nep-tur New Economics Papers
on Tourism Economics
Issue of 2012‒08‒23
eight papers chosen by
Antonello Scorcu
University of Bologna

  1. If you host it, where will they come from? Mega-Events and Tourism in South Africa By Matheson V.; Peeters Th.; Szymanski S.
  2. How China's Approved Destination Status Policy Spurs and Hinders Chinese Travel Abroad By Shawn Arita; Sumner La Croix; James Mak
  3. Sensory Marketing and Tourist Experiences By Agapito, Dora; Valle, Patrícia; Mendes, Julio
  4. Marketing the Destination Experience By Campos, Ana Cláudia
  5. Segmenting Graduate Consumers of Higher Education in Tourism: An Extension of the ECSI Model By Eurico, Sofia; Valle, Patrícia; Silva, João Albino; Marques, Catarina
  6. Non-market Recreational Value of a National Forest: Survey Design and Results By Paula Simões; Luís Cruz; Eduardo Barata
  7. Network Structure and Travel Time Perception By Pavithra Parthasarathi; David Levinson; Hartwig Hochmair
  8. Airports and Urban Growth: Evidence from a Quasi-Natural Policy Experiment By Blonigen, Bruce A.; Cristea, Anca D.

  1. By: Matheson V.; Peeters Th.; Szymanski S.
    Abstract: Hosting a major international sporting event is a costly affair for the organizing country. Growth in tourism is often cited as one of the economic benefits, which should allow the host to earn back these costs. In this paper we use monthly country-by-country arrival data to assess the impact of organizing the FIFA 2010 World Cup on tourism in South Africa. We find that South Africa attracted around 200,000 extra arrivals from non-SADC countries during the event. Participating countries and South Americans contributed most to this increase. These figures are far below most projections made before the event.
    Date: 2012–07
  2. By: Shawn Arita; Sumner La Croix (Department of Economics, University of Hawaii-Manoa and University of Hawaii Economic Research Organization (UHERO)); James Mak (Department of Economics, University of Hawaii-Manoa and University of Hawaii Economic Research Organization (UHERO))
    Abstract: China’s “Approved Destination Status (ADS) policy allows citizens of mainland China to take pleasure trips abroad on group package tours to countries that have negotiated and implemented agreements with China. In this paper, we examine the reasons for this unique preferential and incremental travel liberalization system and how it affects mainland Chinese outbound pleasure travel.
    Keywords: Tourism, Chinese Outbound Travel, China Approved Destination Status Policy
    JEL: F13 F14 L83
    Date: 2012–08–09
  3. By: Agapito, Dora (cieo - research centre for spatial and organizational dynamics); Valle, Patrícia (cieo - research centre for spatial and organizational dynamics); Mendes, Julio (cieo - research centre for spatial and organizational dynamics)
    Abstract: Marketing has been increasing its focus on the role of the five human senses in consumer behaviour, since research under the experiential paradigm has pointed to multisensory stimuli as intensifiers of consumers’ experiences, such as tourist experiences. Whereas previous studies in tourism touted vision, current research claims a holistic approach to sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch in order to develop effective communication and branding strategies, as well to boost the performance of destinations and tourist organizations by designing and creating conditions to enhance tourist experiences. This study aims to present the main contributions of the literature on a sensory marketing approach to the tourist experience, and to discuss some preliminary results of an empirical study on the role of human senses in tourist experiences in rural areas. Data analysis from a questionnaire presented to tourists supports the multisensory nature of tourist experiences and the importance of the five senses to the intensity of the experience.
    Keywords: Sensory Marketing; Five Senses; Tourist Experiences; Experiential Paradigm
    JEL: M31
    Date: 2012–03–30
  4. By: Campos, Ana Cláudia (cieo - research centre for spatial and organizational dynamics)
    Abstract: The destination is the basic unit of analysis and management action, and yet it is recognisably the most difficult unit to manage and market. As global competition increases and consumers become more skilled and empowered, destinations striving for survival and competitiveness in the marketplace need to rethink their approaches to marketing. Traditional destination marketing has been failing both destinations and Destination Marketing Organisations in assisting them to achieve competitiveness. Recent research has been calling attention to changes in the environment and suggesting innovative approaches to deal with them, in addition to issues for debate. This paper reviews the destination construct, highlighting the theoretical complexity, and identifies traditional aspects involved in destination marketing. Subsequently, a literature review is the basis of the characterisation of the new marketing environment in which destinations are now competing, while identifying foreseeable challenges that they will have to manage. Some areas of research that are of interest for both DMOs and researchers are identified.
    Keywords: Destination; Traditional Destination Marketing; Marketing of Destination Experiences
    JEL: L83 M31
    Date: 2012–03–30
  5. By: Eurico, Sofia (School of Tourism and Maritime Technology); Valle, Patrícia (cieo - research centre for spatial and organizational dynamics); Silva, João Albino (cieo - research centre for spatial and organizational dynamics); Marques, Catarina (Department of Quantitative Methods, ISCTE)
    Abstract: This research explores the European Consumer Satisfaction Index model applied to higher education in tourism by accounting for unobserved heterogeneity. In particular, it intends to identify segments of Higher Education Institutions’ consumers based on the structural model estimates of the European Consumer Satisfaction Index, enlarged with the employability construct. A model-based segmentation approach in Partial Least Squares path modelling is used. The European Consumer Satisfaction Index was properly adjusted to the educational framework and has shown its effectiveness when assessing students’ satisfaction regarding the attended Higher Education Institution. Two distinctive, graduates’ segments were identified using a sample of 166 Higher Education Institutions’ consumers. Results confirm the assumption of heterogeneity as the relationships differ across segments and the need for Higher Education Institutions to differently target those segments in such a competitive context. These results may be used strategically by Higher Education Institutions and policy makers as segments of graduates are identified according to their perception of employability and the future influence of this on their satisfaction. Deepening the knowledge on their consumers, Higher Education Institutions will be better prepared to adjust their educational performance to graduates’ best interests and to promote their offer.
    Keywords: ECSI; Segmentation; Higher Education; Employability
    JEL: M31
    Date: 2012–03–30
  6. By: Paula Simões (School of Technology and Management, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria and GEMF, Portugal); Luís Cruz (Faculty of Economics of Coimbra University and GEMF, Portugal); Eduardo Barata (Faculty of Economics of Coimbra University and GEMF, Portugal)
    Abstract: This paper presents and discusses the main features of a forest recreation survey. The first objective of the survey is the collection of primary data to be used in non-market valuation through the application of the travel cost and contingent behaviour methods. The second is to improve available data regarding people environmental perceptions and recreational preferences. Respondents in the sample were surveyed in Bussaco National Forest during one year period.When compared to the Portuguese population, respondents are younger, have more years of formal education and higher incomes. Expressively, environmental concerns and preferences for open air recreational activities are perceptible. Visits to Bussaco are motivated mainly by the willing to contact with nature and socialize with friends and family. The average annual visit frequency is of 1.9 and the average distance travelled is 80 kilometres. Bussaco national forest is regarded as being a good recreational space, currently not facing serious threats to conservation. The return of only 29.5% of the questionnaires distributed is a demonstration of the difficult balance between the extension of the questionnaire and the response rate. However, the research was successful in the hard task of distinguishing and characterising multiple destination trips and in identifying Bussaco substitutes.
    Keywords: Questionnaire Design, Environmental Protection; Recreational Preferences; Trip Frequency; Hypothetical Behaviour.
    JEL: Q51 Q26 C83
    Date: 2012–07
  7. By: Pavithra Parthasarathi; David Levinson; Hartwig Hochmair (Nexus (Networks, Economics, and Urban Systems) Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota)
    Abstract: Road networks have an underlying structure. This structure is defined by the layout, arrangement and the connectivity of the individual network elements, the road segments and their intersections. The differences in network structure exist across and within networks. Travelers perceive and respond to these differences in underlying network structure and complexity. This paper extends the analysis to understanding the underlying theory of why network structure influences travel. Specifically the focus is on the influence of network structure on travel time perception. The hypothesis here is that network design influences traveler perceptions, more specifically the perceptions of travel distance and time. This perception of travel distance and time in turn influences the actual travel by affecting choice of destination, mode, route, and whether to engage in activities.
    Keywords: network structure, time perception, travel behavior
    JEL: R41 L91
    Date: 2012
  8. By: Blonigen, Bruce A.; Cristea, Anca D.
    Abstract: While significant work has been done to examine the determinants of regional development, there is little evidence on the contribution of air services toward this outcome. This paper exploits the unexpected market changes induced by the 1978 Airline Deregulation Act to bring new evidence on the link between airline traffic and local economic growth. Using data for almost 300 Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) over a two decade time period centered around the policy change, we exploit time variation in long-run growth rates to identify the effects of airline traffic on population, income and employment growth. Our results suggest that air service has a significant positive effect on regional growth, with the magnitude of the effects differing by MSA size and industrial specialization.
    Keywords: airline traffic; urban growth; regional development; Airline Deregulation Act; air transport
    JEL: R1 O18 R4
    Date: 2012–07–26

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