nep-tur New Economics Papers
on Tourism Economics
Issue of 2015‒11‒01
nineteen papers chosen by
Laura Vici
Università di Bologna

  1. Air passengers? shopping behaviour and regional development By António Almeida; Luiz Machado
  2. Tourist Tax and Heritage Cities By Guo Ji
  3. Religious Tourism in Greece and regional development: The case of Samos Island By Chrysanthi Balomenou; Panoraia Poulaki; Dimitrios Lagos
  4. Centralized vs Decentralized Tourism Policies: A Spatial Interaction Model Framework By Guido Candela; Maurizio Mussoni; Roberto Patuelli
  5. Measuring lost recreational benefits in Fukushima due to harmful rumors using a Poisson-inverse Gaussian regression? By Katsuhito Nohara; Masaki Narukawa
  6. A few notes on the spatial development of the tourism industry in Madeira By António Almeida
  7. Evaluating HSR availability on Tourism: Evidence from Spanish Provinces and Cities By Daniel Albalate del sol
  8. A Spatial Analysis of Tourism Activity in Romania By Daniela-Luminita Constantin; Adriana Elena Dardala
  9. Logistic optimization in tourism networks By Armindo Frias; João Cabral; Ãlvaro Costa
  10. Residents? Perceptions of Film-Induced Tourism By André Rafael Ferreira; Raquel Mendes; Laurentina Vareiro
  11. Visa Waivers, Multilateral Resistance and International Tourism: Some Evidence from Israel By Daniel Felsenstein; Michael Beenstock; Ziv Rubin
  12. A model of cross-border tourism competition By Tatsuaki Kuroda; Kaifan Chen
  13. Tourism and economic growth revisited: Empirical evidence from a Panel VAR approach By Antonakakis, Nikos; Dragouni, Mina; Eeckels, Bruno; Filis, George
  14. Urban microclusters and tourism governance in Salvador/BA By Carolina Spinola; Jorge Antonio Silva
  15. Assessing regional tourism resilience: the case of Greece By Stella Karoulia; Eleni Gaki; Stella Kostopoulou
  16. How to Attract More Tourists to Korea? Possible Collaborations with China By Wenjun Zhong; Jinhwan Oh
  17. Economic Contribution Of Tourism By DÖNDÜ; AY O
  18. Demand Determinants of Cruise Tourism in Competitive Markets: Motivation, Preference, and Intention By Jamie Chen
  19. Cross-border tourism: Spain and Portugal, a common destination By Carmen Maiz-Bar; Xulio Pardellas; Carmen Padin

  1. By: António Almeida; Luiz Machado
    Abstract: Introduction/objectives: This study analysis the behaviour of shoppers at Madeira?s International Airport by taking into consideration a wide range of travel and socio-demographic related variables as well as the moderating effects of time pressure and overall spending while on holiday. Shopping at the airport, remains one of the most important tourist activity, and its contribution to the local economy is highly significant, as many passengers cannot admit to end the journey without liking around the shops or buying something. In fact, understanding domestic and international visitors shopping preferences and delivering high service quality that meets or exceeds expectations provides valuable showcase to sell iconic local products. Quite surprisingly, there is a dearth of research on the subject on peripheral airports, which is at odds with the key importance of such infrastructures at the regional level. Methods: Based on a sample of over 1000 passengers, we investigate which factors contribute decisively to higher levels of shopping and spending. Twenty different variables were checked to analyse the factors that condition passenger decisions to make either purchase in one of the airport stores or consume food/ beverage in a catering establishment. A bivariate probit model were applied because it is well suited to answer two questions (dependent variable) with closely linked answers by being influenced by the same factors. In order to check whether national and international visitors differed in their shopping preferences multivariate statistics and parametric and non-parametric tests where applied to identify significant differences between visitors?. Results/conclusions: Contrary to what was anticipated, socio-economic status only impacts marginally the level of spending, while travelling for business/vfr reasons results in passengers spending more. The bivariate model leads to the conclusion that travel motivations are a predominant impacting upon spending. It is also observed that low-cost airlines passengers spend less than those opting for traditional airlines, while high levels of satisfaction with the current holiday lead to higher levels of spending. The results also reveal that visitor?s motivations have positive impacts on commercial activities at the airport. And the results also shown that domestic visitors share more negative views in their service evaluations than their international counterparts. Moreover, the results provide strong support for the propositions of the study that domestic and international visitors differed in their evaluation of services and shopping item preferences. The results are of relevance to airport managers and local tourism policy managers, because it identifies which passengers are more interested in shopping. Although the airport managers cannot alter the essential characteristics of the respondents, a wide range of initiatives can be implemented in order to increase the respondents´ average expenditure levels by promoting regional products.
    Keywords: Regional development; Airports; Shopping preferences; Low cost carriers; Tourism
    JEL: R11 L83 L81 L93
    Date: 2015–10
  2. By: Guo Ji (Beijing Normal University)
    Abstract: Cities, especially those with cultural heritage, attract a large proportion of the world’s tourists each year. A large body of literature studies the sustainability of cultural tourism. It is shown that the excessive visitation of heritage cities strongly affects sensitive urban areas (Russo 2002). The costs of congestion caused by tourism include pressure and damage on urban facilities and premises, typically, historically and culturally important buildings, monuments and artifacts which have variable degrees of “non-excludability” and “non-rivalry” and thus are, at least partly, public goods. Furthermore, the congestion drives citizens and firms to abandon central locations, hampering local development. Spatially differentiated taxation aimed at visitors and tourists is adopted in parts of the world which may promote a more equitable allocation of costs of tourism. However, there is a surprising lack of analytical analysis on either the impacts of tourism on heritage cities or the efficiency of tourist taxation.This paper studies the interactions between tourist tax, local public good provision, which includes protection and restoration of urban facilities/cultural heritage, and the number of tourists in a scenario of multi-regional tax competition between governments of cultural heritage cities. On the one hand, tourism has a positive effect on private income in the heritage cities, as well as government tax revenue. On the other hand however, there is a tourism-related social cost which is equivalent to “congestion” of regular public goods. We believe that the efficiency of tourist taxation is the key to balancing the income and costs brought about by tourism.
    Keywords: tourist tax; city infrastructure; tourism externalities; tax competition
    JEL: H21 H23 R00
  3. By: Chrysanthi Balomenou; Panoraia Poulaki; Dimitrios Lagos
    Abstract: Religious tourism and tourism in general helps in the development and intensification of social and cultural relations. The issue of religious tourism comes under the general and sustainable development of alternative tourism, special interest and respect for holy places. Religious tourism is an emerging form of tourism which aims to quality and sustainable development. It places special emphasis on preservation, revival and development of religious and historical monuments for the creation of tourist flows. The pilgrimage was and it will continue to be an important motivation movement of people and this often associated with religious and historical value of monasteries or churches, religious celebrations and various historical events. Religious tourism can be further strengthened internationally if the areas of the tourist destination dispose various tourist resources apart from religious monuments. The religious and historical monuments are attractive tourist destinations internationally and in Greece. Samos is one of the richest islands in Greece as far as the religious and historical monuments are concerned and for this reason is one of the most suitable for the development of religious tourism. It disposes important religious attractions that are an integral part of the national heritage and attract tourists who may be part of propellant development of religious tourism. Samos for a long time has been distinguished for piety of its inhabitants and for its intense ecclesial life. This is testified by the many parish churches, its chapels, its private temples, and many of the monastic churches. Samos is distinguished for its very important and interesting cultural heritage with many Byzantine monuments, many remarkable archaeological finds, rich exhibits at museums, castles, monasteries, churches, et al. Samos has important religious sites, monasteries and churches, which are part of the national heritage and attract tourists. The main aim of this paper is to explore the prospects for the development of religious tourism of the island of Samos and to gauge its contribution to the regional development in Greece. Samos has the ability to develop religious tourism because the island has important religious and historical sites. In order to investigate the possibilities and prospects of development of religious tourism in Samos it was conducted a survey concerning the status quo and recording problems that hinder its development. For this purpose quantitative research conducted by using a closed questionnaire and the method of stratified sampling. This investigation showed that Samos as a religious destination has not been developed enough, but it has many prospects of growth. It is required to provide a framework of tourism policy at local level, which will include a number of selected actions for the planning and management of religious tourism.
    Keywords: Religious Tourism; Samos; Religious Monuments; Monasteries; Churches; Sanctuarie
    JEL: L83 O18
    Date: 2015–10
  4. By: Guido Candela; Maurizio Mussoni; Roberto Patuelli
    Abstract: The choice of centralizing tourism policies at the national level or, on the contrary, of decentralizing them at the local level is widely discussed in the literature, which highlights the related pros and cons. In fact, the simultaneous role of originator and attractor of tourism of each spatial unit may imply a range of complex and competing interests at various geographical scales. At any one time, organizations at the national, regional and local level are actively engaged in promoting tourism destinations in order to attract tourists. Nevertheless, potential competition/complementarity between regions in terms of their attractivity factors may imply a range of complex and competing interests at various geographical scales. In particular, in a framework of regional competition, a central (national) policy may be necessary to offset or coordinate the clashing regional interests. An increasingly important force of attraction for tourists (both domestic and international) is cultural tourism. For this reason, national and regional governments make great efforts to implement effective cultural tourism policies, for example to obtain an official certification for their historical/cultural attractions, like UNESCO?s World Heritage Sites (WHS) list. The WHS endowment of the regions surrounding a tourism destination may have a negative effect on its inflows of tourists (Patuelli et al. in J Geogr Syst 15:369?402, 2013). Indeed, tourists consider, in forming their travelling choices, the WHS endowment of alternative destinations, generating a phenomenon of spatial substitution (competition). This paper focuses on the choice between implementing tourism governance and policymaking at the central (national) or at the local (regional) level. The issue is raised by the following problem: (1) regional endowment (i.e., attractivity factors) may positively influence arrivals to tourism destinations, providing a justification for local policies (e.g., lobbying towards the national government for obtaining UNESCO?s WHS designations); (2) however, regional competition may reduce the positive direct effect, so that it may be necessary the intervention of the central (national) policy maker, to ?compensate? or ?correct? the local (regional) policies. The issue concerns the choice of how managing regional spillovers: regions could use their attractivity factors to gain a competitive advantage over other regions, but at the same time they risk damaging the national interest to attract tourists and increase the international market share. It is therefore critical to correctly balance and coordinate the tourism policies between the national and regional levels in order to effectively manage the regional endowment to cater to the cultural tourism demand. We stress that more profound insights into the problems and challenges of (de)centralized tourism policies can be gained by examining the national-regional choice, and in particular by using as a modelling framework, the ?normative? spatial interaction model.
    Keywords: tourism governance; tourism policies; spatial interaction model
    JEL: P48 L83 R12 R58 Z10
    Date: 2015–10
  5. By: Katsuhito Nohara; Masaki Narukawa
    Abstract: The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake hereafter, 'the Earthquake' and the accident involving radiation leakage at Tokyo Electric Power CompanyÂfs Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant No. 1 hereafter, 'NPP No. 1' brought fame to Fukushima Prefecture but not in a positive way. In general, economic damage caused by misinformation is defined as Âgdamage caused by groundless rumors, in particular, economic damage suffered by people or groups caused by improper news coverage, even though they have essentially nothing to do with an event or accident.Âh (Kojien sixth edition, 2008) This means that tourism in a given area will be affected by news coverage and misinformation that differ from the facts (for example, degradation in environmental quality at a recreation site), tourists will be deterred, and the economy at the site will be negatively affected. However, the degree to which such news coverage and misinformation affect peopleÂfs activities is largely dependent on those peopleÂfs state of mind. It is impossible to determine the exact number of visits that would have been made to the region in question had there been no such news coverage, no harmful rumors, and no environmental degradation. Thus, after the sensational news coverage about radiation at NPP No. 1, the inclusion of people in the survey sample who had never visited Fukushima Prefecture would have skewed the expected trip numbers and overestimated the monetary loss of tourism. This paper estimated the recreational benefits lost in Fukushima Prefecture due to rumor-driven economic damage from the NPP No. 1 radiation leakage accident in March 2011 to March 2014. Considering the hypothetical scenario in which a radiation leakage accident did not occur in Fukushima, we asked survey respondents how many times they would have visited the prefecture in this scenario and analyzed the responses using the Hypothetical Travel Cost Model. Since the survey participants were people who had actually visited the prefecture, we considered our data as pseudo on-site sampling. We thus expanded the Poisson-Invese Gaussian hereafter, 'PIG' regression model, which will improve the standard Poisson regression model in the analysis of count data with strong overdispersion, into a random effect model. In addition, to deal with the data collected through on-site sampling, we applied ShawÂfs correction to the PIG random effect model and used it to estimate the demand function for the recreational trip. The estimation results showed that Fukushima PrefectureÂfs lost recreational benefits due to rumor-driven economic damage totaled approximately 2.85 trillion yen over the three years from the radiation leakage accident to March 2014.
    Keywords: harmful rumor; hypothetical travel cost; Poisson-inverse Gaussian regression
    JEL: Q26 Q51 C35
    Date: 2015–10
  6. By: António Almeida
    Abstract: Introduction: This paper analysis the spatial dynamics of the development of tourism industry in a leading tourism destination in Portugal. Previous studies focused on the spatial dynamics of the tourism industry had shown that, at the very begin, hotels and tourism facilities are located in the main city and surrounding areas along the coast. Then, the hinterland is incorporated into the dynamics of economic development to sustain the development of mass tourism. Method: Based on the Plantation Model proposed by Weaver (1993), we provide an illustrative description of the progressive spread of tourism facilities from Funchal to rural areas into the island rural areas in the North Coast. Despite all efforts to develop from scratch alternative market niches, rural areas face severe obstacles in developing the tourism industry. Rural areas are deprived of key tourism ?raw materials? such as complementary services, an entrepreneurial attitude on the rural houses owners´ part, strongly linkages between the emerging tourism sector and agriculture and an ?autonomous? image abroad. All this issues are well evident in Madeira and we show that intra-island imbalances in terms of the accommodation capacity and tourism receipts are still a pressing issue. Conclusions: The aim of this paper is to apply the Weaver´ Plantation Model to the Madeira Island case study in order to conceptualize and understand recent developments in the tourism sector and to provide recommendations to bridging the gap between the South Coast and the North Coast. Based on the evidence provided, we highlight the importance of investments in infrastructure and increased levels of accessibility, and we argue for a comprehensive analysis of tourism benefits from a rural area point of view.
    Keywords: regional development; plantation model; Tourism; Madeira
    JEL: R11 L83 L81 L93
    Date: 2015–10
  7. By: Daniel Albalate del sol
    Abstract: This paper evaluates how changes in the provision of HSR services do affect Tourism outcomes in Spain, a touristic country that has the longest and newest HSR network in Europe. The empirical strategy is based on Differences in Differences panel data methods with double fixed effects. Main data is drawn from the Spanish National Statistical Institute (INE) and covers 50 provinces within a time span of 15 years (1998-2013). For municipalities we consider a sample of touristic cities (identified by the Spanish National Statistical Institute) and we follow their touristic outcomes with monthly data between 2005 comparing the before and after situation. Our preliminary results indicate that High speed rail accessibility does not promote tourist activity, but offers a negative statistically significant impact on tourism outcomes when evaluated at Province level. Timing effects analysis shows that HSR only provides higher numbers of tourists during the first year, but this is reversed soon in the second and third year of operation. This result could be explained by the rigid network design not attached to ridership needs that exerts a substitution effect on air transportation, the main mode for long distance tourist mobility. Finally, the analysis of HSR impacts on touristic cities receiving this mode of transportation does not show any distinguishable change after the inauguration of HSR services.
    Keywords: High-speed Rail; Tourism; Transportation.
    JEL: H54 L83 O18 R41
    Date: 2015–10
  8. By: Daniela-Luminita Constantin; Adriana Elena Dardala
    Abstract: Location is a key concept in tourism sector analysis, given the dependence of this activity on the natural, built, cultural and social characteristics of a certain territory. Consequently, the tourist zoning is an important instrument for delimiting tourist areas in accordance with multiple criteria, so as to lay the foundations for finding the most suitable solutions of turning to good account the resources in this field. The modern approaches propose in this respect a series of analytical tools that combine GIS and spatial agglomeration analysis based techniques. They can be also employed in order to examine and explain the differences between tourist zones (and sub-zones) in terms of economic and social results and thus to suggest realistic ways to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of tourist activities in various geographical areas. In the described context this paper proposes an interdisciplinary perspective (spatial statistics and geographical information science) for analysing the tourism activity in Romania, mainly aiming to identify the agglomerations of companies acting in this industry and assess their performance and contribution to the economic development of the corresponding regions. It also intends to contribute to a better understanding of the way in which tourism related business activities develop in order to enhance appropriate support networks. Territorial and spatial statistics as well as GIS based analyses are applied, using data about all companies acting in tourism industry in Romania provided by the National Authority for Tourism as well as data from the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI).
    Keywords: tourist zones; location analysis; GIS; economic performance
    JEL: R11 R12
    Date: 2015–10
  9. By: Armindo Frias; João Cabral; Ãlvaro Costa
    Abstract: Tourism doesn?t depend on a specific resource and enable the integration of local populations and economies, generating benefits that have a stronger effect on regional development. Literature main stream identifies tourism as one of the activities with high impact on the development and for many regions, especially for small remote territories. In our natural laboratory, the Azores Island of São Miguel, an important share of tourists identifies adventure, leisure and touch with nature, as the main reasons for the visit. In this sense, footpaths are an important tool to promote environmental and social education, encouraging the observation and improving the knowledge about the nature and endorsing greater respect for our heritage. Its use can contribute to the satisfaction of tourists, promoting tourism and the region's development during their movements on the tourism network, tourists appreciate different types of attractions and need the support of a set of facilities. Tourist decisions aren?t always done in a rational way, emotions add even more complexity to the human decision process. The movement of tourists within a destination and the level of satisfaction that they can achieve, depends on factors related to tourist characteristics, like the time budgets, preferences or destination knowledge, and destination features related to attractions characteristics or accessibility level. In order to offer relevant tourism products, stakeholders need to understand how tourists take their decisions and what their preferences are. That knowledge will be able to build optimized tourism products that meet the tourists? preferences and facilities that allow the use of the network in an optimal way by the different tourist profiles. The existence of a mathematical model that incorporates the main factors that explain the movement of independent tourists within a destination, in a dynamic way, will make possible the creation of an adaptable software tool. This tool will meet the specific needs of tourism and the needs of regional business and government, according to their endogenous features, improving the optimization of investments in transport networks and the infrastructure that supports tourism related activities. This article is based on the authors? previous research and identifies the relevance of tourism for regional development and finds the main tourists? mobility criteria on the studded territory, using as main support the footpath network. Additionally, recognises the necessary modelling process and developed the foundation for the building of the mathematical model that explains the movement of tourists within the destination, making possible a future adaptable software tool.
    Keywords: logistics; facility localization; networks; tourism; regional development
    JEL: R41 R12 R32
    Date: 2015–10
  10. By: André Rafael Ferreira; Raquel Mendes; Laurentina Vareiro
    Abstract: Abstract? This study?s main objective is to explore residents? perceptions of film-induced tourism and the impacts of filmmaking on the development of a destination. Specifically, the research examines resident´s perceptions of the social, economic, and environmental impacts on two Portuguese municipalities (Arcos de Valdevez and Estremoz) given their features in two popular Portuguese television series. Data is collected by means of an Internet survey in 2014, in which residents? perceptions of the impacts of filmmaking are solicited. Residents from the two municipalities generally agree that the recording and exhibition of the television series is important to their municipality, and contributes to the increased number of tourists. Given that residents consider that the positive impacts are more significant than the negative impacts, they supported the recording of other television series in the same municipalities. Although perceptions of residents from Arcos de Valdevez and Estremoz were similar, some significant differences were found. Considering that destination managers and tourism development authorities aim to plan for optimal tourism development, and at the same time wish to minimize the negative impacts of this development on the local communities, monitoring residents? opinions of perceived impacts is a good way of incorporating their reaction into tourism planning and development. The results of this research may provide useful information in this sense.
    Keywords: Film-induced tourism; residents? perceptions; tourism development; impacts
    JEL: L83 R58
    Date: 2015–10
  11. By: Daniel Felsenstein; Michael Beenstock; Ziv Rubin
    Abstract: This paper tests the visa-led tourism hypothesis (VTH) which contends that easing of visa restrictions increases international tourism. Israel acts as a natural laboratory in this case with clear before and after junctures in visa restrictions. We use panel data on tourism to Israel from 60 countries during 1994-2012. In contrast to previous work we take account of non-stationarity in the data and test for the effect of multilateral resistance on tourism. Partial waivers of visa restrictions are estimated to increase tourism by 48 percent and complete waivers increase tourism by 118 percent. Other results include the adverse effect of Israel?s security situation on tourism, the beneficial effect of real devaluation on tourism, and the fact that the elasticity of tourism to Israel with respect to tourism to all destinations is very small.
    Keywords: International tourism; visa arrangements; multilateral resistance; panel data
    JEL: C23 R23
    Date: 2015–10
  12. By: Tatsuaki Kuroda; Kaifan Chen
    Abstract: Tourism has long been important part of the economy. Specifically, it serves as a kind of resource that performs a significant role in national economies. With the rise of globalization, cross-border tourism has grown and induced intense competition among counties. The present paper highlights the situation in which the citizens of two countries have the opportunity to travel domestically and cross the border of the other country. The governments of both countries are assumed to be attempting to maximize the social welfare of their respective countries by choosing the appropriate domestic tax rates. The domestic tax serves as the source of funding for the improvements to the infrastructure of domestic tourism, including the areas of security, public facilities, natural areas, and artificial scenic construction. In the process, both governments compete for the attention of tourists. Each country in this game has a tourism industry in place. The two competing industries set the price of their services, including entrance fees or so, to maximize their profits and overtake each other. We consider two cases in the sequential game: (1) the case in which the tourism industry is the leader and (2) the case in which the government is the leader. We consider the factors that influence the tax rate and national income of both countries and identify a feasible strategy for their governments to maintain the attractiveness of their respective countries to tourists while remaining competitive. In the case in which the tourism industry is the leader, tax rates are found to be strategic complements, but each tax rate is independent of the wage rates of both countries. Moreover, the prices set by the tourism industries may be strategic substitutes under certain condition of parameters, in Nash equilibrium of this sequential game (1). In the case in which the government is the leader, the prices set by the tourism industries are found to be strategic substitutes. The price is in reverse proportion to the domestic wage rate, yet is in direct proportion to the foreign wage rate. The tax rate is in reverse proportion to the domestic wage rate, yet is independent the foreign wage rate, in Nash equilibrium of this sequential game (2). Finally, assuming some specific values for the parameters, we compare the outcomes of the two-type games. We found that the leadership of the governments is not always beneficial even from the consumersÂf point of view by the simulation.
    Keywords: tourism; competition; cross-border; sequential game
    JEL: F2 L1 L9 R1
    Date: 2015–10
  13. By: Antonakakis, Nikos; Dragouni, Mina; Eeckels, Bruno; Filis, George
    Abstract: The current literature on the tourism-economic growth causal relationship has not yet reached to a clear empirical consensus. The aim of this paper is to revisit this ambiguous relationship by examining the dynamics between tourism and economic growth from a more holistic view. In particular, we focus on 113 countries over the period 1995-2011, which we group into clusters based on six different criteria. A Panel Vector Autoregressive model is employed to reveal the tourism-economy interdependencies across these clusters. Overall, our findings cannot support the tourism-led economic growth hypothesis in any of our clusters. Rather, the economic-driven tourism growth hypothesis seems to prevail is most cases, although some short-lived bidirectional causalities are also identified. Thus, depending on the level of tourism competitiveness and economic development different policy implications apply.
    Keywords: Tourism income, economic growth, panel vector autoregressive model, generalised impulse responses, clusters.
    JEL: C32 F43 L83 O40 O57
    Date: 2015–10–23
  14. By: Carolina Spinola; Jorge Antonio Silva
    Abstract: The research that led to this article sought to analyze under what conditions the concept of tourism cluster could be applied in setting up a governance and development model for the activity in the city of Salvador, Bahia. Third leisure destination and the first capital of Brazil, Salvador has lost competitiveness to other cities in the northeast of Brazil much due to not having a governance system capable of establishing clear objectives and strategies for the destination. Starting from a broad literature review on the implementation of tourism and urban models of productive agglomerations, we performed a historical and cultural city zoning identifying a set of 6 microclusters that, by their identity aspects, were likely to be constitute a proposal for territorial organization of tourism in the city. Through field research, the feasibility of this proposal was tested, verifying the existence of the necessary conditions for the implementation of the suggested model, the research interviewed 32 experts linked to touristic trade and, based on a sampling error of 5%, 415 residents and 398 businesses in the areas studied. It was concluded that, with respect to the characteristics that define a tourist microcluster, starting by the local and limited geographical scope, the proposed sub-areas presented to respondents was supported by the opinion of the majority of them, that the neighborhoods have some kind of similarity with yours, and therefore, have an identity that unites them, forming a region with its own characteristics. The stock of intangible capital is unevenly distributed and the disparity of this indicator among the regions surveyed suggests that the difficulties in implementing local governance systems will also be unevenly distributed. Trade relations, as well as all network relationships are fragile or non-existent. There is not a sufficient level of diversification to ensure full compliance with the needs of tourists in these sub-areas, notably with regard to the possibility of accommodation and entertainment and infrastructural deficiencies are felt by all. Given all that has been pointed out, it is concluded that there is much to do to be successful the proposed regionalization of the city and its division into urban microclusters, as proposed. Creating tours and creative cultural itineraries territorially delimited, as suggested here, in a participatory manner, involving community residents and local businesses in their design and operation, however, can be a useful starting point.
    Keywords: Clusters; Tourism; Governance
    JEL: L8 R1 O1
    Date: 2015–10
  15. By: Stella Karoulia; Eleni Gaki; Stella Kostopoulou
    Abstract: During the last decade a new concept has emerged in the regional science debate, the notion of regional resilience, defined as the ability of a region to prevent, prepare, respond and recover after a disturbance, in order that this disturbance does not stand as an obstacle to the region¢s development. Regional resilience is characterized by the capacity of a regional economy to i) withstand external pressures, ii) to respond positively to external changes and iii) to adjust and to learn. According to the international literature, a region should exhibit certain characteristics in order to be considered as resilient, including resourcefulness, performance, redundancy, diversity, innovative learning, connectedness, robustness and rapidity. The aim of this paper is to explore the notion of resilience in the tourism industry. Tourism, an important economic activity and fast growing industry worldwide, is one of the main income ‎sources for many countries, including Greece. In Greece, tourism represents over 17% of the country's GNP and 18,3% of total employment. During the years of recent economic crisis, the Greek tourism sector has been affected less than other economic activities, indicating its importance for the Greek economy. Nevertheless, significant variations in the resilience of tourism on economic crisis impact seem to have occurred among regions and therefore research regarding regional tourism resilience has grown in importance. This paper aims to investigate the extent to which Greek regions are resilient as far as tourism industry is concerned. More specifically, we valuate the adaptability of regions, tourism destinations and actors to the socio-economic changes and the degree of resilience of each region during the economic crisis i.e. whether they can cope with it, overcome it and recover from it. Furthermore, we intend to investigate how the evaluation of present resilience can contribute to the improvement of resilience planning and management on a regional basis. The central thesis of this research is that regional variations in the tourism industry resilience call for regionally adjusted tourism planning and management policies. In order to achieve the aim of the research, we will examine the impact of economic crisis on regional hospitality industry employment, measured by the change in the number of jobs in hospitality business (hotels) within each region, and attempt to model employment resilience after the industry experiences an economic shock. Tourism industry is a critical source of regional economic activity, and therefore it is important to understand what happens to industry employment due to economic crisis and the mechanisms by which regional tourism industry resilience is achieved. In this way, we will investigate the impact of the socio-economic changes in regions and through the noted declinations we will estimate the extent to which these regions are tourism resilient in economic shocks.
    Keywords: resilience; tourism; economic crisis; regions; Greece
    JEL: R11
    Date: 2015–10
  16. By: Wenjun Zhong; Jinhwan Oh
    Abstract: Based on the gravity model, this paper analyzes China and South Korea¡¯s tourism patterns. Using a panel data set of China¡¯s international tourism flows from 32 countries for 1995-2012, and Korea¡¯s international tourism flows from 152 countries for 2005-2013, this study finds that the two countries¡¯ data sets are generally consistent with the predictions of the gravity model. We further investigated the predicted values of tourist flows with actual values to determine under-represented countries. Policy implications follow regarding how to attract more tourists to Korea.
    Keywords: gravity model; China; Korea; tourism
    Date: 2015–10
    Abstract: Tourism as a sector has become an industry whose importance has been increasing world wide as an economic entity via globalization since World War I. Tourism sector plays a role in paying external debts, obtaining new job opportunities and developing the present jobs by leading to foreign exchange earnings at times countries experience financial problems. Tourism industry nearly accounts for 30% of global service sector.Additionally, tourism has a comprehensive structure including many sub-sectors. So, the aim of our study is to draw attention to economic contributions to the countries to be obtained viatourism and to analyze the sector in this context. As to sampling and data collection, such countries as Turkey, Spain, Greece and Italy from the Mediterraneanb as in where tourism has great contributions to the economies of these countries were used, as well as using secondary data in the study.
    Keywords: Tourism, Economy, Foreign Exchange, Jobopportunities, Mediterraneancountries
  18. By: Jamie Chen
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to develop and estimate an integrated structural path model of the determinants of cruise demand, based on the nexus of motivation, preference, and intention of cruise tourists. The paper aims to identify the drivers of this demand in a growing competitive world market. Our model results show that different cruise motives have significant positive or negative effect on specific customer preferences and intentions, while some significant relationships between specific cruise preferences and intentions are also found. Based on our structural path model, a T-test is applied to compare the differences of cruise motivations and cruise preferences between the growing Asian market and the global cruise market, in order to trace the instrumental determinants of cruise passengers, leading to a new understanding of cruise competitiveness in different regional markets.
    Keywords: cruise; competitiveness; motivation; preference; intention
    Date: 2015–10
  19. By: Carmen Maiz-Bar; Xulio Pardellas; Carmen Padin
    Abstract: ABSTRACT: A new approach to the analysis of the border between Spain and Portugal, a basically rural territory, requires a debate about local development problems, among which we can find the effects of its configuration as a common tourist destination. This paper presents an assessment of several elements for that debate, and the common resources that can define the area as a common tourist destination. A design model is also provided, which can enable territory planning through the appraisal of those resources. Key words: common tourist destination, cross-border territory, destination design
    Keywords: common tourist destination; cross-border territory; destination design
    Date: 2015–10

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