nep-tur New Economics Papers
on Tourism Economics
Issue of 2010‒06‒18
eleven papers chosen by
Antonello Scorcu
University of Bologna

  1. The Excitement and Value of Discovering Tourism Economics: Clem Tisdell's Journey By Tisdell, Clem
  2. High skills, high growth: is tourism an exception? By A.DiLiberto
  3. The Evidence Base for Environmental and Socioeconomic Impacts of “Sustainable” Certification By Blackman, Allen; Rivera, Jorge
  4. Are tourists rational? Destination decisions and other results from a survey of visitors to a North Queensland natural site - Jourama Falls By Tisdell, Clem
  5. The Impact of Civil Unions on Hawai`i’s Economy and Government By Sumner La Croix; Kimberly Burnett
  6. Turismo Y Desarrollo Economico: ¿Hace El Patrimonio La Diferencia En El Caribe? By Humberto Consuegra De La Ossa
  7. Cultura De Uso Y Explotación Económica De Las Playas En Cartagena De Indias By Martha Yánez Contreras; Alberto Ordóñez Flórez; Luis Suarez Ávila
  8. Economic Challenges Faced by Small Island Economies: An Overview By Tisdell, Clem
  9. Valuing Environmental Services Using Contingent Valuation Method By Duangmany Luangmany; Souphandone Voravong; Kaisorn Thanthathep; Daovinh Souphonphacdy; Malabou Baylatry
  10. Willingness to Pay for the Preservation of Lo Go - Xa Mat National Park in Vietnam By Dang Le Hoa; Nguyen Thi Y Ly
  11. A Contingent Valuation Estimation of Hill Recreational and Services Values in Malaysia By Pek, Chuen-Khee; Tee, Chee-Hoong; Ng, Phuay-Ying

  1. By: Tisdell, Clem
    Abstract: Outlines how Clem Tisdell came to discover tourism economics and charts the basic route that he followed in developing that interest. This article is developed by first considering his early years (1939 to 1960), that is the period prior to his commencement of postgraduate studies at the Australian National University, then his postgraduate studies at the Australian National University (1961-1963), and his lecturing appointment at this university in the period 1964-1972. It was towards the end of this period that his research interests started to change significantly and provided a springboard for his later focus on tourism economics and the environment. It was during his appointment as Professor of Economics at the University of Newcastle (1972-1989) that his interest in tourism economics âtook-offâ and gathered momentum thanks initially to a research grant from the ASEAN-Australian Joint Research Project in 1982. His interest in this subject continued strongly after he joined The University of Queensland in 1989 and benefited from several research grants, including some from the CRC for Sustainable Tourism. He was appointed Professor Emeritus in this university in 2005 and continues to pursue his interest in tourism economics. Tisdell explains why he has found this interest to be exciting and of value.
    Keywords: China, ecological economics, economic development, environmental economics, India, nature-based tourism, sustainable tourism, tourism economics, wildlife conservation., Environmental Economics and Policy, Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession, F18, L83, O10, Q5,
    Date: 2010–05
  2. By: A.DiLiberto
    Abstract: Despite the emphasis placed by growth models on technological progress, recent empirical evidence shows that tourism, a low-skill/low-tech sector and one of the fastest growing industries in the world, may offer a beneficial specialization strategy for growth. This paper focuses on a balanced panel of 72 countries (1980-2005) and confirms that the tourism sector indicator is always positive and significant in growth regressions. Moreover, results also imply that increased education contribute to growth and that the role of the tourism sector is significantly larger in countries with higher aggregate levels of human capital. Our main results are robust to the inclusion of additional variables and the use of alternative estimators in the regression analysis. Overall, this study confirms that the expansion of a low-tech sector such as tourism may be a valuable strategy for development. But it also suggests that an increase in human capital endowments is always beneficial, even when the development strategy focuses on the expansion of a (successful) unskilled sector.
    Keywords: Economic development; Tourism; Human capital
    JEL: I21 O15
    Date: 2010
  3. By: Blackman, Allen (Resources for the Future); Rivera, Jorge
    Abstract: Initiatives certifying that farms and firms adhere to predefined environmental and social welfare production standards are increasingly popular. According to proponents, they create financial incentives for farms and firms to improve their environmental and socioeconomic performance. This paper reviews the evidence on whether sustainable certification of agricultural commodities and tourism operations actually has such benefits. It identifies empirical ex post farm-level studies of certification, classifies them on the basis of whether they use methods likely to generate credible results, summarizes their findings, and considers the implications for future research. We conclude that empirical evidence that sustainable certification has significant benefits is limited. We identify just 37 relevant studies, only 14 of which use methods likely to generate credible results. Of these 14 studies, only 6 find that certification has environmental or socioeconomic benefits. This evidence can be expanded by incorporating rigorous, independent evaluation into the design and implementation of projects promoting sustainable certification.
    Keywords: sustainable, certification, eco-label, literature review
    JEL: Q2 Q56
    Date: 2010–03–26
  4. By: Tisdell, Clem
    Abstract: This paper reports on and interprets the results of a survey of visitors to the Jourama Falls Section of the Paluma Range National Park located in Northern Queensland. It reports, amongst other things, on how much knowledge visitors to the site had about it before their visit, the procedures they adopted in deciding to visit it and how generally they go about deciding to visit tourist sites when on holidays. The results are consistent with those predicted by theories of bounded rationality and behavioural economics. Information is also provided on the value visitors placed on attractions at the Jourama Falls sites, their attitudes to the private supply of tourist/visitor services and facilities in national parks, the importance of wildlife as an attraction to visitors at this site and their knowledge of it. In addition, the attitudes of visitors to facilities, camping procedures, environmental issues and activities at this site are assessed as well as the acceptability to respondents of an entrance fee. A halo, proximity or local existence effect was observed in relation to wildlife present at Jourama Falls but not visible.
    Keywords: Austrian School of Economics, behavioural economics, bounded rationality, camping procedures, decisions to visit tourist attractions, entrance fee to national parks, Jourama Falls, mahogany glider, mental accounting, national parks, neoclassical economics, Paluma Range national park, private versus public supply of facilities, proximity effect, transaction cost theory, wildlife valuation., Demand and Price Analysis, Environmental Economics and Policy, Land Economics/Use, L83, Q00, Q26, Q57,
    Date: 2010–06
  5. By: Sumner La Croix (University of Hawaii, Department of Economics); Kimberly Burnett (University of Hawaii, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: On 29 April 2010, the Hawai`i State Legislature passed HB 444, a measure that allows same-sex and opposite-sex couples to enter into civil unions. This report provides quantitative and qualitative measures of the impact of civil unions on the Hawai`i economy, Hawai`i businesses, and the State of Hawai`i’s budget. More specifically, we examine the effect of civil unions on tourism arrivals to Hawai`i; state government revenues and expenditures; employer provision of health insurance to civil union partners and their dependents; and the family with civil union partners. We conclude that the Legalization of civil unions in Hawai`i will have only a very minimal impact on any aspect of Hawai`i’s economy and state government operations.
    Keywords: civil union, health insurance, visitor arrivals, Hawai`i
    JEL: J12 K36 I18
    Date: 2010–05–24
  6. By: Humberto Consuegra De La Ossa
    Abstract: El presente texto muestra un análisis comparado para cuatro países del Gran Caribe, a saber: Guatemala, Guyana, Jamaica y República Dominicana. El asunto que se aborda es la relación entre turismo y desarrollo económico, partiendo de una clasificación entre países poseedores de patrimonio según la UNESCO y países que no lo poseen. De esta forma, se comparan dos países pertenecientes al Caribe Insular (Jamaica y República Dominicana) y dos pertenecientes al Caribe continental (Guatemala y Guyana), haciendo también comparaciones agregadas entre países con patrimonio (Guatemala y República Dominicana) y países sin patrimonio (Guyana y Jamaica). A través del análisis de la literatura referente al tema del turismo, se logra una perspectiva general de la importancia del mismo en la economía actual, tanto global como del Caribe, y con el análisis de información cuantitativa se muestran las aproximaciones a indicadores de desarrollo económico para los países estudiados.
    Date: 2010–06–10
  7. By: Martha Yánez Contreras; Alberto Ordóñez Flórez; Luis Suarez Ávila
    Abstract: El objetivo del presente artículo es mostrar la caracterización en términos socioeconómicos de la población de trabajadores estacionarios informales ubicados en las playas de Cartagena de indias, y determinar la influencia de elementos de percepción institucional y cultural como el reconocimiento de las autoridades competentes y el desarrollo de mecanismo de pseudo propiedad sobre las prácticas de explotación económica de este espacio. Para ello se utilizan los resultados de una encuesta aplicada a los vendedores estacionarios informales, ubicados en las playas de los sectores de Bocagrande y Laguito en Cartagena. Efectuando un diseño por cuotas se entrevistaron 85 vendedores estacionarios, distribuidos en 25 vendedoras de frutas, 30 carperos y 30 vendedores en módulos. A estos se les aplicó, Como parte del trabajo de recolección de información, un formulario con una estructura que indagaba sobre aspectos económicos (ingresos, inversión, precios), sociales (educación, salud), culturales (concepciones e ideas respecto al puesto de trabajo), generales (jornada laboral) y de control institucional (carnetización, uniforme). La información recolectada se procesó con el programa estadístico SPSS 15.0, para generar los cuadros de salida y relacionar las variables de interés. Se desarrolló por último un estudio de la asociación entre variables por medio de análisis de contingencia. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que la demanda inadecuada d las playas es utilizada por los vendedores como una estrategia para aumentar sus ingresos. Por otra parte se observa el desarrollo de mecanismos de privatización de este espacio por parte de los vendedores con mayor número de años explotándolo económicamente, quienes utilizan los instrumentos de regulación institucional para crear barreras a la entrada de nuevos competidores en las zona de su interés.
    Date: 2010–06–10
  8. By: Tisdell, Clem
    Abstract: As pointed out in this article, small island economies are diverse in their nature and in the challenges they face. A taxonomy of these economies is provided. The overview takes account of small island economies that are satellites of large countries as well as those which are independent nation states. Nevertheless, the emphasis here is on small island economies that are remote from central economies or disadvantaged in other ways. These include many island nations in the Pacific and elsewhere. Such economies suffer from diseconomies of scale in economic activity, are prone to imperfect market competition, and experience high transport and trading costs for a variety of reasons which are outlined. The gravitational pull of stronger central economies and central places favours net out migration from these economies, particularly a brain drain, as well as net private capital outflows. These tendencies often stifle local economic development. Such economies frequently depend on aid from foreign or overseas places for maintaining the levels of income of their inhabitants; income levels which in many cases are relatively low. Income levels may be precarious in such economies because they are vulnerable to variations in economic, natural and political forces. They usually lack diversity in their natural resources and in their exports. A natural disaster can devastate their whole island economy so that little resilience remains to deal with the disaster by relying on the islandâs own resources. Whether or not such economies are particularly prone to political disturbances is unclear, but when such disturbances occur they tend to impoverish those areas because net migration and net capital outflows increase and inbound tourism (which is often an important source of income for such economies) dwindles. The environmental situation facing small island economies varies. Some have undergone rapid urbanisation and centralization of their populations and this has caused significant pollution problems and water availability problems. Furthermore, some are at considerable risk from climate change. Using mathematical relationships, it is demonstrated that small island nations will lose (on average) proportionately more of their land mass as a result of sea-level rises than larger nations. Increased urbanisation of such economies usually increases their economic vulnerability because it is normally associated with greater dependence on international market exchange and results in increasing urban-bias in politics.
    Keywords: small island economies, globalisation, Pacific, International Development, International Relations/Trade, Political Economy,
    Date: 2009–09
  9. By: Duangmany Luangmany (Environmental Training Center and the Environment Research Institute); Souphandone Voravong (Environmental Training Center and the Environment Research Institute); Kaisorn Thanthathep (Environmental Training Center and the Environment Research Institute); Daovinh Souphonphacdy (Environmental Training Center and the Environment Research Institute); Malabou Baylatry (Environmental Training Center and the Environment Research Institute)
    Abstract: This paper presents the results of two studies in Lao PDR that assessed people's willingness to pay (WTP) using the Contingent Valuation Methodology (CVM). The first study investigated the WTP of residents for the sustainable development and maintenance of urban parks in the city using Saysetha Park as the case study. In this study residents expressed that urban parks are very important to them as they are areas for relaxation and areas to conserve urban biodiversity. The WTP survey revealed that the residents' mean WTP is 10,741kip/month/household. With this amount, it was estimated that a monthly water bill surcharge of 3,000/kip/month/household may be recommended to maintain urban parks. The second study assessed the WTP for biodiversity conservation and sustainability in the Houay Nhang Protected Area. Using CVM, the WTP responses showed that the monthly contribution that would be acceptable to the people is 5,000 kip. The logit regression shows that this WTP value is influenced by bid prices, gender, and educational levels. The respondents recognized the importance of the protected area for environmental and biodiversity protection.
    Keywords: contingent valuation, Lao PDR
    Date: 2009–10
  10. By: Dang Le Hoa; Nguyen Thi Y Ly
    Abstract: Lo Go - Xa Mat National Park has great value in terms of biodiversity but preserving the park is a great challenge for the Vietnamese government. This study estimated the willingness to pay of households to preserve Lo Go - Xa Mat National Park, using the contingent valuation method. We employed the single-bounded dichotomous choice question format to estimate how much households in Ho Chi Minh City were willing to contribute towards a preservation plan for the park. This plan comprised twelve preservation activities and compensating the local communities for their foregone income. The study found that households in Ho Chi Minh City were willing to pay at least VND 6,209 per month for three years for the preservation of Lo Go - Xa Mat National Park. With protest votes included, factors strongly affecting households' willingness to pay were bid amount and the amount of their monthly electricity bill. The education level of the respondents and the number of working people in the household had significant but lesser impact on their willingness to pay. Without protest votes, the bid amount, monthly electricity bill amount and education level of respondents significantly affected willingness to pay. We found that the annualized benefit value of the project was larger than its annualized cost. This indicated that the preservation plan was economically viable. This study does not provide the total value of Lo Go - Xa Mat National Park, but it shows the great value of the park in terms of local households' willingness to pay for its preservation and this is important information for policy-makers in deciding how to protect the park efficiently.
    Keywords: willingness to pay, Vietnam
    Date: 2009–11
  11. By: Pek, Chuen-Khee; Tee, Chee-Hoong; Ng, Phuay-Ying
    Abstract: This study estimates the economic values of household preference for preservation and conservation of hill recreational and services values in Malaysia. The Contingent Valuation technique is employed on 100 randomly selected households in the vicinities of Taman Melawati Hill. The study finds that hill preservation is important and the public is willing to pay for initiatives to mitigate further degradation to this ecosystem. More specifically, the study ascertains that households on average are willing to donate MYR92.40 per annum to the trust fund for hill mitigation management initiatives. This value conveys a total economic value of MYR51.6 million per annum, based on the Selangor state population who are willing to pay for the mitigation cause. This substantial value can help policy makers to identify any mismatch between what the public actually demands and are wiling to pay for and the degradation to the supply due to modern developments.
    Keywords: willingness-to-pay; hill recreational and services values; contingent valuation
    JEL: Q51
    Date: 2010–05–18

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