nep-tur New Economics Papers
on Tourism Economics
Issue of 2012‒02‒20
fourteen papers chosen by
Antonello Scorcu
University of Bologna

  1. The effect of tourism on crime in Italy: a dynamic panel approach By Bianca Biagi; Maria Giovanna Brandano; Claudio Detotto
  2. The effect of tourism on crime in Italy: A dynamic panel approach By Biagi, Bianca; Brandano, Maria Giovanna; Detotto, Claudio
  3. On the Optimality of Limit Cycles in Nature Based-Tourism By Russu, Paolo
  4. Cruise tourism externalities and residents' support: A generalized ordered logit analysis By Brida, Juan Gabriel; Del Chiappa, Giacomo; Meleddu, Marta; Pulina, Manuela
  5. Movements of People for Movements of Goods? By Rinaldo Brau; Anna Maria Pinna
  6. Analysis of Participation in Multifunctional Agriculture: U.S. Rice Farms By Tur Cardona, Juan; Wailes, Eric J.; Dixon, Bruce L.; Danforth, Diana M.
  7. El turismo como motor de crecimiento económico: impacto de las preferencias intertemporales de los agentes By Brida, Juan Gabriel; London, Silvia; Rojas, Mara
  8. Market structures, strategy and innovation in services A study applied to the tourism sector By Luisa Carvalho
  9. Clashes and compromises: Investment policies in tourism destinations By Candela, Guido; Castellani, Massimiliano; Mussoni, Maurizio
  10. Controlling complex dynamics in a protected-area discrete-time model By Russu, Paolo
  11. The Role of Incentives for Sustainable Implementation of Marine Protected Areas: An Example from Tanzania By Robinson, Elizabeth J.Z.; Albers, Heidi J.; Kirama, Stephen L.
  12. The Convergence Processes in Europe and Latvia By Aleksejs Melihovs; Igors Kasjanovs
  13. Air services on thin routes: Regional versus low-cost airlines By Fageda, Xavier; Flores-Fillol, Ricardo
  14. End or invention of Terroirs? Regionalism in the marketing of French luxury goods: the example of Burgundy wines in the inter-war years By Gilles Laferté

  1. By: Bianca Biagi; Maria Giovanna Brandano; Claudio Detotto
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that all else being equal, for the case of Italy, tourist areas tend to have a greater amount of crime that non-tourist ones in the long run. Following the literature of the economics of crime à la Becker (1968) and Enrlich (1973) and using a System GMM approach for the time span 1985-2003, we empirically test whether total crime in Italy is affected by tourist arrivals. Findings confirm the initial intuition of a positive relationship between tourism and crime in destinations. When controlling for the difference in the propensity to be victimized between tourists and residents, no relevant differences are found - the likelihood to be victimized is quite similar for the two groups. As a consequence, the main explanation of the impact of tourism on crime seems to be agglomeration and urbanisation effects. One can image that overcrowded cities give more opportunities to criminals to commit illegal activities regardless of the share of visitors and residents in destinations.
    Keywords: tourism; crime; externalities
    JEL: K00 D62 L83
    Date: 2012
  2. By: Biagi, Bianca; Brandano, Maria Giovanna; Detotto, Claudio
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that, all else being equal, for the case of Italy, tourist areas tend to have a greater amount of crime than non-tourist areas in the long run. Following the literature of the economics of crime à la Becker (1968) and Ehrlich (1973) and using a system GMM approach for the time span 1985-2003, the authors empirically test whether total crime in Italy is affected by tourist arrivals. Findings confirm the initial intuition of a positive relationship between tourism and crime in destinations. When controlling for the difference between tourists and residents in the propensity to be victimized, no relevant differences are found: the likelihood to be victimized is quite similar for the two groups. As a consequence, agglomeration and urbanisation effects seem to be the main explanation for the impact of tourism on crime. One can image that overcrowded cities provide more opportunities to criminals to commit illegal activities regardless of the number of visitors and residents in destinations. --
    Keywords: Tourism,crime,externalities
    JEL: D62 K00 L83
    Date: 2012
  3. By: Russu, Paolo
    Abstract: Virgin nature, as well as historical and cultural monuments located in National Parks, all form part of our national heritage. Tourism and recre- ation allow visitors to National Parks to enjoy nature, to reinstate, recover and broaden their personal outlook, to experience local history, culture, ora and fauna and to interact with the environment harmoniously. One of the ob- jectives of the administration of a Governmental Institution 'National Park' is to maximize prots from tourism and recreation, where prot is dened as the difference between the revenues from visitors and the sum of expenditures on recreation investments and defensive expenditures for ensuring the preserva- tion of natural and cultural heritage. This paper is an attempt to model some relevant aspects of these prey-predator relations. The model is formulated in terms of optimal control theory, and then is transformed into an `augmented' dynamic system by meas of the optimal choice of control variables resulting form the application of Pontryagin's Maximum Principle. It turns out that, for reasonable parameter values, the optimal trajectory exhibits a cyclical behavior.
    Keywords: bioeconomic model; tourism; optimal dynamic control model; optimal policy mix; financing and protected areas
    JEL: C61 L83
    Date: 2012
  4. By: Brida, Juan Gabriel; Del Chiappa, Giacomo; Meleddu, Marta; Pulina, Manuela
    Abstract: This paper investigates residents' preferences towards cruise tourism investment in their home port. The research uses data collected during the peak cruise season in 2011 at Messina, a port of call in Sicily, Italy. A generalized ordered logit analysis is run to analyse what factors influence the residents' preferences towards investment in cruise tourism. Positive and negative externalities produced by this economic activity, as well as socio-demographic and economic determinants are taken into account. Overall, the resource investment choice of residents in Messina was dependent upon: their income dependency on the cruise activity, their own personal cruise experience, family size, the expected increase in welfare (i.e. increase in public and private investment), whether they are affected by urban and rural gentrification and the value placed on community life style and heritage conservation. Nevertheless, residents would tend to decrease investments in cruise activity if they are female, retired or perceive the environment to be deteriorating. Implications for policy makers are drawn from the empirical findings. --
    Keywords: Cruise port of call,positive and negative externalities,residents' support,generalized ordered logit
    JEL: C25 D62 L83
    Date: 2012
  5. By: Rinaldo Brau; Anna Maria Pinna
    Abstract: While it is well established to think of international tourism as a type of exports, namely ‘home’ exports, the potential of tourism flows as an engine for fostering trade among countries is a poorly studied topic. In this paper we show that this relationship can be studied at a very detailed level by exploiting the disaggregation of existing information on international trade and inbound tourism. We consider a sample of 25 countries belonging to the European Union, a region which has been interested by common shocks such as the establishment of the Euro as the new currency for many countries and the liberalization in the air transport market. We carry out a panel data analysis by means of which we assess whether international tourist arrivals by a given country activate additional exports towards the same country. We find not only that tourism can promote exports, but also that this effect displays important differences depending on whether or not consumption goods are considered. This finding is consistent with the idea that the experience of tourists in a given destination reduces the fixed costs of trade, thus facilitating access to the advantages of international trade for more peripheral economies.
    Keywords: tourism and trade; bilateral exports; bilateral tourist flows.
    JEL: F14 F15 L83
    Date: 2011
  6. By: Tur Cardona, Juan; Wailes, Eric J.; Dixon, Bruce L.; Danforth, Diana M.
    Abstract: Multifunctional agriculture is particularly fundamental to some working lands conservation policies and programs, such as the Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP), Conservation Security Program (CSP) and Wildlife Habitat Incentive Program (WHIP). Farmers can also be engaged in providing recreational and agri-tourism services such as hunting, fishing, bird-watching, farm tours, petting zoos and hospitality services. Using the Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS) we analyze factors associated with participation in conservation, recreation and agri-tourism activities as a function of farm structure, farm financial measures, production practices, and socio-demographic characteristics of the farm operator. To estimate the functional relationships we estimate a binary logistic model where the dependent variable takes a value equal to one if the farm operator reports in the ARMS survey participation in conservation programs, recreation or agritourism. Results show that the level of farm operator education and cultural practices that use conservation technical assistance are significant at the 0.01 and 0.10 levels, respectively, in explaining participation. Farm financial characteristics were not significant. Location (state where operator is located) is also not significant.
    Keywords: multifunctional agriculture, agri-environmental policy, rice, logistic model, Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, Land Economics/Use, Q18, Q26, Q28,
    Date: 2012
  7. By: Brida, Juan Gabriel; London, Silvia; Rojas, Mara
    Abstract: This paper studies the relationships between tourism and economic growth through a dynamic model showing how the time preference affect the investment in a economic sector based on natural resources as tourism. Assuming extreme values, it is possible to verify that a high time preference or discounting rate (greater preference for the present consumption) leads to systems with negative net investment rates (gross investment rates equal to the depreciation rate) and to the natural resources depletion. Given the dynamic of the model, three results can be analized: constant economic growth, whose rate will depend on the willingness to the protection of the environment and the parameters of the model; a scenario with moderate economic growth according to positive values although low of the discounting rate; and a poverty trap situation in those societies with extremely low future valuation.
    Keywords: economic growth ; tourism ; intertemporal preferences
    JEL: O41 C0 D90
    Date: 2012–02–12
  8. By: Luisa Carvalho (ESCE/Polytechnic Institute of Setúbal and CEFAGE-UE)
    Abstract: The objectives of this paper are twofold – first we discuss innovation in the service sector, especially in tourism. Secondly, we apply the diagnostic test of the integrated model of innovation (Sarkar 2005, 2007) to present the results of an empirical study applied to tourism in a small open economy. The study applies multivariate analysis using a data set consisting of survey responses from 158 Portuguese firms. The study uses an archetype and the market outcome resulting from the innovation strategies pursued to compare similarities and differences according to the geographical localizations of the firms in order to identify innovative patterns in tourism firms. The study identifies the linkage between service, market structures and innovation strategies considering geographical agglomeration of firms in a small economy. The identification of different innovation trajectories and positions in the model could justify different public politics to incentivise and promote innovation in tourism firms.
    Keywords: Market structures; Strategy; Innovation.
    Date: 2011
  9. By: Candela, Guido; Castellani, Massimiliano; Mussoni, Maurizio
    Abstract: The authors solve a linear problem where a potential conflict between two agents (Destination manager and Firm) arises in a tourism destination. Destination manager has to choose how to allocate limited resources (capital and land) between either second homes or hotels. This conflict stems from the assumption of agents who have different linear preferences with respect to the allocation of limited resources. As a solution to this policy problem the authors consider three different policies: no intervention (laissez faire), taxation and temporary de-taxation policy. Comparing these different policies, the authors show that a compromise solution (internal solution), which results from the de-taxation policy, may be preferred by both agents over the clash of interests outcomes (corner solutions). Thus, the authors show that in a framework of conflict between agents a compromise solution may be preferable to both the absence of public intervention and the imposition of a tax by a public policy maker who has the discretionary power to regulate conflicts. --
    Keywords: Conflict resolution,investment decisions,tourism and land use
    JEL: D74 G11 L83 R52
    Date: 2012
  10. By: Russu, Paolo
    Abstract: This paper investigates how the introduction of user fees and defensive expenditures change the complex dynamics of a discrete-time model, which represents the interaction between visitors and environmental quality in a Open-Access Protected-Area (OAPA). To investigate this issue more deeply, we begin by studying in great detail the OAPA model and then we introduce the user fee () and the defensive expenditures () specifically directed towards at the protection of the environmental resource. We observed that some values of can generate a chaotic regime from a stable dynamic of the OAPA model. Finally, to eliminate the chaotic regime, we design a controller by OGY method, assuming the user fee as a controller parameter.
    Keywords: sustainable tourism; controlling chaos;
    JEL: L83 Q01
    Date: 2011
  11. By: Robinson, Elizabeth J.Z.; Albers, Heidi J.; Kirama, Stephen L.
    Abstract: Although Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) provide an increasingly popular policy tool for protecting marine stocks and biodiversity, they pose high costs for small-scale fisherfolk who have few alternative livelihood options in poor countries. MPAs often address this burden on local households by providing some benefits to compensate locals and/or induce compliance with restrictions. We argue that MPAs in poor countries can only contribute to sustainability if management induces changes in resource-dependent households’ incentives to fish. With Tanzania’s Mnazi Bay Ruvuma Estuary Marine Park (MBREMP) and its internal villages as an example, we use an economic decision modeling framework as a lens to examine incentives, reaction to incentives, and implications for sustainable MPA management created by park managers’ use of enforcement (“sticks”) and livelihood projects (“carrots”). We emphasize practical implementation issues faced by MBREMP managers and implications for fostering marine ecosystem sustainability in a poor country setting.
    Keywords: marine protected areas, sustainable marine reserves, Tanzania, practical enforcement, marine-dependent livelihoods
    Date: 2012–02–08
  12. By: Aleksejs Melihovs; Igors Kasjanovs
    Abstract: This paper, attempting to tackle separately real and structural convergence, is an in-depth study of the convergence processes in Latvia and Europe. Latvia's structural convergence towards both the EU and other neighbouring (Baltic) countries is estimated using the Krugman index. Real convergence processes in the EU, distinguishing between ? convergence and beta convergence, are likewise studied. In addition, cluster analysis with grouping European countries by their structural features is conducted. In this study, the current beta convergence and sigma convergence processes within the EU are identified, yet an in-depth study disclosed that it was mostly the EU12 countries that were the convergence process drivers, with convergence at the regional level well behind that at the national level. The convergence among the EU Member States primarily depended on the wealthier regions of countries becoming richer (characteristic of EU12 in particular), with the process proceeding at a faster pace in relatively poorer countries. This suggests that within a country the discrepancies between rich and poor regions intensify over time. That leads to a conclusion that the European regional policy aimed at decreasing regional income heterogeneity did not prove efficient in the reference period. Structural convergence in Latvia was mainly observed in 2008 and 2009, i.e. the years of real divergence enhanced by the onset of the crisis. Structural convergence in the breakdown of gross value added was mainly driven by the fluctuations of the value added ratio of trade, tourism and transport, manufacturing and construction sector. The conducted cluster analysis demonstrates that over time European countries have become more homogenous or mutually similar in terms of economic structure. A particular focus on the specific economic characteristics of countries leads to a different conclusion: the countries in Europe agglomerated into several specific groups, thus clearly outlining the different drivers of growth in the post-crisis period.
    Keywords: Latvia, the EU, structural convergence, real convergence, specialisation, cluster analysis
    JEL: C20 C50 F15 E13 E60
    Date: 2011–12–31
  13. By: Fageda, Xavier; Flores-Fillol, Ricardo
    Abstract: An examination of the impact in the US and EU markets of two major innovations in the provision of air services on thin routes - regional jet technology and the low-cost business model - reveals significant differences. In the US, regional airlines monopolize a high proportion of thin routes, whereas low-cost carriers are dominant on these routes in Europe. Our results have different implications for business and leisure travelers, given that regional services provide a higher frequency of flights (at the expense of higher fares), while low-cost services offer lower fares (at the expense of lower flight frequencies). Keywords: air transportation; regional jet technology; low-cost business model; thin markets. JEL Classification Numbers: L13; L2; L93.
    Keywords: Línies aèries, Aviació comercial, 338 - Situació econòmica. Política econòmica. Gestió, control i planificació de l'economia. Producció. Serveis. Turisme. Preus,
    Date: 2011–09
  14. By: Gilles Laferté
    Abstract: French rural worlds have been historicized over the last thirty years. This paper presents a research approach that attempts to reconcile cultural history and social history. Recent studies of regionalism in France have drawn extensively on the constructivist model of the nation and have sought to denaturalize its representations. But in articulating this history of representations with the economic uses made of them -and particularly the specialization of the French economy in luxury markets- it is best to eschew the routine phraseology of ?identity? and prefer the combination of ?social image? and ?affiliation?. This provides a better understanding of how discourse and social structures interlock. Social spheres gravitating around regionalism in the inter-war years were very much interdependent. The nineteenth-century model that portrayed luxury goods as aristocratic was superseded by a model in which luxury products conveyed traditionalist values. The shift in the balance of power in the wine market away from winemerchants and toward vineyard owners can be understood only in the light of the political and cultural networks that vineyard owners managed to develop.
    Keywords: Wine, Folklore, Regionalism, Terroir, Rural Sociology, Ethnology of France
    JEL: Z1
    Date: 2012–01–30

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