nep-ure New Economics Papers
on Urban and Real Estate Economics
Issue of 2006‒12‒01
24 papers chosen by
Steve Ross
University of Connecticut

  1. Trade and the structure of cities By Jean Cavailhes; Carl Gaigne; Jacques-Rrancois Thisse
  2. Educational Effects of Alternative Secondary School Tracking Regimes in Germany By Weber, Andrea M.
  3. Design Quality Indicator for Schools in the United Kingdom By OECD
  4. Urban Transport in France : Moving to a Sustainable Policy By Bruno Faivre D'Arcier
  5. Using a discontinuous grant rule to identify the effect of grants on local taxes and spending By Matz Dahlberg; Eva Mörk; Jørn Rattsø; Hanna Ågren
  6. Ownership, Contractual Practices and Technical Efficiency: The Case of Urban Public Transport in France By William Roy; Anne Yvrande-Billon
  7. Size and Soft Budget Constraints By Ernesto Crivelli; Klaas Staal
  8. Resisting Economic Integration when Industry Location is Uncertain By Gallo, Fredrik
  9. Bridging the gap between growth theory and the new economic geography: The spatial Ramsey model By Raouf Boucekkine; Carmen Camacho; Benteng Zou
  10. Daily travel and inequalities: the case of low income populations By Lourdes Diaz Olvera; Dominique Mignot; Christelle Paulo
  11. Agglomeration, Migration and Tax Competition By Kurt A. Hafner
  12. Multimarket spatial competition in the Colombian deposit market By Dairo Estrada; Sandra Rozo
  13. Mekansal Etkiler Altinda Ampirik büyüme Modelleri: Türkiye Üzerine Bir Uygulama By Nazif Catik; Mehmet Guclu
  14. The income-distance trade-off of migrants young workers (In French) By Marie-Benoît MAGRINI (LEREPS-GRES)
  15. Why do budgets received by state prosecutors vary across districts in the United States? By Manu Raghav
  16. The effects of partisan alignment on the allocation of intergovernmental transfers. Differences-in-differences estimates for Spain By Albert Solé-Ollé; Pilar Sorribas-Navarro
  17. Fiscal Equalization and Yardstick Competition By Christos Kotsogiannis; Robert Schwager
  18. Optimal holding period In Real Estate Portfolio By Michel Baroni; Fabrice Barthélémy; Mahdi Mokrane
  19. Merged Municipalities, Higher Debt: On Free-riding and the Common Pool Problem in Politics By Jordahl, Henrik; Liang, Che-Yuan
  20. The Social Impact of the Banking Sector in Colombia, 1995 – 2002 By Juan Carlos Echeverry Garzón; Ángela María Fonseca Galvis
  21. Can shadow toll pricing be an alternative to investment grants? By Bruno Faivre D'Arcier
  22. Reforming the taxation of Multijurisdictional Enterprises in Europe, "Coopetition" in a Bottom-up Federation By Marcel Gerard
  23. Education Facilities for Young Children By Anne Meade; Fiona Ross
  24. Stability or regularity of the daily travel time in Lyon? Application of a duration model By Iragaël Joly

  1. By: Jean Cavailhes (INRA-CESAER); Carl Gaigne (INRA-ESR); Jacques-Rrancois Thisse (CORE, Universite catholique de Louvain, Institute of Economic Analysis, Kyoto University, PSE, and CEPR.)
    Abstract: Our purpose is to investigate how the interplay between trade, commuting and communication costs shapes the economy at both the interregional and intraurban levels. Specifically, we study how economic integration affects the internal structure of cities and show how decentralizing the production and consumption of goods in secondary employment centers allows firms located in a large city to maintain their predominance. Several new results in both economic geography and urban economics are established, which all agree with empirical evidence.
    Keywords: city structure, secondary business centers, commuting costs, trade costs, communication costs
    JEL: F12 F22 R12 R14
    Date: 2006–09
  2. By: Weber, Andrea M.
    Abstract: This paper examines educational outcomes of pupils selected to secondary school types by different tracking regimes in a German state: The traditional regime of streaming pupils after fourth grade of elementary school is compared to a regime in which pupils are selected into different secondary school tracks after sixth grade. Descriptive evidence demonstrates that the proportion of pupils reaching the highest level of secondary education is relatively small for those who attended later tracking schools. Additionally, the incidence of track modification is relatively frequent for schools with a high proportion of incoming pupils from the later tracking regime. However, less favorable educational outcomes of the later tracking schools are due to self-selection of relative low performers into these schools: The downward bias in estimating tracking regime effects is reduced considerably by controlling for a broad variety of socio-economic background characteristics. Corresponding regression results mainly indicate that there are no negative effects of later tracking on observed educational outcomes measured in the middle of secondary school. Regression analyses for different sub-groups suggest that the reading performance of immigrant pupils is better under the later tracking regime compared to the early tracking system.
    Keywords: education, segregation, streaming, tracking, identification, immigration
    JEL: I21 I28
    Date: 2006–11
  3. By: OECD
    Abstract: In December 2005, the United Kingdom launched a process for evaluating the design quality of primary and secondary school buildings. The Design Quality Indicator (DQI) for Schools is a tool that can assist stakeholders – teachers, parents, school governors, students, community members, local authority clients and building professionals – to achieve design excellence in new or refurbished school buildings and grounds. The DQI framework was developed by the Department for Education and Skills and the Construction Industry Council.
    Date: 2006–11
  4. By: Bruno Faivre D'Arcier (LET - Laboratoire d'économie des transports - [CNRS : UMR5593] - [Université Lumière - Lyon II] - [Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'Etat])
    Abstract: The organisation of urban public transport in France has some specificity in comparison to other European countries, even if problems are similar and the creation of the European Union leads progressively to an harmonisation. To understand these differences, it is first necessary to focus on historical and institutional aspects, including the 1982 Transport Law. This paper describes the evolution of the urban transport policy, giving illustration through the case of Lyon's conurbation; it highlights the reason for an unsuccessful attempt to reduce car use for urban trips, and discusses the main stakes for implementing new sustainable transport policies in French cities.
    Keywords: Institutional Aspect ; Public Transport ; Sustainable Transport Policy ; Transport Law ; Urban Transport Policy ; Lyon (France)
    Date: 2006–11–23
  5. By: Matz Dahlberg (Department of Economics, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 513, SE-751 20 Uppsala, Sweden and CESifo); Eva Mörk (Department of Economics, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 513, SE-751 20 Uppsala, Sweden); Jørn Rattsø (Department of Economics, Norwegian University of Science & Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway); Hanna Ågren (Department of Economics, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 513, SE-751 20 Uppsala, Sweden)
    Abstract: When investigating the effects of federal grants on the behavior of lower-level governments, it is hard to defend the handling of grants as an exogenous factor affecting local governments; federal governments often set grants based on characteristics and performance of local governments. In this paper we make use of a discontinuity in the Swedish grant system in order to estimate the causal effects of general intergovernmental grants on local spending and local tax rates. The formula for the distribution of funds is used as an exclusion restriction in an IV-estimation. We find evidence of crowding-in, where federal grants are shifted to more local spending, but not to reduced local tax rates. Our results thus confirm a flypaper effect for Sweden.
    Keywords: Fiscal federalism, grants, flypaper effect, local taxation, local government expenditure, causal effects
    JEL: H21 H71 H77 R51
    Date: 2006–11
  6. By: William Roy (LET - Laboratoire d'économie des transports - [CNRS : UMR5593] - [Université Lumière - Lyon II] - [Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'Etat]); Anne Yvrande-Billon (ATOM - Analyse Théorique des Organisations et des Marchés - [Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I])
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of ownership structure and contractual choices on technical efficiency in the French urban public transport sector. The central proposition, which relies on classical contract theory arguments, is that ownership regime and contractual practices are key determinants of performances.<br />To test this proposition, we use an original panel data set covering 135 different French urban transport networks over the period 1995-2002 and we apply a stochastic frontier methodology.<br />The econometric results corroborate our proposition: the technical efficiency of urban public transport operators depends on the ownership regime and on the type of contract governing their transactions.
    Keywords: Contracts ; Contractual Incentives ; Contractual arrangements ; Ownership ; Efficiency ; Performance ; Urban Public Transport ; Public Service Governance
    Date: 2006–10–18
  7. By: Ernesto Crivelli (University of Bonn, BGSE, Lennestr. 43, Bonn, Germany, 53113); Klaas Staal (University of Bonn, IIW, Lennestr. 37, Bonn, Germany, 53113)
    Abstract: There is much evidence against the so-called "too big to fail" hypothesis in the case of bailouts to sub-national governments. We look at a model where districts of di_erent size provide local public goods with positive spillovers. Matching grants of a central government can induce socially-e_cient provision, but districts can still exploit the intervening central government by inducing direct _nancing. We show that the ability of a district to induce a bailout from the central government and district size are negatively correlated.
    Keywords: bailouts, soft-budget constraints, jurisdictional size, public goods, spillovers
    JEL: H4 H7 R1
    Date: 2006–11
  8. By: Gallo, Fredrik (Department of Economics, Lund University)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the political determination of transportation costs in a new economic geography model. In a benchmark case with certainty about where agglomeration takes place, a majority of voters favour economic integration and the resulting equilibrium is an industrialised core and a de-industrialised periphery. Allowing for uncertainty, a high level of trade costs may win the election and maintain the initial distribution of industry. The reason is that a coalition of risk-averse immobile factors of production votes for the status quo due to uncertainty about which region will attract industry if economic integration is pursued. Finally, the standard view that agglomeration is unambiguously beneficial to residents in the industrial centre is challenged by introducing costs of undertaking economic integration.
    Keywords: footloose entrepreneur model; majority voting; new economic geography; regional policy
    JEL: F12 F15 R12
    Date: 2006–11–16
  9. By: Raouf Boucekkine; Carmen Camacho; Benteng Zou
    Abstract: We study a Ramsey problem in infinite and continuous time and space. The problem is discounted both temporally and spatially. Capital flows to locations with higher marginal return. We show that the problem amounts to optimal control of parabolic partial differential equations (PDEs). We rely on the existing related mathematical literature to derive the Pontryagin conditions. Using explicit representations of the solutions to the PDEs, we first show that the resulting dynamic system gives rise to an ill-posed problem in the sense of Hadamard (1923). We then turn to the spatial Ramsey problem with linear utility. The obtained properties are significantly different from those of the non-spatial linear Ramsey model due to the spatial dynamics induced by capital mobility.
    Keywords: Ramsey model, Economic geography, parabolic equations, optimal control
    Date: 2006–06
  10. By: Lourdes Diaz Olvera (LET - Laboratoire d'économie des transports - [CNRS : UMR5593] - [Université Lumière - Lyon II] - [Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'Etat]); Dominique Mignot (LET - Laboratoire d'économie des transports - [CNRS : UMR5593] - [Université Lumière - Lyon II] - [Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'Etat]); Christelle Paulo (LET - Laboratoire d'économie des transports - [CNRS : UMR5593] - [Université Lumière - Lyon II] - [Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'Etat])
    Abstract: The curent context of increasing social and spatial disparities raises the issue of universal accessibility to the city and its services, in particular for persons on low incomes. The issue of inequalities with regard to travel, which we have considered first of all at an aggregate level using the usual travel indicators (number of trips, distance covered, travel time budget) essentially comes down to inequality in access to the car. An analysis of recent changes in urban public transport pricing policy, a survey conducted within welfare and social integration agencies in the conurbations of Lyon, Nancy, and a series of interviews with individuals in a situation of precarity have been used to obtain a more accurate qualitative and quantitative picture of transport difficulties.
    Keywords: France ; daily travel ; low income population ; inequality ; public tansport pricing policy ; transport assistance
    Date: 2006–10–30
  11. By: Kurt A. Hafner
    Abstract: The paper focuses on tax competition and international migration in R&D sectors as agglomeration forces and trade restrictions are present. Core countries in economically integrating regions adapt tax rates to keep their industrial status quo. Unlike the often discussed “race to the bottom” result, tax rates are increased and the provision of public goods is maintained. Additionally, tax rates that redistribute between mobile and immobile labor lead to a tax burden that favors mobile labor. As economic integration continues, the cutback of factor mobility restrictions for skilled labor supports economic development in core countries at the expense of periphery countries.
    Keywords: Economic Geography, Agglomeration, Migration, Tax Competition
    Date: 2006–06
  12. By: Dairo Estrada; Sandra Rozo
    Abstract: This paper presents a multimarket spatial competition oligopoly model for the Colombian deposit market, in line with the New Em- pirical Industrial Organization (NEIO) approach. In this framework, banks use price and non-price strategies to compete in the market, which allows us to analyze the country and the regional competitive- ness level. The theoretical model is applied to quarterly Colombian data that covers the period between 1996 and 2005. Our results sug- gest that, although the country deposit market appears to be more competitive than the Nash equilibrium, there are some local areas within the country that present evidence of market power.
    Date: 2006–10–01
  13. By: Nazif Catik; Mehmet Guclu (Department of Economics, Ege University)
    Abstract: (This paper is in Turkish) In this study we analyze the regional development process in Turkey by using the two traditional regional empirical growth models, Neoclassical convergence equations and Post-Keynesian Verdoorn’s Law, for the period from 1990 to 2000 at the NUTS 3 level under the spatial effects. Evidence obtained from the convergence equations with non-spatial effects rejects the validity of both absolute and conditional convergence hypotheses, while spatial econometric models taking into account the interaction between the regions in the growth process reveal existence of a weak convergence between the regions of Turkey. The results indicate that regional development disparities and location significantly affect the growth process of the regions in Turkey. Verdoorn’s Law indicates that there is a strong positive relation between manufacturing productivity growth and output growth and hence, manufacturing industries are also subject to increasing returns to scale. However, spatial econometric models of Verdoorn equations show that there is no significant spillover effect to accelerate productivity growth in the regions. According to the results obtained from both specifications, interaction between the regions is very weak and limited. Therefore we argue that it is inevitable to review regional policies in Turkey to reduce regional development disparities.
    Keywords: Spatial Econometrics, Regional Growth, Convergence, Verdoorn’s Law, Spillover Effects, Mekansal Ekonometri, Bölgesel Büyüme, Verdoorn Kanunu, Yayýlma Etkileri
    JEL: C51 R11 R15
    Date: 2006–11
  14. By: Marie-Benoît MAGRINI (LEREPS-GRES)
    Abstract: Spatial mobility can be seen as an employment strategy to obtain job opportunities located into a different local labor market than the individual origin’s local market. That is migrants should have higher wages than non-migrants, as much more than migration effort should be compensated by job advantages following migration, according to the costs/benefits trade-off mechanism. Nevertheless some unobservable characteristics could generate higher or lower earnings as well as higher or lower migration probabilities. By considering migration’s distance of young workers, between the local labor markets at the end of their studies and three years later, we evaluate the real migration return of spatial mobility which reveal their migration costs/benefits trade-off.
    Keywords: distance, spatial mobility, human capital, youth’entry into the labour market, selection bias, endogenous bias
    JEL: J61 J24 R23 C34 C35
    Date: 2006
  15. By: Manu Raghav (Indiana University Bloomington)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes how the budget allocated to state prosecutors varies from one district to another and the reasons for such variation by using theoretical and empirical methods. The main results of this paper are as follows: Other factors being equal, more politically conservative prosecutorial districts get less budget, this decrease in budget with political conservatism is steeper in more affluent and also in more populous districts, and that there are fixed costs in operating a prosecutor’s office. Other less surprising results are that other factors remaining same, prosecutorial budget increases with the population, the crime rate, and with the affluence of the district.
    Keywords: Prosecuting Attorneys, District Attorneys, State Courts, Crime, Prosecution, Litigation Process, Budget
    JEL: K40 K41 K42 H72
    Date: 2006–11
  16. By: Albert Solé-Ollé (Facultat de Ciències Econòmiques, Universitat de Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal 690, torre 4, planta 2, 08034 Barcelona, Spain); Pilar Sorribas-Navarro (Facultat de Ciències Econòmiques, Universitat de Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal 690, torre 4, planta 2, 08034 Barcelona, Spain)
    Abstract: In this paper we test the hypothesis that municipalities aligned with upper-tier grantor governments (i.e., controlled by the same party) will receive more grants than those that are unaligned. We use a rich Spanish database, which provides information on grants received by nearly 900 municipalities during the period 1993-2003 from three different upper-tier governments (i.e., Central, Regional and Upper-local). Since three elections were held at each tier during this period, we have enough within-municipality variation in partisan alignment to provide differences-in-differences estimates of the effects of alignment on the amount of grants coming from each source. Moreover, the fact that a municipality may simultaneously receive grants from aligned and unaligned grantors allows us to use a triple-differences estimator, which consists of estimating the effects of changing alignment status on the change in grants coming from the aligned grantors relative to the change in grants coming from the unaligned ones. The results suggest that partisan alignment has a sizeable positive effect on the amount of grants received by municipalities. Length: 33 pages
    Keywords: grant allocation, alignment, electoral competition
    JEL: C72 D72
    Date: 2006–11
  17. By: Christos Kotsogiannis (Department of Economics, School of Business and Economics, University of Exeter, Streatham Court, Rennes Drive, Exeter EX4 4PU, England, UK); Robert Schwager (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen and Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung, Mannheim, Platz der Göttinger Sieben 3, D-37073 Göttingen)
    Abstract: A multi-jurisdictional system is thought to improve, through yardstick competition, accountability. At the same time equalization programs, a common feature of multijurisdictional systems, are thought to be a prerequisite for both efficiency of the internal market and the equity objective of the equal treatment of equals. This paper shows that such programs, by reducing the information context of comparisons across jurisdictions, introduce perverse fiscal incentives and thus reduce accountability. The consequence of this is that equilibrium rent-taking increases with the intensity of equalization transfers.
    Keywords: Equalization transfer programs; fiscal capacity; rent-seeking; fiscal federalism
    JEL: D72 H77
    Date: 2006–11
  18. By: Michel Baroni (ESSEC Business School); Fabrice Barthélémy (Université de Cergy-Pontoise (Théma)); Mahdi Mokrane (IXIS-AEW Europe)
    Abstract: This paper considers the use of simulated cash flows to determine the optimal holding period in real estate portfolio to maximize its present value. The traditional DCF approach with an estimation of the resale value through a growth rate of the future cash flow does not let appear this optimum. However, if the terminal value is calculated from the trend of a diffusion process of the price, an optimum may appear under certain conditions. Finally we consider the sensitivity of the optimal holding period to the different parameters involved in the cash flow estimations. This methodology may be applied in commercial valuation and enables to get an optimal holding period for a given portfolio.
    Keywords: valuation, DCF, optimal holding period, commercial property
    Date: 2006
  19. By: Jordahl, Henrik (Research Institute of Industrial Economics); Liang, Che-Yuan (Uppsala University)
    Abstract: We use the 1952 Swedish municipal amalgamation reform to study free-riding and the common pool problem in politics. We expect municipalities that were affected by the reform to increase their debt in anticipation of a merger, and this effect to be larger if they were merged with many other populous municipalities (i.e. facing a large common pool). We use ordinary least squares and matching on the complete cross section of rural municipalities for the period 1947-1951, fixed effects when exploiting the panel features, as well as a geographical instrumental variables strategy. We find an average treatment effect close to the amount that the average merged municipality increased its debt with during this period, which corresponds to 2.8 percent of average income or 63 percent of the average increase in income. However, we do not find larger increases in municipalities that were part of a larger common pool.
    Keywords: Common Pool; Municipal Amalgamation; Local Governments
    JEL: D72 H73 H74 H77 R53
    Date: 2006–11–22
  20. By: Juan Carlos Echeverry Garzón; Ángela María Fonseca Galvis
    Abstract: This document studies the impact of the banking sector on social variables in Colombia, and tries to identify how the difference in banking institutions’ development at the municipal levels influences economic and social prosperity of low income households and firms. One part of the literature emphasizes the role of the financial system in promoting this type of agents’ economic performance as long as it attracts them to the use of financial intermediation, making available to them the use of financial services and technologies, both in deposits and credit. Another trend in the literature studies specific characteristics of liquidity constrained agents. This study empirically identifies how bancarization influences poverty and investment on education, in the case of families; and economic performance and the number of firms, in the municipal level in Colombia for the period 1995-2002. When studying these effects we control for local variables such as public spending in investment, homicide rate and guerrilla conflict. The period of study was characterized by the end of an economic boom and recession, which influences our econometric results. This study shows that banking developments affect households’ education decisions and firms’ performance at the municipal level; it was also found that non performing loans are associated with the decrease in the number of firms, but a relationship between loans and the creation of firms was not present.
    Date: 2005–06
  21. By: Bruno Faivre D'Arcier (LET - Laboratoire d'économie des transports - [CNRS : UMR5593] - [Université Lumière - Lyon II] - [Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'Etat])
    Abstract: The development of Public Private Partnership for building new toll roads such as highways could be limited by the difficulties for raising public funding, as the new European rules impose the existence of a financial profitability for each new road trunk. Due to a higher expected rate of return for private funds, the need for public grants will drastically increase at a point that the state and the local communities will not be able to offer such amounts. Based on the results produced by the MEFISTO theoretical simulation model, the paper will discuss in which conditions shadow toll pricing could be a cheaper alternative to grants.<br />Several parameters have to be taken into account : the expected rate of return for private funds, the length of operation, the level of interest and the length of loans, the expected first-year operation benefit, its growth rate, and its share to cover the debt and the remuneration of private funds.<br />Two types of calculation are conducted: first to estimate the level of grants which will guarantee the expected profitability of private funds; second the search for the optimal shadow price to avoid investment grants. Simulations show the impact of each parameter and lead to identify which conditions are in favour of a shadow toll based.
    Keywords: Shadow toll ; Investment options ; Private Finance ; Public Private Partnership ; Road Finance ; Highway Finance ; Transport Infrastructure Networks Funding
    Date: 2006–11–23
  22. By: Marcel Gerard (FUCaM, Catholic University of Mons, ARPEGE, Dept Economics and Sociology, chaussee de Binche 151, B-7000 Mons, Belgium)
    Abstract: This paper investigates replacing separate taxation by consolidation and formulary apportionment in a Bottom-up Federation, when a multijurisdictional firm is mobile in various respects. The reform is decided cooperatively by all the jurisdictions or by some of them, while tax rates remain within the competence of each jurisdiction. The paper sets forth the conditions for the reform to be social welfare enhancing, while not increasing tax competition. Among them, the formula should emphasize criteria that the Multijurisdictional Enterprise cannot easily manipulate and the consolidating area should protect its capacity to levy taxes by adopting a crediting system, possibly extended to accrued capital gains, vis-à-vis the rest of the world. Policy conclusions are suggested accordingly.
    Keywords: taxation of multinational enterprises, consolidation and formulary apportionment, fiscal federalism
    JEL: H32 H73 H87
    Date: 2006–11
  23. By: Anne Meade; Fiona Ross
    Abstract: Educational buildings and grounds can provide a supportive and stimulating environment for the learning process as well as contribute to greater community needs. These issues were addressed at an international conference entitled “Making Space: Architecture and Design for Young Children”. Described here are the importance of outdoor space to learning in New Zealand, presented at the event, and a campus for pupils in Scotland (United Kingdom) visited by conference participants.<p> Access to outdoor space is seen as essential to New Zealand children’s development. An early childhood education consultant explains how the early childhood curriculum is linked to both indoor and outdoor spaces in line with socio-cultural learning theory.<p> A new campus in Scotland built to regroup several educational institutions for young children has been successful in uniting different faiths and integrating pupils with special needs. Further information about the conference is available in PEB Exchange no. 57, February 2006.</p>
    Keywords: United Kingdom, New Zealand, educational buildings
    Date: 2006–11
  24. By: Iragaël Joly (LET - Laboratoire d'économie des transports - [CNRS : UMR5593] - [Université Lumière - Lyon II] - [Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'Etat])
    Abstract: Escaping unidimensional analysis limits and linear regression irrelevancy, the duration model incorporates impacts of covariates on the duration variable and permits to test the dependence of daily travel times on elapsed time. In the perspective of a discussion of Zahavi's hypothesis, the duration model approach is applied to the daily travel times of Lyon (France). The relationships between daily travel times and socio-economic attributes and activity duration only support the “weak version of TTB stability hypothesis”. Furthermore the non-monotonic estimated hazard questions the minimisation of daily travel times.
    Keywords: Duration model; Non-parametric, semi-parametric and parametric approaches; Travel time budget; Zahavi's hypothesis
    Date: 2006–11–02

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