nep-tur New Economics Papers
on Tourism Economics
Issue of 2013‒05‒05
five papers chosen by
Antonello Scorcu
University of Bologna

  1. Tourism Economics in Saudi Arabia: PP-VAR Approach By Ageli, Mohammed Moosa
  2. Estimating Crowding Costs in Public Transport By Luke Haywood; Martin Koning
  3. Valores y Diseños de Política Pública: El Caso de la Implementación del Programa Chile Solidario en las Comunas de la Región de Antofagasta. By Marcelo Lufin Varas; Ángela Villalobos Lorca
  4. Managing Ecosystem Services for Human Benefit: Economic and Environmental Policy Challenges By Tisdell, Clement A.; Xue, Dayuan
  5. El equilibrio en uso del tiempo entre diferentes actividades: una comparación regional By Oscar D. Marcenaro-Gutiérrez

  1. By: Ageli, Mohammed Moosa
    Abstract: In This paper investigates the nexus relationship between tourism expenditure and Non Oil economic growth in Saudi Arabia over the period 1970-2012. Using Phillips and Perron (PP) unit root test-VAR approach with several techniques including Unit root tests, Johansen’s co-integration test, Granger Causality test and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). We used time series econometrics techniques to examine the causal relationship between tourism expenditure and economic growth in the Saudi economy. The findings reveal that there is a bilateral causality and positive long-run relationship running from Non Oil-GDP to tourism expenditure. The results obtained from the analyses show that there is a positive relationship between tourism spending and economic growth in Saudi Arabia. The development of tourism sector will thus have a positive impact on the growth of the Saudi economy. Also, the results show that, in Saudi Arabia, the model of tourism expenditure is found to hold for Non Oil-GDP.
    Keywords: Tourism Expenditure, PP-VAR Approach, Phillips and Perron (PP) unit root test, Co-integration test, Vector Error Correction Model (VECM), Granger Causality, Economic Growth, Saudi Arabia
    JEL: C32 L83 O53
    Date: 2013–04–01
  2. By: Luke Haywood; Martin Koning
    Abstract: Preferences for transport activities are often considered only in terms of time and money. Whilst congestion in automobile traffic increases costs by raising trip durations, the same is less obvious in public transport (PT), especially rail-based. This has lead many economic analyses to conclude that there exists a free lunch by reducing the attractiveness of automobile transport at no (or little) cost for PT users. This article argues that congestion in PT - crowding - is also costly. Using survey data from the Paris metro we estimate the degree to which users value comfort in terms of less crowding. Using a contingent valuation method (CVM) we describe marginal willingness to pay over different parts of the distribution of in-vehicle crowding and consider moderating factors. We conclude that the total welfare cost for a trip rises from e2.42 for a seated passenger to e3.69 under the most congested conditions. We apply our results to the cost-benefit analysis of a recent investment in PT in Paris and consider broader implications for transport policy. In particular, we highlight that PT congestion is a first-order urban externality.
    Keywords: Evaluation of non-market goods, travel comfort, crowding costs, contingent valuation method, Paris subway
    JEL: D6 H8 R4 L9
    Date: 2013
  3. By: Marcelo Lufin Varas (IDEAR - ORDHUM - Department of Economics, Universidad Católica del Norte - Chile); Ángela Villalobos Lorca (Licenciada en Sociología, Universidad Católica del Norte - Chile)
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to discuss the role that values play into designing and implementing public policies, for this, we studied the case of social protection policy designed in Chile in its implementation in a regional (state) level using a the Region of Antofagasta, Chile, as case of study. The analysis was performed using data from local surveys and interviews with municipal staff responsible for local implementation of that policy. We used social network analysis as a main tool to represent and to analyze the case. These results show significant regional heterogeneity in valoric terms, and also in terms of work practices associated with implementing. These reveal the existence of groups of neighboring municipalities in those relational constructed spaces and also groups that behave in divergent manner. These issues could significantly affect the potential effectiveness of public policy design when they are deployed territorially.
    Keywords: Public policy, regional policy, social norms, social capital, networks analysis, cultural anthropology, and regional planning.
    Date: 2013–03
  4. By: Tisdell, Clement A.; Xue, Dayuan
    Abstract: In the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005), ecologists identified and pointed out a multitude of environmental and other benefits obtained by human-beings from ecosystem services. Frequently, these benefits are not fully recognized and they are not adequately taken into account in decision-making in contemporary economic and political systems for reasons outlined in this contribution. In particular, this adversely affects the optimal conservation of natural, near natural and unmanaged ecosystems. The human benefits from ecosystem services as set out in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment are summarized and this assessment is examined critically. Economic views about the economic value of different types of ecosystems and forms of biosphere use are outlined and assessed. Determining the economic value of alternative forms of land-use (more generally biosphere-use) is extremely difficult because of knowledge constraints. Often the biophysical consequences, that is, variations in the supply of ecosystems services resulting from alterations in ecosystems, are poorly known. The economic valuation of changes in ecosystems (alterations in biosphere-use) is also hampered by poor information about the demand for these services (for example, the willingness of beneficiaries to pay for their supply) and the cost of replacing these services if they are lost (or diminished in availability) as a result of ecosystem change. While this limits the scope for economic valuation, it does not mean the rational valuation of biosphere use is impossible. It has been suggested that the supply of ecosystem services can be managed optimally, in some cases, if private landholders are paid for supplying these services. The benefits and drawbacks of this approach are discussed. China’s policies to restore the supply of particular ecosystem services, for example, its Grain-for-Green program, are used to illustrate some of these matters.
    Keywords: ecosystem services, China, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Environmental Economics and Policy, Q57,
    Date: 2013–04
  5. By: Oscar D. Marcenaro-Gutiérrez (Universidad de Málaga)
    Abstract: El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar el patrón del uso del tiempo de la población española dedica a realizar las distintas actividades de mantenimiento, subsistencia y ocio
    Keywords: Uso del tiempo, regiones, actividades de mantenimiento, subsistencia
    JEL: D12 J2
    Date: 2013

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