nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2007‒02‒17
27 papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. Housing Market Cycles and Duration Dependence in the United States and Canada By Rose Cunningham; Ilan Kolet
  2. Peer Effects in European Primary Schools: Evidence from PIRLS By Ammermüller, Andreas; Pischke, Jörn-Steffen
  3. Efficient Revenue Sharing and Upper Level Governments: Theory and Application to Germany By Buettner, Thiess; Hauptmeier, Sebastian; Schwager, Robert
  4. Agglomeration and dispersion of economic activities in Paris and its surroundings : An exploratory spatial data analysis By GUILLAIN, Rachel; LEGALLO, Julie
  5. The Effect of the Theo van Gogh Murder on House Prices in Amsterdam By Pieter A. Gautier; Arjen Siegmann; Aico Van Vuuren
  6. The Effects of Wal-Mart on Local Labor Markets By David Neumark; Junfu Zhang; Stephen Ciccarella
  7. Why and where do headquarters move? By Strauss-Kahn, Vanessa; Vives, Xavier
  8. Creativity and Industrial Cities: A Case Study of Baltimorenomenon By Zoltan J. Acs; Monika I. Megyesi
  9. New Zealand Regions, 1986-2001: Dependency and Development of Social Capital By Ian Pool; Sandra Baxendine; William Cochrane; James Lindop
  10. The role of pecuniary and non-pecuniary factors in teacher turnover and mobility decisions By Steve Bradley; Colin Green; Gareth Leeves
  11. Modeling spatial variations in household disposable income with Geographically Weighted Regression By Chasco, Coro; García, Isabel; Vicéns, José
  12. The impact of the specialist schools programme on exam results By Jim Taylor
  13. Unemployment Rate Dispersion within Australian Cities By Robert Dixon
  14. Do reduced child care prices make parents work more? By Lundin, Daniela; Mörk, Eva; Öckert, Björn
  15. Employment Integration of Refugees: The Influence of Local Factors on Refugee Job Opportunities in Sweden By Pieter Bevelander; Christer Lundh
  16. Does geography matter to bondholders? By Bill Francis; Iftekhar Hasan; Maya Waisman
  17. Peer Effects, Unobserved Factors and Risk Behaviours: An Analysis of Alcohol Abuse and Truancy among Adolescents By Rosa Duarte; José-Julián Escario; José-Alberto Molina
  18. Using NAICS to Identify National Industry Cluster Templates for Applied Regional Analysis By Kelton, Christina M.L.; Pasquale, Margaret K.; Rebelein, Robert P.
  19. Conformism and Social Connections: An Empirical Analysis of Self-Commitment to Food Purchase By Matteo Ploner
  20. Modelling residential water demand with fixed volumetric charging in a large urban municipality: The case of Brisbane, Australia By Mark Hoffman; Andrew Worthington; Helen Higgs
  21. Immigrants Assimilate as Communities, Not Just as Individuals By Timothy J. Hatton; Andrew Leigh
  22. Schooling and Citizenship: Evidence from Compulsory Schooling Reforms By Thomas Siedler
  23. Competing in taxes and investment under fiscal equalization By Jean, HINDRIKS; Susana, PERALTA; Sholmo, WEBER
  24. Is spatial dependence an instantaneous effect? Some evidence in economic series of Spanish provinces. By Chasco, Coro; López, Fernando
  25. Market size and attendance in English Premier League football By Rob Simmons; Babatunde Buraimo
  26. New Zealand Regions, 1986-2001: Industries and Occupations By Ian Pool; Sandra Baxendine; William Cochrane; James Lindop
  27. L'enseignement supérieur, un élément de la dynamique des territoires. By Michel Vernières

  1. By: Rose Cunningham; Ilan Kolet
    Abstract: Housing wealth is a large component of total wealth and plays an important role in aggregate business cycles. In this paper, we explore data on real house price cycles at the aggregate level and city level for the United States and Canada. Using a panel of 137 cities, we examine the duration, size, and correlations of housing market cycles in North America. We find that North American housing cycles are long, averaging five years of expansion and four years of contraction, and there is a fairly high degree of correlation in house price cycles between U.S. and Canadian cities. We estimate a discrete time survival model with a probit specification for house price expansions and contractions. This model allows us to test for duration dependence. We find that housing market expansions have positive duration dependence since their exit probabilities increase with duration, while contractions seem to have no duration dependence. Standard determinants of house prices (interest rates, income and population growth) are included as controls.
    Keywords: Business fluctuations and cycles; Econometric and statistical methods
    JEL: E32 R21 C41
    Date: 2007
  2. By: Ammermüller, Andreas; Pischke, Jörn-Steffen
    Abstract: We estimate peer effects for fourth graders in six European countries. The identification relies on variation across classes within schools. We argue that classes within primary schools are formed roughly randomly with respect to family background. Similar to previous studies, we find sizeable estimates of peer effects in standard OLS specifications. The size of the estimate is much reduced within schools. This could be explained either by selection into schools or by measurement error in the peer background variable. When we correct for measurement error we find within school estimates close to the original OLS estimates. Our results suggest that the peer effect is modestly large, measurement error is important in our survey data, and selection plays little role in biasing peer effects estimates. We find no significant evidence of non-linear peer effects.
    Date: 2006
  3. By: Buettner, Thiess; Hauptmeier, Sebastian; Schwager, Robert
    Abstract: Recent literature has emphasized that redistributive grant systems may tend to internalize fiscal externalities arising from tax competition. This paper further explores the conditions under which local grant systems enforced by the state government will enhance efficiency. A system of redistributive grants among governments is introduced into a standard model of tax competition. This basic model is then extended in order to allow for variations in the government objectives at the state level. A subsequent empirical analysis of local tax policy exploits the experience with local fiscal revenue sharing in Germany. The results suggest that attempts of state level governments to extract fiscal resources from the local revenue sharing system exert an upward pressure on tax rates.
    Keywords: Fiscal Equalization, Tax Competition Fiscal Federalism, Germany
    JEL: H71 H77
    Date: 2006
  4. By: GUILLAIN, Rachel (LEG - CNRS UMR 5118 - Université de Bourgogne); LEGALLO, Julie (LEG - CNRS UMR 5118 - Université de Bourgogne)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the agglomeration patterns for 26 manufacturing and services sectors in Paris and its surroundings in 1999. We adopt a methodology allowing the measurement of the degree of spatial agglomeration and the identification of location patterns of economic sectors. First, we compute the locational Gini coefficient and Moran's I statistics of global spatial autocorrelation. We show that these measures provide different but complementary information about the spatial agglomeration of the sectors considered. Second, we use the tools of Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis. Moran scatterplots and LISA statistics reveal a high level of diversity in location patterns across sectors.
    Keywords: Agglomeration, Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis, Location Patterns, Spatial Autocorrelation
    Date: 2007–01
  5. By: Pieter A. Gautier (Free University of Amsterdam, Tinbergen Institute and IZA); Arjen Siegmann (Free University Amsterdam and Netherlands Central Bank); Aico Van Vuuren (Free University Amsterdam and Tinbergen Institute)
    Abstract: This paper estimates the impact of the murder of film maker Theo van Gogh on November 2, 2004, on listed house prices in Amsterdam with a unique dataset. We use an hedonic-market approach to show that general attitudes towards Muslim minorities were negatively affected by the murder. Specifically, we test for an effect on listed house prices in neighborhoods where more than 25% of the people belong to an ethnic minority from a Muslim country (type I). Relative to the other neighborhoods, house prices in type I neighborhoods decreased in 10 months by about average 3%, with a widening gap over time. The results are robust to several adjustments including changes in the control group. There is no significant difference in the time it takes for houses to be sold in type I versus other neighborhoods. Finally, people belonging to the Muslim minority were more likely to buy and less likely to sell a house in a type I neighborhood after the murder than before.
    Keywords: difference-in-differences, migration, terror, housing market
    JEL: C31 C41 R21 R23 R31
    Date: 2007–01
  6. By: David Neumark (University of California, Irvine, Public Policy Institute of California, NBER and IZA); Junfu Zhang (Clark University); Stephen Ciccarella (Cornell University)
    Abstract: We estimate the effects of Wal-Mart stores on county-level retail employment and earnings, accounting for endogeneity of the location and timing of Wal-Mart openings that most likely biases the evidence against finding adverse effects of Wal-Mart stores. We address the endogeneity problem using a natural instrumental variables approach that arises from the geographic and time pattern of the opening of Wal-Mart stores, which slowly spread out from the first stores in Arkansas. The employment results indicate that a Wal-Mart store opening reduces county-level retail employment by about 150 workers, implying that each Wal-Mart worker replaces approximately 1.4 retail workers. This represents a 2.7 percent reduction in average retail employment. The payroll results indicate that Wal-Mart store openings lead to declines in county-level retail earnings of about $1.2 million, or 1.3 percent. Of course, these effects occurred against a backdrop of rising retail employment, and only imply lower retail employment growth than would have occurred absent the effects of Wal-Mart.
    Keywords: Wal-Mart, location, employment
    JEL: J21 R12
    Date: 2007–01
  7. By: Strauss-Kahn, Vanessa (INSEAD); Vives, Xavier (IESE Business School)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes decisions regarding the location of headquarters in the U.S. for the period 1996-2001. Using a unique firm-level database of about 30,000 U.S. headquarters, we study the firm and location-specific characteristics of headquarters that relocated over that period. Headquarters are increasingly concentrated in medium-sized service-oriented metropolitan areas, and the rate of relocation is significant (5% a year). Larger (in terms of sales) and younger headquarters tend to relocate more often, as do larger (in terms of the number of headquarters) and foreign firms, and firms that are the outcome of a merger. Headquarters relocate to metropolitan areas with good airport facilities with a dramatic impact, low corporate taxes, low average wages, high level of business services, same industry specialization, and agglomeration of headquarters in the same sector of activity, with all agglomeration variables having an important and significant impact.
    Keywords: Agglomeration externalities; business services; communication costs; congestion; corporate history; mergers; nested logit;
    Date: 2006–02–09
  8. By: Zoltan J. Acs; Monika I. Megyesi
    Abstract: Creativity is changing the way cities approach economic development and formulate policy. Creative metropolises base their economic development strategies, at least partly, on building communities attractive to the creative class worker. While there are countless examples of high-tech regions transforming into creative economies, traditionally industrial cities have received much less attention in this regard. This research draws on Baltimore to assess the potential of transforming a traditionally industrial region into a creative economy. It analyses Baltimore’s performance on dimensions of talent, tolerance, technology, and territory both as a stand-alone metropolitan area and in comparison to similar industrial metropolises. Using data from the US Census Bureau and research on creativity measures, this case study concludes that Baltimore has the opportunity to capitalize on the creative economy because of its openness to diversity, established technology base, and appealing territorial amenities. An important consideration in the transformation towards a creative economy is Baltimore's geographic proximity and access to the largest reservoir of creative talent in the US: Washington, DC.
    Keywords: creativity, creative class, creativity index, creative cities, talent, technology, tolerance, territory, bohemian index, gay index, old industrial cities, Baltimore, economic development, economic growth, entrepreneurship
    Date: 2007–02
  9. By: Ian Pool (University of Waikato); Sandra Baxendine (Waikato District Health Board); William Cochrane (University of Waikato); James Lindop (University of Waikato)
    Abstract: The development of social capital is significantly affected by benefit dependency of the population. This paper investigates measures of social cohesion and measures of dependency on society across the regions of New Zealand. Some of the measures looked at specifically are social security benefit use and convictions, custodial sentences and the prison muster across regions. The paper also focuses on housing and specifically considers overcrowding.
    Keywords: Benefits, Overcrowding, Convictions, Regions, New Zealand
    JEL: I38 K42 R21 R23
    Date: 2006–03–05
  10. By: Steve Bradley; Colin Green; Gareth Leeves
    Abstract: We investigate the determinants of teacher exits from and mobility within the Queensland state school system. In common with previous research we find that non-pecuniary factors, such as class size and location, affect movement decisions but our results suggest a significant role for pecuniary factors. In particular, higher wages reduce exits from the public sector, especially in the case of more experienced female teachers. Locality allowances paid to teachers in rural and remote schools, where non-pecuniary factors are less attractive, appear to have some success in attracting and retaining staff in these locations.
    Date: 2006
  11. By: Chasco, Coro; García, Isabel; Vicéns, José
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the spatially varying impacts of some classical regressors on per capita household income in Spanish provinces. The authors model this distribution following both a traditional global regression and a local analysis with Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR). Several specifications are compared, being the adaptive bisquare weighting function the more efficient in terms of goodness-of-fit. We test for global and local spatial instability using some F-tests and other statistical measures. We find some evidence of spatial instability in the distribution of this variable in relation to some explanatory variables, which cannot be totally solved by spatial dependence specifications. GWR has revealed as a better specification to model per capita household income. It highlights some facets of the relationship completely hidden in the global results and forces us to ask about questions we would otherwise not have asked. Moreover, the application of GWR can also be of help to further exercises of micro-data spatial prediction.
    Keywords: Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR); spatial non-stationarity; spatial prediction; income; Spanish provinces
    JEL: R12 C21
    Date: 2007–01–24
  12. By: Jim Taylor
    Abstract: The Government and its agencies have seriously overestimated the impact of the specialist schools programme on educational attainment. The substantially higher exam scores achieved on average by schools with specialist status are due primarily to sample selection bias and not to any benefits flowing from subject specialisation itself. A fixed effects model is used on the panel of maintained secondary schools in England covering the period 1992-2005 to obtain this result. It is found, however, that the specialist schools programme has had beneficial distributional consequences. There is evidence that schools with the highest proportion of pupils eligible for free school meals have experienced by far the biggest improvement in exam results as a consequence of acquiring specialist status.
    Date: 2007
  13. By: Robert Dixon
    Abstract: In this paper we examine differences in the unemployment rates across regions within the five largest metropolitan areas in Australia using pooled regression analysis. We find that the level of within-city dispersion is positively correlated with the city-wide unemployment rate and that dispersion tends to be higher for females than for males. The elasticity of Absolute Dispersion with respect to the unemployment rate is close to unity implying, as we find, that Relative Dispersion is not related to the state of the labour market. We argue that this reflects the fact that there is considerable persistence of relative rates across regions within each city over time.
    Keywords: Regional Unemployment Disparities; Business Cycle; Unemployment
    JEL: E24 R11
    Date: 2007
  14. By: Lundin, Daniela (IFAU - Institute for Labour Market Policy Evaluation); Mörk, Eva (IFAU - Institute for Labour Market Policy Evaluation); Öckert, Björn (IFAU - Institute for Labour Market Policy Evaluation)
    Abstract: This paper exploits exogenous variation in the price of child care stemming from a major child care price reform, to estimate the effects of child care costs on parents’ labour supply. The reform introduced a cap on the price that local governments could charge parents, and lead to considerable reductions in the price of child care depending on family type and region. Since the price is de-termined by a handful of observed characteristics, we are able to match house-holds that are similar in all relevant aspects, but experienced quite different price changes due to the reform. Our difference-in-differences regression matching estimates are very precise, but mostly close to zero.
    Keywords: Labour supply; price of child care; difference-in-differences regression matching
    JEL: J13 J21
    Date: 2007–02–08
  15. By: Pieter Bevelander (IMER, Malmö University and IZA Bonn); Christer Lundh (Göteborg University)
    Abstract: This article studies the importance of local conditions for the employment integration of refugees in Sweden, this in contrast to most studies on immigrant economic integration primarily conducted on the national level or for the larger cities. The data used in the analysis is on male and female natives and twelve refugee groups for the year 2003. Besides monitoring the regional variation in employment integration of twelve refugee groups, this paper, with the use of logistic regressions, estimates the effect of individual and human capital characteristics, internal migration, municipality, local labour market and economic sector factors on the refugees’ odds of being employed. The local variations of refugees’ integration into the labour market were partly a result of internal migration, in most cases from less to more populated municipalities. The job opportunities were better in Stockholm than in other big cities like Malmö and Göteborg. The local unemployment and employment rates, a proxy for the local supply of jobs, significantly affected the individual refugees’ chances to obtain employment. This also applies to the size of the labour market through increased diversification in the supply of job openings. We also find that the structure of the local economy affected the refugees’ probability of obtaining employment. Areas with lower general education and skill levels were positively related, whereas, for example, university localities were negatively related to refugees’ employment chances. Refugees had higher probabilities of being employed in industry in less population-dense areas and in the private service sector in larger cities.
    Keywords: refugees, employment integration, local labor markets
    JEL: F22 J61 J68
    Date: 2007–01
  16. By: Bill Francis; Iftekhar Hasan; Maya Waisman
    Abstract: We find that the location of corporate headquarters significantly affects the firm’s bondholders. Similar to Loughran and Schultz (2006) and others, who show that investors are better able to obtain information on nearby companies, we look at firms located in large metropolitan cities, small cities, and rural areas and find that firms located in remote rural areas exhibit significantly higher costs of debt capital (of up to 65 basis points) in comparison to their urban counterparts. Unlike other studies that focus on the role of information asymmetries in the local bias of investors and decision makers, we are able to show that firms in remote areas experience greater costs of debt capital primarily because of a greater difficulty of monitoring their activities. We find that the adverse impact of bad corporate governance on bondholders is magnified in geographically remote firms, primarily because geographic distance reduces the effectiveness of external monitoring. Consistent with that, we show that in the private placement market, where firms are closely monitored by institutional investors, location plays no role in explaining the cross-sectional variation in the cost of debt capital across companies. We also find that the passage of the 2002 Sarbanes-Oxley Act, which brought about regulatory improvements in monitoring and governance, significantly reduced the agency costs of debt in rural firms. Taken together, our results indicate that the firm’s information environment interacts with the impact of corporate governance, particularly affecting the effectiveness of external monitoring in alleviating agency problems between insiders and debt holders.
    Date: 2007
  17. By: Rosa Duarte (University of Zaragoza); José-Julián Escario (University of Zaragoza); José-Alberto Molina (University of Zaragoza and IZA)
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to examine the factors which affect alcohol abuse and truancy among adolescents. We propose a new theoretical specification in which alcohol abuse and truancy appear as derived demands, given that they condition peer group and family acceptance, and we introduce unobserved individual effects that can influence both behaviours. Empirically, our paper develops an analysis where, after controlling for the existence of unobserved individual factors affecting both decisions, we test for peer influences. Our results first show evidence that alcohol abuse and truancy share unobserved factors affecting both decisions, and then confirm the existence of significant peer group influences on these two deviant behaviours.
    Keywords: peer, unobserved factors, risk behaviours, alcohol, truancy, bivariate probit
    JEL: I10 I12 I20 I21
    Date: 2007–01
  18. By: Kelton, Christina M.L. (College of Business, University of Cincinnati); Pasquale, Margaret K. (P & G Pharmaceuticals, Inc.); Rebelein, Robert P. (Vassar College Department of Economics)
    Abstract: Whereas FESER and BERGMAN, 2000, developed the concept of national-level cluster templates and introduced a systematic methodology to identify such clusters, their technique and results were based on the now-outdated Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system for categorizing industries. We update their results using the 1997 Benchmark Input-Output Accounts for the United States, which are based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Since the treatment of services is much more comprehensive under NAICS, we are able to expand on the Feser and Bergman manufacturing templates to identify more comprehensive mixed-sector templates. The cluster templates we determine can provide a foundation for regional economic development strategies.
  19. By: Matteo Ploner
    Abstract: Recent years registered a renewed interest in social interactions. However, due to some well-known identification problems, empirical estimation of peer effects remains quite problematic. To overcome problems of this kind, a database providing detailed information on the sequential structure of choices is analyzed. Observations refer to the deposit of money in a personal account devoted to the purchase of food at campus refectories. A clear tendency to conform to directly observed deposits is registered in the data. Furthermore, higher conformism is observed among mutually acquainted individuals.
    Keywords: Social interactions; Identification; Conformism; Social Proximity; Food Purchase
    Date: 2007
  20. By: Mark Hoffman; Andrew Worthington; Helen Higgs (School of Economics and Finance, Queensland University of Technology)
    Abstract: This paper uses household level data to model residential water demand in Brisbane, Australia from 1998 to 2004. In this system, residential consumption is charged using a fixed annual service fee with no free entitlement and a fixed volumetric charge per kilolitre. Water demand is specified as quarterly household water consumption and demand characteristics include the contemporaneous and lagged marginal price of water, household income and size, and the number of rainy (with at least some precipitation) and warm (greater than 19.5°C) days. The findings not only confirm residential water as price and income inelastic, but also that the price and income elasticity of demand in owner-occupied households is higher than in renter households. However, the results also show that weather, especially the number of warm days, is likely to exert a much greater influence on residential water consumption than any factors subject to the usual demand management strategies.
    Keywords: Residential water demand, two-part tariffs, fixed volumetric charge, demand management strategies
  21. By: Timothy J. Hatton (University of Essex, Australian National University and IZA); Andrew Leigh (Australian National University)
    Abstract: There is a large econometric literature that examines the economic assimilation of immigrants in the United States and elsewhere. On the whole immigrants are seen as atomistic individuals assimilating in a largely anonymous labour market, a view that runs counter to the spirit of the equally large literature on ethnic groups. Here we argue that immigrants assimilate as communities, not just as individuals. The longer the immigrant community has been established the better adjusted it is to the host society and the more the host society comes to accept that ethnic group. Thus economic outcomes for immigrants should depend not just on their own characteristics, but also on the legacy of past immigration from the same country. In this paper we test this hypothesis using data from a 5 percent sample of the 1980, 1990 and 2000 US censuses. We find that history matters in immigrant assimilation: the stronger is the tradition of immigration from a given source country, the better the economic outcomes for new immigrants from that source.
    Keywords: immigration, assimilation, US labor market
    JEL: F2 J3 J6
    Date: 2007–01
  22. By: Thomas Siedler (University of Essex, DIW Berlin and IZA)
    Abstract: This paper examines whether schooling has a positive impact on individual's political interest, voting turnout, democratic values, political involvement and political group membership, using the German General Social Survey (ALLBUS). Between 1949 and 1969 the number of compulsory years of schooling was increased from eight to nine years in the Federal Republic of Germany, gradually over time and across federal states. These law changes allow one to investigate the causal impact of years of schooling on citizenship. Years of schooling are found to be positively correlated with a broad range of political outcome measures. However, when exogenous increase in schooling through law changes is used, there is no evidence of a causal effect running from schooling to citizenship in Germany.
    Keywords: voting, civic engagement, education, externalities, instrumental variables estimation
    JEL: I2 H4 H23
    Date: 2007–01
  23. By: Jean, HINDRIKS (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Department of Economics); Susana, PERALTA (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE)); Sholmo, WEBER (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE))
    Abstract: The paper considers a model of a federation with two heterogeneous regions that try to attract the capital by competing in capital income taxes and public investment that enhance the productivity of capital. The regionsÕ choices determine the allocation of capital across the regions and their revenues under a tax sharing scheme. This framework allows for the examination of different approaches to fiscal equalization schemes (Boadway and Flatters, 1982, and Weingast, 2006). We show that tax competition distorts (downwards) public investments and that the equalization grants discourage public investments with a little effect on equilibrium taxes. However, the equalization schemes remain beneficial for the federation and, provided that the degree of asymmetry is small, for each region as well.
    Keywords: Heterogeneous Regions, Fiscal Federalism, Fiscal equalization, Public Investments
    JEL: C72 H23 H70
    Date: 2006–11–29
  24. By: Chasco, Coro; López, Fernando
    Abstract: The purpose of this article is to analyze if spatial dependence is a synchronic effect, as it has usually been defined. It is known that in many socio-economic phenomena spatial dependence can be not only contemporary but also time-lagged. In this paper, we use two Moran-based space-time autocorrelation statistics in order to evaluate the simultaneity of this spatial effect, allowing for mixed specifications with instantaneous and space-time dependence terms. Some applications with economic data for Spanish provinces shed some light upon these issues.
    Keywords: Space-time dependence; Spatial autoregressive models; Moran’s I; Spanish provinces.
    JEL: C21 C15 C51
    Date: 2006–12–13
  25. By: Rob Simmons; Babatunde Buraimo
    Abstract: This paper models the impacts of market size and team competition for fan base on matchday attendance in the English Premier League over the period 1997-2004 using a large panel data set. We construct a comprehensive set of control variables and use tobit estimation to overcome the problems caused by sell-out crowds. We also account for unobserved influences on attendance by means of random effects attached to home teams. Our treatment of market size, with its use of Geographical Information System techniques, is more sophisticated than in previous attendance demand studies.
    Date: 2006
  26. By: Ian Pool (University of Waikato); Sandra Baxendine (Waikato District Health Board); William Cochrane (University of Waikato); James Lindop (University of Waikato)
    Abstract: This paper provides an analysis which examines the differences in the industrial and occupational structure of New Zealand regions. Using data compiled by Statistics New Zealand from Goods and Services Tax (GST) registrations supplied by the Inland Revenue Department, it also looks at business size trends. The analysis in this paper points to a distinct change in the characteristics of the New Zealand labour force, a shift to a “More Highly Skilled Tertiary” sector. This paper shows that these changes did not occur uniformly across New Zealand regions. Instead, skills typical of the “new economy” or the “knowledge society” are concentrated in Auckland and Wellington, and to a lesser degree Canterbury. This trend has seen regional patterns of work diverge more and more.
    Keywords: Industry, Occupation, Regions, New Zealand
    JEL: J21 J24 L16 R23
    Date: 2005–12–16
  27. By: Michel Vernières (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne)
    Abstract: Higher education establishments have a very important role for local development, especially for medium-sized towns. Universities are at the origin of jobs, and income, therefore they play a role for local development. In the last decades, local authorities have found it logical to relocate universities in France. But, for the future, this effort to attract new university programmes will probably oppose overall national policy. Of course, in a national and international context of competition, the most powerful universities have a true comparative advantage.
    Keywords: France, higher education, local development, regional planning, relocation.
    JEL: I23 R58
    Date: 2006–12

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