nep-tur New Economics Papers
on Tourism Economics
Issue of 2013‒03‒02
four papers chosen by
Antonello Scorcu
University of Bologna

  1. Using a choice experiment to manage the excess demand challenges facing the Sundays River Estuary recreational fishery in South Africa By Deborah E. Lee, Stephen G. Hosking and Mario Du Preez
  2. Maintaining an Institution: the institutional work of Michelin in haute cuisine around the world By Bouty, Isabelle; Gomez, Marie-Léandre; Drucker-Godard, Carole
  3. Occurrence of cluster structures in knowledge-intensive services By Schricke, Esther
  4. Equilibrium at a Bottleneck when Long-Run and Short-Run Scheduling Preferences diverge By Stefanie Peer; Erik T. Verhoef

  1. By: Deborah E. Lee, Stephen G. Hosking and Mario Du Preez
    Abstract: The Sundays River Estuary, situated in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, has excess recreational demand for estuarine services, specifically recreational fishing. The estuary has been over-fished, putting its sustainability at risk. Various management interventions may be required in order to save it, but how is this to be done without reducing welfare. This paper reports the application of a choice experiment to guide this very issue. It is found that the physical size of fish stocks is a very important predictor of recreational choice at the Sundays River Estuary, and it is recommended that demand be curtailed through an increase in the boat license fee for using the estuary of R174 per annum.
    Keywords: Estuary, demand management, recreational attributes, recreational fishery, choice experiment
    Date: 2013
  2. By: Bouty, Isabelle (Université Paris Ouest); Gomez, Marie-Léandre (ESSEC Business School); Drucker-Godard, Carole (Université Paris Ouest)
    Abstract: This paper aims at questioning how the maintenance of institutions is actually performed. Based on an institutional work perspective in order to better link field and actors relationships, we investigate how the Michelin Red guide went international and used its internationalization to secure its dominant position over the field of haute cuisine. Michelin followed similar trajectories, and combined various types of institutional work in geographic expansion, especially policing, valorizing and embedding that at the same time as it further assed its dominant position. Our research contributes to advancing the understanding of maintenance work, and in particular exemplifies that preserving a dominant position implies actively working towards imposing the symbolic and cognitive systems of rules
    Keywords: Institutional Work; Michelin Guide; Restaurants
    JEL: L20 L83 M00 M10
    Date: 2013–02–20
  3. By: Schricke, Esther
    Abstract: The aim of this article was to investigate how far clusters in knowledge-intensive service industries have developed and what kind of agglomeration advantages they generate. Therefore the first step was to analyse which knowledge-intensive service industries exhibit spatial concentration. Based on this analysis, the absolute as well as the relative concentrations in these industries was examined at the NUTS 3 level. The results show that cluster structures have developed in some but not all knowledge-intensive industries of the service sector. A high measure of spatial concentration does not necessarily mean that a cluster exists, since especially in less urban region high localisation quotients are frequently ascribed to either one company or only a small number of companies. The knowledge-intensive services with cluster structures differ with regard to external effects, each of which becomes important: a highly qualified labour pool is by definition important for all knowledge-intensive industries of the service sector and fundamental for the existence of cluster structures in each of the examined services. Nevertheless there are however crucial differences regarding the significance of further external effects. Porter-externalities do not appear to stimulate competiveness in any of the examined industries of the service industry. However, none of the available studies explicitly examined the aspect of competition. Thus the interplay of agglomeration advantages needs to be researched further. The type of knowledge and the market environment should also be regarded as important factors (Orsenigo 2006: 201). Contact to local suppliers and customers in industries that are characterized by project work, such as the film and television industry or the media, are particularly important. Supporting clusters and networks is currently fashionable and is practised by different actors. The results show that cluster and network policies have to be focussed on the field of activity. It seems in any case sensible to expand the knowledge and education infrastructure in knowledge-intensive services which do not have cluster structures. The spatial proximity of actors in the innovation process or of suppliers and customers is not always advantageous. Too strong a focus on spatially concentrated exchange processes, leading to an isolation from global trends, can prove to have negative effects in the long term. In this respect the great importance of a qualified labour pool provides a starting point for policy measures that could also be useful for other fields of activity. This includes the development and financing of (partially specialised) educational institutions or measures. The appeal of the surroundings is also important to tie highly qualified staff to a region, as the discussion on a creative class (Florida 2002; 2005) also shows. While factors such as urbanity can hardly be influenced politically, there are certain initiatives regions can adopt to compensate for the lack of attractiveness. In regions where companies find it difficult to attract qualified staff from other regions higher education institutions are important sources of qualified staff. Therefore increasing the attractiveness of higher education institutions and of relevant study programmes are a first starting point. Likewise, the example of ITsax shows how companies can cooperate successfully in the area of recruitment. Furthermore, the provision of childcare facilities or international schools is important for the creation of attractive conditions particularly for women and / or international employees. --
    Date: 2013
  4. By: Stefanie Peer (VU Amsterdam); Erik T. Verhoef (VU Amsterdam)
    Abstract: We consider equilibrium and optimum use of a Vickrey road bottleneck, distinguishing between long-run and short-run scheduling preferences in an otherwise stylized scheduling model. The preference structure reflects that there is a distinction between the (exogenous) 'long-run preferred arrival time', which would be relevant if consumers were unconstrained in the scheduling of their activities, versus the 'short-run preferred arrival time', which is the result of an adaptation of travel routines in the face of constraints caused by, in particular, time-varying congestion levels. We characterize the unpriced equilibrium, the social optimum as well as second-best situations where the availability of the pricing instruments is restricted. All of them imply a dispersed distribution of short-run preferred arrival times. The extent of dispersion in the unpriced equilibrium, however, is higher than socially optimal.
    Keywords: bottleneck model; scheduling decisions; travel routines; long-run vs. short-run
    JEL: D80 R48 R41 H21
    Date: 2013–02–14

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