nep-tur New Economics Papers
on Tourism Economics
Issue of 2016‒07‒23
four papers chosen by
Laura Vici
Università di Bologna

  2. Economic Contribution Of Tourism To Economy By DÖNDÜ İLKAYA; YAÅžAR AYÅžEGÜL OÄžUZ
  3. A Methodology for Determining the Impact of the Political Environment on Marketing and Tourism By Neviana Krasteva

  1. By: Sabiha Kılıç (Hitit University); Yusuf Åžahan (Hitit University)
    Abstract: This study aims to identify web site design characteristics and consequently touristic product perception level differences depending on demographic characteristics of tourists and tourist types in tourism marketing, and thus to determine whether there are any differences among the touristic product purchase decisions depending on perception levels of tourists. Travel planner, domestic hotel and tour options, overseas hotel and tour options, transportation services, holiday opportunities and accommodation and tour options have been identified as web site design characteristics. Under the study, data have been obtained by using EEG (Electroencephalography) and eye tracking methods. With EEG method, numerical values at microvolt level were obtained from AF3, F7, F8, F3, F4, AF4 bands on prefrontal lobe areas of the subjects. Prefrontal lobe scans, picks, evaluates, construes stimuli from internal and external sources, creating new ideas and decisions. Therefore, an experimental analysis has been conducted on this area to evaluate touristic purchase decisions. Independent Sample T Test has been used in analyzing working hypotheses. Sample size under the experimental study consisted of a total of 26 volunteer consumers, of whom 13 were women, 13 men, aged 18 and above, who had the capacity to create demand and who purchased holiday package over internet. As a result of analysis of the data, it has been found that, by sex, male consumers had a higher level of perceiving the modules of travel planner, domestic and overseas hotel and tour options, transportation services and holiday opportunities relative to female consumers, that, by age, consumers aged 30 and above had a higher level of perceiving the modules of domestic and overseas hotel and tour options relative to consumers aged below 30, that, by income status, consumers having income of TL 5000 and above had a higher level of perceiving the modules of domestic hotel and tour options and holiday opportunities relative to consumers having income of below TL 5000, that, by educational status, university-graduate consumers had a higher level of perceiving the modules of domestic hotel and tour options, transportation services and holiday opportunities. Postmodern-tourist-type consumers were found to have a higher level of perceiving the module of overseas hotel and tour options relative to other tourist types. As a result of watching 117-second video incorporating web site design characteristics, consumers were found to focus mostly, for 6.211 seconds, on domestic hotel and tour options.
    Keywords: Tourism Marketing, Eye Tracking, EEG(Electroencephalography), Tourist Types, Web Site.
    JEL: M31 D87
    Abstract: Since the 1900s, the tourism sector has been getting more significance as an economic activity both in Turkey and worldwide. To develop foreign exchange, to create new job opportunities, and to have more money to pay external debts, tourism is of a quite important role. Moreover, tourism provides many additional benefits in different sectors and sources of income, such as food, accommodation, industry and construction, etc. In this study, general goal is to show economic contributions of tourism to developing countries like Turkey by obtaining and analyzing tourism activities. Furthermore, countries such as Turkey, Greece and Spain have been taken into consideration as the examples in this study. As a result, the importance and role of tourism sector in the economy of countries are examined in light of data that are collected from given examples.
    Keywords: Tourism, economy, exchange.
    JEL: A10
  3. By: Neviana Krasteva (International Business School, Botevgrad)
    Abstract: A method for the quantitative measurement of the political environment is developed, allowing for a reasonably accurate evaluation of the risk factors and their impact on the competitiveness of the companies in view. The quantitative part of the analysis is based on expert evaluations. The model is an adaptation of the foundation laid by Michael Porter – which is a classification of the factors of international competitiveness; for the purposes of the analysis the determinants of national competitiveness are decomposed into separate components-turned-variables (as per Shafael).From the derived results, a reasonably clear picture can be drawn about the true condition of the political factors and their impact. On that basis, conclusions can be drawn about the intensity of impact of each outside factor for the period of analysis. Revealed are those factors and determinants of the political environment which are conducive to business and competitiveness, and those who are not. Comparison between different companies in tourism becomes possible.A case study which is offered is the impact of the recent international events in and around Russia on the Spanish tourism market.
    Keywords: political environment, risk factors
    JEL: M31
  4. By: Pınar ÇELİK (Akdeniz University); Murat ÇAYLAK (Akdeniz University)
    Abstract: The more and more people tend to use the Internet and web tools because of the developing technology and Internet. One of the most important of these tools is social media, a new virtual media that users express themselves and connected with other users. This new media results in the new marketing approach that called as social media marketing and based on interactive participation of consumers. Social media content created by the user or firm has impact on the purchasing decisions of consumers. Therefore, the quantity of spoken and what is spoken about product/service in social media becomes important for firms as well as consumers. Since tourism sector offered the intangible services to consumer, in tourism sector it is important to have social media with quality of visual contents for traveler to have a positive impact before their trip. For that reason, the key objectives of the paper are to examine the application of hotel firms in Instagram that photo-based social media tool and to analyze whether is there any difference or not in photo preferences of a chain hotel operating in different regions. The official Instagram accounts and postings of International Chain Hotels Rixos Group between 20-30 April 2016 was examined by using visual content analysis technique. In this context, chi-square test was performed to reveal the relationship between posting numbers, follower number, followed user number, average number of like and average number of comment of hotels operating under Rixos Hotel Chain and operating in Turkey and abroad. There is a statistically significant difference between F&B and hotel services themed photos according to Kruskal-Wallis test that performed to reveal the differences between posted photos’ themes that posted by Rixos Hotels operating in Turkey and abroad.
    Keywords: Hotel Firms, Visual Content Analysis, Social Media, Instagram
    JEL: M00 M10 M19

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