nep-tur New Economics Papers
on Tourism Economics
Issue of 2023‒06‒12
two papers chosen by
Laura Vici
Università di Bologna

  1. Military Expenditure, Policy Syndromes and Tourism in the World By Simplice A. Asongu; Nicholas M. Odhiambo
  2. Influence of Embodiment and Challenges on Consumers’ Behavioral Intentions during a Virtual Reality Experience By Pierre-Henry Leveau; Sandra Camus

  1. By: Simplice A. Asongu (Yaounde, Cameroon); Nicholas M. Odhiambo (Pretoria, South Africa)
    Abstract: This study assesses the importance of military expenditure in moderating the role of insecurity dynamics on tourist arrivals or international tourism in 163 countries. It is framed to assess how the future of international tourism can be improved when military expenditure is used as a tool to mitigate perceived and real security risks that potentially reduce international tourists’ arrivals. The empirical evidence is based on Negative binomial regressions. The following main findings are established. Military expenditure significantly moderates violent crimes and perception of criminality to induce a favorable net impact on international tourist arrivals. The corresponding net effect is insignificant and negative for insecurity dynamics of “access to weapons†and “political instability†, respectively. An extended analysis is performed to assess thresholds at which political instability can be modulated for the desired net effect. This threshold is the critical mass at which the unconditional negative impact from political instability is neutralized with military expenditure. Policy implications are discussed.
    Keywords: Military Expenditure; Peace; Insecurity; Tourism
    JEL: D74 H56 Z32 Z38
    Date: 2023–01
  2. By: Pierre-Henry Leveau (GRANEM - Groupe de Recherche Angevin en Economie et Management - UA - Université d'Angers - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement); Sandra Camus (GRANEM - Groupe de Recherche Angevin en Economie et Management - UA - Université d'Angers - Institut Agro Rennes Angers - Institut Agro - Institut national d'enseignement supérieur pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement)
    Abstract: The development of virtual reality (VR) applications provides users to physically interact in the virtual environment as in a real experience. This new experience offers for brands a new way to promote their offer to consumers, becoming the avatar and accomplish goals based on gamification mechanisms like video games. While actors from different professional fields are developing VR experiences (VRE), especially in the tourism industry, several works has focused on the role of VRE on enjoyment but not between the role played by gamification between the feeling of embodiment (resulting of the VRE sensorimotor interactions) and behavioral intentions. The research aims to measure the effects of the feeling of embodiment during a VR tourism experience on consumers' behavioral intentions and the role of the challenges level offered as moderator. Results of the experimental (n=200), where the user embodies a kayaker exploring Antarctica, confirm that the feeling of embodiment induces positive behavioral intentions towards the discovered tourist destination. More specifically, a greater intensity in the level of challenges offered to achieve the virtual experience moderates with greater intensity the relationship between feeling of embodiment and behavioral intentions. On a theoretical level, research enrich literature in marketing through the concept of embodiment, never used before. The study also makes recommendations to professionals and VR application developers on the positive effects of VRE directly related to the feeling of embodiment as well as the challenges offered. Finally, the study sets out certain limits to follow for further research in the field of marketing.
    Keywords: virtual reality, embodiment, gamification, challenges, behavioral intentions, experiential marketing
    Date: 2023–04–24

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