nep-tur New Economics Papers
on Tourism Economics
Issue of 2010‒05‒02
seven papers chosen by
Antonello Scorcu
University of Bologna

  1. IV Estimation of a Panel Threshold Model of Tourism Specialization and Economic Development By Chia-Lin Chang; Thanchanok Khamkaew; Michael McAleer
  2. Estimating Price Effects in an Almost Ideal Demand Model of Outbound Thai Tourism to East Asia By Chia-Lin Chang; Thanchanok Khamkaew; Michael McAleer
  3. Skill mismatch e profili professionali: il settore turistico-alberghiero By Ferrari , Filippo
  4. A Spatial Agent-Based Model to Explore Scenarios of Adaptation to Climate Change in an Alpine Tourism Destination By Stefano Balbi; Pascal Perez; Carlo Giupponi
  5. Joint Opaque booking systems for online travel agencies By Malgorzata Ogonowska; Dominique Torre
  6. Insurance contracts on tourism By Krasniqi, Armand
  7. Eco-development and Tribal Empowerment By Pillai, Rajasekharan

  1. By: Chia-Lin Chang; Thanchanok Khamkaew; Michael McAleer (University of Canterbury)
    Abstract: The significant impact of international tourism in stimulating economic growth is especially important from a policy perspective. For this reason, the relationship between international tourism and economic growth would seem to be an interesting and topical empirical issue. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether tourism specialization is important for economic development in 159 countries over the period 1989-2008. The results from panel threshold regressions show a positive relationship between economic growth and tourism. Instrumental variable estimation of a threshold regression is used to quantify the contributions of tourism specialization to economic growth, while correcting for endogeneity between the regressors and error term. The significant impact of tourism specialization on economic growth in most regressions is robust to different specifications of tourism specialization, as well as to differences in real GDP measurement. However, the coefficients of the tourism specialization variables in the two regimes are significantly different, with a higher impact of tourism on economic growth found in the low regime. These findings do not change with changes in the threshold variables. The empirical results suggest that tourism growth does not always lead to substantial economic growth.
    Keywords: International tourism; economic development; tourism specialization; threshold regression; instrumental variables; panel data; cross-sectional data.
    JEL: C33 L83 O10 O40 O57
    Date: 2010–04–01
  2. By: Chia-Lin Chang; Thanchanok Khamkaew; Michael McAleer (University of Canterbury)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the responsiveness of Thai outbound tourism to East Asian destinations, namely China, Hong Kong, Japan, Taiwan and Korea, to changes in effective relative price of tourism, total real total tourism expenditure, and one-off events. The nonlinear and linear Almost Ideal Demand (AID) models are estimated with monthly data to identify the price competitiveness and interdependencies of tourism demand for competing destinations in both long run (static) and short run error correction (dynamic) specifications. The homogeneity and symmetry restricted long run and short run AID models are estimated to calculate elasticities. The income elasticities, and the compensated and uncompensated own-price and cross-price elasticities, provide useful information for public and private tourism agents at the various destinations to maintain and improve price competitiveness. The empirical results show that price competitiveness is important for tourism demand for Japan, Korea and Hong Kong in the long run, and for Hong Kong and Taiwan in the short run. With regard to long run cross-price elasticities, the substitution effect can be found in the following pairs of destinations: China-Korea, Japan-Hong Kong, Taiwan-Hong Kong, Japan-Korea, and Taiwan-Korea. In addition to the substitution effect, the complementary effect can be found in the following pairs of destinations: China-Hong Kong, China-Japan, China-Taiwan, Japan-Taiwan, and Korea-Hong Kong. Contrary to the findings obtained from the long run AID specification, Japan-Korea and Taiwan-Korea are complements in the short run. Furthermore, the real total tourism expenditure elasticities indicate that China’s share of real total tourism expenditure is inelastic in response to a change in real total tourism expenditure, while Korea’s share of real total tourism expenditure is most sensitive to changes in expenditure in the long run. The greatest impact on the share of real total tourism expenditure in the short run is tourism demand for Taiwan.
    Keywords: Almost Ideal Demand (AID) model; tourism demand; price competitiveness; compensated prices; uncompensated prices; substitutes; complements; budget shares; error correction; monthly frequency
    JEL: C3 C5 D12 L83
    Date: 2010–04–01
  3. By: Ferrari , Filippo
    Abstract: This paper compares the skills and knowledge possessed by qualified of tourism and hotel sector with those expected by the industry; compares also the importance of specific skills and knowledge profile by school teachers and businesses. Research has found that: 1) the qualified are systematically provided for lack of skill and knowledge than required by the industry and 2) teachers systematically underestimate the relative importance of skills and knowledge for the profile considered
    Keywords: skill mismatch; training needs; tourism and hotel
    JEL: M53 J24
    Date: 2010–04–27
  4. By: Stefano Balbi (Department of Economics, University Of Venice Cà Foscari); Pascal Perez (RMAP, Australian National University, Canberra); Carlo Giupponi (Department of Economics, University Of Venice Cà Foscari)
    Abstract: A vast body of literature suggests that the European Alpine region may be one of the most sensitive to climate change impacts. Adaptation to climate change of Alpine socio-ecosystems is increasingly becoming an issue of interest for the scientific community while the people of the Alps are often unaware of or simply ignore the problem. ClimAlpTour is a European research project of the Alpine Space Programme, bringing together institutions and scholars from all countries of the Alpine arch, in view of dealing with the expected decrease in snow and ice cover, which may lead to a rethinking of tourism development beyond the traditional vision of winter sports. The research reported herein analyses the municipality of Auronzo di Cadore (22,000 ha) in the Dolomites under the famous peaks of the “Tre Cime di Lavaredo”. The local economy depends on tourism which is currently focused on the summer season, while the winter season is weak. As a whole, the destination receives approximately 65,000 guests per year with a resident population of 3,600 inhabitants. Since recently the Community Council is considering options on how to stimulate a further development of the winter tourism. This paper refers to a prototype agent-based model, called AuronzoWinSim, for the assessment of alternative scenarios of future local development strategies, taking into account complex spatial and social dynamics and interactions. Different typologies of winter tourists compose the set of human agents. Climate change scenarios are used to produce temperature and snow cover projections. The model is mainly informed by secondary sources, including demographic and economic time series, and biophysical data which feed-in its spatial dimension. Primary data from field surveys are used to calibrate the main parameters. AuronzoWinSim is planned for use in a participatory context with groups of local stakeholders.
    Keywords: Alpine Winter Tourism, Spatial Agent-Based Model, Climate Change Adaptation
    JEL: Q
    Date: 2010
  5. By: Malgorzata Ogonowska (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS : UMR6227 - Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis); Dominique Torre (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS : UMR6227 - Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the properties of the advanced Opaque booking systems used by the online travel agencies in conjunction with their traditional transparent booking system. In section 2 we present an updated literature review. This review underlines the interest and the specicities of Opaque goods in the Tourism Industry. It also characterizes properties of the Name-Your-Own-Price (NYOP) channel introduced by Priceline and oering probabilistic goods to potential travelers. In the section 3 of the paper we present a theoretical model, in which we wonder what kind of Opaque system can be implemented by a given online monopoly. We compare the "Opaque \Hotwire system", a NYOP system without any possibility of rebidding and the joint implementation of these two systems. We nd that the NYOP system and the joint implementation can have challenging properties if consumer's information is complete. Then, in section 4, we analyze the case of incomplete information. We develop an appropriate setting to integrate the lack of complete information of potential passengers on their relative propensity to pay. We analyze three cases corresponding to dierent levels of uncertainty and number of tickets available. We nd that in some relevant cases (average number of tickets, moderate uncertainty), the joint implementation of 2 dierent Opaque booking systems is advantageous for the Online travel Agencies (OTAs) and airlines. This result casts doubt on the current OTAs' strategies.
    Keywords: Opaque Selling, Name-Your-Own-Price, Economics of Tourism, Online Travel Agencies, Probabilistic Goods.
    Date: 2010–03–15
  6. By: Krasniqi, Armand
    Abstract: The business life in the modern world is developed upon the logia of the domination of the rules and within them an important role play those that are related to implementation of the standards that are connected with he security and insurances. Due to the need for an economic transformation it resulted with the creating of a new set of new contracts which commencing from several general principles of the obligatory law, that regulate the situation which were not established insofar, which in fact are established in practical life. These constructions of the contract law largely begin to be distinguished from the so-called classic contracts out of the civil law. The contracts, often similarly with the classic ones, with their content and intention, the differ so largely from the classical ones that now cannot be argued anymore for one of their existing contracts but for the new type of contracts, independent, sui-generis. Viewed from this plan the contract on insurance is known from the early times, but now it has been so largely transformed thus now transaction or operation within the domestic or international trade is not conducted without involvement of this contract.
    Keywords: Contract; insurance; insurance company; tourism; business; policy; imperative rule
    JEL: K0 L83
    Date: 2010–04–26
  7. By: Pillai, Rajasekharan
    Abstract: The fruits of economic development have not been percolated down to the tribes and marginalized communities. In the Indian experience, neither more than half a century’s economic planning nor official communal reservation mandates helped to better their lot. Myriads of schemes are being announced and launched to address the social and economic well-being of the tribe communities in the national and regional levels. In this backdrop, a case study was done based on the experience of a participatory bio-diversity conservation programme initiated in a well-known Protected Area in India. The study discloses that how marginalized indigenous communities, through decentralized decision making, developed equations for symbiotic livelihood security and biodiversity conservation.
    Keywords: Tribes; empowerment; innovation; Periyar; participatory; biodiversity conservation; social capital; Ecodevelopment
    JEL: Q57
    Date: 2010–01

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