nep-tur New Economics Papers
on Tourism Economics
Issue of 2012‒03‒21
nine papers chosen by
Antonello Scorcu
University of Bologna

  1. Dynamics in a environmental model with tourism taxation By Russu, Paolo
  2. Bases del proceso de internacionalización de las cadenas hoteleras de las Islas Baleares. By Cirer-Costa, Joan Carles
  3. Causalidad entre turismo y crecimiento económico de largo plazo: una revisión crítica de la literatura econométrica By Brida, Juan Gabriel; Pereyra, Juan Sebastián; Such, María Jesús
  4. Il Turismo del Golf e la Sicilia By Rosario La Rosa
  5. An Exploration of Luxury Hotels in Tanzania By Diego A. Comin
  6. On the Environmental Effectiveness of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive By Christine Bertram, Katrin Rehdanz
  7. Quality of ski resorts and competition between the Emilian Apennines and Altipiani Trentini. An estimate of the hedonic price By Alessandrini, Sergio
  8. “Price differences between domestic and international air markets: an empirical application to routes from Gran Canaria” By Xavier Fageda; Juan Luis Jiménez; Carlos Díaz Santamaría
  9. The Roman Metro Problem By Christian Roessler; Sandro Shelegia

  1. By: Russu, Paolo
    Abstract: The purpose of this work is to analyze the dynamics of a model describing the interaction between tourists (T) and environmental resource (E) in the presence or absence of a tourist tax , used to protect the environmental resource. The model highlights how the introduction of tourist tax complicates the dynamics of the system, thus giving origin a new internal equilibrium that is a saddle point, which the stable manifold separates the basin attraction of the locally attractive internal positive point from the one equilibrium point (K; 0), which is also locally stable. Moreover, starting from a system with beta= 0, which has an unstable internal equilibrium, a suitable combination of tourist tax and defensive expenditures leads to a stabilization the protect system.
    Keywords: Words–tourism economics; tourism taxation; Hopf bifurcation; environmental quality; economic modelling
    JEL: Q5 C02 L83
    Date: 2012–03–07
  2. By: Cirer-Costa, Joan Carles
    Abstract: In recent decades, hotel companies based in the Balearic Islands have become the leaders of the Spanish tourism market and have been released, with great success, to conquer international markets. This article analyses the foundations of this global expansion: its position in the island tourist market, its family character and the relations which they have maintained with international tourism companies: foreign capital tour operators and hotel chains. This analysis includes the definition of the main evolutionary characteristics of the largest European tourist destination: the Balearic Islands and the comparison with other Spanish companies which have also been globalised over those same years. Findings indicate that this expansion has occurred in conditions of competition and without their players having the initial legal or administrative advantages which are so common in other sectors.
    Keywords: Hotels; globalisation; tourism; Balearic Islands
    JEL: L25 L11 F23 L83
    Date: 2012–03–08
  3. By: Brida, Juan Gabriel; Pereyra, Juan Sebastián; Such, María Jesús
    Abstract: This work contains a critical review of main econometric studies that have addressed the analysis of causality between tourism and long-term economic growth. These studies have employed a variety of methodologies, models such as VAR, VECM, ARDL, ARCH, GARCH, cross section and panel data. In general using a test of cointegration of economic variables as a way to test Granger causality. This work shows that in the cases reviewed there is strong empirical evidence for the hypothesis of tourism's long-term economic growth. However, this does not allow general conclusions on policy and planning implications. Additionally, the study shows that the values of the elasticity of economic growth from tourism are significant different between countries.
    Keywords: tourism; economic growth; Granger’s causality
    JEL: L83 C30 F43
    Date: 2011
  4. By: Rosario La Rosa
    Abstract: Golf played by country residents is and golf tourism are widely increasing. In particular, golf tourism is getting increasingly important as compared to the other forms of tourism. The golf tourist has a high income, is more educated and environmentally conscious than the other classes of tourists. Furthermore he pays special attention to the quality and differentiation of golf fields. Differences in golf fields depend: a) on the actual geographical location of the field, which affects the layout and the difficulty of the game, as well as on the environmental and cultural context; b) on the degree of environmental friendliness of the field: in the 90s various national and European institutions have been established for the definition of guidelines in the planning of the fields and for the issue of quality certification; c) on maintenance: it must be noted that technology makes the use of water resources, fertilizers, pesticides, les troublesome from an environmental point of view; d) on the geographical location of facilities like hotels and residences. The golf tourist takes also particular care to the way fields are managed, favoring golf clubs and ‘play and pay’ fields to golf resorts and public fields, which usually have smaller dimensions and fewer difficulties. Furthermore, the golf tourist looks for new experiences and travels long distances. In Europe the ratio of golf players to residents is much higher in the northern countries than in the southern ones. However in northern countries weather is not as nice as in the other countries with the result that golf players tend to move south to find new fields and contexts. Sicily, like southern Spain and Portugal which are the only southern European countries with a large golf tourism, is an ideal setting for golf tourism, but the existing facilities are largely inadequate. Developing golf in this area means fundamentally taking into account the needs and the expectations of golf tourists. Cooperation between public agency and private firms is clearly desirable. Such public agency should be devoted to make sure that the new golf facilities are compatible with a proper conservation of the local environment and properly maintained. They should lead the golf fields to acquire proper certification by the European Golf Association-Ecology Unit and to develop as to meet golf tourists’ demands. Such agency should also draw a map of the areas eligible for golf fields, set up proper facilities for golf players and make sure that golf tourists can also take advantage of the other local sport facilities. It should be noted that adding golf to the existing tourism infrastructure and facilities will put the golf tourist in a position to gain more advantage from what he does in the area. The public agency could also supply local firms with the proper incentives to set up clusters and networks with the effect to generate external economies (also in relation to tour operators). Through all this a ‘golf region’ becomes established with a number of different golf fields, which will attract more a more tourists. When it comes to the localisation of residential buildings it must be noted that Sicily has a number of small towns with large rural areas around, where such buildings could be placed. Golf fields therefore could take advantage of residential facilities nearby without having to produce a negative impact on the area.
    Keywords: turismo; golf; Sicilia
    JEL: L83 R10 R19
    Date: 2011
  5. By: Diego A. Comin
    Abstract: Tourism is a tradable service activity that could allow some African countries to generate significant growth. Tanzania, given its unique natural assets, is an ideal candidate. However, despite being so richly endowed in touristic resources, Tanzania receives very few tourists and revenues from tourism. To explore the determinants of this performance, I conduct an international survey for upscale hotel managers to measure supply-side constraints on the operation of hotels. The survey reveals that hotels in the safari area in Tanzania are more expensive than comparable hotels, and that this difference in price cannot be accounted for by differences in supply constraints. Further, using cross-country panel data, I show that upscale hotel prices account for a significant fraction of cross-country differences in tourists.
    JEL: L1 L89
    Date: 2012–03
  6. By: Christine Bertram, Katrin Rehdanz
    Abstract: Marine and coastal ecosystems – and thus the benefits they create for humans – are subject to increasing pressures and competing usages. For this reason, the European Union (EU) adopted the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), which is to guide future maritime policy in the EU and aims at achieving or maintaining a good environmental status (GES) of the European seas by 2020. To this end, the MSFD requires the development of improvement measures, which have to be assessed inter alia by examining their cost-effectiveness and by carrying out cost-benefit analysis (CBA) before their implementation. In this paper, we investigate the applicability of environmental CBA in the marine context and identify and discuss problems that may hamper the environmental effectiveness of the MSFD. For example, marine ecosystem services are much less tangible than terrestrial ecosystem services. This implies greater challenges for the quantification of societal benefits in a marine context. One finding is that the limitations of environmental valuation methods regarding their ability to capture the whole total economic value of improvement measures are a potential source of problems, as the MSFD allows countries to disregard measures with disproportionately high costs. The trans-boundary nature of the main European seas adds to the complexity of the valuation task, e.g. due to the danger that benefits that occur outside of national territories are neglected. Moreover, the current state of knowledge on the functioning of complex marine ecosystems and the links to socio-economic impacts and human well-being seems insufficient to meet the MSFD requirements
    Keywords: Cost-benefit analysis, ecosystem services, environmental valuation, EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive, Europe
    JEL: Q51 Q53 Q57 Q58
    Date: 2012–03
  7. By: Alessandrini, Sergio
    Abstract: We use the hedonic framework to estimate and simulate the hedonic ticket prices of 19 ski resorts in the Emilian Apennines and Altipiani Trentini. To do so, we combine data on lift facilities and slopes from several sources as well as climatic data and characteristics of the ski resorts over the 2008‐2011 winter seasons. Hedonic linear and logarithmic regression models are estimated for weekdays and weekends ticket prices. Our robust regression of changes in hedonic prices with respect to the characteristic of the ski resorts yield precise and consistent estimates of positive effects on ticket prices. We find that willingness to pay (WTP) for the length of winter season tends to be higher than transport capacity, length and the altitude of the slopes or the other characteristic of the chairlifts and ski runs. Then, we use our estimates to predict the ticket price level as a measure of the quality of the ski resort. We found that the perception of skiers is very selective and their choices are based on the characteristic of the ski resort.
    Keywords: Hedonic price; ski resorts; Emilian Apennines; predicted prices
    JEL: C3 D4 R5
    Date: 2012–02–02
  8. By: Xavier Fageda (Faculty of Economics, University of Barcelona); Juan Luis Jiménez (Department of Applied Economic Analysis. University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria); Carlos Díaz Santamaría (Faculty of Economics, University of Barcelona)
    Abstract: In this paper we examine whether airline prices on national routes are higher than those charged on international routes. Drawing on a database prepared specifically for this study, we estimate a pricing equation for all routes originating from Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain), differentiating between national and international routes. A key difference between these two route types is that island residents benefit from discounts on domestic flights. When controlling for variables related to airline characteristics, market structure and demand, we find that national passengers who are non-residents on the islands are paying higher prices than international passengers.
    Keywords: Air transport, discounts, prices. JEL classification: L93, H2, L13.
    Date: 2012–03
  9. By: Christian Roessler; Sandro Shelegia
    Abstract: In Rome, if you start digging, chances are you will nd things. We consider a famous complaint that justies the underdeveloped Roman metro system: \if we tried to build a new metro line, it would probably be stopped by archeological nds that are too valuable to destroy, so we would have wasted the money." Although this statement appears to be self-contradictory, we show that it can be rationalized in a voting model with diverse constituents. Even when there is a majority preference for a metro line, and discovery of an antiquity has the character of a positive option, a majority may oppose construction. We give sucient conditions for this ineciency to occur. One might think it arises from the inability to commit to nishing the metro (no matter what is discovered in the process). We show, however, that the inecient choice is made in voting over immediate actions precisely when there is no Condorcet winner in voting over contingent plans with commitment. Hence, surprisingly, commitment cannot really solve the problem. Our results extend to other common dynamic voting scenarios, such as the academic job market, which share the essential features of the Roman metro game.
    JEL: D70 H41 C70
    Date: 2012–03

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