nep-tur New Economics Papers
on Tourism Economics
Issue of 2012‒07‒08
eight papers chosen by
Antonello Scorcu
University of Bologna

  1. Economic Benefits, Conservation and Wildlife Tourism By Tisdell, Clem
  2. Rural Community-based Tourism in Central America By Keane, Josie; Lemma, Alberto; Kennan, Jane; Perez, Francisco Jose
  3. Hedonic pricing Evaluation of Agritourism Activity in Italy By Ohe, Yasuo; Adriano, Ciani
  4. The economic impact of multifunctional agriculture in The Netherlands: By Heringa, Pieter W.; van der Heide, Martijn M.; Heijman, Wim J.M.
  5. Ecotourism Experiences Promoting Conservation and Changing Economic Values: The Case of Mon Repos Turtles By Tisdell, Clement A.
  6. Spatial Variations in Amenity Values: New Evidence from Beijing, China By Wenjie Wu
  7. Structural Changes in Chinese Food Preferences By Hovhannisyan, Vardges; Gould, Brian W.
  8. Conserving Forest Wildlife and Other Ecosystem Services: Opportunity Costs and The Valuation of Alternative Logging Regimes By Tisdell, Clem

  1. By: Tisdell, Clem
    Abstract: Different economic methods are being used to estimate the economic benefits generated by nature (wildlife) tourism. The most prominent of these are economic valuation analysis and economic impact analysis. These methods often provide divergent and conflicting estimates of the economic benefits obtained from wildlife tourism, as is demonstrated in this article by the use of a microeconomic model. Tourism Research Australia has estimated the economic benefits to Australia of nature tourism based on levels of first round expenditure generated by nature tourists in Australia. This is a form of economic impact analysis. These estimates are summarised and it is argued that they exaggerate the level of economic benefits generated by nature tourism. The economic impact of nature tourism can be important at the local or regional level. A way is suggested of measuring these impacts accurately. The conservation consequences of the economic benefits from wildlife tourism are discussed taking into account both their direct and indirect economic impacts. Whether or not increased economic benefits from wildlife tourism contribute to nature conservation depends on several specified circumstances. In conclusion, it is emphasised that organisations and enterprises in the wildlife tourism industry are diverse. Sources of their diversity are identified and the types of economic challenges facing those within the wildlife tourism industry are outlined.
    Keywords: Australia, conservation, economic evaluation, economic impact analysis, economic valuation, tourism industry, wildlife tourism, Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2012–06
  2. By: Keane, Josie; Lemma, Alberto; Kennan, Jane; Perez, Francisco Jose
    Abstract: This case study evaluates the outcomes of rural community-based tourism in Nicaragua (five communities) and Guatemala (four communities), as an alternative to more mainstream tourist development. Despite strong community organisations (cooperatives) and some tourism natural assets (caves and culture) – and, in the case of Nicaragua, reasonable infrastructure and access to markets – the financial sustainability of initiatives has been badly affected by an inability to link with the main distribution channels (tour operators and hoteliers). The initial investment costs are high and barriers to entry are significant. Notwithstanding poor tourist flows, these have brought some economic and other benefits to the destination areas.
    Keywords: Tourism, Rural community, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Marketing, Production Economics, R:38, L:83,
    Date: 2012
  3. By: Ohe, Yasuo; Adriano, Ciani
    Keywords: diversification of agritourism, local cultural heritage, facility-based activity, internalization of externalities, cultural capital, ordered logit model, hedonic pricing, Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management,
    Date: 2012–08–22
  4. By: Heringa, Pieter W.; van der Heide, Martijn M.; Heijman, Wim J.M.
    Abstract: Abstract Multifunctional agriculture is a broad concept lacking a precise and uniform definition. Moreover, little is known about the societal importance of multifunctional agriculture. This paper is an empirical attempt to fill this gap. To this end, an input-output model is constructed for multifunctional agriculture in the Netherlands. The definition used includes four multifunctional agricultural activities: (i) green care, (ii) tourism, recreation and education, (iii) on-farm sales, and (iv) green services. Multiplier values – indicating the chain impacts of these multifunctional activities in the rest of the economy – are calculated for four Dutch regions. The results show that, in terms of output and employment, multifunctional agriculture is not a main driver for economic growth. Moreover, from the input-output model it appears that multifunctional agriculture leads in particular to more expenditures in the agricultural sector itself, rather than in any other economic sector. As such, the indirect feedback effects of multifunctional agriculture on the non-agricultural sectors in the Dutch economy are rather small. The input-output model also show that multiplier values differ over the regions, mainly due to differences in the composition of multifunctional activities. And although the absolute size of employment in multifunctional agriculture is very small, the employment per unit of output is high, especially when compared to the employment/production rate in primary agriculture.
    Keywords: Key words: input-output modelling, multifunctional agriculture, regional economics, multipliers, Netherlands, Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2012
  5. By: Tisdell, Clement A.
    Abstract: Each year during the turtle watching season, Mon Repos turtle rookery in Queensland attracts many ecotourists interested in seeing sea turtles nesting or hatching. As part of their visit, visitors are able to learn about the biology of and threats to marine turtles. A sample of visitors were surveyed in order to determine whether their experiences at Mon Repos changed their conservation attitudes and their intended behaviours for protecting sea turtles. Using these results, the role of environmental education in changing their attitudes and intended behaviours is analysed and is found to be an important influence. Nevertheless, it is argued that other factors (such as emotional effects) are also important (sometimes the most important ones) in altering conservation behaviours and attitudes. This is less well recognised in the economics and ecotourism literature than it should be. The results from the survey summarised here are based on statements from respondents obtained soon after their ecotouristic experience at Mon Repos. There is therefore, likely to be a gap between the intended behaviours stated by respondents and their realised behaviours. Various types of hypothetical bias may be present, and a drop-off or decay effect is also likely to occur which also involves a bias. This effect creates difficulties for the application of contingent valuation methodology as well as from other forms of stated preferences elicitation of economic values. Simple mathematical models can be used to predict how individuals are likely to change their conservation behaviours as their information about the characteristics of environmental goods (in this case wildlife species) is altered. However, allowing for the conservation consequences of emotional experiences seems to be more challenging. In concluding, it is also pointed out that the conservation consequences of ecotourism do not depend solely on its generation of favourable behaviours among ecotourists. Furthermore, for reasons identified, ecotourism has serious limitations as a means for conserving wild biodiversity and needs to be supplemented by other means.
    Keywords: Biodiversity conservation, contingent valuation, drop-off effect, ecotourism, environmental education, hypothetical bias, stated preference methods, turtles, wildlife conservation., Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2012–06
  6. By: Wenjie Wu
    Abstract: Using parks as an example, this paper explores the robustness and sources of spatial variation in the values for estimated amenities using an extended geographically weighted regression (GWR) technique. This analysis, illustrated with estimates using geo-coded data from Beijing's residential land market, has three important implications. First, it provides a powerful estimation strategy to evaluate how sensitive GWR parameters are to unobserved amenities and complementarities between amenities. Second, it compares the spatial variation patterns for the marginal prices of proximity to parks, estimated using a range of GWR model specifications. The answers generated using the GWR approach still reveal a significant underlying problem of omitted variables. Finally, it highlights the importance of conceptualizing amenity values not just in terms of their structural characteristics but how those characteristics interact with or are conditioned by local socio-economic, and other contextual characteristics.
    Keywords: Land market, parks, spatial variation, geographically weighted regression, GIS,China
    JEL: C21 Q51 R14
    Date: 2012–06
  7. By: Hovhannisyan, Vardges; Gould, Brian W.
    Abstract: The article tests for structural food preference change in urban China using province-level panel data from 2002 to 2010. We employ the Generalized Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System to represent consumer preferences and estimate demand for seven food groups in a dynamic setting. This relaxes many of the restrictions on the demand models used in the literature on structural preference change. Our findings suggest that Chinese food preferences are continuing to evolve.
    Keywords: Food preference, structural change, dynamic GQAIDS model, food demand in China., Consumer/Household Economics, Demand and Price Analysis, D12,
    Date: 2012–08–12
  8. By: Tisdell, Clem
    Abstract: Ecosystems supply a wide variety of valued commodities, including ecological services. Valuing these commodities and determining the implications of their valuation for the optimal management of ecosystems is challenging. This paper considers the optimal spatial use of forest ecosystems given that they can be utilised for conserving wildlife species and for producing logs. It takes into account the alternatives of selective logging and heavy (less selective) logging. It considers whether it is optimal to partition the use of a forest so that a portion of it is used exclusively for wildlife conservation with the remainder being utilised for heavy logging (a dominant use strategy) or to combine wildlife conservation and selective logging in at least part of the forest (a multiple use strategy) with any remainder of the forest being available for heavy logging. The assumed objective is to maximise the profit from logging subject to the population of a focal forest wildlife species being sustained at a particular level, that is at a level at least equal to its minimum viable population. The optimal use strategy cannot be determined a priori but requires alternatives forgone to be assessed. While orangutans are used as an example, the model can be applied to other species. It can also be applied (as is shown) to other ecological services such as the quality of water flowing from forested areas. Although the model may appear at first sight to be quite particular, its application can be extended in several ways mentioned. It demonstrates that the optimal spatial patterns of ecosystem use require individual assessment.
    Keywords: ecosystem services, forests, orangutans, reduced impact logging, selective logging, spatial optimisation of ecosystem use, valuation of ecological services, wildlife conservation., Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2012–06

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