nep-tur New Economics Papers
on Tourism Economics
Issue of 2015‒05‒22
twelve papers chosen by
Laura Vici
Università di Bologna

  1. Affective tourism destination image: the case of Portorož By Helena Nemec Rudež
  2. Effectiveness of education processes in tourism and hospitality in the Republic of Croatia By Luka Perman; Krešimir Mikinac
  3. Culinary tourism in Romania - professional points of view By Ada Mirela Tomescu; Elena Aurelia Botezat
  4. Education system as a factor of tourism development in Croatia By Mato Bartoluci; Zvjezdana Hendija; Mateja Petračić
  5. International tourism and economic growth in New Zealand By Mohammad Jaforullah
  6. Modeling tourism flows through gravity models: A quantile regression approach By Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano; Morelli, Mariangela
  7. The new profile of the virtual tourist-traveller: communicative perspectives and technological challenges By Raffaella Folgieri; Miriam Bait
  8. Adding sustainable value: integrating sustainability via a multi-disciplinary learning method in hospitality education By Niels Van Felius; Elena Cavagnaro
  9. Environmental value of beaches for the local community and tourists By Lidija Runko Luttenberger
  10. Internal marketing in the hotel industry By Vlado Galičić; Marina Laškarin
  11. The role of precautionary principle in environmental protection of coastal area By Axel Luttenberger
  12. Ljubljana quality selection (LQS) - innovative case of restaurant assessment system By Maja Uran Maravić; Daniela Gračan; Zrinka Zadel

  1. By: Helena Nemec Rudež (Faculty of Tourism Studies, University of Primorska, Portorož, Slovenia)
    Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate perceptions of tourists regarding affective tourism destination image of Portorož. Design/methodology/approach – Four semantic differential scales, proposed by Russel and Pratt, were used to for this study to measure pleasant/unpleasant, arousing/sleepy, exciting/gloomy and relaxing/distressing dimensions of affective tourism destination image. The survey instrument was a structured questionnaire. Data were collected across several locations in Portorož resulting in a sample of 417 tourists. Descriptive statistics is used in empirical research. Findings – Portorož appears to be generally perceived as a relaxing and pleasant destination. On the contrary, it is perceived to be neither an arousing nor a sleepy destination and neither an exciting nor a boring destination. Perceptions of an affective tourism destination image in regard to the main motive to visit Portorož are also analyzed. Originality – The paper enhances the slim body of knowledge on affective tourism destination image in the Mediterranean destinations.
    Keywords: image, destination, affective tourism destination image
    JEL: L83
  2. By: Luka Perman (Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Opatija, University of Rijeka, Croatia); Krešimir Mikinac (Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Opatija, University of Rijeka, Croatia)
    Abstract: Purpose – This paper seeks to explain problem of education and training of personnel in the hospitality and tourism sector, which takes a special place and special attention among jobs in the tourism, hotel and hospitality industry. The overall quality within the hospitality and tourism sector depends exactly on education and training, i.e. the overall level of education of employed staff. Design – An overview of studies and education programs supporting tourism and hospitality in the Republic of Croatia – the identification for the need of better educational system, evaluation and overview of educational programs and importance for tourism and hospitality. Methodology – Data was collected from tourists, statistical reports and analyses of variance used to identify problems in tourism and hospitality sector. Findings – The paper finds that there are only few programs which can influence on education level and career patterns of employed staff in tourism and hospitality sector. Also, service quality is one of the most important elements in tourism product, so major focus must be on service and performance, and education and training of staff create a new value-added product or service. Originality – The analysis of educational programs with its importance would be of interest to researches and educators, industry practitioners and other stakeholders in the tourism and hospitality sector.
    Keywords: education, tourism, hospitality, personnel, staff
    JEL: L83
  3. By: Ada Mirela Tomescu (Department of management and marketing, University of Oradea, Faculty of Economic Science, Oradea, Romania); Elena Aurelia Botezat (Department of management and marketing, University of Oradea, Faculty of Economic Science, Oradea, Romania)
    Abstract: The purpose – Romania has many resources for tourism development. The main focus of this paper is to provoke a debate about the opportunity of the culinary tourism development in Romania. Also, we intent to do an analysis regarding the premises for culinary tourism as niche in Romanian tourism. Design – During the past twenty years, Romania has issued various strategies/policies of development at national, regional, or local levels, but these, more or less, approached the development of the tourism sector as a whole. We open this paper from the question if in Romania, at the present moment, culinary tourism has the role that it really can have it, and if not, what solutions can we find to solve this? Method – The paper is the result of an empirical research, an exploratory study that includes literature review, meaning of seeking the good practices reported, and finally a SWOT analysis. Approach – Our paper attempts to outline the elements, which coordinate the Romanian tourism industry linked to this specific direction and also for future studies we intend to identify possibilities of development, namely culinary tourism based on application of some strong arguments consistent with local, regional and national characteristics. We chose this topic because we want to raise awareness of the stakeholders involved concerning developing this area, which we think can be transformed into a strategic direction of development. Findings – In Romania natural tourism resources are those which, over the years have been preserved in one form or another, untouched by human activities. These resources can be sold directly in tourism activity as "raw material" to create various tourism products. All this can be exploited, but we cannot compete with other countries that are more popular among tourists for the same kind of tourism. Judging all these we think it is normal to move towards a kind of tourism that we can differentiate and attract the interest of those who want to travel and have new experience, unique and authentic. We strongly believe that in Romania this possible direction can be culinary tourism. The originality of this paper – in our knowledge, at the present moment to deal a niche tourism, as culinary tourism could be in Romania, is a still a neglected objective, however this approach and this suggestion are novelty, as we demonstrated.
    Keywords: culinary tourism, niche tourism, Romania, SWOT, 3E theory
    JEL: L83
  4. By: Mato Bartoluci (Faculty of Economics & Business, Department of Tourism, University of Zagreb); Zvjezdana Hendija (Faculty of Economics & Business, Department of Tourism, University of Zagreb); Mateja Petračić (Karlovac University of Applied Sciences)
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper was to point to the characteristics of secondary (STE) and higher tourism education (HTE) in Croatian tourism and to stress its shortcomings that directly affect the qualification structure and the quality of those employed within tourism in the Republic of Croatia. Hypothesis was that in order to increase the quality and competitiveness of Croatian tourism it is necessary to increase the number of highly educated experts in all business organizations in tourism. Methodology – General scientific deduction and analysis methods were used to interpret the secondary data sources. The secondary data were collected from statistical reports, scientific and professional articles, and some Internet web sites. Additionally, the primary research was also conducted; to evaluate the efficiency of each education level the Delphi method of surveying experienced tourism experts was used. Approach – Efficiency of work in tourism, regarded as a labour-intensive economic activity, is the basic factor of labour efficiency and competitiveness, and consequently of economic effects in tourism. A specific characteristic of tourism is that it evaluates, on an economic basis and through labour and capital, natural and sociocultural resources, thus producing added value. Starting from the fact that the employment function is one of the most important economic functions of tourism, this paper investigates and presents the role of formal education system (STE and HTE) in education of experts who would prospectively work in tourism in the Republic of Croatia. Findings – Although the results of this analysis of STE and HTE system for tourism purposes in the Republic of Croatia makes it possible to say that there are relevant institutions and quality personnel that participate in this education process, when employment be taken into account, then the lack of highly educated experts (university and polytechnic level) becomes evident for tourism purposes in practice. The quality of experts working in top-management positions in tourism is also unsatisfactory. The originality of the research results from the fact that the primary research was conducted to test the hypothesis. This research confirmed the hypothesis of the paper that to increase the quality and competitiveness of Croatian tourism it is necessary to increase the share of highly educated experts working in tourism.
    Keywords: education system, efficiency of the human factor in tourism, tourism in Croatia
    JEL: L83
  5. By: Mohammad Jaforullah (Department of Economics, University of Otago, New Zealand)
    Abstract: This paper examines whether the tourism-led growth hypothesis holds for the New Zealand economy. Using unit root tests, cointegration tests and vector error correction models, and annual data over the period 1972-2012 on international tourism expenditure, real gross domestic product (GDP) and the exchange rate for New Zealand, it finds that the tourism-led growth hypothesis holds for New Zealand. The long-run elasticity of real GDP with respect to international tourism expenditure is estimated to be 0.4, meaning that a 1% growth in tourism will result in a 0.4% growth of the NZ economy. This finding implies that the New Zealand Government’s policy to promote New Zealand as a preferred tourism destination in the key international tourism markets may boost economic growth.
    Keywords: Tourism; Economic growth; Cointegration; Granger causality; Vector error correction model; New Zealand
    JEL: C32 F14 L83
    Date: 2015–04
  6. By: Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano; Morelli, Mariangela
    Abstract: Gravity models are widely used to study tourism flows. The peculiarities of the segmented international demand for agritourism in Italy is examined by means of novel approach: a panel data quantile regression. We characterize the international demand for Italian agritourism with a large dataset, by considering data of thirty-three countries of origin, from 1998 to 2010. Distance and income are major determinants, but we also found that mutual agreements and high urbanization rates in countries of origin are associated with larger flows of incoming tourists.
    Keywords: Flows, Arrivals, Agritourism, Gravity, PPML, Quantile Regression
    JEL: F22 L83 Q18 Q19 R23
    Date: 2015–04–01
  7. By: Raffaella Folgieri (Department of Economics, Management and Quantitative Methods, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy); Miriam Bait (Department of Economics, Management and Quantitative Methods, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy)
    Abstract: Purpose – The wealth of information delivered on the web and the opportunity to access it using different platforms has led to a new profile of consumer of tourist information: a virtual navigator, who represents a hybrid figure between the tourist and traveler. These new kinds of users access the web not only to plan and organize their holidays, but also to search for virtual tours of places and events that, otherwise, they could not physically explore. The purpose of this study is to outline the (new) marketing and communication potential offered by web 2.0, by means of a specific case study, centered on the English version of the official Italian tourism website Design – Our design has two parts: on the one hand, we will analyze, in the light of web 2.0, the profile of the virtual tourist-travelers: their requirements and most common searches, the implications of social apps and possible influence on traditional tourism communication; on the other hand, using the website as a starting point, we will investigate the functional aspects, together with the linguistic resources used to construct the image of Italy. In particular, examples of evaluative language are selected in order to shed light on the background knowledge the target audience is assumed to have. Methodology – In our study, two different approaches are combined in a multi-method analysis of the website, i.e. a technological/multifunctional analysis of usability and user experience (sentiment analysis), and a qualitative analysis of texts, within the framework of Discourse Analysis. Approach – In order to obtain more insight into tourists’ trends and preferences we developed a questionnaire. It allowed us to identify the most suitable technological tools to be used to enhance the tourist experience during a visit or a travel, but also in the search phase, prior to the travel. Findings – From the data collected and analyzed an interesting profile emerged, namely the virtual tourist-traveler. Preliminary results indicate that the search for the ideal touristic destination, the desire to go and experience new places is supported both by strategic, persuasive discourse and by technological choices. An increased use of web 2.0 tools contributes to enhancing the demand for more information and less advertising. Moreover, and surprisingly enough, these users make use of real-time communication tools – the so called “Twitter effect” – to report about their virtual experience as if it were real. A reason might be the need to compensate for the physical absence from the place or the impossibility to perform the trip. Originality – The innovative feature of our research lies in the results of the website analysis and the results of the questionnaires that contribute to identifying the new profile of the new virtual tourist-traveler. This represents an important stepping stone for future research in the field, both from the broad perspective of linguistic analysis, and from a technological point of view; both contribute to creating a seductive presentation of the destination, thus influencing tourist behavior and attitudes.
    Keywords: Communication Technology, Tourism, Communication Strategies, Qualitative Analysis, Destination Image, Behavioural analysis, Sentiment analysis, Discourse Analysis, Evaluation
    JEL: L83
  8. By: Niels Van Felius (Research Unit Service Studies, Stenden University of Applied Sciences, Leeuwarden, Netherlands); Elena Cavagnaro (Research Unit Service Studies, Stenden University of Applied Sciences, Leeuwarden, Netherlands)
    Abstract: Purpose – This paper addresses the issue put forward by Bynum Boley and Remington-Doucette by proposing a multi-disciplinary method, as an applicable learning method to integrate all three dimensions of sustainability in Hospitality education. The purpose of this paper is to request feedback of the industry partners and colleagues present at the conference to a proposed educational method that is possibly suitable in the design of a minor in sustainability for hospitality management. Design/ Methodology/ Approach – The educational method designed focuses on solving sustainability problems of the “real world” and extends the research on integrating sustainability in higher hospitality management education. Findings – Through the analysis of sustainability in Hospitality education and through adding the concept of the triple bottom line6 for value creation to the quadrants of the Hospitality Value Chain, an integration of sustainability in the system of hospitality education is considered and explored. Since sustainability is an everlasting process, education needs to be on the forefront in creating future change agents2. This possibly requires an alternative view on developing knowledge and skills of hospitality and tourism students via a multi-disciplinary approach/learning method. Practical implications – The designed learning method can be put in practice and used for further research on implementation of sustainability in higher hospitality education. The originality of this research –The originality of this research consist of the fact that this form of sustainable education is in its primary stage and not much debated yet.
    Keywords: Education, teaching method, sustainability, constructivism, and pressure cooker
    JEL: L83
  9. By: Lidija Runko Luttenberger (Komunalac d.o.o., Jurdani, Croatia)
    Abstract: Purpose – Bathing areas represent eternal destination for a man led by his/her pristine tendency for direct contact with nature. However, the sustainability of and the access to this delicate part of the already vulnerable coastal system is endangered by human activities such as shore industrialization, residential development, poor wastewater and stormwater management, soil impermeability, road construction and occupation thereof for private interests. In Croatia, the number, size and natural character of beaches is diminished, while seawater and air in coastal areas is increasingly polluted. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that in the case of beaches, the interest of public health, being a pronounced anthropocentric interest, coincides with the interest of maintaining healthy ecosystems and that balance of benefits and damages ensuing from present coastline development may hardly outdo overall rewards provided by healthy beach environment both for the local community and tourists. Design – The paper reviews beneficial effects of sea water, draws attention to the role of the beach, provides historical overview of urban beaches in Rijeka bay, elaborates pollution and land use threats to coasts and focuses on the challenges to environmental values of beaches in the region. Methodology –As the problem must be observed in depth and with holistic focus, the author applied qualitative research based on observations, author’s own experience, and the reports on previous research concerning in particular the urban beaches of Rijeka bay. Approach –Research approach is inductive. Findings – Urban beaches should be expanded both physically and visually to the detriment of non-profitable and polluting time-limited industrial sectors. Also, the construction in coastal hinterland, especially on karst soil, should be the object of particular attention of physical planning activities. Originality – The research is original as it establishes the relationship between overall quality of the environment and bathing area purpose and elaborates the case of globally significant geographical location.
    Keywords: beach, bathing area, environmental value, public health, land use threats, tourism
    JEL: L83
  10. By: Vlado Galičić (Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Opatija, University of Rijeka, Croatia); Marina Laškarin (Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Opatija, University of Rijeka, Croatia)
    Abstract: Purpose –The purpose of this paper is to prove that workers, who are satisfied with the attitude of management towards them reflected in regular information provided regarding future plans, tend to display their job satisfaction by working as part of a successful team. Design –In order to distinguishing between the various types of marketing, this paper explores internal marketing in the hotel industry that focuses on employees who need to know all about the types of services that are provided by the hotel and which are being developed within the framework of strategic development plans. Methodology −For the purpose of this paper, scientific research methods have been applied to a sample of 265 questionnaires filled out by the participants of seminars organized for production and service staff (professions: cook, pastry cook, waiter, barman, reception clerk, sales officer, hotel housekeeper) in four destinations in Croatia (Rovinj, Dubrovnik, Mali Lošinj and Vodice) in the period from 4 October to 10 November 2012. Approach −The task of such an approach was to confirm the perception that hoteliers in Croatia are failing to centre sufficient attention on the postulates of internal marketing, as indicated by the survey results presented below. Findings−Research results reveal lack of awareness about importance of communication between managers and workers, especially when it comes to providing information about future business plans. Originality –The originality of this research consist in fact that internal marketing has a significant impact on how employees understand their work tasks and the enterprise’s objectives. This paper provides valuable information about attitudes of hotel personnel in Croatia concerning the information provided to them, and the training on a regular basis.
    Keywords: hotel industry, production and service staff, internal marketing
    JEL: L83
  11. By: Axel Luttenberger (Faculty of Maritime Studies, University of Rijeka)
    Abstract: The purpose –As the environmental law recurrently operates in the areas complicated by high level of scientific uncertainty, the precautionary principle is now emerging as a principle of law establishing whether the development process is sustainable or not. The purpose of this paper is to support the thesis that legal process attached to the application of environmental protection based on precautionary principle requires the responsible public and private power holders to prevent or terminate possible hazardous activity. Design – The special focus is given to reviewing the roots of precautionary principle, the impact of precautionary principle in environmental matters, as well as common procedures for applying and implementing the precautionary principle. The methodology – The methodology of the research includes quality research based on observation, the reports on previous research, examples of good practice and author’s own experience. Approach –The concept of preventive activation of the precautionary principle results in the taking of measures to prevent environmental damage without having to wait until the reality and seriousness of the threats of environmental damage become fully known. Findings –Control of technologies, economic development and regulatory appraisal involve balancing of the cost of being too restrictive in respect of innovation with the hazards and cost of being too permissive, in the situation of scientific uncertainty and ignorance. The precautionary principle requires that the main burden of providing evidence for safety rests on the proponents of a new technology or activity. The originality of this research- The author is urging comprehensive endorsement of precautionary principle in preserving the coastal and marine environment due to the evergrowing significance of protected areas in tourism development. In applying the precautionary principle there must be a proportionality of response or cost effectiveness of margins of error to show that the selected precautionary measure is not unduly costly.
    Keywords: precautionary principle, environmental protection, coastal areas, sustainable development
    JEL: L83
  12. By: Maja Uran Maravić (Faculty for Tourism Studies Turistica, University of Primorska, Portorož, Slovenia); Daniela Gračan (Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Opatija, University of Rijeka, Croatia); Zrinka Zadel (Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Opatija, University of Rijeka, Croatia)
    Abstract: The purpose – The purpose of this paper is to briefly present the most well-known restaurant assessment systems where restaurant are assessed by experts. The aim is to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each system. Design –The special focus is to give answers on questions: how are the restaurants assessed by experts, which are the elements and standards of assessment and whether they are consistent with the quality dimensions as advocated in the theory of service quality. Methodology – The methodology of the research include a case study methodology. Using case studies, it shows the characteristics of three well-known systems (Michelin, Gault Millau and AAA Diamond Rating) and the development of an unknown local restaurant assessment system. Approach – There are plenty of restaurants in the world and countless numbers of guests who wish to visit them. It is hard to figure out which one is best or most appropriate. In order to find this out, guests search for reference sources. These reference sources are regarded as restaurant reviews, restaurant assessments, restaurant ratings, restaurant quality systems and similar. The question arises regarding what scientific methodology and instruments on restaurant assessment stand for and why and how they develop. The question is again who should assess restaurants – experts or guests. These provocative questions surpass the scope and aim of this paper. Findings – The paper provides detailed information on the methodology and instruments for restaurant assessment and an in depth comparison of them. For the first time, it also explains in detail the development of the LQS regional restaurant assessment system.
    Keywords: restaurant assessment, Michelin, Gault Millau, AAA Diamond rating, Ljubljana Quality Selection
    JEL: L83

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