nep-tur New Economics Papers
on Tourism Economics
Issue of 2012‒09‒09
four papers chosen by
Antonello Scorcu
University of Bologna

  1. Tourism sector in Panama : regional economic impacts and the potential to benefit the poor By Klytchnikova, Irina; Dorosh, Paul
  2. Tourists intra-destination visits and transportation mode : a bivariate model By Lorenzo Masiero; Judit Zoltan
  3. Does economic upgrading generate social upgrading? Insights from the horticulture, apparel, mobile phones and tourism sectors. By Thomas Bernhardt; William Milberg
  4. Ecomarkets For Conservation And Sustainable Development in the Coastal Zone By R. Fujita; A.C. Markham; J. Lynham; F. Lynham; P. Feinberg; L. Bourillon; A. Lynham

  1. By: Klytchnikova, Irina; Dorosh, Paul
    Abstract: Tourism is one of Latin America's fastest growing industries but the impact of tourism on the poor and the effects on lagging regions are under debate. Many studies have evaluated the growth impacts of the tourism sector but few have analyzed the impact of tourism on the economy and poverty at the subnational level in developing countries. As a country marked by a"dual economy,"Panama shares with other Latin American countries a fast growing, modern urban sector side by side with impoverished rural and peri-urban populations. Tourism has been growing in Panama and contributes at least 6 percent of gross domestic product. This paper presents the results of a top-down assessment of the impact of tourism spending on growth and poverty at the regional (province) level in Panama using a Social Accounting Matrix model. As revealed by this study, the tourism sector has large multiplier effects on the Panamanian economy and has the potential for significant benefits to the poor. But tourism's poverty benefits are neither automatic nor ubiquitous. They depend on where and how supply chains are structured and on the way tourists spend their money.
    Keywords: Cultural Policy,Cultural Heritage&Preservation,Tourism and Ecotourism,Transport Economics Policy&Planning,Accommodation&Tourism Industry
    Date: 2012–08–01
  2. By: Lorenzo Masiero (Institute for Economic Research (IRE), Faculty of Economics, University of Lugano, Switzerland); Judit Zoltan (Institute for Economic Research (IRE), Faculty of Economics, University of Lugano, Switzerland)
    Abstract: This paper investigates tourists' profile in relation to both intra-destination movement patterns and transportation mode choices at the destination through the use of bivariate probit models. The analysis is based on a field survey conducted among tourists visiting the Canton of Ticino, Switzerland. The results show a positive correlation between visiting more than one region and the use of private transportation at the destination. In particular, the two variables are explained by a mixed combination of independent variables; the transport mode choice of tourists can be well explained by demographics while destination movement patterns are rather influenced by trip characteristics. The introduction of activity participation and motivation increases consistently the fit of the model allowing a better understanding of tourist behaviour in relation to the spatial extent of the destination visited and to the transport mode selected. Finally, conclusions are drawn for policy implications in destination management and transport planning.
    Keywords: Intra-destination visits, Transportation mode, Tourist behaviour, Bivariate probit
    JEL: C25 L83
    Date: 2012–05
  3. By: Thomas Bernhardt; William Milberg
    Abstract: Abstract We implement a “parsimonious” and operational approach to measuring economic and social upgrading over 1990-2009 in four global value chains -- apparel, mobile phones, agrofoods and tourism -- based entirely on data published by international institutions. Economic upgrading is defined as a combination of growth in export market shares and export unit values. Social upgrading is a combination of changes in employment and real wages. We find considerable variation across sectors in the relation between economic and social change. “Downgrading” is not uncommon, especially in the social realm. Economic upgrading is often not associated with social upgrading, but social upgrading occurs almost always when economic upgrading is also observed.
    Date: 2012
  4. By: R. Fujita (Environmental Defense Fund, San Francisco, CA 94105, USA); A.C. Markham (Environmental Defense Fund, San Francisco, CA 94105, USA); J. Lynham (Department of Economics, University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA); F. Lynham (Hopkins Coastal Station, Stanford University, Pacific Grove, CA 93950, USA); P. Feinberg (School of Earth Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA); L. Bourillon (Comunidad y Biodiversidad, A.C. (COBI), Cancún, Quintana Roo 77500, México); A. Lynham (Comunidad y Biodiversidad, A.C. (COBI), Popocatepetl)
    Abstract: Because conventional markets value only certain goods or services in the oceans(e.g., fish), other services prodvideded by coastal an marine ecosystems that l tend to become degraded. In fact, the very capacity of an ecosystem to produce a valued good is often reduced because markets are valuing only the good, not the productive capacity. Coastal socio-ecosystems are perhaps particularly susceptible to these market failures due to the lack of clear property rights. Conservation strategies aimed at protecting coastal ecosystem services that are not valued by conventional markets by banning industrial or subsistence use in certain areas (Marine Protected Areas) often result in lost revenue and adverse social impacts, which in turn create conflict and opposition. Here, we describe markets and financial tools – “ecomarkets”– that could, under the right conditions, value wide portfolios of coastal ecosystem services and generate revenues while maintaining ecosystem structure and function by addressing the unique problems of the coastal zone, including a lack of clear rights of management and exclusion. Just as coastal tenure and catch share systems generate meaningful conservation and economic outcomes, it is possible to imagine other market mechanisms that do the same with respect to a variety of other coastal ecosystem goods and services. These approaches could allow communities to stop relying exclusively on extracting from natural systems, and instead to diversify uses and focus on longterm stewardship and conservation while meeting development, food security, and human welfare goals. Diversification of use and the preservation of intact coastal ecosystems are in turn likely to increase the resilience of socio-ecological systems to unanticipated stresses, for example, as a result of climate change or new human activities. The creation of ecomarkets will be difficult in many cases, because rights and responsibilities must be devolved, new social contracts will be required, accountability systems must be created and enforced, and longterm patterns of behavior must change. We argue that efforts to overcome these obstacles are justified, because these deep changes will strongly complement policies and tools such as Marine Protected Areas, coastal spatial management, and effective regulation, and thereby help bring coastal conservation to scale.
    Keywords: Ecomarkets, incentives, ecosystem services, property rights, coastal spatial planning and management, coastal conservation, marine conservation, ocean conservation
    Date: 2012–08

This nep-tur issue is ©2012 by Antonello Scorcu. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.