nep-tur New Economics Papers
on Tourism Economics
Issue of 2013‒04‒13
thirteen papers chosen by
Antonello Scorcu
University of Bologna

  1. The trends of Italy's international tourism By Andrea Alivernini; Enrico Beretta; Luigi Cannari; Massimo Gallo
  2. Aviation liberalization as a means to promote international tourism: The EU–Morocco case By Frédéric Dobruszkes; Véronique Mondou
  3. ‘Welcome to the experience economy’: assessing the influence of customer experience literature through bibliometric analysis By Hélder Ferreira; Aurora A.C. Teixeira
  4. The User Costs of Air Travel Delay Variability By Paul Koster; Eric Pels; Erik Verhoef
  5. The sources of preference heterogeneity for nature restoration scenarios By De Valck, Jeremy; Vlaeminck, Pieter; Liekens, Inge; Aertsens, Joris; Chen, Wendy; Vranken, Liesbet
  6. Does Culture Affect Local Productivity and Urban Amenities? By Brahim Boualam
  7. When Do Slower Roads Provide Faster Travel? By Small, Kenneth A.; Ng, Chen Feng
  8. Agricultural Landscapes: Conservation and Wildlife (Power Point) By Allen, Art
  9. Comparing the Determinants of Mode Choice across Travel Purposes By Driscoll, Áine; Lyons, Sean; Morgenroth, Edgar; Nolan, Anne
  10. Valuation of a Recreational Fishery - A Case Study By Kelly, Stephen; Bright, Francis
  11. Demand Uncertainty and Capacity Utilization in Airlines By Escobari, Diego; Lee, Jim
  12. Do Prices and Attributes Explain International Differences in Food Purchases? By Dubois, Pierre; Griffith, Rachel; Nevo, Aviv
  13. Intercontinental airport competition By Wim BENOOT; Jan BRUECKNER; Stefan PROOST

  1. By: Andrea Alivernini (Bank of Italy); Enrico Beretta (Bank of Italy); Luigi Cannari (Bank of Italy); Massimo Gallo (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: The book brings together a series of research papers presented at a workshop on "The trends of Italy's international tourism", held at the Bank of Italy in Rome on 22 June 2012, on occasion of the release, on Bank of Italy's website, of microdata from the Survey on international tourism in Italy. In the first session of this workshop, a paper synthesised the main results of the Survey for the period 1997-2011 and another paper analysed the developments of tourism market shares of Italian regions. In the second session, two papers dealt with the effects of low-cost flights on tourism flows to Italy from abroad, and another paper analysed the price competitiveness of Emilia-Romagna's hotels, in comparison with hotels in other European coastal regions.
    Keywords: constant market share analysis, hedonic regression, low cost carriers, price competitiveness, tourism economics
    JEL: C23 F10 L83 R10 R40
    Date: 2013–03
  2. By: Frédéric Dobruszkes; Véronique Mondou
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the extent to which the liberalization of the airline market between the EU and Morocco has led to significant changes in both air services and leisure travel, thus contributing to the Moroccan tourist master plan to attract 10 million tourists. Liberalization has led to a large expansion of regular air services in terms of the number of seats and routes supplied but also to a decrease in charter business. The low-cost airlines are the main players in this move. International leisure mobility to Morocco has also strongly increased, although the relation with air transport liberalization is less clear. This increase involves both Moroccans living abroad and foreign tourists. Air transport has grown its market share despite the significant decrease in the number of tour operator packages sold. The increase is particularly large among Moroccan citizens living abroad, suggesting new habits with regard to long-distance mobility.
    Keywords: Air transport liberalization; Air travel; Low-cost airlines; Charter airlines; Leisure travel; Visits to friends and relatives; Morocco
    Date: 2013
  3. By: Hélder Ferreira (Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto); Aurora A.C. Teixeira (CEF.UP, Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto; INESC Porto; OBEGEF)
    Abstract: Some publications strongly influence how research in a field evolves and in which direction, particularly by introducing and developing new concepts and insights. The analysis of such seminal publications is an interesting way to examine a scholar’s or a theory’s influence on a discipline. It is a sound and valuable method for introducing newcomers to a field, while also providing incumbent researchers with thorough and encompassing updates. In the last few years there has been increasing interest from both academia and practitioners in the topic of customer experience. Pine II and Gilmore’s article published in 1998 in the Harvard Business Review (‘Welcome to the experience economy’) is seen by many as a key forerunner in this area of research. The present paper explores the ‘small world’ of Pine II and Gilmore, based on bibliometric tools. An in-depth analysis of the scientific influence of this article was performed, based on the citations it has received since it was published (1998) to 2012. The results confirm the broad scope of influence of the concept of ‘customer experience’. Indeed, Pine II and Gilmore’s article has been cited by authors from a wide range of scientific areas, not only in business and management but also tourism, sport, leisure and hospitality. Moreover, measurement and innovation emerge as underrepresented sub-topics within customer experience research. Finally, an appeal is made for more quantitative-led research in this field of study.
    Keywords: Customer experience; Scientific influence; Bibliometrics; Citations
    JEL: M39 C89
    Date: 2013–01
  4. By: Paul Koster (VU University Amsterdam); Eric Pels (VU University Amsterdam); Erik Verhoef (VU University Amsterdam)
    Abstract: We derive the expected user costs of US domestic air travel delay variability taking into account scheduling behavior of travelers. Travelers do not only consider mean arrival delays, but also face scheduling costs because they arrive too early or too late at their destination. The model allows travelers to anticipate arrival delay variability by choosing an earlier flight. We show that the expected user costs of US air traffic delays are underestimated by 16% if arrival delay variability is ignored.
    Keywords: air traffic delay; travel time variability; scheduling; value of reliability
    JEL: R4
    Date: 2013–04–09
  5. By: De Valck, Jeremy; Vlaeminck, Pieter; Liekens, Inge; Aertsens, Joris; Chen, Wendy; Vranken, Liesbet
    Abstract: Due to the steady reduction of nature sites in urbanised regions, nature restoration projects are now a focal point of public interest. Policy-makers are required to balance public preferences for nature sites, with the high costs of nature restoration projects. Landscape preferences are, in general, positively correlated with ecological preferences. However this relationship is far from straightforward. Past studies show that different factors, such as personal, site-specific and spatial characteristics, influence preferences, while at the same time, little is known about the relative importance of these factors. This article proposes a conceptual approach for gaining insights into preference heterogeneity, in the context of stated preference environmental valuation studies. We conduct a choice experiment at the Drongengoed (Belgium); an afforested heathland with a diversified mosaic of natural habitats. The experiment determines public preferences towards nature restoration scenarios and illustrates the public’s willingness-to-pay for a change from the current state to a scenario with less coniferous trees, higher biodiversity and good maintaining of accessibility. Area-specific and socio-demographic characteristics are controlled for and affect the preferences for certain types of nature restoration scenarios. Preference heterogeneity is also observed for most of the choice attributes, suggesting that more sophisticated modelling methods are needed.
    Keywords: choice experiment, nature, restoration, ecosystem services, preference heterogeneity, Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2012
  6. By: Brahim Boualam
    Abstract: Does a better cultural milieu make a city more livable for residents and improve its business environment for firms? To address this question, I compute a measure of cultural specialization based on detailed occupational data for 362 U.S. metropolitan areas. I then estimate hedonic wage and rent equations and ask if differences in the cultural environment across cities capitalize into housing price and wage differentials. Simple correlations replicate standard results from the literature: cities that are more specialized in cultural and artistic occupations enjoy higher factor prices. Using time-series data, controlling for observable and unobservable city characteristics and implementing alternative specifications strongly alter this result. Even though the arts and culture might be appealing for some people and firms, such determinants are not strong enough to affect factor prices at the metropolitan level.
    Keywords: Urban economics, location choice, local amenities, culture.
    Date: 2013–03
  7. By: Small, Kenneth A.; Ng, Chen Feng
    Keywords: Engineering, Natural Resources and Conservation, Social Sciences, slower roads, faster travel, traffic congestion
    Date: 2012–10–01
  8. By: Allen, Art
    Keywords: Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2013–02
  9. By: Driscoll, Áine; Lyons, Sean; Morgenroth, Edgar; Nolan, Anne
    Abstract: This paper considers travel mode choice for a range of journey purposes in Ireland using micro-data for 2009. Results suggest that demographic and socio-economic variables, location and public transport availability are important determinants of mode choice. The results also indicate an attachment to the car as a mode of transport for non-commuting journeys when available, and especially when used regularly for work journeys. Importantly, the determinants of mode choice are found to differ across journey purposes suggesting that it is not valid to generalise the results from studies considering only one journey purpose.
    Keywords: Mode choice; travel purpose; model comparison
    JEL: C25 D12 R22 R41
    Date: 2013–04
  10. By: Kelly, Stephen; Bright, Francis
    Keywords: Livestock Production/Industries,
    Date: 2013–03–14
  11. By: Escobari, Diego; Lee, Jim
    Abstract: This paper studies the relationship between demand uncertainty—the key source of excess capacity—and capacity utilization in the U.S. airline industry. We present a simple theoretical model that predicts that lower demand realizations are associated with higher demand volatility. This prediction is strongly supported by the results of estimating a panel GARCH framework that pools unique data on capacity utilization across different flights and over various departure dates. A one unit increase in the standard deviation of unexpected demand decreases capacity utilization by 21 percentage points. The estimation controls for unobserved time-invariant specific characteristics as well as for systematic demand fluctuations.
    Keywords: Demand uncertainty; capacity utilization; airlines; panel GARCH; GARCH-in-mean
    JEL: C33 L93
    Date: 2013–02
  12. By: Dubois, Pierre; Griffith, Rachel; Nevo, Aviv
    Abstract: Food purchases differ substantially across countries. We use detailed household level data from the US, France and the UK to (i) document these differences; (ii) estimate a demand system for food and nutrients, and (iii) simulate counterfactual choices if households faced prices and nutritional characteristics from other countries. We find that differences in prices and characteristics are important and can explain some difference (e.g., US-France difference in caloric intake), but generally cannot explain many of the compositional patterns by themselves. Instead, it seems an interaction between the economic environment and differences in preferences is needed to explain cross country differences.
    Keywords: characteristics model; demand; nutrition
    JEL: C51 D1 I18
    Date: 2013–02
  13. By: Wim BENOOT; Jan BRUECKNER; Stefan PROOST
    Abstract: This paper analyzes strategic interaction between intercontinental airports, each of which levies airport charges paid by airlines and chooses its own capacity under conditions of congestion. Congestion from intercontinental flights is common across the airports since departure and arrival airports are linked one to one, while purely domestic traffic also uses each airport. The paper focuses on five questions. First, if both continents can strategically set separate airport charges for domestic and intercontinental flights, how will the outcome differ from the first-best solution? Second, how is the impact of strategic airport behavior affected by the extent of market power of the airlines serving the intercontinental market? Third, what happens if one continent has several competing intercontinental airports, each with its own regulator, while the other has a single airport and regulator? Fourth, how effective is a non-discrimination clause for airport charges, which prevents independent strategic use of the intercontinental charge? Fifth, what is the effect of higher airport operating costs on one continent (a result of security or immigration procedures) on the strategic outcome? The questions are addressed with an algebraic model and results are illustrated numerically.
    Date: 2012–03

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