nep-tur New Economics Papers
on Tourism Economics
Issue of 2011‒12‒13
twelve papers chosen by
Antonello Scorcu
University of Bologna

  1. The perceptions of an island community towards cruise tourism: A factor analysis By J.G. Brida; G. Del Chiappa; Marta Meleddu; Manuela Pulina
  2. The Sea as a Connection between Residents and Tourists in Coastal Destinations: A Case in Algarve By Agapito, Dora; Mendes, Julio; Valle, Patricia
  3. The Determinants of African Tourism By Johan Fourie; Maria Santana-Gallego
  4. Regional Economic Resilience and the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: The Case of New Orleans' Tourism and Fishing Clusters By Porter, Julie
  5. The Quest for Well-being in Growth Industries 2: The Survey By Tallberg, Teemu; Hearn, Jeff; Niemistö, Charlotta; Gripenberg, Pernilla; Jyrkinen, Marjut; McKie, Linda
  6. Does trade creation by social and business networks hold in services? An analysis for Accommodation and Restaurants in Spain By de la Mata, Tamara
  7. Training plans, manager’s characteristics and innovation in the accommodation industry. By Martínez-Ros, Ester; Orfila-Sintes, Francina
  8. Landscape aesthetics: Assessing the general publics’ rural landscape preferences By Peter Howley
  9. Imagen y segmentación en un destino turístico de Patrimonio de la Humanidad: el caso de la ciudad de Tarragona By Bové Sans, Miquel Àngel; Laguado Ramírez, Raquel Irene
  10. Contributions towards a Cluster Strategy for the Sea in the Algarve By Monteiro, Pedro; Noronha, Teresa; Neto, Paulo
  11. Willingness to pay for wholesome canteen takeaway By Nordström, Jonas
  12. Resilience and Potential in Maritime Clusters By Cooke, Philip

  1. By: J.G. Brida; G. Del Chiappa; Marta Meleddu; Manuela Pulina
    Abstract: This paper analyses residents’ perception toward cruise tourism development and its externalities. The research involved a primary data collection in Messina, during the summer peak of the cruise season in 2011. A correspondence analysis on the local residents’ perceptions shows that residents have an overall positive attitude towards cruise tourism development with respect to social, cultural and economic aspects. Nevertheless, they moderately feel that cruise activity has a negative impact on their wellbeing (i.e. increase in micro-crime; increase in road congestion) and the environment (i.e. increase in waste, pollution, congestion in recreational areas). Significant differences, based on residents’ characteristics, also exist in the perception and attitude towards cruise tourism development. Implications for policy makers are discussed and suggestions for further research are given.
    Keywords: cruise; island; residents’ perception; correspondence analysis; MANOVA
    JEL: C42 C12 L83
    Date: 2011
  2. By: Agapito, Dora (University of Algarve); Mendes, Julio (University of Algarve); Valle, Patricia (University of Algarve)
    Abstract: Coastal regions involve a set of interactions between tourists and residents, which implies that management and marketing strategies should take into account both stakeholders. Indeed, one of the greatest challenges of destination management organizations is to understand that they serve not only tourists and stakeholders directly related to tourism, but also the local community. Thus, the central purpose of this study is to measure the destination image of both tourists’ and residents’ perspectives, identifying the major aspects of agreement and isagreement. The data was collected in Lagos, one of the 16 municipalities of the Algarve (South Portugal), which, due to its coastal location, offers sun-beach tourism. Furthermore, due to historical, cultural and economic reasons, the sea has been a factor of identity for the coastal communities in the region. The empirical investigation includes a mixed methodology, with the use of open-ended questions followed by the application of a structured questionnaire to both tourists and residents. The results meet the growing need to diversify the destination supply depending on “sun and beach”, aiming at local sustainable development by focusing on the cultural component and the sea as an important attribute of the destination
    Keywords: Destination Image; Coastal Tourism; Sea; Residents; Algarve
    JEL: M31
    Date: 2011–11–30
  3. By: Johan Fourie; Maria Santana-Gallego
    Abstract: Using a standard panel gravity equation of 175 origin/destination countries between 1995 and 2008, 37 of which are African, we identify the factors that drive African-inbound (arrivals to Africa from other continents) and within-African tourism (arrivals from and to an African country). We find that the determinants of African-inbound and within-African tourism are not all that different from global tourism flows; repeat tourism, income, distance, land area and the standard dummy variables not only drives global or OECD tourism, but also tourism within Africa, disproving the belief that African tourists "differ substantially". Not only does the growth in tourism over the last decade provide encouraging signs for the continent, but these results show that policy makers can now play an active role in promoting African tourism, both from outside but especially from within the continent's
    Keywords: sub-Saharan, Africa, gravity model, cause, trade, VFR
    Date: 2011
  4. By: Porter, Julie (Cardiff University)
    Abstract: The Deepwater Horizon oil spill dumped almost 5 million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico over a three month period in 2010. This event had a significant economic impact (which compounded the recession effect) on the surrounding regions particularly those with a large marine industry presence. This paper seeks to address the issues that have arisen over the past year as a result of the oil spill, focusing on the capacity of the regional economy to respond to the exogenous shocks of mass pollution and global recession while highlighting any economic recovery efforts as well as any tensions created. To represent both the region and the industry, the coastal tourism and fishing clusters in Southern Louisiana will be used as case studies. Through the analysis of socioeconomic data and secondary source material, including historic economic recovery accounts in the region post-Hurricane Katrina, these issues will be assessed. Recommendations will be made regarding the recovery process which will take into account US government policy
    Keywords: Resilience; Maritime Cluster; Deepwater Horizon; Path Dependence
    JEL: O18
    Date: 2011–11–30
  5. By: Tallberg, Teemu (Department of Management and Organisation); Hearn, Jeff (Department of Management and Organisation); Niemistö, Charlotta (Department of Management and Organisation); Gripenberg, Pernilla (Department of Management and Organisation); Jyrkinen, Marjut (Department of Management and Organisation); McKie, Linda (Department of Management and Organisation)
    Abstract: This working paper reports the ongoing research conducted in the research project, The Quest for Well-being in Growth Industries: A Collaborative Study in Finland and Scotland, under the auspices of Academy of Finland research programme, The Future of Work and Well-being.<p> The research project examines the contradictory pressures for policies and practices towards both the inhibition and the enhancement of work-related well-being that are likely in growth industries.<p> The overall aim is to evaluate the development, implementation and use of work-related well-being policies in four selected growth industries. These – electronics, care, finance and accounting, and tourism – have been selected on the basis of EU and national forecasts, and demographic and socio-economic trends in standard and non-standard employment.<p> In this paper we aim to review the survey that constitutes the second main phase of this research.
    Keywords: care; companies; employing organisations; growth sectors; human resources management; HRM; organisations; organisation carescapes; survey; well-being; work
    Date: 2011–08–26
  6. By: de la Mata, Tamara (Departamento de Análisis Económico (Teoría e Historia Económica). Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.)
    Abstract: Recent literature on the border effect fostered research on informal barriers to trade and the role of networks promoting it. In relation to social networks, it has been shown that the intensity of trade of goods is positively correlated with the migration flows between any pair of countries/regions. In this article it is investigated if such a relation also holds for the Spanish domestic trade flows of services. With this aim, a gravity model rooted in the Dixit–Stiglitz–Krugman theoretical frameworks is used taking advantage of a unique dataset on interregional trade flows of some of the main sectors linked to Tourism, namely, Accommodation and Restaurants. A different analysis of each sector separately is carried out, finding a big positive effect for Restaurants, but no effect for the Hostel industry. These novel results can be explained by forces driving the demand in each sector. Migration linkages are measured by means of Register data, regarding the stock of people born in each region living in the others. Business networks are approached by a matrix of companies in different regions operating in these key sectors that are connected.
    Keywords: Gravity model; bilateral exports; border effect; Social and business networks; internal migration; interregional trade.
    JEL: F14 F17 F21 L14
    Date: 2011–10
  7. By: Martínez-Ros, Ester; Orfila-Sintes, Francina
    Abstract: This paper explores the effect of training plans and managerial characteristics on innovation activity in the hospitality sector. This sector is featured by being labor-intensive so the examination of employment and managers skills deserves attention in order to determine the level of quality and competitive advantage in the provision of services. The data in the paper comes from a questionnaire administered to hotel managers in a representative sample of hotels in the Balearic Islands, a leading tourist destination. Results suggest that training plans positively affect innovation-related decisions and the extent of their implementation; however, managers should have more than experience to manage the innovation change, specifically skills and capabilities.
    Keywords: Innovación; Hoteles; Formación;
    Date: 2012
  8. By: Peter Howley (Rural Economy and Development Programme,Teagasc)
    Abstract: The central aim of this study was to gain greater insights into the factors that affect individuals’ preferences for a variety of landscape settings. To achieve this aim, this paper derived dependent variables (based on a factor analysis of respondents mean ratings of 47 landscape images) representing 5 different landscape categories. These variables were then utilized in separate OLS regression models to examine the effect of personal characteristics, residential location and environmental value orientations on landscape preferences. First in terms of visual amenity the results suggest that the general public have the strongest preference for landscapes with water related features as its dominant attribute which was followed by cultural landscapes. Second the results also demonstrate how there is significant heterogeneity in landscape preferences as both personal characteristics and environmental value orientations were found to strongly influence preferences for all the landscape types examined. Moreover the effect of these variables often differed significantly across the various landscape groupings. In terms of land use policy, given the diversity of preferences a one size fits all approach will not meet the general publics’ needs and desires.
    Keywords: Landscape preferences, environmental attitudes
    Date: 2011–08
  9. By: Bové Sans, Miquel Àngel; Laguado Ramírez, Raquel Irene
    Abstract: ABSTRACT: El proceso de decisión de compra del consumidor turístico viene condicionado en gran medida por la imagen que éste tiene de los diferentes destinos que configuran su campo de elección. En un mercado turístico internacional altamente competitivo, los responsables de las políticas de desarrollo y promoción de los destinos buscan estrategias de diferenciación que les permitan posicionarse en los segmentos de mercado más adecuados para su producto, con el fin de conseguir mejorar su poder de atracción de visitantes e incrementar o consolidar los beneficios económicos que la actividad turística genera en su territorio. En este sentido, el objetivo principal que nos planteamos en este trabajo es el análisis empírico de los factores que determinan la formación de la imagen de la ciudad de Tarragona como destino turístico de patrimonio cultural. Sin duda, la declaración como Patrimonio Mundial por parte de la UNESCO, en el año 2000, del conjunto artístico y monumental con el que cuenta la ciudad de Tarragona, supuso un importante reconocimiento internacional de la calidad de los elementos culturales y patrimoniales que ofrece la Ciudad a todos los visitantes que la escogen como destino turístico. También representa una oportunidad estratégica para impulsar la promoción turística de la Ciudad y su consolidación como destino singularizado por sus características culturales y patrimoniales. Nuestro trabajo se basa en la utilización de técnicas estructuradas para identificar los factores que determinan los componentes de la imagen turística de Tarragona y que influyen de manera decisiva en el proceso de elección del destino por parte de sus visitantes. Además de poder conocer la imagen turística global de Tarragona, consideramos que la heterogeneidad de sus visitantes requiere un estudio más detallado que nos permita segmentar la tipología de los visitantes. La información que nos aportan estos resultados nos han de permitir comparar la imagen percibida por los turistas que visitan Tarragona, con los objetivos de diseño de producto y promoción del destino que tienen los responsables de la política turística local. Key words: Imagen de destino turístico; análisis factorial; análisis cluster; política turística local.
    Keywords: Imatge turística, Anàlisi de Cluster, Política turística, Tarragona, 338 - Situació econòmica. Política econòmica. Gestió, control i planificació de l'economia. Producció. Serveis. Turisme. Preus,
    Date: 2011
  10. By: Monteiro, Pedro (Agriculture and Fisheries of the Algarve); Noronha, Teresa (University of Algarve); Neto, Paulo (University of Evora)
    Abstract: This article advocates the relevance and crucial need for a strategic vision of the Algarve based on a cluster approach for its economy of the sea. The article reviews the literature on clusters and relevant topics related and relevant to that issue. It starts by summarizing the scope and structure of the article, followed by a theoretical framework, which highlight the key features and benefits associated with the cluster approach taken, the role of knowledge - intensive service activities as key drivers for innovation and entrepreneurship, taken as critical factors for successful cluster strategy advocated, along with the networking and cooperation, innovation systems and the importance of knowledge spillovers for knowledge management within the cluster
    Keywords: Cluster; Innovation; Network; Spillover
    JEL: O13 Q00 R11
    Date: 2011–11–30
  11. By: Nordström, Jonas (Department of Economics, Lund University)
    Abstract: The primary objective of this study was to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) for a new intervention at the workplace: wholesome canteen takeaways (CTA), i.e. a low fat meal with a large amount of vegetables prepared at the workplace canteen that only requires re-heating. The contingent valuation method was used to elicit the WTP. Two surveys were carried out in Denmark; one large-scale Internet based survey and one survey at a workplace that introduced CTA. The results from the large-scale survey suggest that this concept attracts relevant target groups; groups of individuals with a less healthy diet, low physical activity and a high body mass index. For males and individuals with low education, who also constitute relevant target groups, the results suggest no significant difference in WTP between males and females, whereas low educated individuals have a significantly lower WTP than highly educated individuals. However, the workplace study, carried out at a hospital, found that females have a significantly higher WTP for CTA compared with males. In conclusion, the concept appears to attract relevant target groups, although for a given price a smaller fraction of low educated individuals compared to high educated individuals would be willing to buy CTA.
    Keywords: Workplace intervention; healthy; contingent valuation; diet; willingness to pay; fast food; takeaway meal; demand
    JEL: D12 I10
    Date: 2011–11–07
  12. By: Cooke, Philip (University of Wales)
    Abstract: Theoretical analysis of the relevance of the concept of path dependence for regional analysis has made progress. This has occurred on the spatial process (or regional paradigm)dimension of spatial evolution Progress has also occurred after further reflections on the roles of ‘conventions’ in understanding the ‘soft institutional’ dimension of regional regime formation and change. This adds considerably to the more common ‘institutions and organisations’ aspects of governance structures for innovation regarding the typical analytical content of regional regime and innovation system analysis. In this paper the concepts of ‘relatedness’ and ‘transversality’ capture the processes of knowledge recombination for innovation classically introduced by Schumpeter. Two live cases are presented whereby regional relatedness of industry regarding ‘green’ competences, on the one hand, and engineering and materials processing, on the other, have resulted in new clusters or cluster trajectories. The exemplar cases come from either end of Europe, Sweden, in the first instance, Italy in the second. Both clearly support the new ‘transversal’ theory of cluster emergence
    Keywords: Region; Maritime Clusters; Relatedness; Transversality
    JEL: A14 O33 R11 R58
    Date: 2011–11–30

This nep-tur issue is ©2011 by Antonello Scorcu. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.