nep-tur New Economics Papers
on Tourism Economics
Issue of 2023‒10‒02
five papers chosen by
Laura Vici, Università di Bologna

  2. Does Tourism Influence Financial Development in Kenya? By MT Musakwa; N.M. Odhiambo
  3. Does International Tourism Spur International Trade in SSA Countries? A Dynamic Panel Data Analysis By N.M. Odhiambo; T. Saungweme
  4. Exchange Rate Elasticities of International Tourism and the Role of Dominant Currency Pricing By Ding Ding; Yannick Timmer
  5. Co-creating with ChatGPT for tourism marketing materials By Zhang, Yaozhi; Prebensen, Nina

  1. By: S. Nyasha (University of South Africa); N.M. Odhiambo (University of South Africa)
    Abstract: In this study, the key determinants of tourism development in three study countries – South Africa, Brazil and Vietnam – have been examined for the period from 1995 to 2018. Despite the growing empirical literature on the determinants of tourism development from a number of countries, these countries have remained understudied. The study uses two proxies, namely: tourism revenue (TR) and the number of international tourist arrivals (TA), to measure the level of tourism development. Using the ARDL bounds-testing approach, the findings of the study have shown that the determinants of tourism development differ from country to country and over time. In addition, the study shows that the determinants depend on the proxy used to measure the level of tourism development. Overall, the study found that the positive drivers of tourism in these countries are tourist disposable income, financial development, trade openness and political stability, while the negative drivers include exchange rate, price level and carbon emissions.
    Date: 2021–11
  2. By: MT Musakwa (University of South Africa); N.M. Odhiambo (University of South Africa)
    Abstract: In this study, we investigate the impact of tourism on financial development in Kenya using time series data from 1995 to 2017. The study uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bound testing approach to cointegration and error correction model to examine this linkage. To increase the robustness of the results, the study uses two proxies of financial development, namely broad money (bank-based financial development proxy) and total value of stocks traded (market-based financial development proxy). Results show that tourism has an insignificant impact on financial development in Kenya – both in the short and in the long run. The results apply irrespective of whether the financial development is proxied by a bank-based financial development indicator or by a market-based financial development indicator. This finding points to the fact that, although tourism is one of the main sources of foreign exchange in Kenya, it has no direct impact on financial development. The findings from this study add value to policy makers in Kenya by revealing the insignificant impact tourism has on financial development, although it is contrary to other studies that found a positive contribution. Based on the findings, Kenya may not anchor its financial development policies on tourism.
    Date: 2022–06
  3. By: N.M. Odhiambo (University of South Africa); T. Saungweme (University of South Africa)
    Abstract: In this study, the relationship between tourism development and trade in 12 sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries is examined during the period 1995-2019. Three proxies of trade are used, namely the total trade, total exports, and total imports of goods and services to examine this linkage, thereby leading to three separate model specifications. A wide range of modern econometric techniques were also employed to examine the relationship between the various proxies of trade and tourist arrivals. These include i) cross-sectional dependence tests based on Breusch-Pagan (1980) LM, Pesaran (2004) scaled LM, Baltagi et al. (2012) bias-corrected scaled LM, and Pesaran (2004) CD; ii) a slope homogeneity test based on Pesaran and Yamagata (2008); iii) an ECM panel cointegration test based on Westerlund (2007); and iv) a heterogeneous panel causality model based on Dumitrescu and Hurlin (2012), among others. Using the dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS) and the fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS), the study found that, overall, international tourism has a positive and significant impact on trade in SSA countries. This finding is also corroborated by the heterogeneous Granger causality test, which found a distinct unidirectional causal flow from international tourism arrivals to trade. The study, therefore, recommends that SSA countries should implement policies aimed at promoting international tourism in order to increase their international trade and boost their overall trade balance.
    Date: 2021–11
  4. By: Ding Ding; Yannick Timmer
    Abstract: In this paper, we estimate exchange rate elasticities of international tourism. Both the bilateral exchange rate and the U.S. dollar exchange rate relative to tourism origin countries are important drivers of tourism flows. The U.S. dollar exchange rate is more important for tourism destination countries with higher U.S. dollar borrowing, pointing toward a complementarity between U.S. dollar pricing and financing. Country-specific dominant currencies (CSDCs) play only a minor role on average but are important for tourism-dependent countries and those with a high concentration of foreign tourists. Consistent with dominant currency pricing, we also find that local hotel prices do increase strongly when the domestic currency depreciates against the U.S. dollar. The importance of the U.S. dollar exchange rate represents a strong piece of evidence of dominant currency pricing (DCP) in the international trade of services. The results suggest that the benefits of exchange rate flexibility for tourism-dependent countries may be weaker than previously thought and that a broad appreciation of the U.S. dollar is associated with a significant decline in tourism flows globally.
    Keywords: Exchange rates; Trade flows; Tourism; Dominant currency pricing
    JEL: F31 F14 F41
    Date: 2023–08–15
  5. By: Zhang, Yaozhi; Prebensen, Nina
    Abstract: This preprint reported two studies related to the application of ChatGPT in creating tourism marketing material.
    Date: 2023–08–14

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