nep-tur New Economics Papers
on Tourism Economics
Issue of 2017‒04‒09
five papers chosen by
Laura Vici
Università di Bologna

  1. Effects of co-creation in a tourism destination brand image through twitter By Revilla Hernández, Mercedes; Santana Talavera, Agustín; Parra López, Eduardo
  2. Modelling nature-based tourism’s impact on rural livelihoods and natural resources in Sikunga Conservancy, Namibia By Steven Gronau; Dr Etti Maria Winter; Prof Ulrike Grote
  3. Tourism multipliers in the Mexican economy By Kido-Cruz, Antonio
  4. Global Service Value Chain in Japan: Inbound tourism cases By KONISHI Yoko
  5. Exploring Factors that Influence Domestic Tourists’ Satisfaction with Budget Hotel Services in Egypt By Hossam, Samy

  1. By: Revilla Hernández, Mercedes; Santana Talavera, Agustín; Parra López, Eduardo
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of co-creation of a tourist brand image projected in Twitter by using NVIVO 11. It takes the case study of the Smart Fuerteventura brand, an ecotourism association made up of a group of local firms. The brand concept is linked to the enhancement of heritage of the island of Fuerteventura, that is included in the World Network of Biosphere Reserves. The results show that there is no brand awareness and co-creation is negative. This analysis can contribute to methodologies on marketing strategies within the framework of co-creation in similar destinations.
    Keywords: Co-creation of brand image, user generated content, social networking, projected image, branding online
    JEL: L83 M1 M31 O1
    Date: 2016–06–12
  2. By: Steven Gronau; Dr Etti Maria Winter; Prof Ulrike Grote
    Abstract: Nature-based tourism is growing globally and seen as an economic development path for many countries. Namibia links nature-based tourism into the Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) concept; combining conservation, tourism and the improvement of livelihoods of rural communities that are yet not always complementary. They can also be conflicting. Through the CBNRM program local population is registered as a ‘conservancy’ (a territorial unit) which officially owns and manages collectively their natural resources, for finally encouraging and supporting tourism. Thus, communities have an incentive to manage their wildlife and natural resources sustainable to derive an economic benefit from tourism. Economic benefits from tourism can be mainly generated through enterprises, offering employments and cash incomes to rural communities. However, the degree of participation in tourism depends on the suitability with their existing livelihood system, involving trade-offs on the farm like households land and labor allocation, subsistence requirements and expenditures as well as the choice of different activities affected by seasonality. Finally, subject to different opportunity costs, leading to the question: (i) Is nature-based tourism a means to improve livelihoods of rural communities? Further, the number of tourists entering natural sites, like Zambezi, and spending cash in rural environments is influenced by regional attractiveness, which is conflicting with the increasing exploitation of natural resources from and within rural communities. This double sided demand for same resources also implies trade-offs, which are tried to be harmonized with the CBNRM program, thus arising the question: (ii) Does nature-based tourism have the potential to reduce overfishing? This paper aims to optimize these trade-offs constructing a mathematical programming model based in the Sikunga Conservancy. An optimization model was constructed for the Sikunga Conservancy to simulate a properly working CBNRM so that a communities social welfare criterion is maximized. Thus, the model can be viewed as a central planning model for optimal resource allocation aimed at maximizing social welfare for the Sikunga Conservancy community, while implying an adequately and collectively managed CBNRM. The mathematical programming model was constructed using General Algebraic Modelling System (GAMS) Software to reflect the livelihood system of the rural community and was run for the 197 sampled households (done in 2012). Two simulations are conducted: A reference and a CBNRM case. The reference case reproduces the livelihood system of the community in the Sikunga Conservancy, whereas the CBNRM case simulates an adequate managed CBNRM and analyzes the effects of nature-based tourism within the concept. In line with the goals of CBNRM to improve livelihoods as well as nutrition, nutritional requirements are increased in the simulation. CBNRM also aims at conserving wildlife and using natural resources sustainably. Due to Sikunga’s high dependence on fish resources for their livelihoods but also for angling tourism, the simulation puts the model under the umbrella of sustainable use of the fish resource. For this, a biological growth model was integrated that calculates a sustainable resource extraction by the conservancy. The simulation searches for reducing overfishing under consideration of household’s livelihood system as well as tourism as a possible means to foster sustainability (conservation management). It connects nature-based tourism with the CBNRM concept. Reference solution showed that Sikunga community’s livelihood activities are diversified and that nature-based tourism is an important source of income, with local fishing lodges offering employments within the conservancy over the whole year. Especially fish resources are of high regional importance for household’s subsistence consumption and cash income. However, fish stocks are being harvested over the rate of sustainable yield, contributing to the problem of overfishing in the Zambezi region. This in turn threats community’s livelihoods while heavily affecting the regional tourism sector, mainly consisting of recreational fishing (sport angling). Additionally, it was found that the community lacks for an adequate nutrition. Issues with continued malnourishment are likely to hinder development for the community including the success of CBNRM and their partnership with tourism operators, thus need to be considered for a potential well-working concept. Consequently a CBNRM case was run, that accounted for a proper management. The simulation focused on the conservation of fish resources which are fundamental for regions livelihoods as well as tourism number, demand and potential sector growth. Models solution showed that nature-based tourism is a means to improve livelihoods of rural communities. A marginal social welfare loss of the Sikunga community, due to a sustainable fish resource use implication, were stated to be harmonized with the potential conservancy benefits from nature-based tourism. Therefore the community needs to conserve their natural resources, especially fish, for being an attractive site for tourism, thus fostering further tourism numbers and related establishments, which are basically for conservancy wide benefit. However, this demands an appropriate CBNRM. Additionally, nutritional levels within the community increase in the solution what also confronts the slight decrease in social welfare. Further, the model showed that if CBNRM is well-managed, nature-based tourism have the potential to reduce overfishing. Nature-based tourism, embedded in a sustainable fish resource use, heavily decreases catch numbers of rural communities within conservancies. It offers rural households an alternative livelihood strategy in tourism, which can take care of the people who have to reduce their fishing activity.
    Keywords: Namibia, Optimization models, Developing countries
    Date: 2016–07–04
  3. By: Kido-Cruz, Antonio
    Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of the multiplier impact generated by the tourism sector in Mexico in the year 2013. The importance of studying this sector, in particular, lies in its contribution to the National GDP of over 8% and in its promising development based on services’ quality and the preferred destination of the developed countries. In addition, it is proposed to simulate the multiplier impact that will generate two current events, as they are, the construction of the new International Airport of Mexico and the increase of the investment in Fibers. The results were very punctual, a better distribution of the investment is generated, it is invested in the tourism sector, mainly in variables such as value added and remuneration.
    Keywords: Multiplier effect, production, employment, value added, tourism
    JEL: L83 O1
    Date: 2016–08–30
  4. By: KONISHI Yoko
    Abstract: Japanese manufacturers are becoming increasingly dependent on non-manufacturing functions such as sales, leasing, and after-sales services as their main source of value added in global value chains (GVCs). We discuss the role of services in GVCs in observing the service industry's contributions to exports and growth of the Japanese economy. The service industry affects trade and the global economy in two ways. One is by exports of services directly to partner countries. Another is through observation of the services embodied in the manufacturing process for parts, intermediate products, or final products, which is known as indirect trade. In this paper, we focus on tourism because of Japan's favorable tourism market, which has grown rapidly in recent years. Also, tourism has a unique feature known as high tradability service and affects various industries (e.g., transport, retail, wholesale, restaurant, agricultural production, cleaning, information communication, etc.). In order to understand Japan's tourism GVCs, we propose the GVC map following Gerreffi et al. (2011) and estimate the ripple effects of the inbound boom to the Japanese economy using the input-output (I-O) table conducted by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI).
    Date: 2017–03
  5. By: Hossam, Samy
    Abstract: This paper aims to explore the primary factors that affect the perception of domestic tourists towards the service quality of budget hotels in Egypt. The factors were divided into three main constructs: physical quality, service quality and value for money. The primary findings reveal that the budget hotel location, cleanliness, maintenance, comfort level, hotel staff service, value for money room rates and food and beverage values are among the significant factors that influence domestic tourist satisfaction within predefined constructs. Primary Elements associated with the budget hotel stay were also ranked according to guest satisfaction.
    Keywords: Budget hotels, domestic tourism, guest satisfaction, value for money
    JEL: L83 M1 O1
    Date: 2016–07–12

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