nep-tur New Economics Papers
on Tourism Economics
Issue of 2021‒11‒01
four papers chosen by
Laura Vici
Università di Bologna

  1. Shaping digitalization among German tourism service providers: Processes and implications By Hannes Thees; Elina Störmann; Franziska Thiele; Natalie Olbrich
  2. The impact of Covid-19 on international tourism flows to Italy: evidence from mobile phone data By Valerio Della Corte; Claudio Doria; Giacomo Oddo
  3. Brace for impact! COVID-19, lockdown and the initial reaction and adaptability of Flemish travel consumers By Marco Scholtz; Kaat de Ridder
  4. Using sentiment analysis in tourism research: A systematic, bibliometric, and integrative review By Cristina Franciele; Thays Christina Domareski Ruiz

  1. By: Hannes Thees (KU - Katholishe Universität Eichstätt); Elina Störmann (KU - Katholishe Universität Eichstätt); Franziska Thiele (Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences); Natalie Olbrich (KU - Katholishe Universität Eichstätt)
    Abstract: Purpose: This study addresses the digital transformation in tourism, accelerated due to the COVID-19 pandemic. By linking the front-and backstage activities, a model of the tourism value system is sketched with the aim to assist the shift toward digital value creation in the case of the German tourism sector by asking, What are the challenges for the digital transformation of tourism service providers, and how can it be promoted along with the tourism value system? Methods: Recognizing the processual challenges of digitalization, this contribution builds upon a mixedmethods approach. First, a quantitative online survey (n = 372) was conducted by the German Competence Center for Tourism at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. The results were discussed in a workshop with 40 experts from the tourism industry in September 2020, where the COVID-19 pandemic was referred to. Results: The focus of tourism service providers is predominantly the digitalization of guest communication, whereas corporate strategies on digitalization are widely not available. Key findings of the survey indicate that competitiveness in digitalization will depend on the appropriate infrastructure, clear strategies, and organizational integration. Implications: The study affirms the increased speed of digital transformation against the backdrop of the COVID-19 pandemic and reveals the need for greater focus on internal processes. In addition, an orchestrated linking of the service providers in a digital ecosystem that is supported by national efforts is proposed.
    Keywords: Digital transformation,German tourism service providers,digital tools and value creation,digitalization of the tourism value system,knowledge gap JEL Classification: L83,N7,Z30
    Date: 2021–10–08
  2. By: Valerio Della Corte (Bank of Italy); Claudio Doria (Bank of Italy); Giacomo Oddo (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the response to the COVID-19 pandemic of inbound tourism to Italy looking at variation across countries and across provinces. To this end, it uses weekly data on the number of foreign visitors in Italy from January 2019 until February 2021, as provided by a primary mobile phone operator. We document a very robust negative relation at province level between local epidemiological conditions and the inflow of foreign travellers. Moreover, provinces with a historically higher share of art tourism, and those that used to be ‘hotel intensive’ were hit the most during the pandemic, while provinces with a more prevalent orientation towards business tourism proved to be more resilient. Entry restrictions with varying degrees of strictness played a key role in explaining cross-country patterns. After controlling for these restrictions, we observed that the travellers that could arrive by their own, private, means of transportation decreased proportionally less. Overall, this evidence emphasises that contagion risk considerations played a significant role in shaping international tourism patterns during the pandemic.
    Keywords: International tourism, travel restrictions, Covid-19
    JEL: I15 L83 F14
    Date: 2021–10
  3. By: Marco Scholtz (Thomas More Kempen (BELGIUM) - Thomas More Kempen (BELGIUM)); Kaat de Ridder (Thomas More Kempen (BELGIUM) - Thomas More Kempen (BELGIUM))
    Abstract: Purpose: To determine the influence of COVID-19 and the first 2020 lockdown on Flemish people's initial travel behaviour perceptions, a hypothetical scenario was posed to respondents where they were asked to keep in mind a situation where they might be able to travel again during the summer of 2020 (July/August). This research had two main aims: i) the pre-lockdown travel plans for summer 2020 were determined; ii) the extent to which respondents would adapt their travel behaviour if they were hypothetically allowed to travel again by summer 2020. Methods: This exploratory research was done by means of an online quantitative questionnaire of which 1803(n) complete responses were obtained through convenience and snowball sampling. Results: The results revealed that respondents did have initial travel plans for the 2020 summer (July/August) period, but that they adjusted their planning to mostly travelling nationally/locally, potentially benefitting the local tourism industry. These findings (i) indicate the importance of directing marketing efforts towards the local travel market and (ii) contribute to literature regarding the resilience of the (local) tourism industry. Additionally, the research unveils how the industry should do long-term planning by taking the immediate travel behaviour changes of the Flemish travel consumers into account through regular intervals of consumer research so that it can pick up on possible behavioural trends and ready itself. Implications: Government, together with the industry, can work towards policies that act as a safety net during possible future industry disasters to minimize the negative impacts and foster a swift recovery.
    Keywords: Coronavirus,epidemic,lockdown,travel behaviour,tourism
    Date: 2021–10–18
  4. By: Cristina Franciele (UFPR - Universidade Federal do Paraná); Thays Christina Domareski Ruiz (UFPR - Universidade Federal do Parana [Curitiba] - UFPR - Universidade Federal do Paraná)
    Abstract: Purpose: Sentiment analysis is built from the information provided through text (reviews) to help understand the social sentiment toward their brand, product, or service. The main purpose of this paper is to draw an overview of the topics and the use of the sentiment analysis approach in tourism research. Methods: The study is a bibliometric analysis (VOSviewer), with a systematic and integrative review. The search occurred in March 2021 (Scopus) applying the search terms "sentiment analysis" and "tourism" in the title, abstract, or keywords, resulting in a final sample of 111 papers. Results: This analysis pointed out that China (35) and the United States (24) are the leading countries studying sentiment analysis with tourism. The first paper using sentiment analysis was published in 2012; there is a growing interest in this topic, presenting qualitative and quantitative approaches. The main results present four clusters to understand this subject. Cluster 1 discusses sentiment analysis and its application in tourism research, searching how online reviews can impact decision-making. Cluster 2 examines the resources used to make sentiment analysis, such as social media. Cluster 3 argues about methodological approaches in sentiment analysis and tourism, such as deep learning and sentiment classification, to understand the usergenerated content. Cluster 4 highlights questions relating to the internet and tourism. Implications: The use of sentiment analysis in tourism research shows that government and entrepreneurship can draw and enhance communication strategies, reduce cost, and time, and mainly contribute to the decisionmaking process and understand consumer behavior.
    Keywords: Sentiment analysis,tourism,bibliometrics,systematic review,integrative review,Vosviewer
    Date: 2021–10–18

This nep-tur issue is ©2021 by Laura Vici. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.