nep-tur New Economics Papers
on Tourism Economics
Issue of 2016‒11‒27
six papers chosen by
Laura Vici
Università di Bologna

  1. Intra-tourism trade, income distribution and tourism endowment: an econometric investigation By Hanna, Joseph; Lévi, Loïc; Petit, Sylvain
  2. “Economic Impact of Cruise Activity: The Port of Barcelona” By Esther Vayá; José Ramón García; Joaquim Murillo; Javier Romaní; Jordi Suriñach
  3. International trade in services and inequalities: Empirical evaluation and role of tourism services By Petit, Sylvain
  4. Efficiency evaluation of Spanish hotel chains By Wiper, Michael P.; Veiga, Helena; Deng, Yaguo
  5. Destination performance: Introducing the utility function in the mean-variance space By Zhang, Linjia; Botti, Laurent; Petit, Sylvain
  6. An empirical investigation of German tourist anglers’ preferences for angling in Denmark By Ole Bonnichsen; Carsten Lynge Jensen; Søren Bøye Olsen

  1. By: Hanna, Joseph; Lévi, Loïc; Petit, Sylvain
    Abstract: Empirical investigation (Nowak et al., 2012) points out that vertical intra-industry trade (VIIT) in Europe is the dominant type of intra-industry trade (IIT) in the tourism sector. This article is the first in tourism literature to test separately the determinants of vertically and horizontally differentiated services, using the most recent models in the theory of IIT. We examine bilateral trade among all trading partners of the sample of European countries, covering the period from 2000 to 2008. We show that differences in gross domestic product per capita and the income-distribution overlap, as well as cultural proximity, are the most significant driving forces behind VIIT for European countries. Geographic distance has a negative effect, whereas specific tourism endowments and relative size of the economies are less conclusive. These results confirm theory predictions and most of the empirical findings related to the pattern of VIIT for the manufacturing sector. As expected, we find that determinants of VIIT cannot explain horizontal intra-industry trade in tourism. We suggest two alternative methods of estimation: generalized least squares logistic function and the fractional logit estimator. We conclude that there are common factors explaining IIT in the manufacturing and tourism trades.
    Keywords: intra-tourism trade, income distribution overlap, bilateral tourism flows, vertical differentiation, fractional-logit
    JEL: C31 F14 L83
    Date: 2015–01
  2. By: Esther Vayá (AQR-IREA, University of Barcelona); José Ramón García (AQR-IREA, University of Barcelona); Joaquim Murillo (AQR-IREA, University of Barcelona); Javier Romaní (AQR-IREA, University of Barcelona); Jordi Suriñach (AQR-IREA, University of Barcelona)
    Abstract: Tourism is a highly dynamic sector. An example of this is the boom that cruise tourism has seen in recent years, leading many countries to consider cruises a key product in their development of tourism. The Port of Barcelona has become the leading cruise port in the Mediterranean area (2.4 million cruise passengers in 2014), highlighting its role as both a port of call and a homeport. Such leadership is explained by the conjunction of several factors: its strategic geographical position, its high quality port and transportation infrastructures, and the attractiveness of the city of Barcelona itself, for both its cultural and artistic heritage and its leisure and shopping opportunities. This article quantifies the local and regional economic impact generated by cruise activity in the Port of Barcelona. Using input-output methodology, its overall impact is computed for the year 2014 as the sum of three partial impacts: direct effect, indirect effect and induced effect. This article is pioneering at the European level, in combining different issues: estimating the impact of the Barcelona Cruise Port activity, presenting these impacts disaggregated at a sectoral level, using a rigorous methodology and carrying out extensive fieldwork. The estimated impacts demonstrate that all sectors, not just traditional tourism-related sectors, benefit from cruise tourism. Despite the significant economic benefits that cruise activity has generated over the whole Catalan economy, it is important to note that such activity also generates negative externalities associated with congestion and environmental issues. The reduction of these negative effects is one of the major challenges in making the development of cruise tourism sustainable in a city like Barcelona.
    Keywords: Cruise Tourism, Port of Barcelona, Economic Impact, Input-Output Methodology JEL classification:C67
    Date: 2016–11
  3. By: Petit, Sylvain
    Abstract: This study investigates the impact of the international openness in tourism services trade on wage inequality between highly skilled, semi-skilled, and unskilled workers in the tourism industry. The sample covers 10 developed countries and expands over 15 years. A cointegrated panel data model and an error correction model were used to distinguish between the short- and long-run effects. The results are compared to those of openness of business services and manufactured goods. The findings point out that tourism increases wage inequality at the expense of the least skilled workers in the long run and the short run.
    Keywords: cointegrated panel model, error correction model, inequality, openness trade, trade of tourism services
    JEL: C23 D31 L83
    Date: 2016
  4. By: Wiper, Michael P.; Veiga, Helena; Deng, Yaguo
    Abstract: The tourism industry and in particular the hotel sector, is a highly competitive market. In this context, it is important that an hotel chain operates efficiently if it wants to maintain its market position. The objective of this work is to compare the relative efficiency of some of the largest hotel chains operating in Spain. To do this, we have designed a stochastic frontier model to measure revenue efficiency as a function of various different inputs such as total staff or number of rooms. Given that some chains are much bigger than others, both inputs and outputs are normalized by a measure of size. In contrast to previous works, we account for heterogeneity in hotel chains by introducing relevant inputs, such as the proportion of hotels in the chain with three stars or fewer, into the efficiency term of the stochastic frontier model. Our results suggest that in the Spanish case, in the period of the economic crisis, it was better in terms of revenue efficiency, for hotel chains to invest in hotels of three or fewer stars than in higher star rated hotels. Finally, we could find no clear evidence of a relationship between size and efficiency.
    Keywords: Stochastic frontier analysis; Revenue function; Heterogeneity; Efficiency; Bayesian inference
    Date: 2016–11
  5. By: Zhang, Linjia; Botti, Laurent; Petit, Sylvain
    Abstract: Economic characteristics of home countries can cause considerable variations in the tourism demand. For example, the average level of expenditure per tourist varies from one origin to another and these variations may alter overtime. Thus different tourist nationalities are associated with different level of expenditures and risks. Therefore strategies aimed at minimizing the variations may become an important issue for the policy makers. In this paper, we aim to use the productivity measurement theory in a mean-variance space to a French region (Nord Pas-de-Calais) by introducing the utility function in a mean-variance framework. With this method, we can calculate the optimal portfolio share for each origin and give some useful political advices to the policy decision makers to improve the performance of the tourist sector.
    Keywords: Productivity measurement; Mean-variance; Tourism efficiency; Efficiency decomposition; Utility function; Nord Pas-de-Calais
    JEL: C61 C67 L83
    Date: 2016
  6. By: Ole Bonnichsen (Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen); Carsten Lynge Jensen (Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen); Søren Bøye Olsen (Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen)
    Abstract: The quality of angling sites is important for attracting tourists who enjoy recreational angling. In this paper, we conduct an empirical analysis investigating which attributes of angling sites are particularly important for attracting tourist anglers from abroad. We conduct an online survey of 968 German anglers who have recently been abroad on a holiday trip in which they went angling. We focus on the particularly dedicated anglers who state that recreational angling is important for their choice of holiday destination. A stated choice experiment is employed to investigate their preferences for environmental attributes, catch attributes, and social relation/distance attributes of the angling site. We find that preferences are heterogeneous across different angler segments. Three distinct segments of tourist anglers are identified, characterised as “catch oriented" anglers (57 %), “nature oriented” anglers (24 %) and “trophy oriented anglers (19 %)”. All three angler segments have the strong preferences for water quality. However, they differ with respect to catch preferences and preferences for social interaction on the angling site. The catch oriented focus on the hunting aspects of angling. A high catch rate as very important for them, but the size of fish is not important. Moreover this segment prefers angling in solitude without disturbance from other anglers. For the “nature oriented” it is very important that the angling takes place in "natural" conditions, the catches rates are not important but they hope to catch large fish, and it is no problem for this group if there are a few other anglers at the angling site. For the "trophy oriented" anglers it is very important to catch large fish, while the catch rate is of moderate importance and they do not mind if there are many anglers at the site. To attract tourist anglers an angling site manager may use this information to target marketing efforts towards segments of tourist that prefer the type and quality of angling characteristics of the angling site in the managers possession. Additionally, he may seek to adjust and improve the angling sites in a way that suits the preferences of specific segments.
    Keywords: recreational angling, stated choice experiment, tourism, holiday destination
    JEL: Q22 Q26 C25 Z32
    Date: 2016–10

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