nep-tur New Economics Papers
on Tourism Economics
Issue of 2015‒03‒27
twelve papers chosen by
Laura Vici
Università di Bologna

  1. Cultural tourism in Oltenia (Romania) – disregarded opportunity By Liliana Popescu; Amalia Badita; Mirela Mazilu
  2. The investigation of tourist preference By Pei-Ti Chang; Wei-Lun Lo
  3. Tourism Information Services Design Based on Participatory Approach: The Case of Cultural Heritage Tourism in Japan By Akihiro Abe
  4. Thailand’s Flood Management Policy: Issues, Developments and Implications for the Thai Tourism Industry By Nipawan Thirawat; Pathomdanai Ponjan
  5. Balanced Scorecard Application on Tourism Business By Fatma Kubra Celiloglu; Mehmet Sagir
  6. Climate change impacts and implications for tourism in protected areas By Remus Ion Hornoiu
  8. Job Embeddedness in Hospitality Industry: An Empirical Study in Alanya By Boran Toker; Sedat Çelik
  9. A longitudinal study on the factors of destination image, destination attraction and destination loyalty By Pedro Moreira; Christina Iao
  10. Strategic Planning and Contribution of SWOT Analysis in Lodging Enterprises: A Conceptual Approach By Mehmet Sagir; Ilker Turkeri
  12. The Role of Leisure Activity on Travel Behavior By Noppamash Suvachart

  1. By: Liliana Popescu (University of Craiova); Amalia Badita (University of Craiova); Mirela Mazilu (University of Craiova)
    Abstract: As the importance of cultural tourism is increasing, ever more states from Europe and not only are using cultural tourism for their tourism development strategies to attract a growing number of tourists. Oltenia’s cultural heritage with value for tourism is manifested through arts and crafts, costumes, religion, festivals, music, dance, folklore, literature, local cuisine, as well as monuments and other constructions testifying for the people’s history. The current analysis, focusing on the cultural patrimony as a major tourist resource, aims to identify and examine what types of tourism plans and strategies have been adopted by the Romanian government to develop and promote cultural tourism in the country as a hole and for specific regions in particular, and what effects they had on the tourism industry, as well as to define the necessary activities for the successful development of cultural tourism in Oltenia. The main goal is to demonstrate that beside balneary spas, the region also owes significant natural and cultural resources to support the development of cultural tourism.
    Keywords: cultural tourism, patrimony, development strategy, regional identity
    JEL: L83 M31
    Date: 2014–05
  2. By: Pei-Ti Chang (Graduate Institute of Architecture and Sustainable Planning, National Ilan University); Wei-Lun Lo (Graduate Institute of Architecture and Sustainable Planning, National Ilan University)
    Abstract: Tourism destination competitiveness is becoming an area of growing interest amongst tourism researchers (Crouch & Ritchie, 1999). The potential for any country's tourism industry to develop will depend substantially on its ability to maintain competitive advantage in its delivery of goods and services to visitors (Dwyer, Forsyth, & Rao, 2000). The success of tourism destinations thus depends on their regional tourist competitiveness in terms of the attractiveness characteristics that make up the tourist strength of a certain area (Cracolicia & Nijkampb, 2009).According to World Tourism Organization (WTO) and World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC), it was predicted that the revenue of global tourism industry was about 10.4% of global GDP. Moreover, WTO estimated that the global tourism people would increase to more than 16 hundred million, and the revenue of global tourism industry would be 2 thousand billion US dollars in 2020. In other words, tourism industry would generate a great deal of profit.Tourism destination competitiveness has been studied for more than 20 years. In order to evaluate tourism destination competitiveness, establishing evaluation model and choosing evaluation method are two critical aspects (Zhang et al., 2008). In this study, ten factors of destination attractiveness (Cracolicia and Nijkampb, 2009) were adopted to establish the model for evaluating tourist preference. These destination attractiveness related factors include reception and sympathy of local residents, artistic and cultural cities, landscape/environment and nature, hotels and other accommodation, typical foods, cultural events, level of prices/living costs, quality and variety of products in the shops, information and tourist services as well as tourist safety. In addition, Support Vector Machine (SVM) was employed as the methodology to investigate tourist preference. SVM is a powerful classifier. The related data were collected from tourists of two groups of tourists with different age. One group is of tourists below age of 50, and the other group is of tourists above age of 51. Through SVM analysis, the prediction of tourist preference of different age groups could be obtained. The results of the study could be used to offer suggestions for developing tourism industry.
    Keywords: Tourism destination competitiveness, Tourist preference, Support Vector Machine, Attractiveness characteristics, Classifier.
    Date: 2014–10
  3. By: Akihiro Abe (Iwate Prefectural University)
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to discuss the design of new tourism information services through a case of the Hiraizumi world heritage site in Japan that was registered in 2011. As it promotes tourism through the world heritage registration, Hiraizumi is operating on the major premise that it will safeguard its cultural heritage while also placing importance on developing systems for accepting a diverse range of tourists using the universal design perspective. When doing so there are limits to facility refurbishment and infrastructure development so the town focused its attention on support for information aspects, or in other words support using ICT. Going forward as individual travel becomes more mainstream the ways in which new value is created in cultural tourism are likely to include (1) transmission of the value of the cultural heritage in collaboration with humanities researchers and (2) development of tourist areas in which excursions on foot are possible and information transmission. Most of the cultural heritage of Hiraizumi has been lost. Hiraizumi’s value will not be experienced by simply examining the extant remains. Their recreation and visualization through extended and composite reality technology is anticipated, not only in the academic study of cultural properties, but also in promoting tourism. The strongest demand is for reconstruction and visualization of archaeological sites using augmented reality/mixed reality technologies. Researchers and technicians tend to focus on the pursuit of reality and historical accuracy but when using these technologies for tourism the care should be taken over the cost-effectiveness of system operation in particular. Also, the approach of grasping general tour excursion trends from big data in tourist guide services using mobile phones, and linking that to environmental maintenance of tour sites to be enjoyed by walking, is very interesting from the point of view of community development. We discuss the role and possibilities of new tourism information services based on participatory approach.
    Keywords: Tourism, ICT Services, Participatory Design, Cultural Heritage
    Date: 2014–06
  4. By: Nipawan Thirawat (Mahidol University International College, Business Economics Program, Business Administration Division); Pathomdanai Ponjan (Fiscal Policy Office, Ministry of Finance, Bangkok)
    Abstract: This paper aims to propose initiatives for flood management in order to prevent and alleviate the instability of tourism flows and economic loss of tourism industry, including cultural heritage tourism. Urbanisation and changeable demographics of floodplains and flood behaviour as well as the climate change have increased the exposure to flood risk in Thailand. Thai tourism sector was heavily affected by the floods in 2011. The disaster caused severe damages and losses such as a slowdown in income and a decline in the number of foreign tourists. Nonetheless, the negative impacts can be mitigated. Proper countermeasures include the developments of a proactive and integrated disaster risk management policy and effective non-structural strategies.
    Keywords: Flood management policy; Disaster risk management; Tourism industry; Developing countries; Thailand; Non structural strategies; Impacts of flood
    JEL: Q54 H59
    Date: 2014–07
  5. By: Fatma Kubra Celiloglu (SELCUK UNIVERSITY); Mehmet Sagir (SELCUK UNIVERSITY)
    Abstract: The survival of businesses in today's information age, is bound and adapt to the competitive conditions, internal and external environment. In this case, business sectors should take serious steps about performance management in order to achieve success. It is becoming necessity to measure of performance which is a concept that allows comparision and to identify themselves with the past or with the other business sectors.Growing diversification of activities in the tourism sector, is creating new jobs and revenue. Globalization in a world of tourism businesses, the competition is increasing and it has become the inevitable on the result of this increased competition means many years to survive and profit seeking to tourism enterprises, strategic management, marketing, public relations and performance management care.Balanced Scorecard, which is a performance evaluation method has become the system management tool in tourism business.Tourism businesses are contributing to four dimensions such as financial size, customer size, the inner workings of the process and with dimensions of learning and development management practices. This study will be focused on tourism businesses and applications of balanced scorecard and results to be obtained on contributing to the tourism business
    Keywords: Tourism, Tourism Business, Balanced Scorecard, Performance management
    JEL: M00 M10 M19
    Date: 2014–10
  6. By: Remus Ion Hornoiu (Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Romania)
    Abstract: Tourism, as a distinct field of activity, is strongly linked to climate change: in a positive way - by providing the necessary resources and factors to reduce the action of climate change through the use of alternative energy technologies with low environmental impact, and the controlled development of tourist flows – and a negative one – through energy consumption, visitors transportation, the quantities of waste. Among the solutions mentioned, the present research has focused on protected areas since the argument was less debated in the scientific literature, but also in business practice. As the main service providers regarding ecosystems and biological resources, protected areas meet the requirements to preserve species worldwide and are vulnerable to climate change. Tourism in protected may became a tourist travel motive more prominent in the future as the natural environment and the species from protected areas are threatened by climate change. Therefore, the paper explains different climate change impacts and implications for tourism in protected areas. The research field proposed aimed to assess the direct and indirect impact of climate changes for tourism in protected areas. The objectives were related to: determine the level of importance of different modifications in the structure of the major components of tourism in protected area under the direct climate change impact; indicate the importance level of changes in natural characteristics of environments which could influence negative tourism by reducing the perceived attractiveness of a protected area, under indirect climate change impact; highlight the importance level of modifications, induced by indirect climate change impact, in socioeconomic environment of local communities in protected areas which could affect tourism. Based on the research findings were elaborated proposals for an appropriate strategy in the field of climate change mitigation . This work was supported by the project “Excellence academic routes in the doctoral and postdoctoral research – READ†co-funded from the European Social Fund through the Development of Human Resources Operational Programme 2007-2013, contract no. POSDRU/159/1.5/S/137926.
    Keywords: tourism; protected areas; climate change; impact
    JEL: Q26 Q56 L83
    Date: 2014–12
  7. By: Maruska Vizek (Institute of Economics Zagreb); Marina Tkalec (Institute of Economics Zagreb)
    Abstract: Although theoretical models describing the influence of tourism on welfare of the host economy suggest that increase in prices is a direct outcome of intensified tourism activity, so far this outcome has not been put to the empirical test. Therefore, we use panel data models on a data set covering EU new member states and candidate countries (Montenegro and Turkey) in order to investigate the relationship between tourism dependence and the price level. Along with modeling the overall price level, we also separately model the price level of consumer goods, price level of consumer services, and price level of goods and services associated with tourism consumption (hotels and restaurants, recreation and culture, transportation, and food and beverages). Thereby, we control for other factors that commonly influence the price level of an economy, such as income, productivity, trade openness, money and fiscal dominance. Our results suggest that a dominant tourism sector increases the overall price level in the economy. This effect is however much stronger for prices of consumer services, in particular for prices of recreation and culture and hotel and restaurants.
    Keywords: price level, tourism activity, panel data models, small open economies, European Union.
    JEL: C33 E31 L83
    Date: 2014–07
  8. By: Boran Toker (Akdeniz University Alanya Faculty of Business); Sedat Çelik (Şırnak University School of Tourism and Hotel Management)
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to analyze the hotel employees’ job embeddedness and to determine its relationship with links to community, links to organization, and demographic variables. As first introduced by Mitchell et al. (2001), job embeddedness theory suggests a new perspective of exploring why people leave or stay in an organization, and in this theory, it is considered in three factors namely, fit, links and sacrifice. The study, in which the questionnaire survey method was used, was applied on 210 employees that work at the five-star hotels in Alanya. The Job Embeddedness Inventory developed by Mitchell et al. was used in this study. As a result of the factor analysis used on data, there came out three dimensions towards job embeddedness under the names of “organization related sacrificeâ€, “fit to community†and “fit to organizationâ€. As a result of Anova and t-test analyses, however, it is determined that employees, who own their homes, live close to the family roots, that have someone of a family member and close friends near them fit into the organization much more. Besides that, employees, who are married, have a working spouse, live close to the family roots, have someone of a family member and close friends near them showed higher fit into the community. Furthermore, it is determined that mid-level employees had higher levels of organization related sacrifice. It is also determined that the participants, who work in the same position for 6 years or above, are mid-level employees, work in the same organization for 1-3 years and do not participate in any work group at workplace had higher fit into the community. In this case, it can be said that the longer the employees work in an organization, the more positive their fit into the community will be. Moreover, participants that work in the tourism sector for 11 years or above showed high fit into the organization and participants that work in the sector for long years have better fit into the community. It is seen that, as the age increase higher among the employees, their fit into the society increase higher as well.
    Keywords: Job embeddedness, Tourism, Hospitality, Turkey
    JEL: M12 J24 D23
    Date: 2014–06
  9. By: Pedro Moreira (Institute for Tourism Studies, Macau SAR, PR China); Christina Iao (Institute for Tourism Studies, Macau SAR, PR China)
    Abstract: Destination loyalty is identified as a universal concept with links to destination image. These links are derived from shared fundamental attributes that generate positive or negative effects on the attractiveness of a travel destination. This research study approaches the concept of destination loyalty in relation to the factors of destination image and destination attraction through a longitudinal comparison of data of 2012 and 2013. A destination factors model is proposed. From the analysis, the integrator ‘Personal overall image of the destination’, the ultimate factor that reflects the destination image as a holographic complexity of perceptions, is confirmed as a regression target for a number of factors of the proposed theoretical model. Against the theoretical expectations, a significant effect of the integrator on travel decisions was not confirmed. Destination attributes associated with higher rankings and lower rankings revealed significant effects on the integrator. These attributes show the degree of perceived attraction on travelers and tourists and highlight the development priorities and the development performance of the destination. The proposed model and the isolated factors of destination image, destination attraction and destination loyalty allow a wide range of possible applications to the evaluation of performance and development of destinations, and enable the identification and consolidation of competitive advantages towards an evolution to a future scenario of economic sustainability.
    Keywords: Destination loyalty, destination image, destination attraction, destination fatigue, sustainable competitive advantage, destination perception.
    Date: 2014–06
  10. By: Mehmet Sagir (SELCUK UNIVERSITY); Ilker Turkeri (ATATURK UNIVERSITY)
    Abstract: In post modern business administration, businesses’ planning its own activities and managing resources according to this, is not enough any more. This situation changes with the effect of globalisation and directs businesses to be strategic.Nowadays in which the importance of strategic management and strategic planning is becoming and important issue for businesses, the control of internal and external environment and management of these provide the advantage of competition. When viewed from this frame, Lodging Enterprises which is a part of tourism sector should be able to plan and applicate a set of activities which creates strategic movement and competition advantage.Lodging Enterprises should firstly make strategic planning for strategic management applications. To make strategic planning, internal and external environment analysis which is SWOT analysis should be practiced. In this study, with some criterias which Lodging Enterprises should take in to account and have already taken into account and also with role in strategic planning results which gained, Lodging Enterprises’ competition strength will be searched/ presented.
    Keywords: Strategic Management, Strategic planning, SWOT Analysis, Lodging Enterprises
    JEL: M10 M19 M00
    Date: 2014–10
    Abstract: Nowadays, the use of social media has become an important tool to introduce new products and services in the world. However, in some countries social networks are very important to show what the company is and what they are doing with their businesses, it means that they sharing everything with their customers, like products, services, goals, some cases they try to educate their public about the use of the product or service, among other things.When people started using social networks on the internet, these were conceived as a mean to communicate with relatives or friends. However, with time, the social networks have evolved to a point that they now allow people to use them to generate sales and increase the competitiveness of enterprises.The purpose of this research is to demonstrate the lack of training and knowledge about the use of social networks by local businesses and the barriers they face when they decide to use them as sales platforms, and to demonstrate the impact it could have on their businesses. Four SMEs located in Colima State in Mexico were studied, selected to be sufficiently successful and representative in terms of industry and size, for theoretical generalization purposes. These tourism SMEs stem from various sectors, such as: travel agencies, tour operator, hotel and restaurant. Data were collected through semi-structured tape-recorded interviews, ranging approximately one hour and a half each, with the owner-manager or the manager responsible for social media. Interview transcripts were then coded and analyzed following Miles and Huberman’s (1994) prescriptions with the assistance of the Atlas.ti application.The results allow us to conclude that the investigated companies believe that the use of social networks is extremely important to be able to compete in the market. However, due to a lack of training, they were not able to implement properly the utilization of social networks in their companies.
    Keywords: Social networks, enterprises, barriers, Micro, small and medium business
    JEL: D22 D23 O39
    Date: 2014–06
  12. By: Noppamash Suvachart (Khon Kaen University)
    Abstract: This research aims to explore Thai youths’ travel behavior regarding green travel values, including test the effect of leisure activities preference factor of green activeness group. When classified travel behavior by green shading, there were five major forms of travel behavior; 65.6% were green, 25.7% were medium green, 7.8% were dark green, 0.8% were light green , and 0.2% were very light green. The importance leisure activities preference factor of separate green youth (active green) from the not so green (less active green) are voluntary service, nature protection, classic music, special event, sport, and reading books, respectively. A summary of each category description, methodology and main results are outlined below, as well as an analysis of findings.
    Keywords: Green Travel, Green Values, Leisure, Acitvity
    JEL: A10 A10
    Date: 2014–06

This nep-tur issue is ©2015 by Laura Vici. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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