nep-tur New Economics Papers
on Tourism Economics
Issue of 2022‒08‒08
three papers chosen by
Laura Vici
Università di Bologna

  1. The economic effects of the COVID-19 tourism downturn By Nathaniel Debono; Noel Rapa
  2. Preliminary Results on the Employment Effect of Tourism. A meta-analysis By Giotis Georgios
  3. Rural tourism in the province of Azilal, what socio-economic impacts for territorial development? By Bouchra Jeddi

  1. By: Nathaniel Debono; Noel Rapa
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to an unprecedented downturn in the global tourism industry. The Maltese tourism sector has also been severely hit by the crisis with total tourist expenditure in 2020 falling by 80% when compared to 2019. Given the unprecedented scale of the crisis and the considerable intersectoral linkages that characterise the industry, the downturn in the tourism industry is likely to have had far reaching effects in all sectors of the Maltese economy. The study uses a Leontief demand-driven model to estimate the overall effect that the COVID-19 related drop in tourism has had had on Maltese economic activity. Results show that the tourism drop has contributed to a 7.8% fall in overall GVA, with economic activity in sectors covering accommodation, food services activities, transportation services, agriculture, forestry and fishing and wholesale and retail trade being affected the most. The tourism industry has contributed to falls in private consumption and total exports of 6.4% and 6.2% respectively.
    JEL: Z31 C67 R15
  2. By: Giotis Georgios
    Abstract: Unemployment is one of the most important issues in every country. Tourism industry is a dynamic sector which is labor augmented and can create jobs, increase consumption expenditures and offer employment opportunities. In the analysis of this work, the empirical literature on this issue is presented, which indicates that tourism can play a vital and beneficial role to increase employment. This paper uses meta-analysis techniques to investigate the effect of tourism on employment, and finds that the vast majority of the studies reveal a positive relationship. The mean effect of the 36 studies of the meta-sample, using Partial Correlations, is 0.129. This effect is similar to the regression results which is around 0.9, which is positive and statistically significant, clearly indicating that tourism is effective in the creation of jobs and offers employment opportunities. Moreover, evidence of selection bias in the literature in favor of studies which produce positive estimates is found, and once this bias is corrected the true effect is 0.85-0.97.
    Date: 2022–05
  3. By: Bouchra Jeddi (Université Hassan 1er [Settat])
    Abstract: Tourism is considered as a sector of activity with a strong contribution to territorial development. The OMT, for example, consider it as the engine of socio-economic growth, by acting on poverty reduction and working for job creation, has chosen which has enabled it to acquire international status, as a development tool, which contributes to improving living conditions at the local level. Rurality in Morocco as in the world experiencing a strong dependence on the agricultural sector, which presents fluctuating productions, due to the succession of years of drought in these countries, has confronted the populations of rural areas with major problems, such as unemployment, poverty and exodus. The issue of possible development strategies in rural territories then began to emerge, emphasizing the importance of diversifying the economy of these rural territories, in order to compensate for the low yield of agriculture, by focusing towards other sectors of activity such as tourism, especially for territories with potential for the development of the sector. The development of a tourist activity in rural areas could therefore constitute a contributing factor to sustainable local development within rural Moroccan territories. In order to assess the socio-economic impact of this activity on rural territorial development, this article is based on an empirical study mobilizing a mixed approach, relying on a quantitative approach through the exploitation of the figures collected based on documentary research and a qualitative approach mobilizing the socio-economic indicators of rural territorial development, relating to rural tourist activity, which are employment, income and tourist supply and demand. These indicators were evaluated from the answers collected from the interviews held with the local tourism stakeholders interviewed, as part of a field study carried out at the level of a Moroccan rural territory which is the province of AZILAL. The results of this empirical study revealed that rural tourism has marked its role as a lever for territorial development in poor areas, which have a natural and cultural heritage favorable to the development of a tourist activity.
    Abstract: Le tourisme est considéré comme un secteur d'activité à forte contribution au développement territorial. L'OMT, à titre d'exemple, le considère comme moteur de la croissance socio-économique, en agissant sur la réduction de la pauvreté et oeuvrant à la création d'emplois, chose qui lui a permis d'acquérir le statut international, d'outil de développement, qui contribue à l'amélioration des conditions de vie au niveau local. La ruralité au Maroc comme dans le monde connaissant une forte dépendance au secteur agricole, qui présente des productions fluctuantes, dues à la succession des années de sécheresse dans ces pays, a fait confronter les populations des territoires ruraux, à des problèmes d'ordre majeur, telles que le chômage, la pauvreté et l'exode. La problématique des stratégies de développement possibles dans les territoires ruraux commença alors à émerger, en insistant sur l'intérêt de la diversification de l'économie de ces territoires ruraux, afin de compenser la faiblesse de rendement de l'agriculture, en s'orientant vers d'autres secteurs d'activités tels que le tourisme, surtout pour les territoires à potentiel pour le développement du secteur. Le développement d'une activité touristique dans le milieu rural pourrait donc constituer un facteur de contribution à un développement local durable, au sein des territoires ruraux marocains. Afin d'évaluer l'impact socio-économique de cette activité sur le développement territorial rural, cet article s'est basé sur une étude empirique mobilisant une approche mixte, s'appuyant sur une approche quantitative à travers l'exploitation des données chiffrées recueillies à partir de la recherche documentaire et une approche qualitative mobilisant les indicateurs socio-économiques du développement territorial rural, relatifs à l'activité touristique rurale, qui sont l'emploi, le revenu et l'offre et la demande touristiques. Ces indicateurs ont été évalués à partir des réponses recueillies des entretiens tenus avec les acteurs locaux du tourisme interrogés, dans le cadre d'une étude de terrain réalisée au niveau d'un territoire rural marocain qui est la province d'AZILAL. Les résultats de cette étude empirique ont dévoilé que le tourisme rural a marqué son rôle de levier de développement territorial dans les zones pauvres, qui disposent d'un patrimoine naturel et culturel favorable au développement d'une activité touristique.
    Keywords: Développement territorial rural,tourisme rural,indicateurs socio-économiques
    Date: 2022–03–31

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