets and be capitalized into housing values and rents. The chapter focuses on models that are empirically relevant and help identify neighborhood effects, and discusses actual empirical findings.
    Date: 2010
  3. By: Kristof Dascher (Department of International Economic Policy, University of Freiburg)
    Abstract: This paper argues that homeowners, if suffciently infuential, may attempt to manipulate housing prices. The paper presents an instance of, and sets out the political economy behind, one particular homeowner-made housing price bubble (in East Germany). Yet ultimately the paper suggests that homeowners may be responsible for housing price bubbles elsewhere, too. Namely, US homeowners may be the single driving force behind the latest US housing price boom that preceded the current real estate, and financial, crisis.
    Keywords: Homeowner Majority, Rent Persistence, Ratchet Effect, Policy Reform
    JEL: R21 H73 D61
    Date: 2009–12
  4. By: Hyun-Ju Koh (University of Munich,); Nadine Riedel (Oxford University Centre for Business Taxation, CESifo Munich)
    Abstract: Using the German local business tax as a testing ground, we empirically investigate the impact of firm agglomeration on municipal tax setting behavior. The analysis exploits a rich data source on the population of German firms to construct detailed measures for the communities' agglomeration characteristics. The findings indicate that urbanization and localization economies exert a positive impact on the jurisdictional tax rate choice which confirms predictions of the theoretical New Economic Geography (NEG) literature. Further analysis suggests a qualification of the NEG argument by showing that a municipality's potential to tax agglomeration rents depends on its firm and industry agglomeration relative to neighboring communities. To account for potential endogeneity problems, our analysis exploits long-lagged population and infrastructure variables as instruments for the agglomeration measures.
    Keywords: Agglomeration Rents, Corporate Taxation, Regional Differentiation
    JEL: H73 R12
    Date: 2010
  5. By: Deniz Igan; Alain Kabundi; Francisco Nadal De Simone; Marcelo Pinheiro; Natalia Tamirisa
    Date: 2010–01
  6. By: Rob French (Depatment of Quantitative Social Science - Institute of Education, University of London.); Geeta Kingdon (Depatment of Quantitative Social Science - Institute of Education, University of London.)
    Abstract: One of the many changes in India since economic liberalisation began in 1991 is the increased use of private schooling. There has been a growing body of literature to assess whether this is a positive trend and to evaluate the effects on child achievement levels. The challenge is to identify the true private school effect on achievement, isolating the effect of the schools themselves from other variables that might boost private school outcomes, such as a superior (higher ability) student intake. Using the ASER data for 2005 to 2007 a number of methodologies are used to produce a cumulative evidence base on the effectiveness of private schools relative to their government counterparts. Household fixed effects estimates yield a private school achievement advantage of 0.17 standard deviations and village level 3-year panel data analysis yields a private school learning advantage of 0.114 SD. Length: 39 pages
    Keywords: Student achievement, private and public schooling, India
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2010–02–03
  7. By: Joshua R. Goldstein (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Sebastian Klüsener (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany)
    Abstract: In this paper, we re-introduce geography into the analysis of fertility decline in the first demographic transition in Europe. We reanalyze Galloway et al.'s (1994) Prussian data, fitting structural models similar to those of Galloway et al. to the data and to map the residuals. Our findings give evidence both of the predictive effect of economic as well as cultural variables. However, although testing different non-spatial model specifications, a significant unexplained geographic clustering of fertility decline always remains. Indeed, adjacency to an area of large fertility decline and location along communication and transport corridors seem to be important predictors of fertility decline beyond what one would expect from structural models. This gives support to the cultural diffusion hypothesis of the Princeton European Fertility Project.
    Keywords: German Empire, culture, diffusion of innovations, economics, fertility decline, spatial analysis
    JEL: J1 Z0
    Date: 2010–02
  8. By: Marisa Hidalgo-Hidalgo (Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Seville)
    Abstract: Parents and policy makers often wonder whether, and how, the choice between a tracked or a mixed educational system affects the efficiency and equity of national educational outcomes. This paper analyzes this question taking into account their impact on educational results at later stages and two main results are found. First, it shows that tracking can be the efficient system in societies where the opportunity cost of college attendance is high or the pre-school achievement distribution is very dispersed. Second, this paper shows that tracking is the most equitable system for students with intermediate levels of human capital required to attend college.
    Keywords: Peer Effects, Tracking, Mixing, College attendance gap
    JEL: D63 I28 J24
    Date: 2010
  9. By: Sippel, Maike; Michaelowa, Axel
    Abstract: An increasing proportion of greenhouse gas emissions is produced in urban areas in industrializing and developing countries. Recent research shows that per capita emissions in cities like Bangkok, Cape Town or Shanghai have already reached the level of cities like London, New York or Toronto. Large parts of the building stock and service infrastructure in cities in rapidly developing countries is built in the coming decade or two. Decisions taken in this sector today may therefore lock in a high emissions path. Based upon a survey of projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol, we find that only about 1% of CDM projects have been submitted by municipalities, mostly in the waste management sector. This low participation is probably due to a lack of technical know how to develop CDM projects and an absence of motivation due to the long project cycle and the limited “visibility” of the projects for the electorate. Projects in the buildings and transport sector are rare, mainly due to heavy methodological challenges. A case study of the city network ICLEI and its experience with cities’ participation in the CDM adds insights from the practitioner side. We conclude that CDM reforms may make it easier for municipalities to engage in the CDM, and that new forms of cooperation between municipalities and project developers, potentially facilitated by ICLEI, are required to help to realize the urban CDM potential.
    Keywords: CDM; cities; energy; climate policy; mitigation; transport; waste; local authorities
    JEL: Q5 H7 Q42 O13 Q4
    Date: 2009–11
  10. By: fiorenza belussi (University of Padua); silvia rita sedita (University of Padua); alessia sammarra (University of Padua)
    Abstract: The paper investigates the existence of an Open Regional Innovation System (ORIS model). This model is characterised by the firms’ adoption of an open innovation strategy, which overcomes not only the boundaries of the firms but also the boundaries of the region. Using data collected in a sample of life science firms, our research provides the evidence that the Emilia Romagna RIS has evolved towards an ORIS model, where firms’ innovation search strategy, despite being still embedded in local nets (involving several regional public research organisations - PROs), is open to external-to-the-region research networks and knowledge sources. It also shows that innovation openness influences significantly the firms’ innovative performance.
    Keywords: life science sector, learning at the boundaries, Regional Innovation Systems, networks, open innovation model
    JEL: L7 O31
    Date: 2010–02
  11. By: Bloom, David E; Canning, David; Fink, Günther; Khanna, Tarun; Salyer, Patrick
    Abstract: This paper examines data on urbanization. We review the most commonly used data sources, and highlight the difficulties inherent in defining and measuring the size of urban versus rural populations. We show that differences in the measurement of urban populations across countries and over time are significant, and discuss the methods used to obtain these measurements, as well as those for projecting urbanization. We also analyze recent trends and patterns in urbanization. Finally, we describe the principal channels of urbanization and examine their relative contributions to the global urbanization process.
    Keywords: Urbanization, measurement, urban population
    Date: 2010
  12. By: Casey B. Mulligan
    Abstract: Federal mortgage modification initiatives, targeting millions of borrowers, are intended to prevent foreclosures of underwater home mortgages. Those initiatives discourage principal reductions in favor of interest reductions, despite the possibility that the former would be a more durable foreclosure prevention tool. The programs also impose marginal income tax rates substantially in excess of 100 percent. Using the framework of optimal income taxation, this paper shows how alternative means-tested modification rules would simultaneously improve collections, efficiency, the number of foreclosures, and their total cost. As a result, lenders have an incentive to foreclose on borrowers deemed modification eligible by the federal programs.
    JEL: H21 L11 R31
    Date: 2010–02
  13. By: Davide Castellani; Fabio Pieri
    Abstract: Differences in productivity among regions have been mainly attributed to agglomeration economies, technology and human capital, while almost no evidence has been provided on the role of internationalization. In this paper we build unique measures of outward and inward foreign direct investment (FDI) counts at the NUTS 2 level and we assess the relationship between regional productivity and foreign investments in the Enlarged Europe. Regions with larger flows of foreign investment projects show higher productivity levels, but this correlation fades down as we control for a set of relevant regional characteristics. However, inward and outward FDIs exert a positive and significant effect on regional productivity growth. We also find that the type of investment matters. In particular, inward and outward investments in R&D have a positive effect on regional productivity, while incoming investments in Sales activities are detrimental for productivity growth..
    Keywords: Regional productivity, foreign investments, Europe.
    JEL: F23 O47 O52 R11
    Date: 2010–02–01
  14. By: Hakan Yilmazkuday (Department of Economics, Temple University)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the connection between economic agglomeration and trade patterns within the U.S. at the industry level. On the consumption side, industry- and state-specific international imports and elasticities of substitution are shown to be systematically connected to consumption agglomeration effects, while on the production side, industry- and state-specific international exports and intermediate input trade are shown to be systematically connected to production agglomeration and specialization effects. Industry structures play an important role in the determination and magnitude of these effects.
    Keywords: Regional Trade, Intermediate Inputs, The United States
    JEL: R12 R13 R32
    Date: 2010–03
  15. By: Bouguezzi, Fehmi
    Abstract: This paper compares patent licensing regimes in a Hotelling model where firms are located symmetrically and not necessary at the end points of the city. I suppose that one of the firms owns a process innovation reducing the marginal unit cost. This patent holding firm will decide to sell a license or not to the non innovative firm and will choose, when licensing, between a fixed fee or a royalty. The key difference between this paper and other papers is that here I suppose that firms are not static and can move along the linear city symmetrically. I find that when there is no licensing, Nash equilibrium exists only when innovation is non drastic. I also find that royalties licensing is better than fixed fee licensing when innovation is small. When the innovation is intermediate I find that fixed fee is better than a royalty. The paper shows that a fixed fee is not better than a non licensing regime independently of the innovation size and the optimal licensing regime is royalties when innovation is small. Finally, I show that a patent holding firm should not license its innovation when it is intermediate or drastic
    Keywords: Hotelling model; Technology transfer; Patent licensing
    JEL: L0 D45
    Date: 2010
  16. By: Emerson, Michael; Vinokurov , Evgeny
    Abstract: There is at present an overlapping but inadequately coordinated combination of strategic inter-continental transport corridors or axes stretching across the EuraAsian landmass, centered on or around Central Asia. There are three such initiatives - from the EU, China and China and the Asian Development Bank, and the EuraAsian Economic Community. This paper reviews these several strategic transport maps, and makes some proposals for their coordination and rationalisation. The EU Central Asia strategy does not so far pay much attention to these questions. However the EU’s own initiatives (the Pan-European Axes and the Traceca programme) are in need of updating and revision, and updating to take into account major investments now being made by the other parties. In particular the case is made for a “Central EuraAsian Corridor” for rail and road that would reach from Central Europe across Ukraine and Southern Russia into West Kazakhstan, and thence to the East Kazakh border with China, and thus joining up with and completing the West China-West Europe corridor promoted by the Asian Development Bank. There should also be a North-South corridor that would cross over this Central EuraAsian Corridor in West Kazakhstan and lead down to the Middle East and South Asia. These adaptations of existing plan could become an exemplary case of cooperation between Central Asia and all the major economic powers of the Eurasian landmass.
    Keywords: Eurasia; transport infrastructure; transport corridors; EU Wider Neighbourhood
    JEL: F15 R40
    Date: 2009–12
  17. By: Masayoshi Hayashi; Yohei Kobayashi
    Abstract: This study examines the effects of central matching grants for the School Expense Assistance (SEA) in the midst of increasing child poverty in Japan. The 2005 reform replaced SEA grants with increases in general revenues through the system of Local Allocation Tax (LAT). By exploiting the facts that the replaced grants were closed]ended and that LAT disbursements were not made to every locality, we could not only identify the effects of the matching grants but also decompose the effects into price and income effects. We show that the 2005 change indeed suppressed SEA expenditures. The loss of matching grants reduced per]recipient SEA benefits by about JPN\5,000 (US$56) for first]year elementary school students and JPN\12,000 (US$133) for first]year junior high school students. The loss also reduced recipient percentage among students by 1.2-2.1 percentage points from 11.52 percent in 2004, although the eligibility criteria were barely affected.
    Keywords: school expense assistance,fiscal transfers, differnce-in-difference, Japan
    JEL: H73 H75 H77
    Date: 2010–03
  18. By: Aggarwal, Aradhna
    Abstract: This study aims at examining the economic impacts of SEZs in the Indian context. While doing so, it addresses the conceptual confusion about SEZs, outlines the evolution of SEZs; traces economic philosophies explaining the rationale and benefits of SEZs; extends existing theoretical literature to explain the economic impacts of SEZs; assesses the economic impacts of newly notified SEZs in India; reviews the strategies followed by various state governments in the implementation of the policy ; and draws policy implications. It argues that the existing economic theories donot adequately explain the rationale and contribution of SEZs. These approaches need to be extended by integrating the provisions of the theories of agglomeration economies and global value chains within the existing theoretical frameworks. It analyses the economic impacts of SEZs within the extended theoretical framework. It finds that while SEZs are stimulating direct investment and employment, their role appears to be more valuable in bringing about economic transformation from a resource-led economy to a skill and technology-led economy; from low value added economic activities to high value added economic activities; from low productive sectors to high productive sectors; and from unorganised to organized sectors, both at the national and regional levels. They have the potential of promoting new knowledge intensive industries; augmenting existing industrial clusters/industrial states; diversifying the local industrial base; and localizing global value chain. However, a strategic approach is required to reap the opportunities offered by SEZs.
    Keywords: Special economic zones; Exports; FDI; Economic diversification; Agglomeration economies; global value chains;India
    JEL: F13 O53 F14 O19 F43
    Date: 2010–02–23
  19. By: Kenta Ikeuchi; Hiroyuki Okamuro
    Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the regional determinants of entry with special attention to the effects of regional human capital, using prefecture-level data from Japan. On the basis of some recent studies in the field, we investigate the effects of several regional factors on business entry, distinguishing between independent startups and new subsidiaries of existing firms on the one hand, and comparing different sectors on the other. Using pooled regional data at the prefecture level for our periods between 1996 and 2006, we estimate the impact of various regional factors, including human capital structure, on the number of independent startups and new subsidiaries for each industry sector, simultaneously. Estimation results demonstrate considerable differences between independent startups and subsidiaries as well as among different industry sectors with regard to the impact of regional human capital structure on business entry. First, the entry of independent startups in the manufacturing sector is positively related with regional human capital. Second, in contrast to our hypothesis, we found a positive relationship between regional human capital structure and the entry of new subsidiaries in the service sector. Third, the regional human capital structure is more important for regional entrepreneurship in more technology-intensive (high-tech) service industries. Considering the possible implications, we suggest that the regional policy to activate business startups should focus more on the differences between encouraging local entrepreneurship and attracting new subsidiaries, and recognize that these differences may vary even within the service sector, depending on what type of human capital is required.
    Keywords: entry, region, independent startup, subsidiary, entrepreneurial human capital
    JEL: L26 M13 R32
    Date: 2010–02
  20. By: Murat Arik; David A. Penn
    Abstract: The Business and Economic Research Center (BERC), Middle Tennessee State University, is retained by the Northwest Tennessee Regional Port Authority to assess the contributions of the proposed investment in the Port at Cates Landing to the economy of the three-county region (Lake, Dyer, and Obion) and its surrounding areas.
    Keywords: port, Cates Landing, Tennessee, northwest Tennessee, Mississippi River, counties, Lake, Dyer, Obion, county, intermodal transportation
    Date: 2009–09
  21. By: Lecocq, Catherine; Leten, Bart; Kusters, Jeroen; Van Looy, Bart
    Abstract: This paper investigates whether firms active in biotechnology can improve their technological performance by developing R&D activities in technology clusters. Regions that host a concentration of biotechnology activity are identified as technology clusters (level of US states, Japanese prefectures and European NUTS2 regions). A fixed effect panel data analysis on a set of 59 biopharmaceutical firms (period 1995-2002) provides evidence for a positive, albeit diminishing (inverted-U shape) relationship between the number of technology clusters in which a firm is present and its total technological performance. This effect is distinct from a mere multi-location effect.
    Keywords: Cluster; Innovation; Biotechnology;
    Date: 2009–10
  22. By: Juan González Alegre (Universidad Pablo de Olavide)
    Abstract: Most of the Structural Actions are designed as an incentive to increase public investment in less-developed areas. However, we suspect that the efficiency of the policy is related to the level of fiscal autonomy of the subsidized government. In this paper we construct a paned data model in order to estimate the role of fiscal federalism on the effectiveness of the EU Structural Actions in enhancing public investment. We use data from the seventeen Spanish regions for the period 1993-2007. The estimation is run upon three alternative strategies: firstly we break the sample according to the level of fiscal autonomy of the units; secondly, we insert an interaction term capturing the join effect of both variables, fiscal decentralization and EU Structural Actions; finally, we estimate a simultaneous equation model in which public investment and the EU transfers are decided simultaneously. Results unambiguously support the hypothesis that the effectiveness of the Structural Funds decreases with larger decentralization. Our results suggest also that this could be due to the fact that regions find it more difficult to be eligible for additional EUSF as they gain fiscal autonomy. The general conclusions include the recommendation that the future design of the European Cohesion policy should take into account the heterogeneity of Fiscal Federalism across the Member States in order to the get the most out of it.
    Keywords: fiscal federalism, intergovernmental grants, European Union, regional policy, panel data, simultaneous equations for panels
    JEL: H72 H77 C33 C23
    Date: 2010
  23. By: Murat Arik; David A. Penn
    Abstract: Conveniently located between the Nashville and Huntsville MSAs, the southern middle Tennessee counties are well positioned for businesses seeking to expand or relocate their operations. Although location itself is a critical asset, for sustainable economic growth the scope and issues related to counties’ human capital should be fully analyzed and documented. The goal of this study is to identify and analyze the scope and characteristics of the available labor force in the study area.
    Keywords: underemployment, labor force, laborforce, Tennessee, southern middle Tennessee, counties, Bedford, Coffee, Franklin, Grundy, Lincoln, Moore, Warren, county, relocation, regional, human capital
    Date: 2010–01
  24. By: Sippel, Maike; Jenssen, Till
    Abstract: A large proportion of greenhouse gas emissions is produced in urban areas, particularly in high income countries. Cities are also vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, and particularly so in developing countries. Therefore, local climate policies for mitigation and adaptation have to play an important role in any effective global climate protection strategy. Based upon a systematic literature review, this article gives a comprehensive overview of motivation and challenges for local climate governance. A large part of the literature focuses on mitigation and cities in industrialized countries. The review also includes the smaller and emerging body of literature on adaptation and cities in developing or industrializing countries. Motivations and challenges we find fall into broad categories like ‘economic’, ‘informational’, ‘institutional’, ‘liveability’ or ‘political/cultural’. We conclude that the mix of motivation and challenges is city-specific, and that the national framework conditions are important. It matters, whether cities engage in mitigation or adaptation policies, whether they are located in developing, industrializing or industrialized countries, and at which stage of climate policy-making cities are. For many cities, cost savings are a primary motivation for local mitigation policies, while perceived vulnerability and a commitment to development is the primary motivator for adaptation policies. The collective action problem of climate protection (also known as ‘Tragedy of the Commons’) and inappropriate legal frameworks are key barriers to mitigation policies. Challenges for adaptation include financial constraints, and a lack of expertise, cooperation, leadership and political support. Understanding their specific motivation and challenges may support cities in developing appropriate local climate action plans. Furthermore, the understanding of motivation and challenges can inform other policy levels that want to help realize the local climate protection potential.
    Keywords: Climate policy; local authorities; cities; mitigation; adaptation; energy; local climate governance
    JEL: Q5 H7 Q42 O13 Q4
    Date: 2009–11
  25. By: Bruno Chiarini (-)
    Abstract: In this paper we investigate the quantitative relation between population, real wages and urbanization in the Italian economy during the period 1320-1870. In this period the prevailing conditions were those of a poor, mainly agricultural economy with limited human capital and rudimentary technology. However, these centuries witnessed the considerable growth of urban centers, which was not only a significant demographic phenomenon in itself. The multiplication of such agglomerations had a striking influence on mortality and hence on the general course of the economy in this period. We present two main results i) the positive check is strong and statistically significant and it explains an important part of the dynamic of mortality but the other equilibrating mechanism in the Malthusian model -the preventive check- based on the positive relationship between fertility and real wages does not operate; ii) the urbanization process and the flows of rural immigrants which fuelled it, had profound, complex implications on productivity in agriculture and on wages and population dynamics.
    Keywords: Malthusian dynamics, Urbanization, Pre-industrial labor productivity, Poulation trend, Demographic changes.
    JEL: N33 N53 N93 J11 C32
    Date: 2010–01–30
  26. By: Dhuey, Elizabeth; Lipscomb, Stephen
    Abstract: This study extends recent findings of a relationship between the relative age of students among their peers and their probability of disability classification. Using three nationally representative surveys spanning 1988-2004 and grades K-10, we find that an additional month of relative age decreases the likelihood of receiving special education services by 2-5 percent. Relative age effects are strong for learning disabilities but not for other disabilities. We measure them for boys starting in kindergarten but not for girls until 3rd grade. We also measure them for white and Hispanic students but not for black students or differentially by socioeconomic quartiles. Results are consistent with the interpretation that disability assessments do not screen for the possibility that relatively young students are over-referred for evaluation. Lastly, we present suggestive evidence that math achievement gains due to disability classification may differentially benefit relatively young students.
    Keywords: Education, Relative Age, Special Education
    JEL: I20
    Date: 2010–02–27
  27. By: Paul Sommers
    Date: 2010

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